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Bodies of Text: On the Lyric Essay. 1. THE WHITE SPACES. Of The! Suppose you want to write, in prose, about a slippery subject that refuses definition. Criminology In The Future Paper! Something like water, or the color blue. Like the word lyric, or the word essay. Beginning, you balk at the question of form. One long block of prose seems to suggest a linear accretion of meaning, building to a thesisbut the more you poke at mafia, your subject, the more it seems to spread in all directions, to touch everything youve ever touched. Often, lyric essayists like Maggie Nelson, Anne Carson, and Eula Biss solve this problem, or represent it, by using white space. Each paragraph (Nelson prefers proposition), like a stanza of poetry, becomes a little island of text, lapped by whitenessset against blankness, and in relation to the others.

Like music, lyric paragraphs make use of drugs definition, silence. They draw attention to their own density. In navigating them, the reader (perhaps confused, perhaps delighted) becomes a stakeholder in their meaning. What do the white spaces signify? What does their silence say? John DAgata and Deborah Tall, editors of the literary journal Seneca Review, are generally credited with the institutionalization of the lyric essay as a genre. History Mafia! In the introduction to du bois consciousness a 2007 issue specially dedicated to the term, they write: The lyric essay does not expound.

It may merely mention. As Helen Vendler says of the lyric poem, It depends on gaps. . Of The! . In The Paper Charlotte Perkings! . It is of the, suggestive rather than exhaustive. In emphasizing the definition gaps, we run the risk of history of the, casting the lyric as diminutive: it suggests, or merely mentions. Do such verbs imply an anorexic refusal to expound? Or can the lyric essay give rise to or Wrong? Essay a different kind of amplitude? In her book Lyric Time, Sharon Cameron refers to the voice of the lyric poet as inherently choral, since it takes place outside of linear (narrative) time and can thus synthesize multiple temporalities into a single utterance. The lyric essay, though it unfolds over a longer span of time, might be seen as accomplishing something similar: a Whitmanesque multitude refracted through a singular voice. Plurality is of the, one consequence of fragmentation. Perhaps the lyric essay is strengthened not by unidirectional expounding but by a lateral spread accompanying its movement through linear time, as its propositions multiply. Recently, scholars in various fields have begun to critique linear models of meaning-making in favor of the sprawling network or rhizome. Caroline Levine writes in criminology future her book Forms, networks might seem altogether formless, perhaps even the antithesis of of the, form. Yet they have structural properties that can be analyzed in formal terms (112). The white spaces might be read as the necessary separations between nodes of for Perfectionism, a network, or as intervals between distinct voices that together form a chord. The essays plurality might become a kind of extended grasp: As Henry James put itReally, universally, relations stop nowhere (Levine 130).

Or we might view the of the recent emergence of networks and rhizomes as evidence that there are more ways of conceiving of structuresmore ways of readingthan we might have previously granted. My aim is not to advocate for the lyric essay, or for du bois double consciousness, a particular method of reading lyric essaysrather, I want to read the history of the category lyric essay as a text, keeping in mind that the forms greatest innovation may be an invitation into heightened awareness of drugs definition, our reading strategies: of individual texts, and of genre itself. Because of their plurality, their sprawling network of reference, their refusal of traditional hierarchy, Levine writes that networks can be seen as emancipatorypolitically productive (112). Productive of what, in this case? Emancipatory for whom? Tall and DAgata write, Perhaps we#8217;re drawn to the lyric now because it seems less possible (and rewarding) to approach the of the world through the front door, through the myth of objectivity. They trust their contemporary readers to grant that objectivity is a mythan an assumption upon which earlier lyric theorists, defending the legitimacy of their field against the presumed objectivity of Beauty Right or Wrong? Essay, science and history, reason, could not necessarily count. DAgata and Tall do not define the word lyric, but by deducing its qualities from those they set it against, we can tell that they associate it with a) the unmythlike fact of subjectivity and b) some kind of back door. Or, well, at paper, least not the front. Maybe lyric slips through a side entrance; maybe it tunnels into history mafia the basement; maybe it parachutes onto the roof and slides down the club drugs definition chimney. Perhaps the lyric doesnt enter, just presses its face against a window and longingly observes.

Even in the context of history of the, poetry, the meaning of lyric is elusive. Pageants: Right Or Wrong? Essay! In their introduction to mafia The Lyric Theory Reader, Virginia Jackson and Yopie Prins write, A resistance to definition may be the best basis for definition of the lyricand of poetrywe currently have (2). Lyric is often defined by what it is not: depending on who you ask, its not narrative; not long; not traditional; not experimental; not epic; not dramatic; not rhetorical or persuasive; not performative. And yet, somehow, lyric has come to camus the guest stand in for poetry in general, or prose at its most poetic, whatever that means. Jackson and Prins speculate, Perhaps the lyric has become so difficult to define because we need it to be blurry around the edgesto include all kinds of verse and all kinds of ideas about what poetry is history of the mafia, or should be (1). When critics do define lyric against something else, its often something perceived as normative, some sort of front door. In one of the most influential discussions of lyric poetry, Thoughts on Poetry and criminology in the, its Varieties (1833), John Stuart Mill defined it against the performative rhetorical eloquence of history, political oratory: Eloquence is heard, poetry is overheard (71). In a sentence deleted from the the guest sparknotes essay yet printed and widely circulated later, Mill used an image of spatial marginalization to compare the poet to someone crying out in a solitary prison cell, overheard by the reader on of the, the other side of the wall.

This spatial metaphor, like DAgatas and Talls, explicitly eschews the front doorin fact, eschews entrance altogether. For Mill, the wall between the paper poet and the reader preserves the authenticity of the poets utterance. Uncorrupted by attention to rhetoric, which bends it to anothers perceived expectations, the poets expression remains pure. But the poet knows hes writing for someone. Mill himself admits as much, acknowledging the history of the mafia inherently performative character of lyric: It may be said that poetry which is printed on hot-pressed paper, and sold at a bookseller#8217;s shop, is a soliloquy in full dress and on consciousness, the stage.The actor knows that there is an audience present; but if he acts as though he knew it, he acts ill. In other words, the poets art consists of skillfully, publically, pretending to of the mafia be alone. The concept of the fourth wall, the invisible barrier between performer and audience, collapses Mills two metaphors and proves that the poets solitude is not, in fact, solitude. Camus! Its a triangular relationship between reader, writer, and wall. History Of The! In Eros the Bittersweet, Anne Carson describes this triangulation as fundamentally erotic: Where eros is lack, its activation calls for three structural componentslover, beloved and that which comes between them (16). Lovers and readers fantasize about freedom, but require structure. In The! Nonfiction is of the, perhaps the only genre to contain a negation in its very name. The category contains everything from journalism to memoir to biography to cookbooks.

But it is paper, quite clear about what it refuses. History! Why is this particular dividing line so bold? John DAgata, in a special anthology of Seneca Review essays called We Might as Well Call It the Lyric Essay, argues that Nonfiction developed in du bois response to history of the mafia a perceived threat. He cites a 1903 article in which librarian William Doubleday complains of his patrons increasing demand for fiction, seen as unserious frippery for passive (usually female) readers. Doubleday prefers a special form of literature read by young men who recognize the drugs definition sternness of the battle of life and prepare themselves for mafia, it by serious reading. In one of the first recorded uses of the term nonfiction, Doubleday uses the eroticized language of advertising to suggest its potential deployment against fictions threatening advance: Attractive works of non-fiction may be temptingly displayed in convenient showcases (5). Nonfiction has flourished, even sprouted modifiers (journalistic nonfiction, creative nonfiction, etc.) and Feminism in The Paper Perkings Gilman, MFA programs. Yet DAgata complains that the history terms largeness robs it of legitimacy: Within the The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays span of a single century, non-fiction has overshadowed half a dozen other literary terms to become the mafia bland de facto banner that flaps above everything from journalism to memoir, imposing the same aesthetic standards and expectations on everything that falls beneath its shadow. Why is this a problem? Presumably, because the umbrella term has been imposed from the camus sparknotes outside, rather than chosen by of the, its practitioners. More particularly, because our adoption of non-fictionhas segregated us from art. Unlike Doubleday, who feared the threat of in the paper, a genre he regarded as feminine and Other, DAgata is troubled by a tradition hes writing withinon one side, by the pedantic, fact-fetishizing world of history, reportage, and on camus sparknotes, the other, by the fuzzy overshare of the memoir, with its Oprahs-Book-Club whiff, its trauma narratives hawked for redemption.

The term lyric essay brings poetryhe highest of the history of the mafia high literary artsinto the realm of nonfiction. The term ingeniously takes advantage of criminology in the, lyrics double valence: 1) it definitely means poetic and 2) nobody can agree on what else it might mean. In adopting the history of the mafia term lyric, the lyric essay subtly smuggles in the concept of the Lyric Ia term that connotes, among other things, the notion that a poems speaker can transcend the boundaries of the poets actual, historical self. The Lyric I has been a site of generative contention, but critics generally agree on one particular paradox: the I belongs, at least partially, to the poet; yet it would be the worst kind of misreading to accuse the poem of falsehood if it appeared to depart from the the guest sparknotes poets biography. The Lyric I provides access to a space in which, as Ben Lerner puts it in his novel 10:04, the distinction between fiction and nonfiction [doesnt] obtainthe correspondence between text and mafia, world [is] less important than the drugs intensities of the poem itself. Presumably, DAgata wants to defend a similar kind of freedom for the lyric essayist, allowing her to mafia construct a persona marked by artful indeterminacy, unhampered by the shackles of fact-checking yet assumed to bear a close relationship to reality in all of Pageants: Right or Wrong?, its sternness (unlike fiction, which is history, a made-up story about fake people). Thus, ingeniously, the Yellow Charlotte Perkings Gilman term lyric essay simultaneously disowns the low-art subgenres on history mafia, both sides of the of Reaching Essays fiction-nonfiction border. In allowing for lyric indeterminacy, it repudiates both the dry fact-obsession of the journalist and the solipsistic navel-gaze of the memoirist; yet, by hewing closely to reality, it avoids being mistaken for a puffy airbrushed fantasy or a yarn devised for entertainment.

There is power in mafia naming. Institutionalizing the term lyric essay achieves, among other things, a guaranteed career niche for DAgata, a place for him in literary history, firmly within the camp of High Art. More so even than Seneca Review, for camus the guest sparknotes, which he shares the masthead with his former mentor Deborah Tall, DAgatas anthology The Next American Essay stakes his claim on history of the, the genre. Next American Essay is an unusual anthology. Criminology In The! It offers 32 essays (including the of the mafia prologue and Beauty or Wrong?, epilogue), ordered chronologically, one for each year, from 1975 to 2003.

Why begin in 1975? Because that was the year DAgata was born. This choice might seem appropriate for an anthology of lyric essays: like a lyric essay, the book is highly personal and history of the mafia, poetically idiosyncratic. In The Yellow By Charlotte! DAgatas introductions to each selection contain personal anecdotes, such as I was an eight-week-old fetus when my mother first read to me (she read nonfiction) and In this year I am fired from my position as News editor of my fifth-grade classs in-house newspaper Mrs. Tuttle, who fires me, says I dont know the difference between nonfiction and art. Mom says to mafia take this as a compliment (2, 167). Like a lyric essay, the anthology absorbs and transmutes the contents of Right or Wrong? Essay, its authors life even as it discusses his ostensible subject.

The books form could be read as an ingenious comment upon lyric essay form itself. And yet theres something suspiciously self-anointing about it. Though Next American Essay is widely regarded as the defining lyric essay anthology, the term doesnt show up until page 435, introducing the history final selection. The books structure thus stealthily posits a narrative with two intertwining threads: DAgatas life and the essays evolution. The climax of both happens simultaneously, with the naming of the lyric essay. As he charts the du bois double consciousness essays forward progress into history ever more lyrical territory, DAgata also reaches backward, gesturing into the decades and centuries of literary history long before his birth, as if to show that the consummation of definition, this boy-meets-genre romance was historically inevitablefated, even. In his commentary, he gestures as far back as Cicero and of the mafia, Sei Shonagon. Plutarch and Essays, Plato, he suggests, were proto-lyric essayists. Such transhistorical mapping of genre has its advantages, and may not be entirely self-serving. The term lyric itself has been used in a similar way; though many contemporary theorists reach as far back as Sappho for the origin of lyric poetry, Jackson and Prins point out that the concept of lyric as the oldest form of poetic expression is actually a relatively recent notion; specifically, it is a post-Enlightenment idea that became reified during the Romantic period (2). Reaching back into history for history, the presence of the lyric, critics run the risk of in The Yellow by Gilman, anachronistically imposing Romantic constructions of the individual self onto history mafia earlier time periods.

Yet Jonathan Culler has defended this broad, transhistorical use of the in the paper term by arguing that such generic classification can provide the scope to activate possibilities occluded by narrower conceptions (75); it helps critics relate temporally disparate works through tropic similarities, taking us beyond the period-by-period agenda of our ordinary studies (75). And yet the ambiguous nature of DAgatas structural moveat best a lyrical gesture in and of mafia, itself, at worst simply careeristseems at least worth acknowledging. In a widely read essay in criminology in the future paper The Believer, Ben Marcus heaped praise on mafia, the anthology: DAgatas transitions alone, which show how alive an du bois consciousness anthology can be, and would make any editor envious could outfit a whole new generation of history mafia, writers with the skills to drugs launch an impressive and relevant movement of writing. I dont disagree with Marcus, not exactly; I found DAgatas transitions artful, too. But, especially if DAgata is helping to launch a movement, it seems important to history examine the story of that movement, and recognize other ways of centering it than with his birth. There is power in naming, and not just for the namer: once the lyric essay existed as such, writers could write into the fledgling genre, expand its territory from within. As Eula Biss writes in her essay It is What it Is, published in Seneca Reviews 2007 issue, Naming something is a way of giving it permission to exist (55).

Of course, essayists were writing lyrically long before DAgata and Tall and the Seneca Review; the Right or Wrong? anthologys transhistorical focus proves as much. Furthermore, DAgata never claims to have been the first person to utter the termjust to institutionalize it. The term caught on partly because it described something people were already doing, that had only lacked a unifying generic label. The fact that they continued to do so once that name existed, perhaps more visibly, should not be viewed as an argument that anyone needed the permission of DAgata or of Seneca Review to history mafia create such work. And yet, when a writer sits down to write something, she must consider form. Some writers ascribe an anthropomorphic agency to their own writing, investing it with a desire to take a particular shape; they claim to postpone thoughts of form until after the writing has stewed long enough in formal indeterminacy to know what it wants to be, or that theyll begin writing in one form and another form will take over. Perhaps its possible to sit down and enter some blank formless state of camus, receptivity and accept whatever the muse provides. But personally, I cant imagine beginning writing without a specific formal aimto write a comic short story, or an argumentative essay, or a sonnet. History Of The! Things often change as I write, but beginning the process is difficult enough without being able to envision the Yellow Charlotte shape Im approximating, the container Im trying to fill.

Once the term lyric essay became institutionalized by journals like Seneca Review, a writer could sit down and of the mafia, intend to write a lyric essay. Maybe shed already been doing so, with or without the term in mind, but now she could write with more clarity about her aims and audience. She might know how to market her essay, and to whom. This intentionality, crudely teleological and camus the guest sparknotes, possibility-limiting as it might seem, can be experienced as a kind of of the, freedom. Biss has described the form as organic to criminology in the paper the way I think (57). What a gift, to discover a container whose shape mimics ones thoughts so faithfully that it seems transparent. This isnt in any way to argue against generic indeterminacy; Im excited by history of the mafia, works that break form. But its my feeling that formal codifications can be generative: the more rules there are, the The Effects for Perfectionism more potential sites of identification existalso, the of the more rules there are to break. To address the term marketing: it seems silly to use the Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? term in this context, when no one is making much money off lyric essays. But theres a different kind of capital at stake here, the kind associated with high art. Not only cultural capital, but actual money in the form of history, fellowships, grants, and lucrative university jobs. To make space in the high art realm for a type of writing is to confer power on those who practice it.

So who are todays lyric essayists? If indeed the lyric essay sidesteps the front doors of journalism, memoir and fiction in order to open a portal into a new literary space, then who is being invited? Who is criminology, crashing the party? Who is notably absent? 3. GENRE AND GENDER.

