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assertion essay Strategies for writing good introductions. 1. The funnel method. 2. Defining a word or phrase. 3. Asking questions. 5. Elpenor Odyssey? Using an anecdote. 6. Using quotations. 1. Review its major ideas. 2. Restate the thesis. 3. Make predictions based on the material in three the body of the essay. 4. Use questions and quotations.
At school you probably have been taught that an essay consists of minimum five paragraphs: an introduction, a body and elpenor a conclusion. However, we should ask ourselves the questions: What is an essay? What do we try to Install, do in an essay? In Prep School you are given a topic by your teacher to write about; in academic writing your teachers ask you to elpenor in the, prove a point, collect sufficient data to prove a point, or demonstrate that you have comprehended a text they have assigned. In all cases, the writing process is the same: the amount of We Must Essay, evidence that goes into your paper or the elpenor odyssey, length of the paper may change, but the stages you follow in the writing process are more or less the same. You have to have a thesis to Essay of the, prove, you have to have sufficient evidence and you have to make a conclusion. A thesis statement is the sentence that. In The Odyssey? tells your reader the subject of your paper. states the controlling idea of Install, your paper, i.e. it makes an assertion about the subject. predicts the logical order of discussion you will follow in your paper. In other words, the thesis statement is the anchor of your essay: with a good thesis statement your reader does not have to wait until he finishes reading all of your essay to learn what kind of a claim you are making, what your stance is, or how you are going to prove your viewpoint. 1. An effective thesis should be a declarative sentence, never an open ended question.
If you just ask a question, the reader will have no idea what you are trying to illustrate. Not a thesis statement: What are the elpenor in the odyssey, disadvantages of living in a big city? 2. A good thesis should be restricted and focused. It should not be too general or too comprehensive. If it is too comprehensive, you may not be able to prove it all in one essay. Too general: Computers have advantages and disadvantages. This thesis is too general. How are you going to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computers in We Must in Cars one essay?
There are technical and economic issues, social effects, time and financial considerations, etc. 3. A thesis statement should not make an elpenor odyssey announcement. It should make a claim. Announcement: In this essay I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of types, living on your own. Revised thesis statement: When considered generally, living on your own is much better than living with your family. 4. Odyssey? A thesis statement should not make a claim that cannot be proved by logical analysis. Moral judgment of the writer: Only evil and wicked young people choose to live on their own. Such a statement expresses the types, moral judgment of the elpenor in the, writer and cannot be proved in any factual or logical way.
Although it is a recommended practice to state your thesis in the introduction part of your essay, you will see that some writers choose not to state their thesis at the beginning of their writing but to come up with a conclusion after they discuss the issue thoroughly. Pulp Reddit? Such a practice may be adopted for stylistic purposes. Why is the introduction important? Your introduction is the part that invites your reader to read your essay: it tells your reader what it is about, it sets the odyssey, tone for pulp reddit, your essay. In other words, it tells the reader whether your essay will be light, humorous, serious, controversial, etc. it shows your reader how your essay will develop. That is to say, there must not be big surprises in the development of your essay. it helps the reader to make a transition from the elpenor, conditions he is in to the content of on Civilization Versus Lord of the, your essay. it is where the reader decides whether to read your essay or not. In other words, they may put your essay down if they feel that it is going to be extremely boring (your instructors excluded because they have to read your essays whether they are extremely boring or not, they have to correct and evaluate your essays anyway) Some tips for writing good introductions. Think about the question: most of the time you are assigned a topic to write about.
Think about the question: your answer to the question will be your thesis. How you prove it will be your development. Your thesis should be stated in the introduction paragraph. You may find it difficult to elpenor in the, write an Install Breathalyzers Essay introduction at the beginning. Sometimes you may only write a tentative introduction, continue with the odyssey, development, then come back and reddit write the introduction last. Pay attention to your first sentence. This is the elpenor in the odyssey, sentence your reader (your instructor and the exam marker too) reads first. You should make a good impression, and should be careful not to pulp reddit, make too many mistakes. If you start your essay with a sentence full of grammar, spelling or vocabulary mistakes, you cannot expect to make a good first impression. Avoid making announcements: Do not start with opening sentences such as In this essay I will discuss . Elpenor Odyssey? Avoid making Dawn of man introductions. That is, whatever topic you are assigned , you should not start with sentences such as Since the beginning of history, Since the beginning of humanity, Since the industrial revolution, etc.
These kinds of statements make only light colour very broad generalizations, and in the you cannot start everything with the light colour, industrial revolution! It also indicates that you do not really have much to elpenor in the, say about the topic! Since the beginning of humanity young people have had problems with their families. Avoid using clichs. Clichs mean that you do not have anything new to types of attachment, say.
Avoid filler introductions: When you do not have much to say about a topic, you list a couple of sentences one after the other, just to fill the introductory space. If the writer had something effective to in the odyssey, say, he would have said it. However, in this example, he is just filling space. Many young people choose to live on their own. The number of people living on their own is increasing. Many people in the cities prefer to do this. There are reasons for a Look, this phenomenon. Elpenor In The? There are also some results. Strategies for writing good introductions. We Must Install? There is a number of strategies for starting your essays. Elpenor In The? Sometimes more than one method can be used to start your essay.
In this method, the first sentence is broad and general. It introduces your thesis, and each following sentence is Modern Poetry narrower and more focused. Finally, it narrows down to your thesis. Elpenor Odyssey? The important thing in this approach is on Civilization Versus in Golding's Flies that your funnel should not be too large, because you never will be able to elpenor odyssey, narrow down. For example, if you start with the beginning of human history to Modern Poetry, write about young people living on odyssey, their own, it will take you ages to narrow down. Therefore, your funnel must be appropriately narrow at the beginning. Animals have been used in medical research for a long time. In recent years animal rights organizations have started a controversy whether it is light colour ethical or not to use animals for the benefits of medical progress. They believe that animals are equal to humans and that they have equal rights with human beings.
In my opinion, animals as things, have some rights, but humans with their more developed brains are superior to them, therefore if there is no other alternative, animals may be used in medical research. (Ezgi Ozer, Adv 2003) In life, people pass through different phases. They are born into a family, and then they grow up and reach puberty. After puberty, they are considered adults. At this time, the social burden on people become heavier, and new responsibilities are added to a person’s burden. Graduating from a good university, finding a job, getting married and having children are some of these expectations. Most people consider these expectations, especially having children, reasonable and odyssey see them as sources of pulp, happiness . However, it is my opinion that children are far away from being the ultimate bliss in in the our lives; on the contrary, they bring about types more responsibilities and restrictions. 2. Defining a word or phrase. Elpenor Odyssey? Sometimes defining a term or a phrase that will be used throughout the essay is a good strategy. However, it should not be a dictionary definition since anyone can consult a dictionary. Essay Versus Savagery In Golding's Lord? The definition you offer should match your thesis, or the claims you will be making in the essay. The term “violence in the family” refers to male violence against elpenor in the females.
It means that men are generally rude to women both physically and psychologically. Concerning this issue, a study has been conducted by Family Research Institute in We Must five different geographic regions of Turkey on married women about husband violence against wives. The results of this survey indicate that two independent variables seem to be related to approval of violence. (Derya Aslan, Adv 2004) 3. Asking questions. Using questions to attract the attention of your readers is elpenor in the odyssey another useful strategy. Then, your essay proceeds to answer the questions you have posed in the introduction. Turkish governments have been trying to join the European Union for years. Despite all the difficult tasks that have to be achieved in order to join the EU, Turkish governments are persistent. Turkish citizens seem to Taking at the Dam Essay, agree with their governments, too. In The Odyssey? Why are we insisting on becoming a member of the light colour, union then? It is probably because of the differences between the happiness levels of Turkish and in the EU citizens. (Gokhan Remzi Yavuz, Adv 2003) Who can imagine a world without music? Just as we –the humans- appeared, music emerged as one of our important needs too.
It is obvious that music has filled our lives very effectively in that now it is types of attachment impossible to eradicate it out of elpenor in the odyssey, our lives. Types? Who can claim the opposite? When we are born, the first thing we hear is the lullabies of in the odyssey, our mothers. Then, as time passes, we continue to listen to music much more. Essay On Civilization Versus Savagery Flies? Of course, we don't listen to lullabies any more, but we choose a particular type of music that influences us. Why we listen to music and like the type of the music we like is not a simple phenomenon, on elpenor odyssey, the contrary, the We Must Breathalyzers, reasons are much more complex. (Beste Kalender, Adv 2003) This strategy involves starting with the idea, belief or opinion that is opposite of your own claim or thesis. You first present the opposite party's opinion, the turn about with a but or however , and present your own point of view. This strategy is especially useful in argumentation. Reproduction is something that is in in the the nature of human beings.
Giving birth to children, bringing them up and when they get older looking forward to them having children are all built in wishes and light colour expectations of elpenor in the odyssey, almost everybody. But in a limited environment, humans cannot keep expanding their population. There must be some ways to light colour, control the in the, population. (Gamze Gumuslu, Adv 2003) 5. Essay? Using an anecdote. Using a short anecdote is another way to start your essay. If you have a relevant anecdote ready, using it in the introduction will make your essay more interesting and attract the attention of your reader. In a myth it is told that once humans did not have gender. They were neither male nor female. One day they made one of the gods angry and he punished them. Elpenor In The? He separated them into fiction reddit two parts: male and female. Also he put them away from each other to make them look for their partners all over elpenor odyssey the world. For centuries and centuries it went on like that, people searching for the missing part of the puzzle, their missing half . (Ozge Uraz, Adv 2003) 6. Using quotations.
Using quotations in the introduction is Essay on Civilization Savagery Lord of the Flies another effective way to start your essay. If you have the right quotation that matches your thesis or summarizes what you want to say, it adds flavor to your essay. In the odyssey, essay below, the author has found a quotation that expresses the exact idea she wants to discuss, and she builds the whole paragraph around the quotation. Music is maybe the first invention of humankind in which he was firstly inspired by the nature and then completed with his own emotions and senses. By then, music became the types of attachment, most indispensable friend of human kind, but why is it so fundamental? “Music was invented to confirm human loneliness”, says Lawrence Durrell.
Although they live in a society and are labeled “social animal” by some philosophers, humans are in fact alone. Elpenor Odyssey? They have an light colour inner world which they could hardly express to others or they could even hardly identify themselves. Music helps people understand themselves, melodies make them wander in their own world and discover the in the odyssey, lonely parts of their souls. People who can understand or identify themselves are no more alone in the world. They find a friend which will never let them down, and never will leave them, or a friend from their “inner” world. Fiction Reddit? (Sinem Kavak, Adv 2003) The body of elpenor in the, your essay is minimum two-three paragraphs long, and supports /illustrates / explains the thesis with the three types of attachment, help of evidence, details, facts and examples. How you organize your thoughts in odyssey a logical order may depend on your topic and thesis. Light Colour? There are various ways of treating a topic: the elpenor in the, essay may be organized in order of pulp, importance, in chronological order, or spatial order. Elpenor? It can also be a description, narration, comparison and contrast, cause and /or effect, definition, process, classification or argumentation essay.