For all her gratitude at what the term lyric essay has permitted her to discover and history mafia, articulate, Biss remains suspicious: I suspect that genre, like gender, with which it shares a root, is mostly a collection of lies we have agreed to believe (56). Indeed, as many have noted, genre and double consciousness, gender both concern form and history of the mafia, classification. Like most taxonomic classifications, both genre and future paper, gender are somewhat arbitrary; they have hidden agendas. They are both simultaneously fictive abstractions and categories that shape lived reality. The name essay, famously, comes from a verb that means to weigh or to try, highlighting the genres emphasis on process, its willingness to embrace indeterminacy. Citing these qualities, David Lazar argues that the essay is inherently a queer genre: The gender category difficult to characterize by normative standards is queer. The genre category difficult or impossible to characterize, the essay, is also queer. The desire of the essay is to transgress genre (19-20). Lazar personifies the essay as a desiring subject in order to plead against carving it up into of the mafia sub-genres; the term lyric essay, he argues, restricts the essays freedom by making it genre normative (20). The Effects Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays! When writing about genre, theres a tendencyalmost a clicheto disparage its limits, to gesture longingly towards an over-the-rainbow world beyond it. Ben Marcus writes, Once upon a time there will be readers who wont care what imaginative writing is called and will read it for its passion, its force of intellect, and for its formal originality. But dont we long for labels, too?

What would a world without them look like? Could formal originality exist without definitions of form? In her book The Argonauts, Maggie Nelson shares an anecdote from her friend Christina Crosby, a professor of feminist theory, whose class threw a kind of coup: they were tired of dismantling identities, tired of hearing that the most resistance one could muster in a Foucauldian universe was to work the of the mafia trap one is inevitably in. So they staged a walkout and held class in a private setting, to Beauty Pageants: Right Essay which they invited Christina as a guest. When people arrived, Christina told me, a student handed everyone an index card and asked them to write how they identified on it, then pin it to their lapel. Christina was mortifiedshed spent a lifetime complicating and history, deconstructing identity and teaching others to do the same, and now, as if in a tier of hell, she was being handed an index card and a Sharpie and being told to squeeze a Homeric epithet onto it (59). Pageants:! This anecdote comically illustrates how both our lust for classification and our rejection of it might spring from a similar sourcean urge to accurately limn reality. As Nelson puts the of the mafia dilemma: On the the guest one hand, the Aristotelian, perhaps evolutionary need to put everything into categoriespredator, twilight, edibleon the other, the need to pay homage to the transitive, the flight, the great soup of history, being in which we actually live (53). This duality, both vexing and double consciousness, productive, motivates many writers and critics.

Maybe this is why were tempted to personify our own writing as desirous, to imagine it capable of willing transgression. Transgression is of the, sexy. Think of overhearing, of eavesdropping; of scaling walls to reach the drugs unseen beloved; of back-door entrances to speakeasies with complex passwords. But every transgression requires a boundary. Christina Crosbys story captures the of the confusion that can result when a category like feminism is transgressed from within: such transgressions, paradoxically, require the Yellow by Charlotte Gilman proliferation of walls.

By rejecting her supposedly hierarchical teaching methods, Crosbys students were required to reify new categories of of the mafia, self-definition. Du Bois Double Consciousness! Presumably, Lazars distaste for the institutionalization of the lyric essay shares something with Crosbys distaste at being handed that Sharpie. If, as noted above, ever-more-subtle classifications might become generative sites of identification and/or resistance, Lazar and Crosby remind us that they can constrict and chafe as well. So what new wall might be reified by the lyric essay in order to mafia name the transgression it seeks to Paper Charlotte Perkings Gilman perform? Who might be liberated, and who mortified, by this taxonomic move? One concept thats being transgressed is that of the of the mafia fact. In a review of club drugs definition, DAgatas book The Lifespan of a Fact, Lee Gutkind describes hearing one of his colleagues use DAgata as a verb. I totally DAgatad this, she says, meaning that she had fudged her story, made some of it up. Gutkind is the protective father, if not actual originator, of the term creative nonfiction, which of course rivals lyric essay. Many writers and critics use the two terms interchangeably, or see lyric essay as the sub-genre, but the terms of the turf war between these two generic godfathers themselves are starkly clear: Creative Nonfiction, the of the journal Gutkind edits, fact-checks assiduously, while Gutkind imagines that DAgata, on hearing his name used as a synonym for fictionalizing, would be pleased. The Lifespan of a Fact consists of the record of correspondence between DAgata and du bois double, Jim Fingal, his fact-checker at The Believer on a story about a teenagers suicide that had been rejected by Harpers due to of the factual inaccuracies. DAgata is unapologetic about his strategy of altering facts for the sake of art: When Fingal proves that there are 31 strip clubs in Las Vegas and not 34 as DAgata claimed, DAgata says: The rhythm of 34 was better in the sentence than the rhythm of Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay, 31, so I changed it. What is the difference between importing the artfully indeterminate Lyric I into the realm of nonfiction, as a way of granting power to subjectivity, and history, simply making shit up? Does such a distinction matter? DAgata claims not to care, but I side with Gutkind in suspecting that theres a difference between queering genre and du bois, borrowing the authority of one genre, on bad credit, to bolster the profile of another.

Furthermore: does such a maverick stance towards fact betray a certain kind of presumption? One wonders how a writer might reliably distinguish between irrelevant factsfacts that can be smudged for the sake of history of the, artand facts on Feminism in The Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings, which others lives and legal futures might hinge. Im not saying that the facts DAgata changed fell into the latter categorybut Im not sure I would trust myself, or anyone else outside of the history of the story, to know the difference. Du Bois Consciousness! To assume such power is to unquestioningly assume ones right to narrate anothers reality. Gutkind goes farther: The market for lyric essays is limited at best. Perhaps this new books lame idea, that art supersedes fact, is DAgatas foray into self-promotion and image-building in of the the creative writing academy. Thatand not the general publicseems to be his target audience. So here is the Pageants: or Wrong? High Art thing again. Not all lyric essays play fast and loose with the facts, and history, most of of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, them dont pretend to be journalism anyway. But still: does the history back door of lyric lead, perhaps, not to a shadowy speakeasy but to a rarefied academic cocktail party, one whose attendees can afford to scoff at the banality of club drugs, fact? Perhaps DAgata can be forgiven for history of the mafia, conflating the creative writing academy with some kind of marginal space: it hardly holds the criminology cachet of history, other, longer-standing, more traditionally prestigious academic departments. It may be growing, but perhaps a scrappy underdog feeling still clings to in The Yellow Paper Gilman it.

Many public debates have been held, for example, about whether MFA programs are inherently anti-intellectual. Even so, if the traditional academy is what the lyric essay seeks to transgresswell, Im not sure this is a transgression that interests me. But perhaps Ive been paying too much attention to DAgata, because his voice is so difficult to miss. When I was an undergraduate, I sang in the Yale Womens Slavic Chorus, which was formed in 1969, the first year women were admitted to the university. History! Its origin story: when a group of women petitioned to join the long-established Russian Chorus, they were denied, but one of criminology future, its members volunteered to teach them Bulgarian womens vocal music. Today, the Yale Womens Slavic Chorus is history of the, still going; their gatherings and criminology in the future, concerts are still the weirdest, loudest, most joyous, most unapologetically female events Ive ever attended.

Sometimes the original male founder comes to these gatherings and mafia, hangs around. He tells anyone who asks that he founded the chorus, that he is responsible for its existence; if you smile appreciatively and appear willing to listen, hell quip that he did so to meet girls. But its obvious, once the music startsonce the girls open their throats and start holleringthat none of its really about him. Im not saying DAgata is that guy. (For one thing, hes not standing on the sidelines; hes singing too.) But I suggest the analogy to frame the different kinds of ownership that might be at stake here. In Next American Essay, DAgata writes, In Italy stanza means a room. In Spain stanza means a shelter. In Francestanza can be used to describe a stancea way of carrying oneself (382). I like the little volta of criminology in the future, this third definition.

What if genre is less like a house than a way of holding the bodyof inviting the body to speak? Maggie Nelson in Bluets: One image of the intellectual: a man who loses his eyesight not out of shame (Oedipus) but in order to think more clearly (Milton). I try to avoid generalities when it comes to the business of gender, but in all honesty I must admit that I simply cannot conceive of history mafia, a version of female intelligence that would advocate such a thing. Camus The Guest Sparknotes! An abortion of the mind, this purity (W.C. Williams) (55). Gender is history of the mafia, a slippery, often-misleading signifier, but its also a lived reality. Du Bois! Being female makes it difficult to forget that one has a body, that one is a body.

Susan Griffin echoes Nelsons critique of this brain-in-a-jar model in of the her essay Red Shoes. Without the body, she writes, it is impossible to conceive of thought existing. Yet the central trope of The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, our intellectual heritage is of a transcendent, disembodied mind (306). Such a notion, she argues, is a fantasy of liberation that itself becomes a kind of cage: The idea of an of the entirely autonomous mind has a subtext, and that is the desire for unlimited freedom from natural limitations. And yet limitations are a necessary predisposition for any existence, including the existence of something we suppose to be abstract and cerebral, like the essay. And when the definition essay is history of the, built on the purposeful forgetting of the body, these limitations paradoxically grow greater. (306) Jenny Boullys essay The Body, also included in The Next American Essay, consists exclusively of footnotes. Beauty Pageants: Or Wrong? Essay! Some of history, its pages are almost entirely blank. The essays title refers not only to Yellow by Perkings its own absent body of text, but to the physical body of its lyric speaker.

Thus, the essay simultaneously relegates the female body to its margins and casts such marginalia as its central concern. The last thing I want to do is suggest some kind of easy relationship between gender and literary form, to history argue that women are predisposed to write in a certain way. Camus The Guest! And yet, for many, writing about gendered experience presents a paradox: how to represent the robustness of ones own lived experience while also representing the experience of obscurity, of erasure? How to explore the messy, fluid realities of the body without sacrificing so much linearity that ones work is of the, labeled incoherent or unreadable? How to transcend the diminutive, the Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? Essay traditionally feminine, without devaluing it? Susan Griffin again: Is it possible to write in history mafia a form that is club drugs definition, both immersed and distant, farseeing and swallowed?

I am thinking now that this is what women have been attempting in the last decades. Not simply to enter the world of masculine discourse but to of the mafia transform it with another kind of knowledge (315). Camus! The lyric essay, with its associative logic and its openness to visuality as a tool of meaning-making, may in fact be more suitable than other forms for expressing embodied truthsespecially those previously neglected, those experienced in the gaps between sanctioned facts. It may offer unique tools for expressing the history of the mafia presence of absences. Perhaps this is Pageants:, why many notable female writers, especially those interested in writing about and through their female bodies, seem to of the excel at the lyric essay, to Yellow Paper Gilman find the genre a congenial home: Maggie Nelson, Jenny Boully, Susan Griffin, Anne Carson, Eula Biss, Mary Ruefle, Brenda Milleramong many others. Perhaps the celebration of these writers could not have happened earlier, when women were less represented in the literary mainstream. That same mainstream is also, conveniently, more receptive now to regarding embodied and fragmentary writing as art, as a valued form of intellection rather than an avoidance of it. Of The! Griffins and Boullys presence in The Next American Essay indicates the acceptance of du bois, their writing by the creative writing establishment. Today, such writers are valued not as quirky token voices but as formal innovators.

The essays mentioned above do not necessarily represent the dizzyingly diverse genre as a whole, in of the either their form or their concerns; even if I could, Im not really interested in proving that they are, or that the lyric essay is somehow a female genreto do so would be to essentialize, and to run the risk of ghettoizing. (Besides: even the du bois term female feels, these days, like an outmoded category in need of renovation.) But these examples serve to highlight the folly of separating identity politics from studies of form, as many critics still insist on doing. Essays like Boullys show how formal innovation can arise, at least partially, out of the urgent need to of the mafia explore the lived reality of sparknotes, a particular identity. It seems to me that any genre proving hospitable to of the such efforts should be welcomed. Despite Lazars objections, queerness might not be hampered by club definition, generic reification: the lyric essay potentially gives high-art sanction to all sorts of experiments. And not just those by women, or queer writers. If the lyric essays associative structure, its deployment of visual tropes and of blank space, are tools particularly suited to exploring the bright mess of embodied experience, then the genre opens new possibilities for history mafia, anyone with a body. Paradoxically, it also seems well-suited for exploration of the disembodied, the fragmentary, the flashbulb immediacy and Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay, ephemerality of the Internet age. Sarah Menkedick skeptically writes in Narrative of history, Fragments that the lyric essays form, which seems to both represent and The Effects, invite interruption of the readers attention, is as easy to consume as a Flickr slideshow, as successive sound bites on of the, CNN, although in its language and content as a whole it intends to be difficult and tries for The Effects, Barthesian jouissance. Maybebut to me, this paradox seems less like hypocrisy than evidence of a messy, invigorating attempt to reckon with disruption. In this post-postmodern age, even writers who might have previously benefited from the history of the mafia illusion of The Effects Essays, a unified, separable self are forced to confront the reality of history of the, fragmentation, and find new ways to express it.

David Shields writes in Reality Hunger that he prefers lyric essay to fiction because it is, well, more real: We want work to be equal to the complexity of experience, memory, and thought, not flattening it out (83). The lyric essay borrows fictions interiority while letting go of its fidelity to the potentially flattening linearity of narrative. In doing so, it invites the reader into The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays a crystalline structure of thought thatlike a rhizome or networkmight resemble chaos and formlessness at history of the mafia, first, but upon closer look, might accurately represent the bright mess of a particular mind, inside a particular body, inside the du bois consciousness vivid confusions of our shared world. I suspect that most practitioners of the lyric essay, whatever they think of the term itself and its relation to identity politics, would resonate with Susan Griffins rhetorical questions in Red Shoes: Bringing the history of the public world of the drugs definition essay and the inner world of fiction together, is of the, something sacrificed? The high ground? Perspective?

Distance? Or is it instead a posture of detachment that is renounced, a position of superiority? The position of in the future, one who is history, not immersed, who is unaffected, untouched? (This is, of course, the Beauty Pageants: Right Essay ultimate fiction.) (314) At its best, the history mafia lyric essay accurately locates the writer in the great soup of being the confusions of lived time, the criminology jagged shape of thought, the betrayals and silences of the body. 4. THE WHITE SPACES (RECONSIDERED) Ive typed the history phrase white spaces so many times now that I cant help but focus on the word white. Blank pages are usually white. But that doesnt mean they are innocent. Claudia Rankines recent book Citizen has been called a lyric essay. Though most reviews labeled it as poetry, its formal indeterminacy and plurality have invited a variety of classifications. Either way, the subtitle, An American Lyric, seems to in The Paper Charlotte Gilman invite the reader to treat the books speaker with the generative indeterminacy, the choral plurality, of mafia, a Lyric I; Rankine has said that this speaker, who explores the Pageants: Right Essay lived experience of Black subjectivity in history of the America, conveys experiences that are her own as well as those of people she knows. The book mostly eschews the I itself in favor of a second-person you; this you could represent the club drugs speakers plurality, or her dissociation from herself.

Or it could be addressed to the reader: a potential invitation, a potential accusation. History Of The Mafia! Many associate whiteness with blankness, innocence. Feminism By Charlotte Perkings Gilman! But Rankines book reminds us that whiteness is more like willful ignorance, disavowed knowledge. Its a highly complex set of history, codes and privileges, disguised as normative neutrality. To equate whiteness with blankness is a refusal of knowledgeor of acknowledgment. Citizens spare blocks of prose on in the future, blinding-white paper serve to underline this notion: to force the reader to confront whiteness as part of the text, to confront whatever she projects onto it in response to its difficult (and notably black) propositions. One notable absence in The Next American Essay: writers of color. History Mafia! DAgata cops to the anthologys demographics in definition his introduction: There are 19 men in here, 13 women. Twenty-nine are Americans; 1 is of the mafia, a Mexican; 1 is Canadian. Theres a Native American, a Korean American, an African American, a Thai American.

Ill bet you there are probably some gay people, too (1). I guess he figures hell get points for honesty. But, as Nelson writes in The Argonauts, The notion of privilege as something to which one could easily cop, as in cop once and be done with, is ridiculous. Privilege saturates; privilege structures (97). The Guest Sparknotes! For an anthology of 32 writers to contain only of the, one African-American, and only five writers of color in total, is criminology in the future, strikingparticularly striking when the words Next and American are in its title. In the Next America, the history one on the verge of being, Americans of color will outnumber their white compatriots. (We Might as Well Call it the Lyric Essay isnt much better: just 3 writers of color out of 15 totaldemographics presumably representative of of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, Seneca Review as a whole.) So are writers of color particularly under-represented in this fledgling genre? Or in John DAgatas mind?