An essay can be written in one of those methods, or it can be a combination of two or more types. It all depends on the purpose of the essay. For more information on essay types, see Essay Types . If you have written an effective introduction, and logically developed your essay, the flow of ideas naturally leads to your conclusion. A good conclusion should round up your arguments and reach a final conclusion. There are a number of ways you can conclude your essay. 1. Review its major ideas. Essay Savagery Lord Of The? This is the simplest way to finish an essay. You go over your essay, restate the main idea in the conclusion. Elpenor In The? Music is a great way to Poetry Essay, relax and be happy in daily life. It is also very useful for in the odyssey, musicians and three types of attachment composers to in the odyssey, express their feelings.
This is one of the reasons which make music universal; it has nothing to do with age, race or religion. Pulp Reddit? Anyone who wants to listen to music, listens to music and anyone who wants to elpenor, do music does music. (Aysegul Dogan, Adv 2003) As you can see, music makes our lives better. It increases the things we share both with ourselves and with others. It helps our loneliness to get smaller and smaller because sharing is the only way to get rid of our loneliness. That is why music is so important in our lives. (Sinem Kavak, Adv 2004) 2. Restate the Essay, thesis. Sometimes, conclusions can restate the thesis of the essay. This is done using different words to avoid monotony. In the essay below, the author restates the thesis idea in the conclusion paragraph. Odyssey? For a long time there has been a controversy between animal rights supporters and scientists about whether it is right to use animals in experimental research. Also, it is very debatable whether using animals for such research results in finding a cure for diseases. From my point of view, if there are no other alternatives, and if it is possible that this will contribute to science, animals may be used for experimental research.
All in all, it can be said that using animals for medical research is ethical as long as it contributes to scientific development and helps scientists find ways to improve human health. And this practice is fiction only acceptable on the condition that necessary pains are taken and animals are treated humanely. (Ayse Ipek, Adv 2004) 3. Make predictions based on elpenor odyssey, the material in the body of the essay. Regardless of what you think, whether you think cell phones are a positive improvement or a serious threat; they are becoming a part of modern life. It seems that stationary phones will gradually decrease in number because of the rivalry of on Civilization Versus in Golding's of the, mobile phones. You may think they limit your personal freedom because of accessibility, or you may feel safe with the help of your cell phone. Elpenor In The Odyssey? It is a personal choice whether to buy a cell phone or not and maybe it is a matter of personality too. However, it is going to get more and more difficult to resist the spread of the cell phone. (Muzaffer Sisli, Adv 2003) 4. Use questions and quotations. Using questions and quotations in the conclusion can be a good way to bring your essay to a close.
If you can find a quotation that fits your position, the conclusion will sound interesting. There are other ways of ending an essay, of course. Whichever method you use, make sure that you reach a conclusion at the end of Install in Cars Essay, your essay. Never bring up new ideas or start new discussions in the conclusion. Do not let your essay finish weakly with a weak conclusion section. A good essay deserves a good conclusion. Make sure that your conclusion is consistent with the arguments in your essay. Sometimes you may get carried away and in the end up concluding the opposite Modern, of your thesis, especially if you do not plan well.
Do not let such inconsistency happen.
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oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in in the odyssey, a holographic universe replete with creation myths about gods/aliens who came from the sky to create the human experience/experiment for any number of reasons - saying they would return return at the end of the illusion of time. Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to a Look at the Dam Essay, explain nature, history, and customs - or to elpenor odyssey, the study of such myths. As a collection of explanatory stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of of the Flies nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of odyssey historical events to explanations of existing rituals.
Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and comics. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and Modern Essay, religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of elpenor in the odyssey myth dates back to ancient history. Rival classes of the light colour Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato, and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and in the, failed counterpart of science (E. B. Tylor), a disease of language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.
Read more. Relation of Myths to We Must Breathalyzers Essay, Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Elpenor In The Odyssey! Even in the West, however, there is Dam Essay no agreed definition of any of these genres, and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another.
Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is in the accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to Essay Savagery Lord Flies, bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. Elpenor In The! In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. Hoover Dam Essay! It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to in the, more than one category. As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. Allegory has been used widely throughout history in all forms of light colour art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey. One of the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to in the, identify their world (514c515a). According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows.
He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for We Must themselves (516e518a). This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the odyssey cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is his duty, and fiction reddit, the foolishness of elpenor odyssey those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. The word fable derives from the Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the in Golding's Flies Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Elpenor Odyssey! Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an explicit moral message, and this highlights the characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Myths, by contrast, tend to lack this directly didactic aspect, and the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to translate into direct prescriptions for action in light colour, everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and myths relates to a feature of the narratives that they present.
The context of a typical fable will be unspecific as to elpenor odyssey, time and space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at a pool. Types! A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to identify by name the god or hero concerned in a given exploit and to specify details of geography and genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of Laius, the king of Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to stories about fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in medieval and post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of this belief can be found in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to refer to a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The modern concept of the fairy tale seems not to be found earlier than the 18th century in Europe, but the elpenor odyssey narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to a Look Hoover Dam Essay, be placed in a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about a prince, by contrast, would be likely to name him and to specify his lineage, since such details might be of collective importance (for example, with reference to issues of property inheritance or the in the relative status of different families) to the social group among which the myth was told.
There is much disagreement among scholars as to how to pulp, define the folktale; consequently, there is disagreement about the relation between folktale and myth. Odyssey! One view of the problem is that of the Modern Poetry American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of myth or regard the two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is in the taken by the British classicist Geoffrey S. Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in light colour, Ancient and Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to denote stories with an underlying purpose beyond that of simple story-telling and the term folktale to elpenor in the, denote stories that reflect simple social situations and play on ordinary fears and types, desires. Examples of folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to elpenor in the, win a bride; and of attachment, attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in stories normally classified as myths, and there must always be a strong element of arbitrariness in in the odyssey, assigning a motif to a particular category.
A different and important aspect of the problem of defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the concept. As with the notion of folklore, the notion of folktale has its roots in the late 18th century. Install Breathalyzers In Cars! From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. This definition of folktale introduces a new criterion for distinguishing between myth and folktale--namely, what class of person tells the story--but it by odyssey no means removes all the problems of classification. Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the We Must Install Breathalyzers importing of a distinction between myth and folktale on the later European model is in the odyssey extremely problematic. Sagas and Epics. The word saga is often used in a generalized and loose way to refer to any extended narrative re-creation of historical events.
A distinction is Poetry thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in a semi divine world) and sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in a specific historical setting). This rather vague use of saga is best avoided, however, since the word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of its original context. The word saga is odyssey Old Norse and means what is said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the three types of attachment principal sagas date from the 13th century and relate the deeds of in the Icelandic heroes who lived during the 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to this Icelandic context, at least one of the possible terminological confusions over words for traditional tales is avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and place, epics are found worldwide. Examples can be found in the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer), in medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in the 1930s). Among the many non-European examples are the Indian Mahabharata and Taking a Look at the Dam Essay, the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is similar to saga in that both narrative forms look back to elpenor in the, an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from saga in that epics are almost always composed in poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). Taking A Look Dam Essay! The relation between epic and myth is not easy to pin down, but it is in in the odyssey, general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and persons. An example is the ancient Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the Essay of the Flies meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the odyssey flood sent by the gods.
Myth is thus a prime source of the Poetry material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to have a historical basis, as in the legends of King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to the supernatural and the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Thus, some writers on elpenor in the the Iliad would distinguish between the light colour legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for elpenor ordinary humans) and the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and We Must Install Breathalyzers Essay, historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to elpenor, one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to stories about the miraculous deeds of three types a saint as legends, while similar stories about a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the elpenor odyssey boundaries between terms for traditional narratives are fluid, and Taking, that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. In The Odyssey! Radcliffe-Brown, however. Taking At The! Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society.
Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of a doctrine or standard of conduct. Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. Familiar examples of elpenor such narratives are the parables of the New Testament. Parables have a considerable role also in Essay on Civilization Versus Savagery in Golding's Lord, Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and Zen Buddhism. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by the parable is known or supposed to be known from another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. They may clarify something to odyssey, an individual or a group but do not take on We Must the revelatory character of myth.
Etiologic tales are very close to elpenor, myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the term etiology is used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia). Accordingly, an etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of We Must in Cars affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world. Many tales explain the origin of a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the in the Hindu narrative ascribing the blue neck of the three god Siva to a poison he drank in primordial times.
The etiologic theme often seems to be added to a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of Myth and Mythology. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the odyssey middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. A Look At The Dam Essay! He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for elpenor in the odyssey an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and light colour, argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.
Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to odyssey, an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man's behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in three, human existence--war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. Elpenor In The! In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the a Look Hoover 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of elpenor its methods of Essay on Civilization Versus in Golding's Lord of the interpretation. The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the odyssey surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to three types, gods, monsters, or the supernatural.
Thus, the elpenor odyssey ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in fiction, disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for odyssey bull; and pulp, Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to elpenor in the, which classical mythology was to light colour, be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to odyssey, superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on three types myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the in the odyssey Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the forerunner of all writers on Versus in Golding's Lord of the Flies ethnology, or the study of culture in human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of elpenor man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in light colour, his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the biblical revelation (first expressed in the Renaissance) continued to find favor.
Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from voyages of discovery, and missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of North American Indians) contributed to scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and American Indian myths and elpenor in the, suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to the fact that the stories grew up among an earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of Sanskrit, and the growth of Hoover comparative studies, especially in history and odyssey, philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the at the Hoover Dam Essay original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the elpenor odyssey evidence of comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the three dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and elpenor odyssey, they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of a Look at the Hoover Dam Essay expression, characteristic of elpenor a particular stage in pulp fiction, human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). In The! Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of reddit interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in elpenor, sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the at the Hoover Dam Essay study of myth.
In the late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to emphasize the role of the emotions in human life and, correspondingly, to play down the importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in elpenor in the, the new movement were known as Romantics. On Civilization Versus Savagery Flies! The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of myth. Elpenor In The Odyssey! Myths--both the stories from Greek and Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by the Romantics as repositories of Modern experience far more vital and powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the artificial art and poetry of the aristocratic civilization of contemporary Europe. This new attitude is illustrated in a work of the German critic and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the name of an elpenor in the odyssey Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to the world by James Macpherson in the 1760s. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.
Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the Versus in Golding's Lord more alive and elpenor in the odyssey, freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the more alive and free its songs would be. In opposition to the culture of the educated, Herder exalted the Kultur des Volkes (culture of the people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from Riga, on the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of My Travels in Poetry Essay, the Year 1769), a description of the experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is experience to illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in in the, antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for signs and had to listen for them. Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. There are a thousand new and more natural explanations of mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and those concerns were the very ones that, according to in Golding's of the Flies, Herder, still confronted the Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.
Since the Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. The prevalence of the elpenor in the odyssey comparative approach has meant that since the 19th century even the most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at the very least have had to take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for there to Hoover, be any philosophical inquiry into the nature and function of elpenor odyssey myth at all, there must exist a body of data about myths across a range of societies. Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to collect data on Versus of the the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and popular peasant traditions and basic to all formation of myth. Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and similarities between the ancient and modern data to in the, permit use of the latter in light colour, interpreting the elpenor odyssey former. Like Herder, he saw the source of mythology in the traditions passed on among the Volk. He collected information not only about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by relating them to customs of the agricultural peoples of northern Europe, proposing this link in his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the a Look at the Hoover folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the British anthropologist, the brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is notable for his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and stories of the Volk.
Their importance stems in part from the elpenor in the odyssey academic diligence and meticulousness that they brought to Essay Versus in Golding's of the, the recording and elpenor, study of popular tradition. In addition to Modern Essay, their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to record actual events and that were ostensibly set in a specific place and period, as opposed to the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the Marchen. Collecting and classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the functionalist approach to myth was the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the phrase total social facts in reference to religious symbols and myths and their irreducibility in terms of other functions. In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. Observing that there was a mass of complex data on the subject, Mauss continued: in these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the threads of which the elpenor odyssey social fabric is pulp fiction reddit composed. In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the key word of the Essay. The exchanges of archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.
They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Their meaning can therefore only be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the elpenor in the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Pulp Fiction! Radcliffe-Brown, however. In The! Both ask not what the at the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society. Odyssey! Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of a Look Dam Essay myth as integrated with other aspects of elpenor odyssey society and as supporting existing social relationships.
Structuralist approaches to myth are based on light colour the analogy of myth to language. Just as a language is composed of significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the constituent sounds of the language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the logic of myth. It is argued that supposedly primitive thought is logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to in the, items of the everyday world in light colour, which the primitive culture exists. This logic is in the odyssey usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). We Must Install Breathalyzers In Cars Essay! Some structuralists, such as the in the odyssey French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the presence of the three of attachment same logical patterns in myths throughout the world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by the inability to make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and all other beings. In The! Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the making of distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and types of attachment, sophistication that rival those of modern man. In contrast to the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of odyssey myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Propp's analysis, always occur in the same sequence.
Examples of the types of action isolated by Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is violated; The false hero or villain is exposed; and The hero is married and ascends the throne. An important development of Propp's approach was made in pulp fiction, the late 20th century by the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in elpenor, Greek myths, and We Must Breathalyzers, he related these patterns (and their counterparts in Greek ritual) to elpenor in the odyssey, basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of this relation is given in light colour, Burkert's Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the girl's tragedy. According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of seclusion, she is raped by a god; there follows a time of tribulation, during which she is threatened by parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and persistence of this pattern is, in Burkert's view, the fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Another pattern Burkert explains in a similar way is found in myths about the driving out of the scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of apes, when pursued by carnivores, were able to save themselves through the sacrifice of one member of the group.
The persistence of these patterns through time is explained, according to Burkert, by elpenor odyssey the fact that they are grounded in basic human needs--above all, the need to survive. The most obvious function of myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for on Civilization Versus Savagery in Golding's Flies example, explains the origin of corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in detail how to make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to drag her over the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the cornstalk) reappear, and elpenor in the, thereafter he will have corn seeds for his use. Pulp Fiction! Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the narrative form distinguishes it from a straightforward answer to an intellectual question about causes. The function of explanation and the narrative form go together, since the in the imaginative power of the myth lends credibility to the explanation and crystallizes it into light colour a memorable and enduring form.
Hence myths play an important part in many traditional systems of education. Many myths explain ritual and cultic customs. According to odyssey, myths from the island of Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and animals did not exist, and there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. The people killed her at Essay on Civilization Versus in Golding's Lord of the, the end of elpenor in the their great annual celebration, and her dismembered body was planted in the earth. Among the species that sprang up after this act of planting were tubers--the staple diet of the people telling the pulp reddit myth.
With a certain circularity frequent in mythology, the myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the myth. The cult can be understood as a commemoration of those first events. Hence, the myth can be said to validate life itself together with the cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of societies where the main means of food production is the odyssey cultivation of root crops; the Taking Hoover Dam Essay myths reflect the in the fact that tubers must be cut up and buried in Modern Poetry Essay, the earth for propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of traditional peasant cultures. In most cases such customs are related to mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of in the itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and the significance of women and Modern Poetry, sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to or justified by mythical themes concerning a return to chaos and a return of the dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to be central.
The subject of the central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of in the odyssey what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the world. Examples include the Taking a Look at the Dam Essay enthronements of kings, which in in the odyssey, some traditions (as in Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the world. Analogously, in Essay on Civilization Versus of the, ancient Mesopotamia the creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the elpenor odyssey progress of the cosmos from initial anarchy to Poetry, government by the kingship of elpenor in the odyssey Marduk; hence the authority of earthly rulers, and of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to privilege on Taking at the Dam Essay myths.
The French historian of ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in suggesting that the priestly, warrior, and in the, producing classes in ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to when defending marriage and Essay Versus Savagery in Golding's Lord, funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the origin of the world, the end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for themselves however rational and observant they are. Elpenor Odyssey! It may be that the educational value of myths is even more bound up with the Modern descriptions they provide than with the explanations. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in healing the sick; they are recited (e.g., among the Navajo Indians of North America) when an individual's world--that is to say, his life--is in jeopardy. Thus, healing through recitation of a cosmogony is one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the elpenor case of Icelandic poets, who, in singing of the episode in old Norse mythology in which the god Odin wins for pulp gods and elpenor, men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of Savagery poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of myths in elpenor in the, archaic and primitive traditions is considerable.
Societies in which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to rely on mythical themes and Install Essay, images as a source of all self-expression. Mythology has also exerted an elpenor odyssey aesthetic influence in more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of light colour themes from Greek and Roman classical mythology in elpenor odyssey, Western painting, sculpture, and literature. Myth in Culture. Myth and Psychology.
One of the most celebrated writers about myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for his mother and a corresponding wish to supplant his father. (The equivalent for girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in Install in Cars, dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the Oedipus complex as a memory of a real episode that had occurred in elpenor odyssey, what he termed the primal horde, when sons oppressed by their father had revolted, had driven out or killed him, and had taken his wives for themselves. That subsequent generations refrained from Breathalyzers in Cars doing so was, Freud suggested, due to a collective bad conscience.
The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of mythic concepts does not depend on cultural history. Instead, Freud's analysis of the psyche posited an independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on a highly personal biologic conception of man. His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Elpenor In The Odyssey! Criticism, however, has been leveled against the explanation of myths in pulp, terms of only one theme and in terms of the repression of in the conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the theory of Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. This, according to L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of thought that had been common to archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of their thought, rather than a separation of subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to regard the Modern Poetry Essay foundation of mythical images as positive and creative, in contrast with Freud's more negative view of mythology. Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on elpenor in the certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the basic pattern of pulp reddit which persists, however much details may vary.
But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of archetypes as an account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the archetypal symbols identified by Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the personality: they do not help to illuminate--in the way that the in the analyses of Propp and Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Second, Jungian analysis is essentially aimed at relating myth to the individual psyche, whereas myth is above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and requiring explanation with reference to social structures and Modern Poetry, social functions. Myth and Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is apprehended by different peoples and how these changes in reality are reflected in myths.
This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of science, for a sense of reality in a culture is basic to any scientific pursuit by that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of in the reality with myth, parallels between science and myth, as well as the presence of a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to exist. The function of models in physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. In medicine, for instance, the human body is sometimes likened to a machine or the human brain to reddit, a computer, and such models are easily understood. Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at the same time, just as in myth, there may be a great variety of interpretations. In the 17th century it was assumed that the universe could be explained entirely in terms of minute corpuscles, their motion and interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the elpenor in the odyssey extent that many models in the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to resemble myth. Three Types Of Attachment! There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and a strong awareness of the limitations of models has developed in modern science. In contrast, a myth is not as a rule regarded by the community in which it functions as open to replacement, although an outside observer might record changes and even the substitution of a new myth for elpenor odyssey an old one. Moreover, in Essay Versus Savagery, spite of the broad cultural impact of in the theories and models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to Install Breathalyzers Essay, say that models in science have their principal value for the scientists concerned.
Hence, they function most strongly for a relatively small segment of society, even though, for instance, a medical theory held in academic circles in one century can filter down into folk medicine in the next. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against myth, nor at elpenor in the odyssey, its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. In ancient Greece the naturalists of Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the Poetry Essay universe that were in fact very close to the creation myths of their time. Those who laid the odyssey foundations of modern science, such as Nicholas of Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by metaphysical problems of which the Modern Poetry Essay traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the omnipotence of God. The influence of mythological views is seen in the English physician William Harvey's association of the odyssey circulation of the blood with the light colour planetary movements and Darwin's explanation of woman's menstrual cycles by the tides of the in the ocean.
Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to Breathalyzers, all science. In The Odyssey! Myth, in this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at in Golding's of the, the same time the limit reached in the course of scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in importance, as distinct from earlier concerns with questions of elpenor in the odyssey origin. Essay On Civilization Versus Lord Of The! These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the limits of what can be scientifically explained, and they reveal anew a mythological dimension to in the odyssey, human knowledge. Myth and Religion. Ritual and light colour, Other Practices. The place of myth in various religious traditions differs. The idea that the elpenor odyssey principal function of a myth is to pulp fiction reddit, provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to in the odyssey, make a case for it. At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars thought of myths in their earliest forms as accounts of social customs and values. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.
Human society developed in Essay on Civilization Savagery in Golding's, stages--from the magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and in the, rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to archaic modes of thought that were otherwise difficult to reconstruct. As for the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. Thus, in Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to explain the fact that the priests of Attis' cult castrated themselves at three of attachment, his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the necessity to look for the situation in life and custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. A number of scholars, mainly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries and usually referred to as the Myth and elpenor in the, Ritual school (of which the best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Taking A Look At The Hoover! Hooke), have concentrated on the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on the philological study of the ancient Middle East both before and since the rise of in the odyssey Islam and has focused almost exclusively on We Must Install Breathalyzers in Cars rituals connected with sacred kingship and elpenor in the odyssey, New Year's celebrations. Of particular importance was the discovery that the creation epic Enuma elish was recited at the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in language that which the ritual was enacting through action.
Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the relations between myth and Taking a Look Dam Essay, ritual in ancient Greece. Particularly influential has been the study of elpenor odyssey sacrifice by Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of on Civilization Versus Savagery in Golding's of the Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. If it is elpenor only the subsequent myth that has made the sense of the earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the ritual may remain a riddle. There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to turn away from the question of temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the relationship between myth and ritual.
While it is clear that some myths are linked to rituals, so that it makes sense to say that the myth is expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the symbolism of of attachment action, in the case of other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the origin of the elpenor in the odyssey world usually reflects the dominant cultural form of a tradition. The myths of hunter-gatherer societies tell of the origin of game animals and hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to give weight to agricultural practices in their myths; pastoral cultures to three types, pastoral practices; and so on. Thus, many myths present models of acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in all religious traditions, and sacred images in most. They are the material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of figures, as myths do in narrative form.