Or do these numbers reflect the larger inequities of the publishing world, of society? If I had to guess, Id blame the exclusion not only on DAgatas personal blind spots but on a persistent yet misguided notion in the Academy that high art and identity politics are inherently contradictory. Either way, there are many wonderful writers of color who might be called lyric essayists. Roxane Gay, Toni Morrison, Judy Ruiz, Maxine Hong Kingston, perhaps even James Baldwin. And morecertainly, many that remain unknown to me. It would be unfair to disown my own complicity in this; writers of color have rightly taken white writers like me to task for not looking harder, past the gatekeepers darlings. But if such writers remain outside of the of the anthologies and in The Paper Perkings Gilman, publications considered to history be genre-normativeto define the standards by which the lyric essay is recognized and marketedthat says something.

For one thing, it says that we need some new anthologies. If the future lyric essay does in fact open up new and exciting possibilities for embodied writing within the realm of High Art, it should not, in its excitement at finally being invited, neglect to look around and see who is still absent. History Of The Mafia! Still, I would like to insist on seeing the lyric essays blank spaces as sites of possibility for everyoneif only consciousness, because, in insisting, we might make it so. History Mafia! An essay by novelist Claire Vaye Watkins, On Pandering, recently went viral. Watkins decries the way in camus sparknotes which her own internalized misogyny shaped her first book, while calling herself out on her frequent blindness to history mafia her own white privilege: Myself, I have been writing to impress old white men. Like Watkins, I recognize the presence in my writing-brain of a tiny white man. And yet as a female writer Ive been invigorated by identifying patriarchal structures so as to depart from du bois double themto conceive of myself as writing into some other place yet to be mapped. I might, at times, bemoan the inescapability of the patriarchy (Nelson in The Argonauts: There is no control group. I dont even want to talk about female sexuality until there is a control group.

And there never will be. (66)) But maybe theres value in having a structure against which to rebel. We might fantasize some pure organic formsome control-group formbut new forms have always ruptured older ones in history order to bring themselves into existence. It would be impossible, especially for me, to compare gender and race; among other offenses, doing so would deny the existence of camus, intersectionality. But perhaps racist and sexist structures can resemble each other both in the erasures they inflict and the ways in history of the which their charged, dubiously defended borders might invite a kind of generative violation. Destruction can be a powerful kind of creation. Watkins ends her essay with a battle cry: Let us, each of Paper by, us, write things that are uncategorizable, rather than something that panders to and condones and codifies those categories. Let us burn this motherfucking system to the ground and build something better. Yes, letseven if the old structures wont disappear entirely; well always be reacting against them, to some degree. Still, we can salvage that obsolete front door and make a window out of it. Mafia! Even as we cast a critical eye on the lyric essays institutional origins, even as we strive to make it a more inclusive space (or publically recognize it as the more inclusive space it already is), we can celebrate what its relative newness, its relative hybridity, might make possible for writers ready to articulate bold new truths. No, there will never be a control group. But what there can be: a breakage, a re-shuffling.

The result of breakage: a proliferation of edge, of space. A new arrangement of truths, a different kind of meaning. Biss, Eula. It is What it Is. Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 55-60. Boully, Jenny. The Body. In The Next American Essay , ed. John DAgata.

Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. Pageants: Right Or Wrong?! Pages 435-466. Cameron, Sharon. Lyric Time: Dickinson and history of the mafia, the Limits of Genre . Baltimore and. London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979. Carson, Anne. Eros the Bittersweet . Champaign and London: Dalkey Archive Press, Culler, Jonathan. Criminology In The Future Paper! Lyric, History and Genre. In The Lyric Theory Reader . History Mafia! Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Pages 63-76. DAgata, John, ed. The Next American Essay . Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003.

DAgata, John. Whats In A Name? In We Might As Well Call It the Lyric Essay , ed. Du Bois Double Consciousness! John DAgata. Geneva, NY: Hobart and William Smith Colleges Press, 2014. DAgata, John, and Deborah Tall. History! The Lyric Essay. Seneca Review , Fall 2007. Web. 10 December 2015.

Garner, Dwight. With Storms Outside, Inner Conflicts Swirl: In Ben Lerners 10:04, New York is a Character. The New York Times . Criminology In The Future! 2 Sept, 2014. Web. History Of The! 8 December, 2015. Griffin, Susan. Red Shoes. In The Next American Essay , ed. John DAgata.

Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. Pages 301-215. Gutkind, Lee. Doing a DAgata. Los Angeles Review of Books , 19 March 2002. Web. 8 December 2015. Jackson, Virginia, and Yopie Prins. Feminism In The Yellow Paper By! General Introduction. In The Lyric Theory. History Of The Mafia! Reader . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Pages 1-10.

Koestenbaum, Wayne. Assignments. Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 15-18. Lazar, David. Queering the club Essay. Essay Review , Volume I Issue I, Spring 2013: Levine, Caroline. Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network . Princeton Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015. Marcus, Ben. On the Lyric Essay. The Believer , July 2013. Web. 10 December 2015. Menkedick, Sarah. History Of The Mafia! Narrative of Fragments. The New Inquiry , July 3, 2014.

Web. 10. Mill, John Stuart. Thoughts on Poetry and Its Varieties. In Dissertations and. Discussions . Camus The Guest Sparknotes! London: Savill and Edwards, 1859. Nelson, Maggie. The Argonauts . Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2015. Nelson, Maggie.

Bluets . Seattle and New York: Wave Books, 2009. Rankine, Claudia. Citizen: An American Lyric . History Of The Mafia! Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, Shields, David. The Effects! Reality Hunger. Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 79-91. Of The Mafia! Watkins, Claire Vaye. On Pandering. In Tin House , 23 November 2015. Web. Pageants: Or Wrong? Essay! 10.

Amy Bonnaffons#8217;s writing has appeared in The New York Times , Kenyon Review , The Sun , The Literary Review , and elsewhere. She is a founding editor of 7?7, a journal that publishes collaborations between writers and visual artists. Amy holds an MFA in Creative Writing from New York University and is currently working on a PhD in English at the University of Georgia. A New York native, she currently resides in Athens, GA.

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obama victory essay By Discover The Networks. By James Arlandson. By Roger Aronoff. January 31, 2017. By David Horowitz. By Alfred Regnery. September 2, 2011. By David Horowitz.

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By Andrew Walden. October 30, 2008. By Andrew Walden. By James Simpson. September 28, 2008. By Victor Davis Hanson. October 27, 2012. By Marc Thiessen. By Stanley Kurtz. By Stanley Kurtz. September 23, 2008.

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September 10-14, 2012. By Breitbart News. By Stefan Molyneux. January 19, 2017. Interview with Stanley Kurtz. By Trevor Loudon. January 15, 2008. By Edward Klein. By Steve Sailer. By John R. Criminology In The Paper. Lott, Jr. By Trevor Loudon and Rodney Stubbs.

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By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Mafia. was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Of Reaching Essays. Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. Mafia. senator from Illinois (2005-2008) and eight years as an Beauty or Wrong? Essay Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the father to the child. Mafia. Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. Camus Sparknotes. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim.

In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to Jodi Kantor of the New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and most of the people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the relatives of Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at of the a Muslim school known as Besuki. Camus Sparknotes. At tha same time, he attended the St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in a particularly religious household. History Of The Mafia. I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of du bois, organized religion. I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of history of the mafia, Chicago after college. * In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the inside Barack Obama is Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to Pageants: Essay, my Christian faith later in life.

* Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at Trinity United Methodisy Church in Chicago: Did you convert Obama from Islam to Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to of the mafia, tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of evidence argue for Obama having been born and raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the father passes his faith to the children; and when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the children Muslim. Obama's grandfather and sparknotes father having been Muslims the extent of their piety matters not at all means that, in Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and others) are exclusively bestowed on Muslim babies. Of The Mafia. (The same goes for Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? Essay names based on the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim. (3) Registered as Muslim at SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at a Catholic school in Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. A surviving document correctly lists him as born in Honolulu on Aug. 4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and Muslim religion. (4) Registered as Muslim at SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is a public school, Obama curiously refers to it in Audacity (p. 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta.

Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at Besuki, the teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies. Of The Mafia. Only Muslim students attended the weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons. Muslim students were taught by a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in class and, during readings of the criminology paper, Koran, got laughed at history mafia because of his funny pronunciation. The Effects For Perfectionism Essays. Maraniss learned that the class included not only studying how to pray and history how to read the Koran, but also actually praying in the Friday communal service right on the school grounds. (6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the mosque for big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to the mosque for Friday prayers. Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at the local mosque. We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? the mosque. But as kids, we loved to meet our friends and went to the mosque together and played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends.

Sometimes, when the muezzin sounded the call to of the, prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to the makeshift mosque together, Adi said. His mother often went to the church, but Barry was Muslim. He went to the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about the guest, Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to history, wear this garment in club the United States. History Of The. This fact has religious implications because, in Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs. (8) Piety : Obama says that in Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by implying he was a non-observant Muslim.

But several of those who knew him contradict this recollection. Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in in The Perkings Gilman Islam. A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in history of the the Kaltim Post , says the future president took part in advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . In the context of Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to recite the Koran in Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the record points to Obama having been born a Muslim to paper, a non-practicing Muslim father and having lived for four years in a fully Muslim milieu under the auspices of his Muslim Indonesian stepfather. For these reasons, those who knew Obama in history Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. He addressed audiences both in Cairo (in June 2009 ) and Jakarta (in Nov. 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to drugs, Koran class, knows is reserved for one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to Muslims he is one of them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an exact translation from the mafia, standard Arabic reference to the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the du bois, Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in history mafia prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the paper, leadership of Muhammad over all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them': a translation of the Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the names of dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the following insight about Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and history mafia Muhammad, is dead; Christian theology holds him to have been resurrected, living, and the immortal Son of God. The Effects For Perfectionism Essays. Second, including Muhammad in this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about Jesus Christ . Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the number and the role of Muslims in the United States, announcing in June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in the world.' (Hardly: according to history of the mafia, one listing of Muslim populations , the United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in our country today' and bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States.' Obama also announced the dubious fact, in Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in du bois their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to Christians but second place varies between Jews and Muslims, most notably in his Jan.

2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the of the mafia, Muslim role in Feminism Yellow Paper Gilman American life that they suggest an Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from a Muslim background.” The 1970s and CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis: In 1971, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to be raised largely by his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to attend the prestigious Punahou Academy. For only one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by his biological father. To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. History Mafia. The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and the structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays wore leather jackets. At night,in the dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy.

When we ground out our cigarettes in history of the the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the Yellow Charlotte, walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of Obama as a Student at Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is that the 'social justice' young men and history women were, in of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays fact, simply left-wing socialists.

They found a hero in Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to understand and mafia because he encouraged them to fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in the gears of history. Beauty Or Wrong? Essay. The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at that time. In February 2010, John C. Drew shared the of the mafia, following recollections he had of Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in late December 1980.

By then, I was in my second year of graduate school at Cornell. I was doing my first, official teaching. The young Ann Coulter was a student in camus Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in of the 1980 and I was the teaching assistant responsible for guiding her small group discussion section. Back on the West Coast for Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to 'Barry' Obama and his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to or Wrong? Essay, Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in 1983 with a degree in of the mafia political science. In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. -- died in a car crash.

In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at Columbia he “went to socialist conferences at The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays Cooper Union and African cultural fairs in history Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the Beauty Right or Wrong? Essay, elite of socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and opponents of “corporate greed.” According to the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and Jeremy Lott provide an excellent explanation of history, what a community organizer does. They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at the Republican convention in September 2008, for the senator’s community organizing past, and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of Pageants: Essay, like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one. They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of history, “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and bake sales. Some have even had the cheek to suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr. Thomas Sowell, the Yellow by Gilman, eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . racial resentments are a stock in history mafia trade.

What does a community organizer do? What he does not do is organize a community. What he organizes are the resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against other communities, from whom either benefits or revenge are to be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. The Guest Sparknotes. He adds: The quest for raw power is the gospel according to the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. History Of The Mafia. In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the possibility that power may be wrested from society’s 'haves' by infiltrating their political system. Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the values and the way of the guest, life of the middle class,' as Alinsky put it.

This is the formula for transformational 'change': the exploitation of power, once acquired, to history, redistribute wealth and elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in in The Yellow Paper by Charlotte Dreams] decided it was time for me to do some real work, and he handed me a long list of people to interview. Find out of the, their self-interest, he said. That’s why people become involved in organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of Beauty Pageants: Essay, it. Once I found an mafia issue enough people cared about, I could take them into action. Right. With enough actions, I could start to build power. Issues, action, power, self-interest. Mafia. I liked these concepts.

They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at drugs DCP were signed and approved by the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the of the, Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union; and who called for a “consistent ethic of life,” in an effort to the guest, persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and wealth redistribution. He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from of the mafia, asbestos in government housing projects is club drugs obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the government that built them. Mafia. But [in every case except one] the proposed solution to every problem on the South Side was a distribution of government funds . [5] Nor was Obama reluctant to use intimidation as a tactic. Club Drugs Definition. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in which scores of protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue. In 1987, when Obama was executive director of DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to of the mafia, support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to Feminism Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings Gilman, Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out of the mafia, his plans and included a list of Feminism by Charlotte Gilman, his advisory council members. Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method:

Three of Obama's mentors in Chicago were trained at the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in of the mafia the Windy City. (The Developing Communities Project itself was an affiliate of the Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for the creation of “a more just and democratic society” is rooted firmly in consciousness the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and which have remained central to mafia, all subsequent revolutionary movements in the United States. He was a natural, the undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and Feminism Paper by confrontational. Of The Mafia. With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the in The Yellow Paper by Charlotte, source of history of the, pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on criminology in the the Alinsky method. “Grass-roots community organizing builds on indigenous leadership and direct action. History Of The Mafia. The debate as to how black and camus sparknotes other dispossessed people can forward their lot in America is not new. History Of The. From W. E. B. DuBois to Booker T. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X to Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and nationalism, between accommodation and militancy, between sit-down strikes and boardroom negotiations. The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches.

Author Andrew McCarthy makes the or Wrong?, following observations about Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and of the lawlessness, thuggishness and regular politicswe’re not to divine any moral or ethical differences. They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment. Du Bois. They only 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to maintain the of the, veneer of respect for legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to stretch or break the rules whenever necessary to club drugs definition, achieve the desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of of the, law. Separatism, menacing, and civil disobedience: none of these is beyond the du bois double consciousness, pale; they are simply choices on the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the history, system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for activists of his political ilk.

Probably the criminology in the future, most influential community-organizing-related entity in America at that time, the Midwest Academy worked closely with the history mafia, DSA and club drugs definition synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the practical considerations of of the, electoral politics. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and “movement history,” the Beauty Pageants: Essay, Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and of the mafia achievements of veteran activists from in the, earlier decades. Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by Heather Booth, encompassed everything from history of the mafia, Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the Students for a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, remake America’s government in a Marxist image. Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the of the, Midwest Academy in its formative years was careful not to explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in its organizing and training activities. The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly. As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of hiding its own socialist agendas below the proverbial radar, earned the Academy the designation “crypto-socialist organization” from Stanley Kurtz. “Nearly every thread of Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to The Effects Essays, [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an history extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for public office was sponsored by Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and Obama worked closely at two foundations for camus the guest sparknotes years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling.

Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by history of the mafia, that of the Midwest Academy.” Obama and the Alliance for Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for for Perfectionism Essays admission to Harvard Law School. At the time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to send a letter of recommendation to his (Sutton's) friends at history of the Harvard on Obama's behalf. In an interview published by the Daily Herald on March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what I think are the core issues of the society, and those core issues to me are what's happening to poor folks in this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School]. There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely. Hopefully, more and more people will begin to sparknotes, feel their story is of the mafia somehow part of this larger story of how we're going to reshape America in a way that is less mean-spirited and more generous. I mean, I really hope to be part of a transformation of this country.

In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in Feminism in The Paper by Charlotte Perkings Gilman 1991 by Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. Of The. The booklet, which was distributed to people in the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of the guest, Obama and 89 other authors represented by Acton Dystel. Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows: Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review , was born in history Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The son of an American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and worked as a financial journalist and Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay editor for Business International Corporation. He served as project coordinator in Harlem for history mafia the New York Public Interest Research Group, and was Executive Director of the Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay, Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to social and racial issues will be evident in mafia his first book, Journeys in Black and White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and criminology in the paper Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and a number of Hollywood celebrities. Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the booklet had cost the agency tens of thousands of dollars to produce.

He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the non-athletes in history of the the booklet were probably approached to approve the text as presented. His most traditional course was in of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays the due process and equal protection areas of constitutional law. His voting rights class traced the evolution of election law, from the disenfranchisement of blacks to contemporary debates over districting and campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and history political seminar as much as a legal one, was on the guest racism and history mafia law [In] one class on race, he imitated the way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in camus sparknotes a mock-innocent voice. . Mr. Obama was especially eager for his charges to understand the horrors of the past, students say.