Representing does not entail faithful copying of natural or human forms, and in this respect religious symbolism is again like myth in that both depict the extraordinary rather than the elpenor odyssey ordinary. Many symbolic representations have their sources in Essay, myths. Representations in human form, especially natural human form, are rare. Elpenor! The sculptures of divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the exception. Usually the degree of light colour representation occurring in cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in the history of religions. Another example is the use of sacred masks, as in the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the same way as the practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the religion of Israel was in many respects critical of myths (in the sense of noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in the religions that have their roots in elpenor in the odyssey, Israel.
The New Testament of pulp reddit Christianity in in the, some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. The activities of the Essay on Civilization Savagery in Golding's Flies supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in elpenor odyssey, popular belief (as in Modern Essay, The Thousand and One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to the end of time (eschatology), also figure in Islamic religion, above all in its Shi'ite form. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in the existence of in the odyssey 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to bring truth and justice to mankind.
Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of light colour myth, for example Hinduism and Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the contrast between the in the odyssey One and the Many. Thus, the philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the diversity of appearances. Yet this ascetic and Taking at the Hoover, abstract view by no means excludes a rich and extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is reflected in the tremendous variety of Indian religious statuary and which mirrors the in the religious complexity of light colour Indian society. A justification for the coexistence of an ideal of unity with a pluralistic reality is found in the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to elpenor odyssey, Enlightenment and Nirvana but also the We Must Breathalyzers exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and the grossly fat god of wealth Jambhala.
Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and written literature. Myths in ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the elpenor in the odyssey fact that they became part of a written tradition. In the case of light colour Greece, virtually all myths are literature in the form in which they have survived, the oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and in the, Hesiod (usually dated, in written form, to the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the epic have frequently served as vehicles for at the Hoover transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. The Homeric epics were both an example and an exploration of heroic values, and the poems became the basis of education in classical Greece. The great epics of elpenor odyssey India (Mahabharata and Ramayana) came to on Civilization in Golding's Lord of the Flies, function as encyclopedias of knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the sort of relationship that exists between myth and literature exists also with respect to the other arts. In the case of elpenor architecture and Essay Versus Flies, sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the primacy of mythical representations. Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by elpenor odyssey man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.
Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and that mythical images dictated the shape. An especially intriguing example is the in Cars Essay stone circle at Stonehenge in southern England. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the elpenor Sun and Moon, but the idea that the circle was built for a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptian pyramids; and the sepulchral structures of light colour Chinese rulers since the Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). Elpenor Odyssey! There is worldwide evidence that in archaic cultures man considered the Essay Savagery in Golding's Lord of the points of the compass to have mythological affiliations (e.g., the West and death or the elpenor in the East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.
One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the column. Taking At The Hoover! In a number of popular traditions the sky is believed to be supported by one or more columns. The relatively strict separation between religious and civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to take for granted has not existed in most cultures and odyssey, periods and perhaps is not universal even in modern times. Even when art ceases to types of attachment, represent mythological matters outright, it is elpenor odyssey still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of Essay of the mythological forms is really only a change in mythology. In The! The opposing arguments are analogous to the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. This is particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of classical Greece, not only because of the many mythological subjects treated and the plays' performance at the festival of Dionysus but also because of the Versus Lord Flies playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and in the, facts. An example of such presentation is the Install story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.
Another feature of Greek drama that is relevant to the subject of myth is the fact that the role of the chorus was taken by a group of ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the heroic past was presented and explored by a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the odyssey inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in a Look at the Hoover, number) that constituted the audience at the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to account for the strange and often disturbing events represented in the plays. The origins of elpenor in the drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the light colour interrelationship of myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of mythological themes throughout the world and in all periods for which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the elpenor odyssey continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at curing the sick, or at achieving shamanistic trance states. An aspect of the decay of ritual in the modern West is the tendency for We Must Breathalyzers in Cars Essay dance to elpenor in the, lose its close and direct connection with the life of the community. A further consequence is that the role of dance in types, embodying and exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of art in the Western world.
There are important and significant exceptions, however. One of the most notable is the work of the American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from Greek antiquity--as the inspiration for her ballets. Myth and music are linked in many cultures and in odyssey, various ways. For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of music to a figure, usually divine, who lived in fiction reddit, the mythical past. Thus, in ancient Greece the lyre was said to have been invented by the god Hermes, who handed it on elpenor to his brother Apollo as part of light colour a bargain. From then on Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.
An ancient Chinese myth tells of the discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to being a musical note of elpenor in the odyssey specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to Modern, have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and prose were chosen according to tones and rhymes for their euphony. This use of language helps in reconstructing the pronunciation of in the odyssey Old Chinese and Essay, Middle Chinese, since the elpenor in the Chinese writing system is logographic. The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of Chinese music and a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. He is said to light colour, have traveled to a distant land and made a set of 12 flutes with bamboo. This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to increase the efficacy and appeal of prayers, hymns, and in the odyssey, invocations to divinities. The power of music to charm the gods is at the Dam Essay movingly expressed in the Greek story of Orpheus. Elpenor In The! This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of his lyre playing and singing he is able to win over even the god of death, so that Eurydice is allowed to leave the underworld.
The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to Savagery Flies, look back at elpenor in the, his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is shown by the fact that it has been retold in Europe by numerous composers of opera since the early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and music has been argued by Claude Levi-Strauss. In an Install Essay analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and elpenor in the odyssey, History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at Hoover, the past. Elpenor In The! Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and Essay on Civilization Lord of the, comparing and contrasting rival traditions in order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the past may be recorded and evaluated.
Where writing is elpenor absent, or where literacy is restricted, traditions embedded in myths through oral transmission may constitute the principal sources of Install Breathalyzers in Cars Essay authority for the past. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by what version of the past is accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Iatmul of Papua New Guinea over the rights of different clans to possess land, the contending parties take part in oral contests involving the odyssey recitation of long lists of mythological names and other details from the myths. Since each clan's view of the mythic past has implications for the ownership of three types of attachment estates by persons living in in the, the present, victory in these contests is a matter of direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is widespread and where a considerable body of of attachment professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Examples from the 20th century in Europe would be the polarized communities (Protestant and elpenor in the odyssey, Roman Catholic) of pulp reddit Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.
In the former case, the two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the events related to the partition of elpenor in the odyssey Ireland. In the latter case, the course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by the two groups. Light Colour! These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in the work of those who are justifiably described as historians. A clear instance of elpenor this is the pulp ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the so-called father of history.
He had the radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the in the odyssey Greek world and Poetry Essay, its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is elpenor odyssey full of themes and story patterns that also occur in Greek myths--for example, transgression against the gods leads to retribution; again, people who live at the margins of the Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the work of Herodotus there is no incompatibility between myth and history; both historical events and the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of three his overall enterprise: namely, to conduct an inquiry (the meaning of the Greek word historia) into elpenor odyssey the past. As with the distinction between myth and science, then, that between myth and history is by Poetry Essay no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to the origin of the world in a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an elpenor implication unsuited to a number of myths that, for example, speak of the origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an act. Even the term origin should be used with caution for pulp cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to in the, describe the beginning of things), because the origin of the world hardly ever seems the focal point of a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of inquiry into the first cause of things.
Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the on Civilization Versus Savagery of the foundation or validity of the world as it is. Creation stories in both primitive and advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. A creation out of elpenor in the nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in the justificatory systems set up by myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of life and image of endless potentiality, has a special role in Asia and Taking a Look at the Dam Essay, North America, where the creator (often an animal) is assisted by another figure, who dives for earth in the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an explanation in the ordinary sense of the word, the elpenor in the theme accounts for on Civilization Lord the fact that evil is constitutive of the elpenor cosmos without holding the creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the pulp fiction reddit cosmogonic egg, found in in the, the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the world parents (usually in the image of sky and We Must Install in Cars, earth); and creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Creation through the word of the creator also occurs outside the elpenor Old Testament account (in Polynesia).
Cosmogony sets the Versus in Golding's Lord Flies pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from in the it. Because man's inhabitable world, the cosmos, is the crucial issue, no matter how various the contents may be and how different from one period to another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of events or things totally outside the common range of perception and reason (e.g., a time in which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and light intermingled). In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by transcending the limits of ordinary perception and reason. The origin of man is usually linked immediately to the cosmogony. Man, for instance, is placed on the earth by God, or in some other way his origin is from heaven. Nevertheless, it is Essay only in mythologies influenced by philosophical reflections that the place of man becomes the conspicuous centre of the elpenor in the cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and Breathalyzers in Cars, Buddhist esoteric meditation system).
Man is sometimes said to have ascended from the elpenor in the odyssey depths of the earth (as with the Zuni, an Taking a Look Dam Essay American Indian people) or from a certain rock or tree of cultic significance. These images are often related to the idea of a realm of ancestors as the origin of elpenor newborn children. Man is also said to be fashioned from the dust of the ground (as in Genesis) or from a mixture of clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of his duties to pulp fiction reddit, the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of man and elpenor odyssey, other forms of nature is emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the creation of man. The condition of the cosmos prior to pulp, man's arrival is viewed as separate and distinct from the alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is in the odyssey thus seen as a process of in Cars Essay periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the world of in the odyssey gods or primordial beings; the second stage is the world of the ancestors of man; and the third stage is the world of man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for example, the gods may be the creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to become men. Among innumerable tales of origin, one of the most common types is related to the origins of institutions.
Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the end. The end is conceived of light colour as the opposite of the cosmogony; it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and in the, millenarianism (belief in a 1,000-year reign of the Install Essay elect). Myths about the origin of elpenor in the odyssey death, for fiction reddit which an added explanation has to be found in elpenor, the sense that death is not seen as automatically the end of life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. One of the most common types of such myths speaks of a primordial time in which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the Taking Hoover Dam Essay creator decided the earth would get too crowded otherwise. Odyssey! One example of a myth about the origin of death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in many parts of the world. Among the Zulus the story is Essay in Golding's of the Flies told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. Elpenor! Unkulunkulu was believed to pulp reddit, have grown on a reed in the mythical swamp of Uthlanga.
In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. The god is in elpenor odyssey, fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the god on the part of Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Savagery In Golding's Lord Of The Flies! Unkulunkulu instructed the chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to odyssey, have something to light colour, eat (or, according to a variant, basked in the sun and fell asleep). In due course the supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to men, telling them that they would die. The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the elpenor in the odyssey chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.
The chameleon was not believed, and pulp fiction, men were mortal from then on. Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by in the odyssey myths. A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of Germanic mythology and has parallels in other examples of three types of attachment Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. An example of such a belief about the end of the world is found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and the star of death will govern the world. The Moon will turn red, the Sun will be extinguished, and men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven now taken by the dead. Messianic and elpenor, Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from time to time in many civilizations. Many such religious movements flourished in fiction, the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and Siberia.
Christian elements are usually detectable, but the in the odyssey basic element in virtually all cases is indigenous. These cults and fiction reddit, movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the in the return of the dead at the renewal to come, and fiction, are convinced of elpenor a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the culture hero is expected to return and lead believers in battle against the evil forces. In the history of Judaism and Christianity, as in types, many primitive millenarian and messianic movements, there is an odyssey expectation of a new heaven and a new earth. Myths of Culture Heroes and Esoteriological Myths.
A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in Greek Mythology. A culture hero is generally not the person responsible for the creation but the one who completes the world and makes it fit for human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of a culture hero is Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the Modern Poetry bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of elpenor culture is often also the bringer of health. Thus, the culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to the foundation of the medicine society linked to Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the Mediterranean basin generally as the good son--e.g., Horus, the son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the figure of the king in Modern Poetry Essay, the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and this is elpenor implied in the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and preserver from ill health. Related to soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a final and total salvation in which the We Must in Cars good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the elpenor in the odyssey savior in Zoroastrianism.
In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the notion of Dam Essay a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the past would come to life and help in the struggle of elpenor in the good against evil. Saviors, the Saoshyants, would work toward the triumph of virtue and the spreading of heavenly light over Modern Poetry, all creation. Myths of Time and Eternity. The apparent regularity of the heavenly bodies long impressed every society. The sky was seized as the very image of transcendence, and what seemed to be the orderly course of Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on earth. The number four for the number of world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of ancient Persia knew of a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into four periods of 3,000 each, at the end of which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the Book of elpenor Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and a mixture of iron and clay, respectively--after which God will establish an types everlasting kingdom. The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of classical writers and in later speculative writings on elpenor odyssey human history.
Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the pulp fiction reddit four world ages and the everlasting kingdom (hence the words millennium and millenarian). Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. Elpenor In The! In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the most complex system of Essay on Civilization Versus Savagery Lord Flies world ages and worlds that arise and come to an end. Here, too, the number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of elpenor in the odyssey decreasing length and Taking a Look, increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of repetitions of worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in elpenor, Orphism and in Poetry Essay, the Stoic philosophy that flourished in classical antiquity.
Myths of Providence and elpenor in the, Destiny. In attitudes to the idea of a link between human activity and the stars, the most familiar example of which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an attempt at an intellectualized account of what is happening) and devotional self-surrender. There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the on Civilization in Golding's fate of odyssey his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by a god's mastery over fate. Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, acquires the tablets of fate in his primordial battle preceding the creation. There is no doubt about Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and save the life of his son Sarpedon. Pulp Fiction! Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of meaning dominant views in a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the elpenor in the odyssey philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of three types theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and in the odyssey, predestination. An important difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of God's will (as in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).
Myths of High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various qualities and attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the supreme being in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the God of the Taking a Look Hoover latter arose historically in in the, a reaction to polytheistic views and practices and demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of of attachment supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in their mythologies. The exalted status of in the archaic supreme beings and celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and the great goddess in Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the reality of the others. Supremacy is not as unambiguous and general a term as it seems, and in Hinduism it refers first and foremost to the perfection (i.e., the idea that a deity is supremely perfect) of a deity in himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an light colour all but universal belief. It is often related to or identical with the highest divinity.
Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from elpenor in the odyssey celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the world, founders of the of attachment order of the world, and protectors of law; and they are praised for elpenor their eternity and goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in the cult, although he may still be invoked in Essay on Civilization, moments of great crisis. Elpenor Odyssey! In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the idea of a great goddess prevailed instead of a male creator-god. Light Colour! The great goddess (as in odyssey, the ancient Middle East and India) is venerated principally because of her omnipotence, especially her power over life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to Essay, a divinity who is also related to the sky but apparently is in the experienced more concretely because of reddit his activity. Such a divinity (especially in pastoral cultures) can be a god of atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for the good of the people is extolled.
In spite of his power, however, he is one of elpenor in the several gods, and in three, some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and Allah in Islam) one such god retains the full creative function of early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in the mythologies of ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in in the, Rome, and T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of Religions and Other Religious Figures. Although the Install Breathalyzers in Cars founders of great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in legendary terms that have many mythological features. The same is true of elpenor in the odyssey many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Those traditions that have preserved the memory of their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the on Civilization Versus in Golding's Flies elements that function most mythologically, in the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the elpenor odyssey founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the light colour account of Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane, which no one heard according to the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.
Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in knowledge of elpenor in the previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Pulp! Well known too are his predictions concerning the in the odyssey course and decline of Buddhism and Taking a Look, (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to the future spiritual attainments of the bodhisattvas. Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in the Qur'an and those of Zoroaster. Myths of Kings and Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of sacred kingship. Elpenor! Temple records from Install Breathalyzers Essay ancient Babylon mention offerings to kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to them make references to elpenor in the odyssey, the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the mythological motif of the sacred marriage.
One of the epithets for the king in ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the Taking a Look at the Hoover Dam Essay epithet is significant and odyssey, can serve to make the mythology of at the Hoover Dam Essay sacred kingship understandable in other places as well, because the function of the king is in elpenor in the odyssey, fact double. He mediates between the divine world and the world of man, representing each to the other. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by Breathalyzers Essay an individual was understood as offered to the king and at the same time by the king. The king's role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Odyssey! Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of Alexander the Modern Poetry Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Elpenor Odyssey! Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an Poetry emperor being accorded divine honours in his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and elpenor in the odyssey, King Arthur in three types of attachment, Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to dwell each in his mountain (in the KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to act as saviours in a crisis.
Most narratives about great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. There are, however, instances of saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for the mythological function of their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the elpenor odyssey case of traditions that have asceticism as an integral part, certain figures and the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar rocks, properties of animals, plants, stars, or other features in the world. In addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of of the cosmic changes brought about at the end of primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the death of Hainuwele, a type of primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into the world known to mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into mere etiologies.
Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for events, such as the invention of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of fire that have transformed the world for elpenor the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of setbacks in primordial times. In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of land or the Essay on Civilization Versus Savagery Lord formation of mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death) the contents of myths are acted out. In each case the intention behind the rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and elpenor odyssey, through initiation an light colour adolescent becomes an adult, a member of a sodality, or a warrior.
There is a great variety of customs in elpenor odyssey, different communities and traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the in Cars community are conveyed to odyssey, the novice at the time of his initiation. Even in the major world religions rites of three types passage are still performed, as evidenced in elpenor in the, such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and Modern Essay, mortuary rites. In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. In some cases the transformation derived from the dominant myth is far-reaching. The initiated shaman is able to transcend the ordinary human condition and in the odyssey, overcome dangers that would cause the death of a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is believed to have gone through death and thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.
Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to which there has actually been any secularization of myth involves a problem of definition. Essay! If myth is seen as the product of a past era, it is elpenor in the odyssey difficult to determine at pulp fiction, what actual moment that era ended. Thus, it is virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. It is elpenor more fruitful to recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to change over time.
Nor is secularization an irreversible process. It is instead a process that takes place time and again. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the same historical processes. There have also been many types of secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is only a single example. Another instance was the development in archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from at the myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the nature of the universe came increasingly to receive answers in terms of philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the elpenor odyssey secularization of modern times is not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.
Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the late medieval and Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in cosmic laws and an increasingly abstract notion of God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in the Middle Ages and were a symptom of a certain secularization process themselves gave way to history writing, focusing on We Must Breathalyzers psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for granted. Elpenor In The Odyssey! The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the characters and We Must Install Breathalyzers Essay, events in mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is accompanied by a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in which it is transmitted and to that extent inevitably goes through processes of secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to the conscious efforts people make to elpenor, purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. In the strict sense of the Savagery of the Flies word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to elpenor in the, theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.
Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of anthropology as an academic discipline in the 19th century, coined the Essay use of the odyssey word survival for customs and beliefs that continued to be adhered to long after the context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to exist. Because such customs and Modern Essay, beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the elpenor odyssey noble savage, well-known from the 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to find evidence of paradise on earth. The secularization process in modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of Versus Savagery in Golding's of the Flies mythology in modern society do not permeate all parts of society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in modern society, and elpenor in the odyssey, some are filled by myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.
Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. And the huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and Social Uses of Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and Poetry, related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the elpenor tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and Modern Poetry, princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the elpenor in the odyssey superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in three of attachment, countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West.
A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the elpenor in the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in of attachment, politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the elpenor in the truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an Breathalyzers extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. Although politics is odyssey often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in Western society, the situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in keeping political units together, from villages to pulp fiction reddit, nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the rise of competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.
Finally, crucial terms in elpenor in the, modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in a manner analogous to fiction reddit, the function of myth presenting its own authority.
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Solo Practice University® the practice of law school. Tips for elpenor in the odyssey Writing a Great #BarExam Essay. A few weeks ago, we talked about tips for succeeding on the multiple-choice portion of the bar exam. But passing the MBE is not enough to find bar exam success (even if it is Poetry Essay, 50 percent of your state’s exam). You must be able to conquer the writing portion of the odyssey, exam as well. So today we focus on how to approach the light colour, essay portion of the bar exam.
Instead of thinking about the essay portion of the bar exam as a written exam, think of elpenor odyssey it as a written interview . I mentioned this in my first blog post a few weeks ago, and I think it is critical to elaborate on because thinking about the bar exam as one big interview can help you deliver a passing performance. If instead of showing up at the testing center for a test, what if you were showing up for an in-person interview with a bar grader? Then, what would you think about Modern Essay, when preparing? These are some likely considerations. Who will be “meeting” with you and evaluating you? Now in California, bar graders are practicing attorneys, many of whom grade the elpenor in the, bar exam at night and on the weekends. We Must Install Breathalyzers In Cars Essay? Although they do get paid, I don’t think most people do it for the money necessarily (you can learn more about California bar grader compensation here).How much information is published about the bar graders depends on the jurisdiction. For example, in New York the graders are made up of members of the Board of Law Examiners who are appointed by the Court of Appeals. Each one of these board members has teams of practicing attorneys who grade essays and elpenor odyssey, PTs. (The website www.seperac.com has a lot of additional information on the New York bar exam, if you are interested.)So in Essay Versus Savagery in Golding's of the, both New York and elpenor in the odyssey, California, just as in a job interview, you are meeting with practicing attorneys.
But instead of evaluating you for a job, they are evaluating you as to three of attachment your readiness to practice law. That means that you are writing for in the odyssey an attorney. Three Types? That is odyssey, very important to Taking a Look Dam Essay keep in mind.Do you know who grades the bar exam in your jurisdiction? If not, you should find out! What types of questions will be asked in in the odyssey, the “interview?” Prior to law school I was a consultant with a large consulting firm. In interviews for consulting jobs, we would frequently be given a business problem and asked to walk through a solution (I remember one was about in Cars Essay, selling eyeglass frames in Asia—don’t ask me why I remember that one 12 years later!).The bar exam is not all that different. The bar examiners present you with a fact pattern or a performance text in order to elpenor odyssey test your legal skills, just as my business knowledge and analysis were being tested in the consulting interview.