He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and of the mafia fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to gawkers. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in his class notes in April 1994. Liberals flocked to his classes[.] After all, the double consciousness, professor was a progressive politician[.] . History Of The Mafia. Karen McQuillan writes, in American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and double not a full professor, because he did not have the qualifications to be a professor. Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. Of The. He was hired by the University of Feminism in The Yellow Paper by Charlotte Gilman, Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on race and law directly after graduating from Harvard. There was no book just the contract, which he later reneged on. History Of The. This is not the normal level of accomplishment for a University of Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to camus the guest sparknotes, ACORN and history of the mafia Project Vote: In the early to mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). In the late 1960s and early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the du bois, U.S. -- often violently -- bullying social workers and of the mafia loudly demanding every penny to which the sparknotes, law “entitled” them. [6] Litigator for mafia Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of voting rights and employment cases with the law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. (a.k.a.

Davis Miner). That same year, he also became a lecturer at in the the University of of the mafia, Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the October 1995 Million Man March in Washington, DC, which featured Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Said Obama in the immediate aftermath of the March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an impulse and need for African-American men to come together to recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society. Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the mainstream has rebuffed us, and that white Americans couldn’t care less about the profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago. I was very active in low-income neighborhoods, working on issues of crime and education and employment, and seeing that in some ways, certain portions of the African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for the country. Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age.

By no means was this the Beauty Pageants: Essay, only time Obama spoke about collective salvation. In a 1998 radio interview he said: . my individual salvation is of the mafia not going to come about Right Essay, without a collective salvation for the country. Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and this country has not always been willing to of the mafia, make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. Obama Identifies White Suppression of Blacks As a Problem in the United States, As Elsewhere: . Club. [T]he truth of the history mafia, matter is that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and can't all be blamed on the effects of colonialism. Beauty Pageants: Right Or Wrong?. What it can be blamed on is some of the common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on history of the this earth, and that is the consciousness, tendency for one group to try to suppress another group in the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an history environment of scarcity, where the cost of living is rising, folks begin to get angry and bitter and look for scapegoats. Du Bois Consciousness. Historically, instead of looking at the top 5% of this country that controls all the wealth, we turn towards each other, and the Republicans have added to the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on the “top 5%” had been shaped by his experiences abroad: It's about power.

My travels made me sensitive to the plight of those without power and the issues of of the, class and The Effects inequalities as it relates to wealth and power. Anytime you have been overseas in these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the vast disparity of wealth of those who are part of power structure and those outside of history of the mafia, it. Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Obama's Entry into Politics: In the Beauty Pageants: Essay, mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at their home to introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for the Illinois state senate in 1996. (This fundraiser was likely organized by the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to Obama’s 1996 campaign) and Dohrn had been leaders of the 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of Students for a Democratic Society. The pair had participated personally in of the the bombings of New York City Police Headquarters in 1970, the Capitol building in 1971, and the Pentagon in 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the United States. [9] “This is a guy who lives in my neighborhood, who is a professor of English in Chicago, who I know, and who I have not received some official endorsement from.

He is du bois double consciousness not somebody who I exchange ideas from [with] on a regular basis. Of The Mafia. And the double consciousness, notion that somehow, as a consequence of me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on of the me and camus sparknotes my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in of the which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is reflective of my views, because it obviously isn’t.” Chicago Annenberg Challenge and Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to Ayers were deep and longstanding. In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the first Chairman of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to “teach against oppression” as embodied in “America’s history of evil and racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to board meetings chaired by The Effects for Perfectionism Essays, Obama. History Mafia. Ayers also spoke for camus sparknotes the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the history, collaborative According to the documents, the CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the radical Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the board of the CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to an organization founded by Ayers and run by Pageants: Right or Wrong?, Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist. History. Klonsky was leader of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the all-but-official U.S. Double. Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of history mafia, funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to club drugs, affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the money.

Proposals from groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Mafia. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the following synopsis of the CAC/Ayers agendas: The CAC's agenda flowed from camus the guest sparknotes, Mr. Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for history infusing students and camus the guest their parents with a radical political commitment, and history mafia which downplayed achievement tests in favor of activism. In the mid-1960s, Mr. Ayers taught at a radical alternative school, and consciousness served as a community organizer in mafia Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and CAC distributed $110 million to a variety of leftist education enterprises for experiments in Chicago's public schools. During his time teaching at the University of Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.” Obama Endorses Ayers' Book:

In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and The Effects timely account of the juvenile court system, and the courageous individuals who rescue hope from despair. A notable attendee at the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and history Dohrn hosted on The Effects for Perfectionism Essays behalf of Obama (in the mafia, mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Prior to sparknotes, her stint in of the mafia politics, Palmer had worked for the Black Press Institute and du bois was editor of the Black Press Review . During the Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and of the mafia spoke out against the United States. Criminology Future. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the U.S. Of The Mafia. Peace Council, which the FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an affiliate of the World Peace Council, an international Soviet front).

Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in 1983 -- just as the USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and military superiority in place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for Reynolds’ empty congressional seat. At that point, Palmer filed to Feminism in The Yellow Paper Charlotte Gilman, retain the history, Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to pursue; that seat would be up for grabs in the November 1996 elections. She asked Obama to politely withdraw from the Beauty Essay, race and offered to mafia, help him find an alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the endorsement of the club definition, so-called New Party for his 1996 state senate run. Of The Mafia. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and he used a number of New Party volunteers as campaign workers.

Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago. This organization was formed by members of the in The Paper by Perkings Gilman, New Party as a support group for mafia progressive candidates. It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist. Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here]. According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of club definition, 17 people listed as a signatory on all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by the second page of this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to Joe Gardner [see image here]. It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago. In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to interview him to see if his stand on of the mafia the living wage and similar reforms was the same as ours. We determined that our views on these overlapped, and we could endorse his campaign in the Democratic Party. Recently obtained evidence from the updated records of in the paper, Illinois ACORN at history of the mafia the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party. He also signed a 'contract' promising to publicly support and Feminism Yellow Gilman associate himself with the New Party while in office.

Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to the membership and answered questions. He signed the history, New Party 'Candidate Contract' and requested an endorsement from the New Party. Camus The Guest Sparknotes. He also joined the New Party. Consistent with this, a roster of the Chicago chapter of the New Party from early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the date he joined. Obama Calls for Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is Characterized by Intolerance and Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for history of the Failing to Educate Teens Who Get in Trouble: In a 1995 story in the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. Criminology Paper. You know, we idolize the John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing. History. But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient. Sparknotes. We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Instead of history, investing in our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened.

Our goal must be to help people get a sense of Feminism Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings, building something larger. People are hungry for of the mafia community; they miss it. They are hungry for change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and drugs definition Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. Of The. affiliate of the Socialist International. Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by his reference, in Dreams From My Father , to the fact that during his student years at Columbia University he “went to socialist conferences at club definition Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for history mafia the advancement of science and future paper art. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the usual venue of the annual Socialist Scholars Conference. According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the history of the, Committees of of Reaching for Perfectionism, Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and history mafia radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the paper, result of accident or youthful curiosity.” So, what’s in the play?

It truly is a love song to history, Alinsky. Club. In the first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the Biblical Moses talking to God. The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from restaurants and of the organizing others to drugs, do the same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of social ecology: you had members of the intellectual community, the hope of the future, eating regularly for six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and mafia his wife met with, and delivered a suitcase of “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in Mexico City, hiding from Stalin’s assassins. The Joyce Foundation: I Actually Believe in Redistribution: At an club drugs definition October 19, 1998 conference at Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . propaganda campaign against the possibility of government action and its efficacy.

And I think some of it has been deserved. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and of the mafia hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at a certain level, to make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the extent that we are doing research figuring out what kinds of of Reaching for Perfectionism, government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to move those agendas forward”; the one good thing that comes out of [the welfare-reform bill of 1996] is that it essentially desegregates the welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the other people; and such a coalition becomes one batch of folks . Of The. that is increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to du bois, encompass health care, job training, education, and a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of Chicago and Bill Ayers: Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of Chicago since 1993. History Of The. In 1999 he was joined on this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the Fund in in the paper December 2002. (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on history the board -- the Woods Fund made a grant to Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.)

In 2000, Obama ran against former Black Panther and incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for the U.S. House of Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and crushed him by nearly a two-to-one vote margin. Obama returned to the Illinois state senate for another four-year term. As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at the University of Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

Obama and his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Khalidi and his wife Mona had founded in 1995 the Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for camus its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for its view that Israel’s creation in 1948 was a catastrophe for Arab people. In 2001 and again in 2002, the of the, Woods Fund of Right or Wrong? Essay, Chicago, while Obama served on its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for mafia Congress in in The Yellow Gilman 2000, he was deeply in debt, with little cash at his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of political campaigning. “Even as I hope for some measure of history mafia, peace and comfort to the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of wisdom from this tragedy. Certain immediate lessons are clear, and we must act upon drugs definition those lessons decisively.

We need to mafia, step up security at The Effects Essays our airports. We must reexamine the effectiveness of our intelligence networks. And we must be resolute in identifying the perpetrators of these heinous acts and dismantling their organizations of destruction. Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an history of the outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of unseating Saddam Hussein from power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on criminology the very day that President Bush and Congress agreed on a joint resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq. It was with this speech that Obama first caught the attention of the American public. Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal man. A ruthless man.

A man who butchers his own people to mafia, secure his own power. He has repeatedly defied U.N. Drugs. resolutions, thwarted U.N. inspection teams, developed chemical and biological weapons, and coveted nuclear capacity. He's a bad guy. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. Also in his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of using force to depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for of the mafia energy independence: “Those are the battles that we need to fight. Those are the the guest sparknotes, battles that we willingly join the battles against ignorance and of the mafia intolerance, corruption and drugs greed. Poverty and despair.” In July 2004, Obama delivered the of the mafia, keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston.

He used the speech to introduce himself to a national audience while impugning the Bush administration and the War in Yellow Paper by Gilman Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for one of Illinois’ two seats in the U.S. Senate. Mafia. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in California to open the sealed divorce records of Obama’s Republican opponent to the media. The resulting sex scandal, based on allegations in the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to prevent her ex-husband from club, getting custody of their children, prompted the Republican to history of the mafia, resign from the future, race. One month before the 2004 Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader.

But then the Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an order of protection against of the, him during their 1998 divorce proceedings. Obama then used similar techniques to Right, win the general election, as Human Events again explains: As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in of the mafia the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of millions of dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and then, in club definition his early 40s, left investment banking to teach at an inner city school on the South Side of Chicago. With a $10 million campaign war chest from contributors, and with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an open road to become the next U.S. Senator from Illinois.

His friend and political supporter, the of the mafia, longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the voting in Chicago’s predominantly black wards. He also received valuable backing from the Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition. In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to in the, use its fundraising clout to push the Democratic Party ever further to the political left -- in an effort to of the, raise campaign money for West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the double consciousness, way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the history of the, conservative philosophy of government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of tax breaks, hand it out, and encourage everyone to camus the guest, use their share to go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and of the so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the du bois double consciousness, Ownership Society. Mafia. But in our past there has been another term for it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for him or herself.

It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.” The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and Dohrn contradicts the camus the guest sparknotes, statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the New York Times in 2008: 'Mr. History Of The Mafia. LaBolt said the men . have not spoken by phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. Obama began serving in Beauty Right or Wrong? Essay the United States Senate in January 2005 and last met more than a year ago when they bumped into history of the mafia each other on the street in for Perfectionism Essays Hyde Park.' Obama Accuses the Bush Administration of Racism: In September 2005, Obama spoke at a town hall meeting of the history of the mafia, Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to the subject of “eradicating poverty,” the meeting was replete with condemnations of President George W. Bush, the Republican Party, and Feminism Yellow Paper by Charlotte America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities. Obama stopped short of suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to history, the victims of Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and in the paper the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by history, racism.

But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the cause of what he perceived to be the Bush administration’s lack of sensitivity to the struggles of African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. What wasn’t colorblind was the in the future paper, indifference. Human efforts will always pale in comparison to nature’s forces. But [the Bush administration] is history mafia a set of folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in large parts of the country.” Blacks in hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the du bois double consciousness, Bush administration’s “decision to give tax breaks to Paris Hilton instead of providing child care and education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of Reparations and Admirer of Louis Farrakhan: In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. History Mafia. A passionate admirer of Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of reparations for slavery. Claiming that America remains “one of the double consciousness, cruelest nations in the world when it comes to black folks,” Tillman continues to declare that the U.S. “owes blacks a debt.” In December of 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for history of the mafia the presidency, met in New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for double consciousness the U.S.

Senate. promoting the view that America is history institutionally an double oppressive nation promoting the election of leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and history immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and club a watering down of current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of social welfare programs funded by ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and amnesty for of the illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the recruitment and training of future activist leaders of the political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in its military spending opposing the death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in the United States promoting the tenets of radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the control of the United Nations promoting racial and ethnic preferences in academia and the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the legalization of marijuana. Obama's Activities in Support of a Socialist Bidding to Be Elected President of Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. In 2006 . Obama campaigned for a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. policy and, probably, federal law.' Running for Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay President: On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the history, creation of a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the senator a contribution of $2,100, the maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws. Later that week, the New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in the past.

Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the criminology in the paper, new candidate’s most vocal campaigners. In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to history of the mafia, her husband. Said Mrs. Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to The Effects Essays, the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the history mafia, activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an Beauty Essay overflow crowd of listeners about of the, his success as an Illinois lawmaker in making health insurance available to children and reducing the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens. He also expressed his opposition to racial profiling in law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against the practice. Club Definition. In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an “economic death sentence” by securing jobs for history mafia them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? Essay, Midwest Academy, was on the team that developed and delivered the first Camp Obama training for volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the history of the mafia, 2008 Iowa Caucuses.

Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to be effective, showing them what their role is in club our strategy to win the election We’re taking people from raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.' Support from Jodie Evans of Code Pink: In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and the Dreamworks team of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and history Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy. Evans donated the maximum $2,300 to du bois, Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at history a high-priced fundraiser.

In late August 2008, Evans attended the Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to in The Perkings Gilman, two private receptions with Obama and his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Of The Mafia. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in New York City. In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on a get-out-the-vote campaign in Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and the Hamas Incident: In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the Middle East and Feminism in The Paper by Perkings Gilman North Africa Program Director for history of the mafia the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and Executive Committee).

Prior to in the, joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and the National Security Council’s Director for Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Of The. Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the Egyptian Communist Party. Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an inveterate critic of “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of Soviet funding; and a supporter of the The Effects of Reaching, 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. “Thanks to history, all of you at Planned Parenthood for Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? all the work that you are doing for women all across the country and for families all across the countryand for men, who have enough sense to realize you are helping them, all across the country. Planned Parenthood is the history of the, largest abortion provider in the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. It purports to Feminism Yellow Paper by, offer “a wide range of medical and mafia counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for camus the guest sparknotes every adoption referral it made to an outside agency. During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for every 180 abortions).

During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in clinic income; took in $212.2 million in donations; and received record taxpayer funding of $305.3 million. Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at the national convention of the leftist political weblog Daily Kos. Of The. According to a New York Times report: Mr. Obama, who has built his candidacy upon the mantra of change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of more than 1,500. When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on Saturday, several of those gathered in Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in his administration to former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the creation of its African American Religious Leadership Committee. Among the history of the mafia, committee's more notable members were Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Rev. Otis Moss III, and Rev.

Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and “one of the greatest preachers in Pageants: or Wrong? America” -- was the pastor of Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Said Obama of of the mafia, Wright: “What I value most about criminology in the future, Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. He’s much more of a sounding board for me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about what I believe as possible and that I’m not losing myself in some of the hype and history of the mafia hoopla and Feminism in The Yellow by Perkings Gilman stress that’s involved in history mafia national politics.” Rev. Feminism Yellow Perkings. Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of TUCC from 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the latter retired. In one notable sermon, Moss likened the condition of history mafia, contemporary black Americans to Feminism Perkings Gilman, that of the hapless lepers referenced in biblical stories. He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to mafia, subjugate blacks both socially and economically -- are the “enemy” of African Americans. “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. “Children are not born thugs. Thugs are made and not born.” Rev. Joseph Lowery is a prominent figure in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Viewing the du bois, United States as a nation that is “not committed to serious efforts to address the issue of racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and that “there’s a resurgence of racism at history of the mafia almost every level of life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of him, because he is becoming to the black community what Benedict Arnold was to criminology future paper, the nation he deserted; and what Judas Iscariot was to of the mafia, Jesus: a traitor ; and Feminism Paper by Charlotte Gilman what Brutus was to Caesar: an assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of Barack Obama is Rev. Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and mafia Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by criminology future paper, “classism and racism,” and of the mafia he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the du bois consciousness, late 1980s) with Obama and has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is history of the Rev.

James Meeks, a Democratic member of the Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from 2002-2004 (prior to Obama’s election to the U.S. Senate). Meeks also has been the pastor of criminology in the paper, Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and history of the mafia he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition. For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Paper by Charlotte Perkings Gilman, Democratic Socialists of America and a great admirer of Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright; and (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and history of the Change This Country: After Obama's victory in the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S. Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the optimism I was capable of mustering, Mr. Feminism In The Yellow By Charlotte Perkings. Obama won Iowa!

He won in a political arena 95 percent white. History. It was a resounding defeat for the manipulations of the ultra-right and The Effects of Reaching their right-liberal fellow travelers. Also it was a hard lesson for of the mafia liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in of Reaching Essays these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of history of the, Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of in The Yellow Charlotte Perkings Gilman, minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to move beyond our divisions, and they want to join together in order to mafia, create a movement for change in du bois double this country. The Republicans may have a different attitude. Of The Mafia. The policies that they have promoted have not been good at Pageants: Essay providing ladders for upward mobility and opportunity for all people.” Tony Rezko, the Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer:

Also in history January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and representing your contributor, Rezko, in Yellow Paper by Perkings his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the first major financial contributors to history mafia, Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. For a full explanation of Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number [10] . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in club definition Wisconsin, Obama said: The politics of history mafia, hope does not mean hoping things come easy. Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and drugs said, yes we can. And where better to affirm our ideals than here in Wisconsin, where a century ago the progressive movement was born.

It was rooted in the principle that the history mafia, voices of the people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to du bois, one another, and history that all of Feminism Charlotte Perkings, us share a common destiny, an American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works. Praise from Louis Farrakhan: In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the history mafia, Messiah.” “Barack has captured the youth,” said the Nation Of Islam leader, referring to Feminism in The Yellow by Perkings Gilman, the passionate support Obama had drawn from young people in America. History Of The Mafia. “And he has involved young people in a political process that they didn’t care anything about. That’s a sign. In The Yellow By Charlotte Perkings. When the messiah speaks, the youth will hear. And the messiah is history absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in the habit of speaking to Obama on du bois a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you. But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to help you and mafia everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and asked for his public support: “No, no, no. I want you to drugs definition, endorse.”

In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and his organization were endorsing Obama for U.S. Mafia. President. “We’ve learned that the key to achieving change in Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and ready to The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, go’ on that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the Arab-Israeli conflict. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on Hamas is indistinguishable from the position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and I've repeatedly condemned them. I’ve repeatedly said, and I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and history abide by criminology, previous agreements.” During an history of the mafia April 2008 campaign stop in San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into some of these small towns in sparknotes Pennsylvania, and like a lot of small towns in of the mafia the Midwest, the jobs have been gone now for 25 years, and nothing’s replaced them.

And they fell through the Clinton administration and the Bush administration, and each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and they have not. And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to Essay, guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations.” Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of his leading foreign policy advisors. Lake served as a special assistant for history of the mafia national security affairs under President Nixon in 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from that post to protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to club definition, support the existing government against the power-grabbing efforts of mafia, Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge.

At a June 2008 campaign stop in Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the issue of in the paper, race to undermine his candidacy. Mafia. “It is going to be very difficult for Republicans to run on their stewardship of the economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. “We know what kind of campaign they’re going to run. Camus Sparknotes. They’re going to history of the mafia, try to make you afraid. They’re going to try to The Effects of Reaching, make you afraid of of the, me. He’s young and camus inexperienced and he’s got a funny name. And did I mention he’s black?” Speaking at history mafia a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of Beauty Right or Wrong?, minority journalists in Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of poor treatment of certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of Native Americans as well as other persons of color in this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to account for. Of The. I personally would want to see our tragic history, or the tragic elements of our history, acknowledged. I consistently believe that when it comes to club drugs definition, whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the most important thing for the U.S. government to do is not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate:

In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to be his vice presidential running mate. Fannie Mae . History. has been under increasing pressure from the camus the guest, Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and moderate income people and felt pressure from stock holders to maintain its phenomenal growth in profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to help them make more loans to so-called subprime borrowers. These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and savings are not good enough to qualify for conventional loans, can only mafia, get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from three to Right or Wrong? Essay, four percentage points higher than conventional loans. Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. But at least one study indicates that 18 percent of the loans in the subprime market went to mafia, black borrowers, compared to 5 per cent of loans in the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into this new area of in The Yellow Paper Perkings Gilman, lending, Fannie Mae is taking on significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times.

But the mafia, government-subsidized corporation may run into Feminism in The Yellow Perkings Gilman trouble in an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and loan industry in the 1980's. The Editors of National Review Online explain the history mafia, connection between the foregoing policies and Barack Obama: One of the reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in Essays the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of forcing banks to do so. ACORN, for which Obama worked, is of the mafia one of many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and bank regulators to do more to camus the guest, make mortgages available to of the mafia, people without much in the way of income, assets, or credit. These campaigns often were couched in club drugs definition racially inflammatory terms. The result was the Community Reinvestment Act. History. The CRA empowers the FDIC and other banking regulators to or Wrong? Essay, punish those banks which do not lend to the poor and minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Among other things, mergers and acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. There is history mafia a name for Beauty Pageants: Right loans made to history of the mafia, people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to qualify for a normal mortgage: subprime. As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the CRA throughout his public life.

In an The Effects for Perfectionism October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to ACORN. At the time, ACORN was in of the the news for two major reasons. First, the Feminism in The Perkings, organization was under investigation in 14 separate states for history of the mafia massive voter fraud. Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to club drugs definition, have registered 4 million new voters (most of whom were Democrats) during the preceding four years. Many tens of thousands of these registrations already had been found to be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. The full extent of the fraud, however, was impossible to determine. “The only history mafia, involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the U.S.

Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs. ACORN is a community organization. Pageants: Right Or Wrong?. Apparently what they’ve done is they were paying people to go out and register folks, and of the apparently some of the of Reaching for Perfectionism, people who were out there didn’t really register people, they just filled out a bunch of names. It had nothing to history of the, do with us. We were not involved.” He said nothing about the years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the laudatory statements he had made about ACORN in the recent past; and nothing about the drugs definition, $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at precisely the mafia, same address as ACORN's national headquarters in New Orleans, Louisiana) to fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts.

To conceal the Beauty Pageants: Right, purpose of these payments to ACORN and Citizens' Services Inc., the Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is pretty straightforward. It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and my partner in that investigation was the of the, US Justice department in having Illinois implement what was called the motor voter law, to du bois double consciousness, make sure people could go to of the, DMV’s and driver license facilities to get registered. It wasn’t being implemented. That was my relationship and is my relationship to ACORN. There is an in The Paper Perkings ACORN organization in Chicago. They’ve been active.

As an elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. We’ve got the best voter registration in politics right now and we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and interview are contradicted, however, but the of the, words he himself had spoken in criminology in the future other venues. For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at history of the one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for thousands of community organizers from across the United States. He was inroduced to the crowd by Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the Center for Pageants: Right or Wrong? Community Change). History Of The Mafia. In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is still deeply structured by racism and club sexism. When Obama took the microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in any way. History. He was then asked, If elected President of the United States, would you agree, in criminology in the paper your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of history of the, representatives from these various community organizations . Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of you in to help us shape the agenda.

We're gonna be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for in the future paper the next presidency of the United States of history of the, America. Similarly, in an interview with ACORN representatives in 2007, candidate Obama said the du bois double consciousness, following: You know you've got a friend in me. And I definitely welcome ACORN's input. Of The. You don't have to criminology in the future paper, ask me about history, that.

I'm going to Feminism Yellow Charlotte Gilman, call you even if you didn't ask me. History Of The. When I ran Project Vote, the voter registration drive in Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of it. Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well. I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of club drugs definition, donors who had already contributed (to the campaign) the maximum amount of money permitted by law. Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for history mafia Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and Feminism Yellow Charlotte Perkings Gilman urged them to mafia, give money to Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into Essays the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on campaign contributions.

F oreign Contributions to Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for months about evidence that the Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of his total donations, in amounts less than $200. That is below the threshold for donor information [which] Mr. Obama has chose[n] to report to the FEC -- unlike the history of the mafia, Clinton and McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information. In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from Palestinian brothers based in the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in in The Yellow by Charlotte Gilman Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for Obama. History Of The Mafia. The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to the brother donors, but the latter said they had never received such a return. Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to the Obama campaign had originated. In many cases, the donors' names and contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of nothing more than letters arranged in random, nonsensical sequence. On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of cheering supporters: We are five days away from The Effects for Perfectionism, fundamentally transforming the history of the mafia, United States of America. What makes Obama different is that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and Feminism in The Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings he understands what socialism is.

A lot of the people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in the Communist Party or as independent Marxists. There are a lot of people like that in Chicago who have worked with him for years. Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Senator, and history Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in Yellow by Perkings Gilman the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to other Illinois state senators, is much higher than average.

Rather than vote yea or nay on history of the mafia the legislation in question, Obama on those occasions simply voted present. In the du bois double, Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of of the, a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to a given bill. But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is different in criminology paper that critics and journalists must discuss it differently. Mafia. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against a bill to prevent pornographic book and Feminism in The by Gilman video stores and history of the strip clubs from setting up within 1,000 feet of schools and club churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on schol grounds. History Mafia. He voted 'present' on the partial-birth abortion ban and other contentious issues . Club Drugs. [11] Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in university admissions, public employment, and state contracting. “I still believe in history affirmative action as a means of The Effects for Perfectionism, overcoming both historic and history potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008. [W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in or Wrong? the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in history mafia fact, that they are persons that are entitled to the kinds of protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to term.

That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by camus the guest sparknotes, a court, would forbid abortions to take place. For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to history of the mafia, be 'nine months old' before they count. [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the road it might threaten someone's right to an abortion. Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to in the paper, 'persons,' the Constitution exists to history of the mafia, guarantee abortion rights. [13]

Though it did not in any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. As chair of the Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to bring the bill to criminology in the paper, the floor of the Illinois Senate. As I understand it, this [bill] puts the burden on the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to describe it is now outside the mother’s womb and the doctor continues to think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in fact, they’re not just coming out limp and of the mafia dead, that, in fact, they would then have to club drugs, call a second physician to monitor and check off and make sure that this is not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in 10 to 20 percent of the cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the infants survived and were then being left, uncared for, to die; and that these facts were precisely what had prompted the legislation in the first place. In committee he took the opinion of the ACLU attorney and said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on mafia and be the The Effects Essays, sole senator to speak against this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in mafia a row. And he brags on his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to defeat this bill. Beauty Right Or Wrong? Essay. He said on the Senate floor as a matter of fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the of the, same as a no vote. And he thought by doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and access to family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for contraceptives under health plans”; and “fun[d] legislation that would create and expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.” [14]

Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade. “Latinos have such a high dropout rate. What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind. That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to put billions of dollars into club definition early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of every race, are getting the kind of help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.” [20] Obama opposed the Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to maintain “diversity” in of the local schools by factoring race into decisions about which students could be admitted to any particular school, or which students could be allowed to transfer from one school to another. Under these programs, parents were not free to send their children to the schools of their choice. Instead they were obliged to abide by the quotas preordained by du bois double consciousness, bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to micromanage. History Mafia. Both the du bois double, Seattle and history of the mafia Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in hundreds of other school districts nationwide.

In 1997 Obama opposed an Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by of Reaching, Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the history, state welfare rolls and into paying jobs. He tried to weaken the legislation by criminology in the paper, calling for exceptions not only to of the mafia, the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on benefits. My commitment is to make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by the end of my first term as President. I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of drugs, some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to eliminate employer coverage immediately. There's going to be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out. On April 3, 2007, Obama said: Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to a single payer system. History Mafia. Let's say Medicare Plus. It'd be essentially everybody can buy into Medicare for example.

Transitioning a system is a very difficult and costly and du bois double consciousness lengthy enterprise. It's not like you can turn on a switch and you go from of the mafia, one system to another. So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an additional $90 or $100 billion a year. On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is a two-trillion dollar part of our economy. And it is my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to start getting a system in place, a universal health care system signed into law by du bois, the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to mafia, further, to Feminism in The Yellow Paper by Perkings Gilman, make it more rational. By the way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step. On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of mafia, a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have.

He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the system currently is so, such a patchwork of inefficiency that over time I would want to see Medicaid, Medicare, the children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the club drugs, summer of 2008, when asked by a campaign audience about single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over time . decide that there are other ways for us to provide care more effectively. History. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an camus sparknotes unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is hard to history of the, overstate the degree to which our addiction to Beauty, oil undermines our future. History Of The. A large portion of the $800 million we spend on foreign oil every day goes to some of the world's most volatile regimes. And there are the criminology, environmental consequences. Just about every scientist outside the White House believes climate change is real. History Of The. We cannot drill our way out in the future, of the problem. Instead of subsidizing the oil industry, we should end every single tax break the of the mafia, industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the in The Yellow Paper Perkings, revenues from oil companies with over $1 billion in quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and infrastructure.”

At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. You could actually save just as much.” To produce five gallons of of the mafia, ethanol from corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of du bois double, roughly four galons of of the mafia, ethanol for farming, shipping, and club drugs definition processing. History Mafia. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the net energy equivalent of 2.2 days' worth of Pageants: or Wrong?, American gasoline consumption. [24] (Emphasis in original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in annual direct and indirect subsidies. History Of The Mafia. When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to create a gallon of gasoline, and doing it 853 million times. [25] “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of the guest sparknotes, a cap and trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. History. Even regardless of what I say about whether coal is good or bad. Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay, plants were, whatever the industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is real, is happening now and is the result of human activities. History Mafia. The number of Category 4 and Beauty Pageants: Right 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in of the mafia the last 30 years. Definition. Glaciers are melting faster; the polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and eventually many will become extinct.

Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the poorest places in the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the U.S., sea-level rise threatens to cause massive economic and ecological damage to our populated coastal areas.” [26] During a 2008 campaign stop in Oregon, Obama called on the United States to “lead by example” on of the global warming. “We can’t drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and criminology in the paper keep our homes on 72 degrees at all times . and then just expect that other countries are going to history of the mafia, say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership. That’s not going to happen.” In 2004 Obama spoke out against the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon Americans' civil liberties.

Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and Feminism in The by Gilman nobody has any idea what's in history them and nobody has read them . It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of things happen, and I think this is in some ways what happened to club, the Patriot Act. History Mafia. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about that. It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by The Effects of Reaching Essays, the [Bush] administration. Obama voted “No” on of the mafia a bill to remove the need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in terrorism-related investigations of suspects in other countries. “Warrantless surveillance of American citizens, in defiance of FISA, is unlawful and unconstitutional,” said Obama. [27] “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and restore the right of habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the might of our military, but the power of our ideals and the power of our values. It’s time to show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to du bois consciousness, go back to of the mafia, the era of criminal-justice prosecution of terror suspects, citing the successful efforts to in the future, imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993. [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on threats against of the mafia, the United States, but we can do so within the Pageants: Right or Wrong?, constraints of our Constitution. In previous terrorist attacks -- for example, the first attack against the World Trade Center, we were able to arrest those responsible, put them on trial. They are currently in U.S. Of The. prisons, incapacitated.' The War in Beauty Right Afghanistan and the Iraq War: In July of '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to Senate intelligence reports.

What would I have done? I don't know,' in terms of how you would have voted on the war [in 2002]. In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of setting a firm withdrawal date for history U.S. troops in Iraq. Club Drugs. Immediately after the midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to change our policy and to bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of all troops within 14 months.

“. would immediately begin to pull out of the, troops engaged in combat operations at a pace of one or two brigades every month, to camus sparknotes, be completed by the end of of the, [2009]. He would call for a new constitutional convention in Iraq, convened with the camus the guest, United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the history mafia, nations of the double consciousness, region on of the behalf of a new regional security compact. And he would take immediate steps to confront the humanitarian disaster in Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of Feminism Charlotte Perkings Gilman, potential war crimes.” Claiming that the history, U.S. presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in 2007 and 2008 for a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. But in Beauty Right or Wrong? Essay a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to persuade them to delay an agreement on history of the a timetable for du bois double such a withdrawal until after the November elections. According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to delay an agreement until after the U.S. elections and the formation of a new administration in Washington. History Of The Mafia. However, as an Iraqi, I prefer to have a security agreement that regulates the activities of foreign troops, rather than keeping the in The Charlotte Perkings Gilman, matter open.” “Because . it's pretty straightforward. By us putting $10 billion to mafia, $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into Afghanistan. Those additional troops could have gone into Afghanistan. For Perfectionism Essays. That money also could have been used to shore up a declining economic situation in the United States.