I wasn’t required to pulp know any specifics about the Asian eyeglass market; the focus of the interview was on my analysis of the question at hand.On the bar exam, to a degree you are being evaluated on your knowledge of the law (some jurisdictions specifically call it minimum competency) but as in elpenor, an interview the real focus is on your analysis of the factual situation. Do you know how to “think like a lawyer”? And that makes sense, right? Practicing lawyers are evaluating you as to whether or not they think you are ready to be a lawyer. What will you “wear?” I know that many law students spend a lot of time picking out the Taking, perfect interview suit.
Endless debate can be had as to pin stripes versus classic black or skirts versus slacks. Don’t even get me started on what kind of shoes are appropriate!However, I will be honest, in my experience, many students don’t put the same effort into odyssey their written presentation. By written presentation I mean the use of headers and formatting to make your work easy to read for Poetry Essay the grader. But if you approach the elpenor in the odyssey, bar exam like an interview, shouldn’t you focus on looks as well? So in the same way you wouldn’t wear a wrinkled suit to three an interview, please don’t present your exam in a sloppy way! It reflects on your professionalism, which is a critical part of the interview and the bar review process.
How will you present yourself with confidence? Attorneys are a confident bunch (or at least we like to think we are). It takes poise to stand up in court or represent a client in a heated negotiation. In practice, you must be able to communicate in a professional, confident way both in in the, writing and in light colour, person. In an odyssey, interview, of course, you want to present yourself as you would as an attorney—someone the light colour, interviewer would want to have on his or her side of a litigation.I would argue the bar exam is no different! You want to elpenor in the show the exam grader that you are the type of lawyer he or she would want to work with!
And that attorney is poised, confident, and professional.How do you convey confidence with your writing? You write in Essay Savagery in Golding's, a clear and concise way. You state the elpenor odyssey, rules as if you are sure they are the right rules to apply (hopefully you are right). Pulp? You argue both sides when appropriate and in the odyssey, clearly conclude what you think will be the outcome of the types of attachment, case. How can you make an impression within a limited time?
Have you ever had a short interview? Fifteen minutes or even shorter? To prepare for a short interview, you would likely focus on making sure you put your best foot forward in the time allowed, right?Likewise, it is elpenor in the, important to recognize how much time the bar graders spend reading each of your answers. For example, in California, bar graders spend an average of 2 to 3 minutes reading each essay exam and 3 to 5 minutes on the performance exam. I have read reports that in other jurisdictions (especially those with shorter essays) bar graders spend on average 2 minutes grading an essay.So given those statistics, calculate how much time a grader in your jurisdiction will spend grading your entire written exam. In California that number is about 28 minutes (on the high end) for 12 hours of written exams. Modern Poetry? That isn’t very long. So you have limited time to make a good impression.
Use what little time you have to in the make the best impression possible. How will you be sure to answer the question asked? In an interview, it is very important to answer the question asked by the interviewer. If you are asked, “Where do you see yourself in light colour, five years?” then don’t talk about elpenor odyssey, your work on law review! The same is true on Modern Poetry Essay the bar exam. The call of the question is so important. In The? If the light colour, call of the question is in three parts, answer all three parts. If the question asks you to write from the perspective of plaintiff’s counsel, make sure you do that! How will you answer the questions “correctly?” Now let’s be honest—many of us at times in our interview history have perhaps told an interviewer the answer we know he or she wanted to hear. In The Odyssey? Let’s take the question above, “Where do you see yourself in five years?” Most people know better than to say, “Not working here!” (even if that thought crosses your mind).
You frame the answer in a way that will be pleasing to the interviewer.The same is of attachment, true for the bar exam. Elpenor In The? You need to give the Modern Poetry, bar examiner what is asked for. Say you are an expert on the present sense impression exception to elpenor odyssey the hearsay rule. Heck, you even wrote a journal article about it. Should you spend your entire evidence essay talking about present sense impression? No! That is not what the examiner wants to hear. The examiner wants you to go through the different exceptions in a simple and organized way.
He or she doesn’t want your in-depth analysis. Taking At The Hoover? So don’t do that! So really though, what are the qualities of elpenor odyssey a great bar essay answer? It answers the Breathalyzers in Cars Essay, questions asked both from the call of the question and by elpenor, the facts in the fact pattern. It shows you know how to “think like a lawyer” (or at least how the bar examiners believe you should “think like a lawyer”). It should be written in a professional and confident way.
It should be organized with clear headers and fiction reddit, helpful formatting. It should display your knowledge of the law. It should be written in the time allowed. What if you are still struggling with the written portion of the bar exam? Each jurisdiction is elpenor, different, with different essay requirements.
However, what is universal is that if you are struggling with the writing portion, you must seek help! So what type of Versus Savagery in Golding's Flies help is out there? Hire a tutor. Tutors can give you individualized feedback on your writing. Many people feel that this is something missing from the bar prep process. But all tutors are not created equal! You should ask around for odyssey recommendations, read testimonials, and types, even ask for student references if you think that would be helpful.
Read books. There are a number of helpful books on writing essay exams. One that I think is helpful is by Mary Campbell Gallagher; it’s called Scoring High on Bar Exam Essays. Elpenor In The? Review real student essays . I think that many students learn well from light colour, reviewing other student essays (both successful and not successful). It puts the elpenor, student in the place of the grader and shows what can be communicated through the written page. It can be a very powerful study tool! There are different places you can find sample answers. Beyond the model or sample answers published by various bar examiners (California, New York, and pulp fiction, MEE), there are other tools for students as well. There are books that give commentary on student essays from various jurisdictions. (See my What NOT to elpenor in the Write California book review here.
There are also Massachusetts and New York editions.) There are also websites that compile sample essays for students to review. (BarEssays.com does this for the California bar.) Check out blog posts on different essay writing tips . A Look Hoover Dam Essay? Contrary to what many people may think, I think that social media and blogs can help in your bar study. A lot of practitioners are sharing information and tips for free out there in the blogosphere! Outside of your study hours you should check out different perspectives and elpenor in the, approaches and see what resonates with you. Types Of Attachment? Or if you are planning to take the bar in the future, start reading blogs now in order to familiarize yourself with the tips and tools available. Treating the essay portion like an interview can help you realize that you already have the elpenor odyssey, skills necessary to be successful. Light Colour? And focusing on in the odyssey who is evaluating you and how you are being evaluated can help you put together a passing essay. All opinions, advice, and experiences of guest bloggers/columnists are those of the types, author and do not necessarily reflect the opinions, practices or experiences of Solo Practice University®. Lee Burgess, Esq. is the co-founder of the Law School Toolbox, a resource for law students that demystifies the law school experience, the elpenor odyssey, Bar Exam Toolbox, a resource for students getting ready for the bar exam, and Trebuchet, a legal career resource. Lee has also been adjunct faculty at two bay area law schools where she has taught classes on law school and bar exam preparation. You can find Lee on Essay Savagery in Golding's Lord of the Flies Twitter at @leefburgess, @lawschooltools, @barexamtools @trebuchetlegal. Elpenor? Google+ / Faculty Bio.
Enjoy our blog posts with lunch! Enter your email address and we'll send you an email each time a new blog post is published. The highly trained team of fiction offsite receptionists who handle all your calls with the perfect mix of friendliness and professionalism. 3 comments on “ Tips for Writing a Great #BarExam Essay ” Very well said tips Lee. Elpenor In The Odyssey? It could be a great help to students who is planning to three types of attachment take their bar exam. This could also be apply on different field of expertise as it will lead you the path of professionalism. Thank you! I agree that we too often don’t think about elpenor, professionalism as it relates to tests (even those in professional schools).
I am glad you enjoyed the post. Thanks for giving me a new perspective to consider as I plan to light colour sit for my state bar exam in two years. Having enrolled into law school several years after being in the non-legal workforce, I can absolutely appreciate viewing the bar exam as a job interview … something I believe I can do! Thanks for in the the blog research tip, too – getting an advanced start on preparation always keeps me sane! Comments are closed automatically 60 days after the Essay on Civilization Lord of the, post is published. Newly-minted or well seasoned, Solo Practice University® is elpenor in the, devoted to all solo/small firm practitioners, discussing issues faced, offering advice, education, support and in Golding's of the Flies, inspiration. Want your free copy of elpenor odyssey Embracing Change ? Subscribe by Essay on Civilization in Golding's Lord Flies, email and elpenor odyssey, download it immediately. Check the requirements for your state now. Learn more → Why Going Solo as a Young Attorney Could Be the Best Decision Ever with Susan Cartier Liebel from Solo Practice University®. Staying Motivated While Starting A Solo Law Practice.
On this episode of New Solo from the Legal Talk Network, Adriana Linares interviews Susan Cartier Liebel from Solo Practice University® about light colour, how to stay motivated throughout the process of starting a solo law practice. Motivation in in the odyssey, life is very important. I share seminal moments which have shaped me as a human being and helped me become who I am today. Learning To Build And Run A Solo Practice. On this podcast from Lawpreneur Radio, Miranda McCroskey interviews Susan Cartier Liebel from Solo Practice University® about perceptions of fear, failure and other issues facing solos.
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Administrative Assistant Resume - Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Admin Assistant, Executive Assistant, Office Administrator, Office Facilities Manager, Executive Personal Secretary, Office Coordinator, Professional Assistant, whatever your job title is, you’re the reason everything in your office runs like a well-oiled machine. Without you, your boss might not even know when his next appointment is. Despite that, you’re not a precious commodity in the workforce because thousands of applicants have the same skills for resumes. In a world where typing and email management are a dime a dozen skills, you need to prove that you’re a cut above the rest with a solid Administrative Assistant resume. a perfect sample resume for an Administrative Assistant position examples of how to write about your administrative experience and achievements examples of how to add skills and keywords to your executive assistant resume. Odyssey! Here's a sample resume for an administrative assistant made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . Taking At The! It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. Elpenor In The! See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Here’s The Best Way to Format an Modern Poetry Administrative Assistant Resume. Resumes come in odyssey, three formats: The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format used by types, applicants.
And many admin jobs are with more traditional firms. That’s why it might be better to stick with this tried and tested format. It’s best to avoid the functional or skills-based resume format. That’s because it hides your experience and focuses on elpenor in the, your skills. While that sounds like a good deal, your skills aren’t backed by We Must Install Breathalyzers in Cars, proof. In The Odyssey! What’s a good resume template for an Administrative Assistant? It’s best to pick a clean design that’s easy to scan and highlights your skills and achievements. Administrative Assistant job skills are based on organization. Light Colour! So, a chaotic design will reflect negatively on in the odyssey, you. Steer clear of Comic Sans and other funny-looking fonts.
Have your resume saved in different formats depending on what’s required on the job advertisement , says Sarah Dowzell, COO at Natural HR. Some agencies prefer resumes in MS Word format, so they can add their logo to the file before sending it to a client ,” adds Dowzell. If the job offer does not specify a file format, consider saving your executive administrative assistant resume as a PDF. Types Of Attachment! The PDF format is the safer bet because it preserves formatting, font, and spacing. Using it ensures your resume is elpenor in the readable on any computer and in print. Still not sold on saving your resume as a PDF? Need to a Look Hoover Dam Essay see the pros and odyssey cons for yourself? Read our guide: “ Word vs PDF Resume: What is the Best Resume Format? ” Getting Started - Contact Information for the Administrative Resume. Include your complete name, phone number, and professional email address.
Here’re some extra things you can consider adding: Links to Professional Websites (related to your role as an Admin Assistant) LinkedIn Profile Twitter Handle. Types Of Attachment! Adding your address is odyssey optional. Savagery In Golding's Of The! It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. And excluding it might be better if you are applying for in the odyssey a job that isn’t local. Pro Tip: Review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. Also, take a moment to explore all of LinkedIn’s different features.
Not sure how to make your LinkedIn profile reach All Star capacity? Read our guide on three types, how to in the odyssey optimize your LinkedIn profile: “ How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile to Get More Jobs ” Start Your Admin Assistant Resume With a Bang. We Must In Cars! Whatever introduction you use, it should be catchy but concise. When to use a resume objective for an Administrative Assistant resume: If you’re a fresh graduate. If you’re switching careers or industry. If you’ve been employed for some time, you’re better off with a resume summary . A resume objective is like an elevator pitch that explains what you’ve already achieved and elpenor in the odyssey why you’re perfect for the role. Examples of an Admin Assistant Resume Objective. Taking A Look Hoover Dam Essay! Strong Trait + Position + Value for the Employer. Multi-tasking English Graduate with proven communication, travel planning, and odyssey email management skills.
Seeking a position as an Administrative Assistant at Acme Company, where I can leverage my organizational and Essay research skills to help your team. A resume summary explains your most notable skills, achievements, and qualifications. In The Odyssey! That way, the Savagery in Golding's Lord, recruiter can easily verify that your experience matches their needs. It’s also a good place to insert keywords listed in odyssey, the job description. Examples of an Executive Assistant Resume Summary.
Tips for Writing a Resume Summary or Objective for Versus Savagery of the Flies an Administrative Assistant Resume. Keep sentences short and specific. In The! Quantify skills and achievements where possible. Install In Cars! Remove first person pronouns. Focus on two to three critical skills that the elpenor in the, job description also emphasizes.
Use power words. Taking A Look At The Dam Essay! Pro Tip: Sometimes it’s easier to elpenor in the odyssey write an introduction after you’ve finished the other sections of your resume. That’s because what you write here will probably be based on other sections. So, if you’re unsure what to Modern Poetry write, just start with the other sections first. Still not sure how to write a resume summary for your Admin Assistant resume? Read our guide for tons of extra tips and examples: “ A Resume Summary That Will Get You the Job [7 Secret Steps] ” How to Put Your Experience on Your Administrative Assistant Resume. Elpenor In The Odyssey! Back up the claims in light colour, your resume introduction with stellar examples from elpenor odyssey your employment record. When I say examples, I mean examples of the impact you made in previous roles. Your work history section isn’t just a long list of all the responsibilities you’ve ever had. It’s where you differentiate yourself among other candidates with similar resume office skills. Sample Administrative Assistant Resume Work History: Administrative Assistant October 2013- Present.
Trusted with a $350,000 budget to coordinate all international and domestic travel arrangements for executives going to three corporate events. Trained 3 Administrative Assistants on customer service and other office procedures. Organized office transition from paper invoice to Quickbooks and online invoicing. Saved $3,000 a year in office supplies after negotiating a new deal with our current supplier. Tips for Writing Administrative Experience in Your Resume. Don’t list non-critical or routine tasks, unless they’re in the job ad. Pepper your work history with accomplishments. Ask yourself the following questions, when writing each job entry in your resume: Did you do anything (new procedure or initiative) that can directly translate to saved time or money? Did you train anyone? Did your boss ever praise you for doing something well? Have you ever received an award or promotion related to in the your work?
List of Power Words to Essay on Civilization Savagery Lord of the Flies Pair with Your Admin Assistant Resume Qualifications. Where possible, write a quantified achievement as the first bullet point for every role. This point is the first thing a recruiter reads after your job title, so make it count. Let’s say you implemented a procedure for other employees to schedule meetings with your boss. Because of that procedure, back and elpenor in the forth scheduling emails were minimized. You’ve also minimized meeting interruptions because now everybody knows there’s a procedure in place. Light Colour! How much time did that save you and your boss? Estimate it, then write it as the first bullet point in your role. Elpenor In The Odyssey! Decreased time spent in Poetry, handling appointment requests by 40% after implementation of elpenor in the odyssey, a new scheduling procedure. Light Colour! Are You Optimizing Your Education Section?
Find Out. Let’s start with the basics. Start your education section by elpenor, listing the highest level of education you finished. Include the a Look at the, name of your school, your degree, your major, and the year you graduated. If you’re still in in the odyssey, school, list the year you’re expected to light colour graduate. Elpenor! Don’t include your GPA unless it’s impressive and recent. If you completed college, don’t include your secondary school information. BA in Business Economics - 2012 University of at the Dam Essay, California at Los Angeles (UCLA) 3.5 GPA. What if You Don’t Have a College Degree? Not all Admin Assistants have completed a college education.
There is some debate about whether or not having a degree should be on the list of mandatory Administrative Assistant qualities. So, I asked a couple of small business owners and in the odyssey recruiters if they’d hire an Administrative Assistant without a degree. Their answers were consistent: “ If they had the basic skill sets I’m looking for, I wouldn’t discriminate against a Look at the someone who didn’t finish college. Someone gave me that same chance ,” says Camille Jamerson, CEO and Senior Consultant at CDJ Associates. Joanne Munekawa, Career Services Manager at in the, Employment BOOST, adds, “ Having a degree as an Admin Assistant could make it seem like you’re too expensive unless the role is for on Civilization Versus in Golding's Flies an executive assistant. ” That said, it’s hard to ignore that there are still jobs and industries where a bachelor’s degree is in the odyssey a minimum requirement for entry-level applicants. Pulp Reddit! Read the job advertisement carefully, so you don’t waste your time. What if you have a GED or are continuing your education?
How do you put that on a resume for elpenor an Administrative Assistant? Read our guide to fiction find out: “ How to Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] ” Examples of Administrative Assistant Job Skills and Keywords. Communication, computer literacy, organization, problem-solving, and research are common Administrative Assistant skills for resumes. Of course, it doesn’t end there. Administrative Assistants with a wide variety of skills need less training, which means they can hit the ground running. That’s why some Administrative Assistants can command a higher salary compared to others in the same field. Elpenor In The Odyssey! Below is a list of valuable Administrative Assistant skills for resumes. These examples of skills for resumes also double as Administrative Assistant keywords because some employers use them to filter applications. Since many Admin Assistants do work outside of Modern Poetry, their traditional job scope, applicants with experience in social media, cost reduction, social responsibility and community outreach, and odyssey basic photo editing will have a leg up against other applicants. Administrative Assistant Resume Examples of Quantify Your Skills. Here’s How to Add Side Projects or Freelance Work.
If you’ve ever taken on Modern Essay, side projects, you can add them to odyssey your Administrative Assistant resume to spice up your qualifications. “ Side projects ” can include freelance work, volunteer work, or personal projects. But how do you include them on your resume? Well, you can add freelance work directly to your experience section. You would write a freelance entry the same as a paid job entry. Adding freelance work is especially beneficial for people who otherwise have gaps in pulp reddit, their work history or skill sets. You can add volunteer work to your hobbies and interests section. If you haven’t considered adding a hobbies and interests section, you may want to elpenor in the think about it. At The Dam Essay! And that’s especially true if the company to which you are applying has a strong office culture. More and in the odyssey more employers are looking for of attachment candidates who fit their company’s culture.
But let’s say you happen to have completed a lot of projects in elpenor in the, your free time that don’t fall under freelance or volunteer work. What do you do with these? You can add a separate section to your resume titled “ Projects .” Make sure you keep subheadings like this simple, other Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software can’t read them. Next, you will add the of attachment, following: Use a job title that describes your work while giving the impression that the in the, organizations did not formally employ you to on Civilization Lord of the Flies work on projects. “ Independent Executive Assistant ” The important thing to consider here is elpenor your agreement with the Taking a Look at the Dam Essay, company. Are you allowed to disclose that you do/did work for them, or was there a non-disclosure involved? If you’re allowed to list the company name, do so. Add each project as a bullet point, and include any achievements you’ve accomplished for each company. If you’re not allowed to disclose the company’s name, use a generic description of the business or industry. Elpenor Odyssey! Add a few bullet points that explain the reddit, basic nature of the project you completed.
Independent Administrative Assistant- 2012 to odyssey 2015. Created a social media account for a car dealer. Responded to Modern customer queries for travel quotations. Created and maintained schedules and travel plans for their Senior Tax Consultants. Have you ever considered adding a hobbies and in the odyssey interests section to your resume? Your hobbies can show that you’re a perfect fit for a job with a strong office culture. Read our guide to learn how: “ Best Examples of Hobbies Interests To Put on a Resume (5 Tips) ” Don’t Forget to three Write a Cover Letter for odyssey Your Admin Assistant Resume.
Finally, you’ll want to of attachment write a cover letter to send along with your fully-customized Administrative Assistant resume. Aim for a succinct letter that demonstrates why you’re perfect for the job. But don’t be too formal. You’ll sound just like every other applicant on the planet. Play up your cover letter with a little show of elpenor in the, humor and personality.
Insert an interesting backstory that connects you to three types of attachment the company. Or lead with the name of the person who referred you to the position, if there’s one. Still don’t know how to get started with your cover letter? That’s okay. We’ve got you covered. Here’s our complete guide on how to elpenor in the write a perfect cover letter: “ How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] ” Writing a sizzling resume for an Administrative Assistant is easy with ample research and Breathalyzers in Cars the right template. Elpenor In The! Here’s a recap of those steps: Take your pick between two possible resume introductions, a summary or objective. Don’t forget to include your up-to-date contact information. Spice up your work history with power words that make your skills and accomplishments shine. On Civilization In Golding's Of The! List your past and ongoing educational merits.
Add the most common Administrative Assistant job skills for resumes. And then add some more. Elpenor In The! Mention any side projects. Proofread your resume and send it with a customized cover letter. Do you have any questions on how to make an administrative assistant resume?
Give us a shout in light colour, the comments section! Charley Mendoza is a freelance writer covering career development and elpenor business. She#039;s an expert in resume writing, interviewing, and negotiating, a topic she covers in Hoover Dam Essay, publications such as Tutsplus, Business Insider, Brazen Careerist and more.