That money could have been applied to having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on oil, which is helping to fund the insurgents in many countries. So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in my decision -- to history, deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of Iraq.” In mid-July 2008, the portions of Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to the troop surge and du bois double consciousness his statement that more troops would not change the course of the war, were suddenly removed. On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on of the high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to end that practice: “This means ending the club definition, practices of shipping away prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far-off countries, of history, detaining thousands without charge or trial, of maintaining a network of secret prisons to jail people beyond the reach of law. That will be my position as president. That includes renditions.” Which passages of scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is an abomination? Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the Beauty Pageants: or Wrong?, faith.

Or should we just stick to history of the, Sermon on camus the guest sparknotes the Mount, a passage that is so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application. Obama has consistently opposed America's development of a missile defense system. In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of billions of dollars in wasteful spending. I will cut investments in unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of future combat systems. Of The Mafia. I will institute an consciousness independent Defense Priorities Board to ensure that the history of the mafia, Quadrennial Defense Review is Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? not used to justify unnecessary defense spending. I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons.

I will seek a global ban on of the mafia the production of fissile material.” Redistribution of Wealth: You know, if you look at the victories and failures of the civil-rights movement, and its litigation strategy in the court, I think where it succeeded was to vest formal rights in Pageants: or Wrong? previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the history of the mafia, right to vote, I would now be able to sit at of Reaching for Perfectionism a lunch counter and order and as long as I could pay for it, I’d be okay, but the Supreme Court never entered into the issues of redistribution of wealth, and history of the sort of more basic issues of political and economic justice in The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical. History Of The. My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for that kind of reparative work, economically, and is that the appropriate place for Yellow Charlotte reparative economic work to change place?” You know, I’m not optimistic about bringing about major redistributive change through the courts. The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into all sorts of separation of powers issues, you know, in terms of the court monitoring or engaging in history of the a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of time. You know, the du bois consciousness, court is just not very good at it, and politically, it’s just very hard to legitimize opinions from the court in that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows:

There is nothing vague or ambiguous about this. Nothing. His plan would boost the top marginal [income tax] rate to well over 55 percentbefore the history of the, inclusion of state and local taxesresulting in sparknotes many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. Senator Obama would end the Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to return to 36 and 39.6 percent. He also would allow personal exemptions and deductions to be phased out for of the mafia those with income over $250,000 [and] would end the Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in earnings. Sparknotes. (The cap is of the currently set at club definition $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of 15.65 percent from payroll taxes and the top income tax rate of 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over history of the mafia 56 percent on Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? each additional dollar earned. In an April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by history of the, journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about camus the guest sparknotes, his proposal to nearly double the capital gains tax (from 15 percent to 28 percent). Of The Mafia. Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. Camus. The government took in more money. And in the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to 28 percent, the revenues went down.

So why raise it at all, especially given the fact that 100 million people in this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on 95 percent of taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by history of the mafia, an average of criminology in the future paper, $64.8 billion a year and of the effectively raise income tax rates for many Americans, even on some earning $20-$50,000 per year, according to camus the guest sparknotes, the non-partisan Tax Policy Center. The net result of the tax plan, according to the figures above, will be to increase by more than 25 percent the history of the, number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the size of the welfare state. At an October 2008 campaign appearance in du bois Ohio, Obama was approached by a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in the media as “Joe the history of the, plumber”). Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to the guest, purchase a business which was projected to earn in history of the mafia excess of $250,000 per Beauty Right or Wrong?, hear, and of the that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on all small businesses earning over $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Obama replied that the the guest, tax increase on businesses like his was justified because it would enable the government to give tax breaks to people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the mafia, wealth around, it’s good for everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to Feminism in The Yellow Charlotte Perkings, the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to local projects which are often frivolous and of extremely limited utility.

In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Earmarks are often informal quid pro quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by giving money to the political official who steered the history, earmarks their way. For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign. In 1998 Obama proposed the creation of a study panel to The Effects, examine the feasibility of having the government regulate and cap automobile insurance rates. History Mafia. In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of for Perfectionism Essays, price controls for prescription drugs. A year later he called for the establishment of a five-person government review board to place a cap on drug prices in Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of of the mafia, why price controls have historically failed to lower costs or improve products and services, click here. [31] In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the sense of Pageants: Right Essay, Congress that any effort to impose photo identification requirements for of the mafia voting should be rejected. “I will never walk away from the 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and contribute to our country every single day.

In July 2008, Obama again spoke to NCLR. Among his remarks were the Feminism in The Yellow by Charlotte, following: “The theme of history of the, this [La Raza] conference is the The Effects of Reaching, work of your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the work of this organization for four decades --lifting up families and of the mafia transforming communities across America. And for that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last. The U.S. The Effects For Perfectionism Essays. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to ending illegal immigration and mafia securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only 8 percent of the Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay, time. By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on immigration qualifies him as an “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against a bill to declare English the official language of the U.S. government. History Of The. Under this bill, no person would be entitled to Pageants: or Wrong? Essay, have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for him) in any language other than English. Nothing in the bill, however, prohibited the use of a language other than English.

“When we get in a tussle, we appeal to the Founding Fathers and of the mafia the Constitution’s ratifiers to give direction. Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the original understanding must be followed and if we obey this rule, democracy is club respected. Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the original understanding can take you only so far -- that on the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and of the the practical outcomes of a decision into account. I have to The Effects for Perfectionism Essays, side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is not a static but rather a living document and must be read in the context of an history of the mafia ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the camus sparknotes, Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the time on those 95 percent of mafia, cases.” In the other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the law nor the criminology in the, Constitution says, but rather “what is in the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and history history of public service, it is my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on behalf of the strong in opposition to the weak. In his work in the White House and the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to club definition, have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of efforts to eradicate the of the mafia, remnants of racial discrimination in our political process. In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of concerns that it is harder to make it in this world and in double this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.”

Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. “There is history of the no indication that he [Alito] is sparknotes not a man of fine character,” Obama said in history of the mafia a floor speech on January 26, 2006. “But when you look at his record, when it comes to his understanding of the Constitution, I found that in almost every case he consistently sides on behalf of the powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to his soaring campaign rhetoric about sparknotes, bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and Alito revealed a polarizing vision of America. Minorities, women, employees and history of the mafia criminal defendants were among the weak; majorities, men, employers and prosecutors were among the strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Justices right now upon whom you would model [appointments to the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? Essay a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the history mafia, empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the empathy to understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges. I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU. I'm not a newcomer to this. I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU.

Your agenda's been my agenda in criminology future the United States Senate. Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and of the mafia SEIU members. Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and SEIU members. Before the The Effects of Reaching Essays, EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into history mafia law, would compel the U.S. President to develop “and implement” a policy to “cut extreme global poverty in half by 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and Beauty Pageants: Right Essay other means. “With billions of people living on just dollars a day around the world, global poverty remains one of the mafia, greatest challenges and tragedies the international community faces.

It must be a priority of American foreign policy to commit to eliminating extreme poverty and ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. As we strive to club drugs definition, rebuild America’s standing in the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and commitment to those in the developing world. Our commitment to the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about increasing profits than about helping workers and small farmers everywhere.” According to a February 2008 report by Accuracy in history of the mafia Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the adoption of the criminology future, GPA could “result in the imposition of a global tax on the United States” and would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to history, the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the U.S. gross national product to foreign aid, which over a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and above what the Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings Gilman, U.S. already spends.” During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to mafia, meet separately, without preconditions, during the first year of your administration, with the leaders of camus the guest sparknotes, Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea, in order to bridge the gap that divides our countries? In January 2008 the National Journal published its rankings of all U.S. History Of The Mafia. senators -- based on how they had voted on a host of foreign and domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of 92 and conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in that issue area than 92 percent of the senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the Beauty Right or Wrong?, researchers explained. In the area of domestic policy voting, the study found that “Obama voted the liberal position on 65 of the 66 key votes on history of the mafia which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the economic and social categories.” President Barack Obama: On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States.

He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. McCain's 162. Obama received a total of double consciousness, 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%). [1] David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2. [10] Rezko had initially met Obama in 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in Chicago and history of the the latter was a Harvard Law School student. Camus The Guest Sparknotes. In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for grabs in 1996), two of Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to Obama’s campaign. Over the course of the entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and $15,000 of the roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. Of The Mafia. Obama won the November 1996 election, and the district he represented included 11 of Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects.

Rezko served on the campaign committee for Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush in 2000, raising between $50,000 and $75,000 of the estimated $600,000 Obama collected for camus that race. In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on the old nursing home it had converted into apartments, and the state of Illinois foreclosed on mafia the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for an Illinois seat in double consciousness the U.S.

Senate which would be open the following year. He again named Rezko to history of the mafia, his campaign finance committee. It is estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the Feminism by, Senate primary season. In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. Senator. A few months later, he and Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the deal involved a mansion for which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only $37,000 per of the mafia, year and owned few assets) paid the full asking price -- $625,000 -- for a vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr.

Rezko was being pursued by Beauty Pageants: Right or Wrong? Essay, creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on defaulted loans and history of the failed business ventures. Right. At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against Rezko and his businesses from November 2002 to history of the, January 2005, including one by the G.E. Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee. In November 2004, G.E. obtained a court judgment against Mr. Rezko for Feminism by Charlotte Perkings Gilman the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on its loans. Obama says he does not know why the Rezkos decided to purchase the vacant lot at that time. But the Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the mafia, owners of the consciousness, house and history the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for the other also closed on the same day.

Both deals indeed closed on the same day in June 2005. At the time of the purchase, Mr. Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the sole purchaser of the vacant lot. In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for a strip that constituted one-sixth of her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the width of his yard by ten feet. At the time of this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. Club Drugs Definition. For more than two years before the of the, property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about Mr. Rezko’s influence over du bois state appointments and of the contracts. Beauty Essay. Moreover, reports swirled that the FBI was investigating accusations of a shakedown scheme in which Mr. Rezko had suggested appointments to a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on his home’s purchase price and were perhaps seeking political favors in history of the return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr.

Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said. In October 2006, Mr. Rezko was indicted on extortion charges. According to federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in for Perfectionism kickback fees to Obama's 2004 Senate campaign. Rezko remained free on bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S. District Judge jailed him for having disobeyed a court order to keep the Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Most notably, Rezko had failed to mafia, tell the judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in exchange for shares in a prime slice of camus the guest, Chicago real estate. According to the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the [$3.5 million] to of the mafia, his wife [for the purchase of the in the paper, vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and used the history of the, rest to pay legal bills and funnel cash to criminology future, various supporters.” [11] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 116. [14] Such an approach to “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and academia demanded that sex education be added to public-school curricula nationwide, and history that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available.

By 1968, almost half of all U.S. schoolspublic and private, religious and secularhad instituted sex education programs for their students; these programs continued to of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, spread widely throughout the American educational system in mafia the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the mid-Sixties to in The Paper Gilman, the mid-Seventies. Between the late Sixties and 1978, federal expenditures for “family planning” and “population” legislation grew from history, $16 million annually to $279 million. Whereas in camus sparknotes 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the services provided by of the mafia, abortion clinics, by 1976 their number had risen to 1.2 million. Sparknotes. Between 1970 and 1980, the history of the, pregnancy rate among 15- to The Effects of Reaching Essays, 19-year-olds rose by more than 40 percent. Among unmarried girls aged 15 to history mafia, 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and 1984even as the number of abortions more than doubled during the same period. [15] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 203. [17] These rules to deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to protect their careers by The Effects for Perfectionism, turning a blind eye and leaving minority criminals alone. [18] Obama’s premise of a discriminatory justice system is entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. History Of The Mafia. In fact, the race of Feminism in The Yellow Paper by Perkings, criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data.

As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and mafia aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in camus sparknotes victim identifications and in arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the enforcement chain, the history of the, campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and the guest judges oversentence blacks. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and history Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. They concluded that ‘large racial differences in criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for The Effects for Perfectionism example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in mafia sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did, and criminology in the that they [blacks] were less likely to be found guilty at of the trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. “Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in 1995: ‘Racial differences in patterns of definition, offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in mafia Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest.” [21] Many critics of the Court’s decision contended that it had undone the landmark Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954.

But these charges were untrue. Du Bois. The Brown case addressed the issue of mandatory racial segregation in America’s public schools, an issue which had become an history international embarrassment for the United States. In The Gilman. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to an all-white school located just a few blocks from her home in history mafia Topeka, Kansas, and was forced instead to take a bus to an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood. Because millions of other blacks nationwide faced the definition, same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the mafia, Topeka Board of Education on grounds that, contrary to Pageants: or Wrong? Essay, a previous Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and thus failed to of the, fulfill the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws. Feminism In The Yellow Paper Charlotte. On May 17, 1954, the history of the mafia, Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is a right which must be made available to Pageants: or Wrong? Essay, all on equal terms.”

In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to use race as the basis for denying students the right to attend the schools they preferred. Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to remove barriers to history of the mafia, integration by outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for measures (like busing or racial quotas) to forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces. [22] Hoover Institution fellow and Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in in the paper great depth, explains that the “‘compelling’ benefits of ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence that mixing and matching black and white kids in school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of of the, studies of all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in fact, whole schools of them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and exceeded the norms in white schools,” and that this phenomenon dates back as far as the late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence” for Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? the dogma “that there needs to be a ‘critical mass’ of black students in a given school or college in order for them to perform up to mafia, standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in the opposite direction. Of Reaching For Perfectionism. Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the other kids’ color.” [23] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114. [26] Contrary to Obama’s claim, in May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the U.S. History Mafia. -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in for Perfectionism fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and dozens of other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the claim that the history of the mafia, human production of greenhouse gases is causing global warming that damages the Earth's climate. There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the criminology in the paper, Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate, the of the, petition stated. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in club atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the history mafia, Earth. [27] Most legal scholars believe the president has inherent constitutional authority to du bois, conduct warrantless wiretaps to collect foreign intelligence, and no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that.

Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ruled in 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to conduct warrantless searches to obtain foreign intelligence information. We take for granted that the president does have that authority and, assuming that is so, FISA could not encroach on the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against mafia, al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and with the positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of Justice believes, and the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to sparknotes, conduct warrantless physical searches for mafia foreign intelligence purposes.” [28] Obama and paper his fellow critics of military commissions accuse such tribunals of trampling on the civil rights and liberties of defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to all the rights and protections afforded by the American criminal court system -- where the standards that govern the admissibility of of the mafia, evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in military tribunals. In November 2006 Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of 2006, formally authorizing the the guest, adjudication of war crimes and terrorism cases in military courts. The House of Representatives vote was 253 to 168 (Republicans voted 219 to mafia, 7 in favor, Democrats 160 to criminology in the future, 34 against); the overall Senate margin was 65 to mafia, 34 in favor. According to the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the judges and jurors, are designed to for Perfectionism Essays, deal with offenses committed in history of the mafia the context of warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by club drugs definition, military jurisprudence; and intending or conspiring to commit, or to of the mafia, aid in Feminism Yellow the commission of, such crimes. The issue of whether it is appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder. [29] “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is a class of unlawful belligerents not entitled to history mafia, that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the question of whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from a practical standpoint. For one thing, the rules defining admissible and inadmissible evidence in by Gilman each venue differ dramatically. History Of The. In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in the absence of Feminism in The Paper Perkings, a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to the court; in mafia military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the sparknotes, court determines such evidence to have “probative value to a reasonable person.”

Attorneys Spencer J. Crona and of the mafia Neal A. Richardson explain the of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, profound significance of history of the, this: “A relaxation of the du bois, hearsay rule might become critical in of the a prosecution for camus terrorism where it may be impossible to produce live witnesses to an event which occurred years earlier in a foreign country. For example, the indictment in history of the mafia the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of clothing, by Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for du bois placement in the suitcase with the bomb. Of The Mafia. The clothing was used to of Reaching Essays, disguise the contents of the suitcase containing the history of the mafia, bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player. Under the rules of drugs definition, evidence applicable in U.S. District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in history of the mafia person the Essays, Maltese shopkeeper to mafia, identify Abdel Bassett as the man who allegedly purchased the Essay, clothing back in history of the mafia 1988, as opposed to producing the investigator who tracked down the shopkeeper and showed him a photograph of Abdel Bassett. Even if we assume that the The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is a citizen of a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to the United States. The reach of of the mafia, a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in Pageants: or Wrong? Essay civilian trials for terrorists is the fact that in such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. History Of The Mafia. If the the guest, government wishes to present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the techniques it used for obtaining the information from them.

This obviously would place those sources in grave danger and would quickly lead to the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of them to say nothing of the future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to avoid placing themselves in similar peril. Moreover, the history mafia, effectiveness of any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings Gilman, be presented to the judge and jury, while being kept secret from the public as well as from the defendant and his attorney. For those who are concerned about legal precedent, it must be understood that the mafia, use of military tribunals for the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. Right Or Wrong?. military commissions were used commonly during the Civil War. Prior to mafia, that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the American Revolution in the late 18th century.

In the criminology paper, era following the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by Major General Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, to adjudicate the mafia, alleged war crimes of Feminism Yellow Paper by Charlotte Perkings, American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. World War II also saw the use of military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the history mafia, Third Reich (one of whom was an American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to the east coast of the United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and set off toward various locations with the intent of bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and Pageants: Essay defense facilities across the country. History Mafia. The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in the eyes of the law (as defined by the Supreme Court in Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to grant the perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to criminology paper, hear their cases. All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to life in prison. [30] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 96. [31] Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005). Dr. Sowell writes: It so happens there is a history of price controls and their consequences in countries around the world, going back literally thousands of history, years.

But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and uninterested in, that history . [32] David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.

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Archives pour la categorie Case Study Houses. MC COY Esther Case Study Program 1945-1962 Henessey Ingalls 1977 Los Angeles SMITH Elisabeth A.T. History Mafia? Blueprints for Beauty Pageants:, Modern Living: History and Legacy of the Case Study Houses MIT Press 1998 STEELE James, JENKINS David, KOENIG Pierre Pierre Koenig Phaidon Press 1998 MC COY Esther, BLAKE Peter Craig Ellwood Architecture Hennessey Ingalls 1997 ALBRECHT D. The Work of Charles Ray Eames COLOMINA Beatrice The Work of history of the mafia Charles and Ray Eames, A Legacy of invention 1997 STEELE James Eames House, Charles and club drugs, Ray Eames Architecture in of the, Detail Phaidon 1995 HINES Thomas S. Criminology? Richard Neutra and mafia, Search for Modern Architecture University California Press 1994 MC LAMPRECHT Barbara Richard Neutra Complete Works Taashen 2000 SACK M. Richard Neutra Gustavo Gili 1994 Barcelone. List of articles: Baboulet, Luc; Le Case Study Program et la tradition americaine ; AMC (France); n98; 05/1999; ; On the or Wrong? Essay Mies Edge ; Domus (); n614; 02/1986; Goldstein B.; The Entenza Years ; Art and Architecture (Etats-Unis); n; 1990; ; ; Architecture dAujourdhui (France); n; 02-03/1966; Case Study House n16′, by C. Ellwood.

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The interior walls of the house are also treated as screens. They are of the in the future paper same material as the history exterior walls to du bois double, express continuity between interior and exterior spaces spaces. These panels are by of the mafia exposing the structure which is criminology future painted black. History Of The Mafia? They are off the ground, and are separated from the criminology paper ceiling by a transom window. The villa consists of a grid of 8 feet. The house is divided into history two areas occupied by the circulations, one inner and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism, one outer longitudinally extending in the direction of the history mafia project.

The boundary with the double consciousness street is freely drawn by a solid line turn opaque or translucent tower. This watershed limits any tower covered and history of the, not confined areas (like the porch); other spaces, enclosed and discovered (as the court of children); or some interior spaces and with others outside. This boundary separates Similarly, the prices of the rooms from the street by a series of du bois double consciousness panels of translucent glass The indoor and history mafia, outdoor spaces are organized around the Beauty Pageants: two perpendicular axes carry the history of the mafia project. The Effects For Perfectionism Essays? The partition between social spaces and individual spaces is along a North-South axis passing at the entrance. It amazing how close the villa whose area is in history of the, a simple rectangle, which is built with a completely systematic metal structure does not prevent to achieve a wide variety of in The Yellow Paper by Perkings Gilman spaces and uses. Each space is fully qualified. Of The? This remark is particularly sensitive to Essays, the game of indoor and outdoor spaces. This is illustrated for history of the, example in the input sequence: the porch is divided into two parts, creating a covered walkway for pedestrian access. Basically, the villa allows a double entry: service entrance that allows access to the court and of Reaching Essays, the kitchen but also main entrance angles.

The patio at the entrance allows movement of the light at the output while creating a view. History Mafia? Each room is extended by outdoor spaces in direct continuity with the interior space. The master bedroom has a double orientation opening on two distinct areas, each with a different status: an in the paper enclosed space and history of the mafia, privacy to Feminism in The Yellow Paper by Perkings Gilman, the east; a terrace that opens fully to the outside overlooking the far south Similarly, the mafia living areas have a triple orientation with three types of large spaces. Open to Perkings, the outside distant and providing a wide view to the south: the view terrace as baptized Craig Ellwood. Open to foreign direct space and close to the garden: the of the living-terrace is protected under large pergolas. Sparknotes? It comes in direct extension of the dining room.

Much more protected, the history mafia child-play may have lived both as a space service and much more closed and intimate space. Criminology Paper? The position and status of the service areas is much less clear. Ellwood seems to make the difference in service areas such as bathrooms that are treated as opaque and irremovable cores while the history of the space kitchens are treated as completely at Koenig transferable manner These spaces are scattered and fragmented in the plan of a house. The diagram shows the spatial sequence extending along one of the two structural axes of the project From west to east, succeeding are: the living terrace / child court / the criminology entrance patio / porch for cars. Case Study House n9, by C. History Of The? Eames et E. Saarinen. This house was designed in collaboration with Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen. Pageants: Or Wrong?? This villa was built on the same site and with the of the mafia same construction system that the villa # 8. It is nevertheless the antithesis and develops a radically different reflection. This villa was built for J. Entenza himself. She adapted to its requirements. Beauty Right Essay? Entenza wanted to focus on the reception areas. The house structure is history of the based on a metallic structure, with columns of H to Pageants: Right, 4 inches (10 cm) to 7.5 feet tall.

The aim was to enclose the maximum possible space in shape and history mafia, structure as simple as possible. This villa has been designed to be built to industrial methods but it was not really thinking as a prototype. The living room was designed according to the guest, the principle of history of the elastic space. Du Bois Double? Architects have developed the idea that space can expand or contract depending on the life of its occupant and of the mafia, the number of of Reaching Essays guests. The engineer Edgardo Contini project expresses the general advantage of the villa: The intention of the history mafia Entenza House is to eliminate structure to be anti-structural, to club definition, be anonymous as possible.

In the Entenza house no beams are expressed, no columns visible. The total concept was architectural : it was resolved in terms of architecture, in history of the mafia, contrast to the Eames house, which was structurally assertive. This villa is in addition and in contrast to criminology future paper, the Case Study House No. 8 also called Eames House, located just next door. History Mafia? They both use the same structural system. This system is based on the metal profiles of high lightness. Yet in each case the architects make a radically different use. It is interesting how two radically different about can be developed on The Effects for Perfectionism Essays the same site with two identical structural systems and a similar programming. In the Eames House structure is completely highlighted. It is structuring, not only literally but figuratively: it articulates, rhythm and cadence of the project. It is everywhere the first expression. In the Entenza House , the search is at an entirely different level.

The structural system is used in a much more minimal and history, paradoxically much more efficient than in the Eames House. The Effects Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? Moreover, the structure is history of the not used here to articulate and rhythm space. Rather, the goal seems rather in paper, Entenza House to break free completely to access full spatial and programmatic flexibility. The Entenza programmatic requirements for the house allows us to better understand the basics of thinking developed by Eames and history of the mafia, Saarinen. It is in the treatment of the criminology in the paper relationship of the common areas and individual, intimate and shared the history mafia villa shows all its richness. The house is in a square of 54 feet (about 16.50 meters) square it occupies almost entirely. The program is The Effects for Perfectionism Essays distributed as follows: the history mafia North-East quarter is occupied by individual rooms and Feminism Yellow Paper Perkings, private (rooms, bathroom); the northwest quarter, for service parts (laundry, garage, cellar ) Finally, the southern half of the common areas (living room, dining room, kitchen ) Each part is history mafia separated by Beauty Pageants: Right Essay full or partial opacities games but also translucency. They have with each other but also with the outside space of the subtle relationships. Thus, the mafia input is separated by a simple translucent filter garage which is lit from overhead way.

The light is thus transmitted and scattered by the filter in in The Gilman, the manner of history of the lateral entry. The kitchen is drugs definition separated by mafia a wall furniture fair amount has so obscure the view. This makes it possible to maintain a unit of space while introducing discontinuities. The separation between the master bedroom and dressing room is treated in the same way The connection between the room is criminology in the future paper treated with a sliding panel will allow to separate or unite spaces in the main bedroom and of the, living room. Another type of discontinuity is introduced by the fireplace, treated fairly minimal, floating and movable. Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? A final type of discontinuity is of the introduced by sparknotes treating the soil levels of differences in the villa. History Of The? This difference between the Feminism Yellow Paper Charlotte Perkings northern half and south of the house is equivalent to about 90 cm. It allows the creation of large footboards in mafia, the middle of the stay. These steps by creating casual seating allows the opportunity to strengthen the space of the in the future living room around the of the fireplace. On the other side, between the bedroom and the living room, the height difference allows the creation of a sofa next stay with the top of the file arrives at the chamber floor. These dispositions allow to obtain spaces of great functional flexibility.

They have a high spatial malleability and high versatility while remaining perfectly qualified. A number of camus the guest sparknotes scenarios illustrating this elasticity are studied in a series of of the mafia diagram (see next page): Scenario 1 : We start here with the basic element around which is Feminism by Perkings built the common area in the villa Entenza. This is the part of the living room occupying the south-eastern part of the villa. This element is limited by the fireplace and of the, the sofa that closes the space of very intimate way. On the other side, the kitchen that can be associated indifferently to 3 different types of areas: living room with part of du bois consciousness which is bounded on the east by history of the mafia emmarchement transforming this part of definition living a formal dining room ; or with the internal extension of the kitchen open to the living room: creating an informal dining room. History? Finally, it may be associated with the outdoor terrace in the kitchen extension.

Thus creating a place for of Reaching, outdoor dining. Scenario 2 : In this scenario, the of the mafia basic unit is associated with the chamber and drugs, part of the terrace creating a very intimate spatial sequence type: bedroom + living room + terrace, privatizing some way the living room and mafia, terrace. Yellow Paper Charlotte Gilman? This scenario shown in photos 3 and of the, 4. We clearly see the alcove effect in club definition, which the mafia chamber is taken. The Guest Sparknotes? Scenario 3 : Here, the of the master doubled the portion of the space on the other side of the fireplace. The home is no longer a limiting factor but a central stay home And this part is in complete continuity with the outdoor terrace, which still has larger space. Double Consciousness? Scenario 4 : This scenario explores the possibility or common areas are assembled and dilated to history, the extreme. Consciousness? Here they form a very large reception area. This space is mafia both fragmented and united. Camus Sparknotes? It includes an input sequence and various conducive to of the, discussion forums.

It is a period to club, which many of us have been anxiously looking forward for long years . These words written by Neutra early in history of the, the program shows how the Yellow Paper Charlotte Perkings Gilman Case Study Program was an expected event. Indeed, Neutra wore a constant interest in innovation in the field of design and construction of history mafia individual houses. During these long years, Neutra thought to Right Essay, bring out of the home craft to industrialization. The two-bedroom house is of the a problem that has already solved many times. Du Bois Consciousness? Plans in history of the mafia, 1948 are in line with all the reflection that he developed during his career. Assembling a prefabricated core services and containing wet and heating installations was a limiting factor of the the guest plan. This core was placed so as not to prevent future extensions of the villa.

In a second step, an history of the mafia extension was added to the south in 1958. The house has an L-shaped plan with the dining room and living room facing south open on a social patio bordered by giant Eucalyptus. Both bedrooms have their own open to the west garden. The composition of the house based on a frame alternating category successively 10 feet and double consciousness, 4 feet. The combination of these two measurements: a structural dimension and the dimensions of prefabricated wet core which houses all services (kitchen and bathroom) for history of the, the 10 feet. The dimensions of 4 feet of the frame are treated rather as margins in the project. Feminism Yellow Paper? All circulations are collected. It allows to arrange a set of history continuities and transparency through the project.

It also allows the posting of items.. Feminism? Elle autorise egalement le detachement des elements. Mafia? The structural system is not emphasized in the project. The structure has no presence or strong or rhythm in the project. Opacities treated on du bois consciousness module 4 feet are worked in a completely fragmented.. They support many advanced and Returns indoor and history mafia, outdoor play areas.

These effects the villa allows multiple orientations allowing each space to benefit from its own private outdoor space. The roof is covered in this same principle. It is widely comes in front of the facade is thus withdrawn leaving the elements exceed in height as chimneys .. All these treatments contribute to Essays, the effect of dissolution of the house into the surrounding nature, with which she seems to merge. This diagram shows the history north side of the house, it helps to understand the relationship maintained by the spaces of the house with the drugs definition environment. It illustrates a typical indoor-outdoor device with Neutra Both interiors are visible both chambers. Same size, the relationship of their interior spaces with the history mafia exterior space is treated with the same repeating pattern that creates an effect of outside in the guest sparknotes, space. Case Study House Program: synoptic. Elements de Sapin / Platre.

Panneaux ondules en ciment. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Platre, Lattes de bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Brique Panneaux de contre-plaque.

Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sequoia / Platre. Panneaux Acier / Platre. Platre et Panneaux de Verre Ondule. Briques, Elements de Sapin. Panneau en bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneau de Sequoia.

Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Beton Poli. The Case Study Houses program: presentation #038; history. The Study Houses program was launched in January 1945. So he started in the very particular and of the mafia, very conducive context of the United States in criminology in the, the immediate post -war period. A man , John Entenza was able to see that it was a key moment . He was able to take the of the lead in maximizing its benefits . Feminism In The Paper By Perkings Gilman? This context and the personality of the latter are the elements that made ??the success of the program. This post-war period is mafia a period of scarcity where all types of The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism building materials are missing. Paradoxically , it also corresponds to a period where the construction industry works very intense.

This intensity is explained by the long period of inactivity that preceded it . On the one hand due to the economic crisis of 1929, the building activity is history very slow throughout the thirties. On the other hand , the war of 39-45 marks a complete and club, total output any breakpoint. History Mafia? All economic activity is oriented to the war effort moment. There was then very little opportunitees construction except for purely utilitarian building structures During all these years, and especially during the war , there has been a great technological development and many progress. These new technologies will finally be tested and applied to the building , so for example : New plastics make possible the of Reaching construction of homes using panels and translucent screens . The invention and history of the, use of arc welding allows for welding of Beauty Pageants: Right such quality that they can finally be exposed indoors . Improvement of synthetic resins, which make them more resistant than natural resins, serves to seal and of the mafia, develop jointings adapted to Beauty Pageants:, new light building panels . The emergence of new adhesives coming from the aviation industry allows the history mafia development of camus sparknotes a wide variety of new composite materials . Finally, the construction period was not slowed mean a total shutdown of architectural production . Of The? On the contrary, the period between the wars saw a multitude of du bois consciousness flower theoretical projects . History? All its potientalites will finally be able to know a realization . The Guest Sparknotes? They will crystallize in the experiments of the Case Study House Program. John Entenza is the history mafia man who has by camus the guest sparknotes his editorial work and critical to all these reflections to emerge . History Mafia? It opened a whole experimental area . Entenza began the publication of the Arts and Architecture magazine in 1938. Context Californian has certainly always been in favor of Modern Architecture . But it is necessary at drugs definition, the time to communicate through a media suppport to the general public.

It is mafia thus promote an Beauty Pageants: or Wrong? understanding of mafia new approaches to camus the guest sparknotes, construction of individual houses emerged during the postwar period . The magazine has become the indisputable leader to win public acceptance of history a good design and Feminism in The Paper by Charlotte, work on architectural quality . Entenza is who was the initiator. Essentially teacher, he is convinced that all living with architecture , work on the quality of the of the mafia built environment affects us all. It keeps a democratic faith in the ability of the public to understand qualitative work on The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays our built environment when making an effort to history of the mafia, submit it . In 1944, he has a good idea of the course will take the for Perfectionism Essays modern architecture after the war. History? The weather is favorable for experimentation. Potential customers have never been so many Indeed, the low housing production during the years of depression has led to a shortage of housing that is deeply felt at the end of the war. In addition, there is a real work to be done because some potential customers are already thinking about the Feminism Yellow Gilman time in terms of house key in hand . Moreover, the history of the term Architecture seems a big word for families who want , in an emergency, fit comfortably and economically . While the of Reaching West Coast has always been a great place for experimentation and innovation in contemporary architecture ; Entenza sees the risk that the architectural quality of the houses built regresses due to the strong post-war production. It is indeed to be feared and of the mafia, that the quality is or Wrong? up to the quantity It certainly there has customers who can wait patiently for the architect completes the plans , which are in a demanding approach to architectural quality . It is history of the also at this time that sponsorship organizations can fund experimental work. But Entenza to realize that despite all many existing innovative ideas on the drawing board or in the minds of designers may not be able to materialize and be permanently lost. In 1945, Entenza abandons its liabilities editor role to play a dynamic role in the architecture of the in The Yellow Paper Charlotte Perkings Gilman postwar period. He committed eight agencies including the magazine Arts and Architecture becomes the client.

Each of these agencies is responsible for history of the, the design of a house. Thus begins the in the future program will continue after the departure of Entenza magazine in 1962. The Case Study House Program ends in 1967 to stop the publication of history of the mafia Art and Architecture . The success and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays, longevity of the program is of the due to its simplicity. The only club drugs stated goal is the development of an environment of well-being without any ideological bias. Architects are encouraged to experiment with new forms and new materials. But the materials should not be used or only selected according to their objective qualities . There is no question of using a material only because it is new . The approach includes a landscape design close to home as well as designing furniture by history mafia renowned designers environment. In The? During the first three years of the program , six houses are fully completed , furnished and history of the mafia, landscaped and camus the guest, open to the public . Approximately 500,000 people visit the first dozen houses . The critical success houses promotes more than any public acceptance of an experimental design . Financing institutions to history, become progressively more open and cooperating . Banks are gradually fund contemporary homes . It should be noted that up to this time they refused fairly systematically fund houses with glass walls, open without dining room , kitchen facing the Pageants: Right or Wrong? street, a flat roof and concrete slab floor plans; convinced that it was a risky investment without resale value However, all the history of the houses of Case Study House Program were excellent investments and they prove their resale prices In the 50s , after 13 houses either completed the program continues at the rate of one house per year. Paper? Selected architects are usually young and little known outside of history of the mafia Southern California . Koenig and Ellwood authors of club drugs five projects in two of them have both barely thirty when they are asked to history, design a Case Study House . Many architects of the end of the program were inspired by Essays the first publications of the history mafia magazine. Koenig and du bois double consciousness, decided to study architecture after the interest inspired him reading the newspaper . By throwing a look at the achievements of the program over the last eleven years Entenza takes stock of the Case Study Houses program : We like to think that these houses have been responsible for some remarkably lucid thinking in terms of domestic architecture.

While it is true that not all have been every mans dream cottage, they have, nevertheless had a demonstrably wide influence in the sound use of new materials and in of the mafia, re-use of the old, and Feminism Yellow Paper Charlotte Perkings Gilman, had attempted, with considerable success, to suggest contemporary living patterns. History Of The? The analysis of these documents allow us to the guest, identify three distinct periods in the program of the Case Study Houses : 1945-1950 , the program proved its worth. In those first years , priority is given to the economics of the of the projects . Yellow Paper By Gilman? In these early years of the program of mafia Case Studies, 13 houses were built and 7 projects presented. The period begins in du bois consciousness, 1945 with the mafia announcement of the Beauty or Wrong? Essay program and ends with the completion of the of the mafia house of Eames and Saarinen for Entenza . All the Pageants: Essay architects of this period are already confirmed and recognized professionals. They each have a personal style already widely proven Any houses built during this period, that of Eames and Saarinen was the first to play with the layout and history mafia, structure. It is also the first in the program to focus on the use of camus the guest industrial materials and techniques in the field of mafia architecture. Homes # 8 and # 9 are halfway house between the criminology future more traditional villas of the history of the mafia first period and purely experimental houses the criminology future paper following years . 1950-60 The experimental period. In a second time, during the decade of 50, the focus is on innovative dimension villas, the true economic dimension from the background without , however, be lost sight of. History Of The Mafia? This period extends from the summer of 1950 when Soriano started working on his house in The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, the summer of 1960 , with the completion of the second house Koenig.

Most homes built during this period are experimental metal frame houses , the others being experiments on elements against plywood precast factory. For a century and a half the history of the mafia industry has been used for building materials but the house construction has resisted industrialization. Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? Architects believe at the time that we must change that. Steel promises to history of the, bring domestic architecture to industrialization after the criminology future end of World War II . But the fundamental difference between houses wood frame and steel frame houses is that in the case of a steel frame all the details should be set at design unlike the wooden frame where you can leave a number of details to the discretion of the manufacturer The priority of this period is the development of projects that can serve as prototypes for of the mafia, manufactured homes . Finally, one last time , the sparknotes program has a broader focus. The Case Studies developed during this period no longer interested only in of the, experiments on one house. Reflections extend over a larger scale. You work on groups of camus sparknotes houses and of the, their integration to the environment and the city. Les Villas experimentales du Case Study House Program. Le Case Study Houses Program est lance en 1945, par un jeune editeur californien John Entenza par l’intermediaire de son journal Arts Architecture . By Charlotte Perkings? Dans le cadre du programme, le magazine fait appel a differents architectes pour etudier un projet de maison individuelle. Les projets est construits, puis meubles.

Il est ensuite porte a la connaissance de tous: d’abord publies dans les pages de Arts and history of the mafia, Architecture , les villas sont ensuite ouvertes au grand public pendant une certaine periode et finalement vendues. Cette initiative a plusieurs objectifs designes par Entenza. Il s’agit tout d’abord de promouvoir aupres du grand public une nouvelle maniere de concevoir l’architecture domestique. Il cherche egalement a provoquer cez le public une nouvelle exigence de qualite architecturale pour leurs propres maisons. Le programme des Case Study Houses: presentation #038; historique.

Le programme des Study Houses a ete lance en Janvier 1945. Criminology Paper? Il a donc debute dans le contexte tres particulier et tres propice des Etats-Unis de limmediat apres-guerre. Un homme, John Entenza a su voir quil sagissait dun moment clef. Il a su prendre les devants pour en tirer les avantages. Ce contexte ainsi que la personnalite de ce dernier sont les elements qui ont fait le succes du programme. Cette periode dapres-guerre est une periode de penurie ou tout les types de materiaux de construction sont manquants.

Paradoxalement, elle correspond egalement a une periode ou lindustrie de la construction fonctionne de maniere tres intense. Cette intensite sexplique par la longue periode dinactivite qui la precede. Dune part suite a la crise economique de 1929, lactivite constructive est fort ralentie pendant toutes les annees trente. Dautre part, la guerre de 39-45 marque un point darret complet et total a toute production . Toute lactivite economique est a ce moment orientee vers leffort de guerre . Il y a alors tres peu dopportunitees de construction excepte pour construire des structures purement utilitaires Pendant toutes ces annees et notamment pendant la guerre, on mafia assiste a un tres grand developpement technologique et a de nombreux progres. Ces nouvelles technologies vont enfin pouvoir etre experimentees et appliquees au batiment, ainsi par exemple : Les nouveaux plastiques rendent possible la construction de maisons utilisant des panneaux et des ecrans translucides. Linvention et lutilisation de la soudure a larc permet dobtenir des soudures dune qualite telle quelles peuvent etre enfin exposees a linterieur des maisons. Lamelioration des resines synthetiques, qui les rendent plus resistantes que les resines naturelles, permet detancher et de developper des jointements adaptes au nouveaux panneaux de construction legers.

Lapparition de nouvelles colles provenants lindustrie aeronautique permet le developpement dune tres grande variete de nouveaux materiaux composites. Enfin, cette periode de construction ralentie na pas ete synonyme dun arret total de la production architecturale. Bien au contraire, la periode dentre-deux guerre a vu fleurir une multitude de projets theoriques. Lensemble de ses potientalites vont enfin pouvoir connaitre une concretisation. Elles vont se cristalliser dans les experimentations du Case Study House Program.

John Entenza est lhomme qui a permis par son travail dediteur et de critique a toutes ces reflexions de voir le jour. Il a ouvert tout une aire dexperimentation. Entenza debute la publication du magazine Arts and Architectures en 1938. Le contexte Californien a certes toujours ete favorable a lArchitecture Moderne. Mais il est necessaire a lepoque de communiquer au travers un suppport mediatique aupres du grand public.

Il sagit de favoriser ainsi une bonne comprehension des nouvelles demarches de construction de maisons individuelles apparues pendant cette periode dapres-guerre. Le magazine est devenu lindiscutable leader permettant de gagner le public a lacceptation dune bonne conception et dun travail sur la qualite architecturale. Cest Entenza qui en a ete linitiateur. Essentiellement pedagogue, il est convaincu que vivant tous avec larchitecture, un travail sur la qualite de lenvironnement construit nous concerne tous. Il garde une foi democratique en la possibilite du public de comprendre un travail qualitatif sur notre environnement bati quand il est fait un effort pour le lui presenter. En 1944, il a une bonne idee du cours que va prendre larchitecture moderne apres la guerre. Le temps est favorable a lexperimentation. Camus The Guest Sparknotes? Les clients potentiels nont jamais ete aussi nombreux En effet, la faible production de logements pendant les annees de depression a entraine une penurie dhabitations qui se fait durement ressentir au sortir de la guerre. De plus, il y a un veritable travail a effectuer car une partie des clients potentiels pensent deja a lepoque en terme de maisons clef-en-main. History Mafia? Qui plus est, le terme dArchitecture semble un bien grand mot pour des familles qui veulent, dans lurgence, se loger confortablement et economiquement.

Meme si la cote Ouest a toujours ete un grand lieu dexperimentation et dinnovation en matiere darchitecture contemporaine; Entenza entrevoit le risque que la qualite architecturale des maisons construites regresse du fait de la forte production dapres-guerre. Il est, en effet a craindre que la qualite laisse ainsi place a la quantite Il y a certes des clients qui peuvent attendre patiemment que larchitecte acheve les plans, et qui sont dans une demarche exigente de la qualite architecturale. Il existe egalement a cette epoque des organismes de mecenat qui peuvent financer des travaux experimentaux. Mais, Entenza se rends compte que malgre tout beaucoup didees innovantes existants sur les tables a dessin ou dans lesprit des concepteurs risquent de ne pouvoir se concretiser et detre definitivement perdues. En 1945, Entenza abandonne donc son role passif dediteur pour jouer un role dynamique dans larchitecture de lapres-guerre. Il engage huit agences dont le magazine Arts and future paper, Architecture devient le client. Chacune de ces agences est chargee de la conception dune maison. Cest ainsi que commence le programme qui se prolongera apres le depart de Entenza du magazine en 1962. History Mafia? Le Case Study House Program sacheve en 1967 a larret de la publication de Art and criminology future paper, Architecture . Le succes et la longevite du programme sont dues a sa simplicite.

Le seul but annonce est le developpement dun environnement de bien-etre sans aucun prejuge ideologique. History Mafia? Les architectes sont encourages a experimenter de nouvelle formes et de nouveaux materiaux. Mais les materiaux ne doivent etre selectionnes ou utilises seulement en fonction de leur qualites objectives. Il nest pas question dutiliser un materiaux seulement parce quil est nouveau. La demarche inclut une conception paysagere de lenvironnement proche de la maison ainsi que la creation de mobiliers par des concepteurs reconnus. Durant les trois premieres annees du programme, 6 maisons sont totalement achevees, meublees et paysagees puis ouvertes au public.

Environ 500 000 personnes visitent la premiere douzaine de maisons. Le succes critique des maisons favorise plus que tout lacceptation du public dune conception experimentale. Les institutions de financement deviennent au fur et a mesure de plus en plus ouvertes et cooperantes. Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? Les banques commencent peu a peu a financer les maisons contemporaines. Ils faut preciser que jusqua cette epoque elles refusaient assez systematiquement de financer des maisons avec des murs en verre, plans ouverts, sans salle a manger, une cuisine faisant face a la rue, une toit plat et des dalles de beton au sol; convaincues quil sagissait dun investissement hasardeux sans valeur de revente Or, toutes les maisons du Case Study House Program furent dexcellents investissements et elles le prouvent par leurs prix a la revente Dans les annees 50, apres que 13 Maisons soit completees le programme continue au rythme dune maison par an. Les architectes selectionnes sont habituellement jeunes et peu connus hors du Sud de la Californie. History Mafia? Koenig et Ellwood auteurs de cinq projets a eux deux ont tout deux a peine trente ans quand ils sont sollicites pour concevoir une Case Study House. Beaucoup darchitectes de la fin du programme ont ete inspire par les premieres publications du magazine. Ainsi Koenig decida detudier larchitecture suite a linteret que lui inspire la lecture du journal.

En jettant un regard sur les realisations du programme au cours des onze dernieres annees Entenza tire un bilan du programme des Case Study Houses: We like to camus the guest, think that these houses have been responsible for some remarkably lucid thinking in terms of domestic architecture. While it is true that not all have been every mans dream cottage, they have, nevertheless had a demonstrably wide influence in of the, the sound use of new materials and in or Wrong? Essay, re-use of the old, and history, had attempted, with considerable success, to suggest contemporary living patterns. (Nous aimons a penser que ces maisons ont ete responsables de quelques reflexions remarquables dans le domaine de larchitecture domestique. The Effects? Meme sil est vrai que toutes ne representaient pas la maison revees de tout homme, elles ont en revanche eu une tres large influence dans lutilisation de nouveaux materiaux et dans la reutilisation de lancien et ont tente avec un succes respectable de suggerer les voies dun mode vie contemporain.) Lanalyse de ces documents nous permettent de degager trois periodes distinctes dans le programme des Case Study Houses: 1945-50, Le programme fait ses preuves. Dans ces premiere annees, la priorite est donne a la dimension economique des projets.

Dans ces premieres annees du programme des Case Studies, 13 maisons furent construites et 7 projets presentes. La periode debute en 1945 avec lannonce du programme et se termine avec lachevement de la maison de Eames et Saarinen pour Entenza. Tout les architectes de cette periode sont deja des professionnels confirmes et reconnus. Ils ont chacun un style personnel deja largement eprouves De toute les maisons construites au cours de cette periode, celle de Eames et Saarinen est la premiere a jouer avec le plan et la structure.

Elle est egalement la premiere dans le programme a se concentrer sur lutilisation de materiaux et de techniques industrielles dans le domaine de larchitecture. Les maisons #8 et #9 sont des maisons de transition entre les villas plus traditionnelles de la premiere periode et les maisons purement experimentales des annees qui suivent. 1950-60, La periode experimentale. Dans un deuxieme temps, au cours de la decennie 50, laccent est mis sur la dimension innovatrice des villas, la dimension veritablement economique passant au second plan sans cependant etre perdue de vue. Cette periode setend de lete 1950, quand Soriano commence a travailler sur sa maison a lete 1960, avec lachevement de la deuxieme maison de Koenig. La plupart des maisons construites au cours de cette periode sont des maisons experimentales a ossature metalliques, les autres etant des experimentations sur des elements en contre-plaques prefabriques en usine. History Of The Mafia? Depuis un siecle et demi lindustrie a ete utilisee pour les materiaux de construction mais la construction de maison a resiste a la lindustrialisation. Les architectes pensent a lepoque que lon doit changer cela. Feminism In The By Perkings Gilman? Lacier promet damener larchitecture domestique a lindustrialisation apres la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale.

Mais la difference fondamentale entre maisons a ossature de bois et les maisons a ossature acier est que dans le cas dune ossature dacier tout les details doivent etre regles au moment de la conception contrairement a lossature bois ou lon peut laisser un certain nombre de details a la discretion du constructeur La priorite de cette periode est le developpement de projets qui peuvent servir de prototypes pour des maisons industrialisees. 1960-65, Changement dechelle. Enfin, dans un dernier temps, le programme a pris une orientation plus large. Les Case Studies developpees pendant cette periode ne sinteressent plus seulement a des experimentations sur une seule maison. History Of The? Les reflexions setendent sur une plus large echelle. On travaille alors sur des groupements de maisons et sur leur integrations a lenvironnement et a la ville. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Panneaux ondules en ciment. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Platre, Lattes de bois.

Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Brique Panneaux de contre-plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sequoia / Platre. Panneaux Acier / Platre. Platre et Panneaux de Verre Ondule. Briques, Elements de Sapin.

Panneau en bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneau de Sequoia. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Beton Poli.

Visite virtuelle de la villa Savoye de Le Corbusier.