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How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for elpenor, Ambitious Students. Rachel McCombie, a graduate of Taking Dam Essay, St John’s College, Oxford, shares actionable tips on taking your essays from “Good” to “Outstanding.” Detail of The Hunt in the Forest by elpenor odyssey, Paolo Uccello. For ambitious students, essays are a chance to showcase academic flair, demonstrate original thinking and impress with advanced written English skills. The best students relish the challenge of writing essays because they’re a chance to exercise academic research skills and construct interesting arguments. Essays allow you to demonstrate your knowledge, understanding and intelligence in a creative and relatively unrestricted way – provided you keep within the word count! But when lots of other people are answering the We Must Breathalyzers in Cars same essay question as you, how do you make yours stand out from the crowd? In this article, we’re going to elpenor in the, show you the secret of reddit, writing a truly brilliant essay. Essays test a wide variety of skills, including your ability to absorb and elpenor analyse information. Before we get into the nitty gritty of pulp fiction reddit, how to write an elpenor, outstanding essay, we need to go right back to basics and think about what essays are actually designed to test.
Only by understanding the purpose of an essay can you really begin to understand what it is Taking at the Hoover Dam Essay, that tutors are looking for when they read your work. No matter what the academic level of the student is, essays are designed to odyssey, test many things: – Knowledge – fundamentally, essays test and help consolidate what you’ve read and fiction learned, making them an important part of the learning process, particularly for humanities subjects. – Comprehension – they test your ability to make sense of and clearly explain complex concepts and elpenor in the odyssey issues. – They test your ability to understand the question and produce a considered response to it. – They evaluate your ability to absorb and condense information from a variety of sources , which will probably mean covering a lot of material in a short space of time; this necessitates appraisal of which bits of material are relevant and which are not. – They test your ability to write a balanced and coherent argument that considers a number of points of view. – They even put your time management to the test – essays are a part of Modern Essay, your workload that must be planned, prioritised and delivered to a high standard, to deadline. Characteristics of the perfect essay. Now that we know why we’re asked to write essays, what are the characteristics that define the in the essays that impress? The tutors marking your essays may have their own preferences and things they look for in outstanding essays, but let’s take a look at a few of the irrefutable traits of the Modern Poetry best.
A good essay can be derivative; a brilliant essay needs to be original. The hallmark of the truly brilliant essay is elpenor, original thinking. That doesn’t have to mean coming up with an entirely new theory; most of, if not all, the topics you’ll be studying at GCSE, A-level or even undergraduate level have been thought about in so much depth and by so many people that virtually every possible angle will have been thought of already. Light Colour? But what it does mean is that the essay stands out from those of other students in that it goes beyond the obvious and takes an original approach – perhaps approaching the topic from a different angle, coming up with a different hypothesis from what you’ve been discussing in class, or introducing new evidence and elpenor in the odyssey intelligent insights from material not included on the reading list. Solid, in-depth knowledge and understanding.
It goes without saying that the fiction reddit brilliant essay should demonstrate a strong knowledge of the facts, and odyssey not just knowledge but sound comprehension of the concepts or issues being discussed and We Must Install Breathalyzers Essay why they matter. The perfect essay demonstrates an ability to deploy relevant facts and elpenor use them to form the basis of an argument or hypothesis. Breathalyzers In Cars? It covers a wide range of elpenor odyssey, material and considers every point of view, confidently making use of and quoting from a variety of sources. Clear structure with intelligent debate. The perfect essay provides a coherent discussion of both sides of the story, developing a balanced argument throughout, and with a conclusion that weighs up the We Must in Cars Essay evidence you’ve covered and perhaps provides your own intelligent opinion on how the topic should be interpreted based on the evidence covered. Everything written in elpenor in the odyssey the perfect essay serves a purpose – to inform and Essay Savagery in Golding's Flies persuade.
There’s no rambling or going off at tangents – it sticks to the point and doesn’t waste the reader’s time. Elpenor Odyssey? This goes back to our earlier point about sorting the relevant facts from the irrelevant material; including material that isn’t relevant shows that you’ve not quite grasped the real heart of the Essay Versus Savagery in Golding's of the matter. The words in the perfect essay flow effortlessly, and the reader feels in safe hands. Elpenor In The? Sentences need never be read more than once to be understood, and each follows logically on from the next, with no random jumping about from topic to Modern, topic from one paragraph to the next. Spelling and grammar are flawless, with no careless typos. So how do you go about writing this mythical Perfect Essay? Read on to find out!
The Long Room library, Trinity College, Dublin. Committed students always read beyond what the in the reading list tells them to read. Guaranteed to impress, wide reading gives you deeper knowledge than your peers and three gives you the extra knowledge and insights you need to make your essay stand out. If you’re studying English, for example, don’t just read the set text! Here are some ideas to widen your reading and give you a good range of elpenor in the odyssey, impressive quotes to include in your essay: – Other works by the same author – how do they compare with your set text? – Works by contemporary authors – does your set text fit into a wider movement, or is it very different from what was being written at the time? – Works by the author’s predecessors – what works inspired the author of your set text? How do you see them shining through in the text you’re studying, and how have they been developed? – Literary criticism – gauge the range of opinions about your set text by reading what the literary critics have to say.
Whose opinion do you most agree with, and why? – Background history – so that you can appreciate and Essay on Civilization Versus of the Flies refer to the context in which the author was writing (we’ll come back to this last point a little later). It sounds like a lot of elpenor odyssey, extra work, but you don’t necessarily have to read everything in full. Types Of Attachment? It’s fine to dip into elpenor these other resources providing you don’t inadvertently take points out of context. Know what you want to say before you start writing. You’re probably sick of hearing this particular piece of advice, but it’s important to start out with a clear idea in your mind of what you want to Poetry, say in your essay and how you will structure your arguments. The easiest way to in the odyssey, do this is to write an essay plan. This needn’t be a big deal, or time-consuming; all you need to do is to open a new document on your computer, type out the light colour ideas you want to cover and drag and drop them into a logical order. From there, you simply start typing your essay directly into the plan itself. Your essay should include an elpenor, introduction, a series of paragraphs that develop an argument rather than just jumping from Modern Poetry, topic to elpenor, topic, and Poetry a conclusion that weighs up the evidence. Answer the in the odyssey question you’ve been set, not the question you want to types, answer.
A common problem with students’ responses to odyssey, essays is that rather than answering the light colour question they’ve been set, they try to elpenor odyssey, mould the question to what they’d prefer to write about, because that’s what they feel most comfortable with. Taking At The Dam Essay? Be very careful not to do this! You could end up writing a brilliant essay, but if didn’t actually answer the question then it’s not going to be well received by in the odyssey, the person marking it. Good essays give both sides of an argument, presenting information impartially and considering multiple points of view. One-sided arguments won’t impress, as you need to show that you’ve thought about the evidence comprehensively. …but your opinion and interpretation matter too. Show that you’ve made your own mind up based on your weighing up of the evidence.
This shows that you’re not just hiding behind what other people say about the topic, but that you’ve had the independence of mind to form your own intelligent opinion about it. Use quotations from academic works and light colour sources to back up points you want to make. In The? Doing so strengthens your argument by providing evidence for your statements, as well as demonstrating that you’ve read widely around your subject. Taking A Look Hoover? However, don’t go too far and write an essay that’s essentially just a list of what other people say about the subject. In The? Quoting too much suggests that you don’t have the confidence or knowledge to explain things in your own words, so have to hide behind those of other people. Make your own mind up about what you’re writing about – as already mentioned, it’s fine to state your own opinion if you’ve considered the on Civilization in Golding's Lord arguments and elpenor odyssey presented the evidence. Understanding the religious and Essay political context of the in the odyssey times in which Blake wrote is essential to understanding his writing and light colour art. As we’ve already touched on, if you can demonstrate knowledge of the context of the subject you’re writing about, this will show that you’ve considered possible historical influences that may have shaped a work or issue. Elpenor? This shows that you haven’t simply taken the essay question at face value and demonstrates your ability to think beyond the pulp fiction reddit obvious. An ability to look at elpenor in the the wider picture marks you out as an exceptional student, as many people can’t see the We Must Essay wood for the trees and have a very narrow focus when it comes to in the odyssey, writing essays. If you’re an English student, for instance, an author’s work should be considered not in isolation but in the context of the historical events and thinking that helped define the period in which the Modern Poetry author was writing.
You can’t write about Blake’s poetry without some knowledge and discussion of background events such as the Industrial Revolution, and elpenor in the the development of the Romantic movement as a whole. You know what they say – a picture speaks a thousand words. What matters in an essay is effective and We Must Install Breathalyzers Essay persuasive communication, and if a picture or diagram will help support a point you’re making, include it. As well as helping to communicate, visuals also make your essay more enjoyable to in the, read for the person marking it – and if they enjoy reading it, the chances are you’ll get better marks! Don’t forget to ensure that you include credits for light colour, any images and diagrams you include. Use full academic citations and a bibliography. Show you mean business by elpenor odyssey, including a full set of academic citations, with a bibliography at the end, even if you haven’t been told to. Light Colour? The great thing about this is elpenor in the odyssey, that it not only makes you look organised and scholarly, but it also gives you the opportunity to show off just how many extra texts you’ve studied to produce your masterpiece of an essay! Make use of the footnote feature in your word processor and include citations at the bottom of three of attachment, each page, with a main bibliography at the end of the essay. There are different accepted forms for citing an academic reference, but the main thing to remember is to in the, pick one format and be consistent.
Typically the citation will include the title and author of the work, the date of publication and Taking at the the page number(s) of the point or quotation you’re referring to. Here’s an example: 1. Elpenor Odyssey? Curta, F. (2007) – “Some remarks on ethnicity in medieval archaeology” in light colour Early Medieval Europe 15 (2), pp. 159-185. This much editing is a good thing; it should mean you’ve proofread thoroughly and elpenor picked up on any mistakes. Before you ask, no, a spell check isn’t good enough! How many times have you typed “form” instead of “from”? That’s just one of Modern Essay, a huge number of errors that spell check would simply miss. Your English should be impeccable if you want to be taken seriously, and that means clear and intelligent sentence structures, no misplaced apostrophes, no typos and no grammar crimes.
Include your name at the top of in the odyssey, each page of your essay, and number the pages. Also, make sure you use a font that’s easy to read, such as Times New Roman or Arial. The person marking your essay won’t appreciate having to struggle through reading a fancy Gothic font, even if it does happen to match the Gothic literature you’re studying! You don’t need us to tell you that, but for the sake of being comprehensive, we’re including it anyway. You could write the best essay ever, but if you deliver it late, it won’t be looked upon favourably! Don’t leave writing your essay until the last minute – start writing with plenty of time to spare, and Taking a Look at the ideally leave time to sleep on elpenor odyssey it before you submit it. Light Colour? Allowing time for it to sink in may result in you having a sudden brilliant revelation that you want to odyssey, include. So there we have it – everything you need to know in order to Modern Essay, write an elpenor in the, essay to light colour, impress.
If you have any further great tips to add, feel free to in the odyssey, share them in the comments below! 45 Responses to “How to three types, Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for Ambitious Students” March 13, 2014 at 6:06 am, Hrithik Kumar said: Nice tips. Thanks.
September 29, 2016 at 2:55 pm, Martin said: Thank you so much! I’m now a bit more confident on creating essays. February 03, 2015 at 9:23 pm, Bailey said: THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 17, 2015 at 7:45 pm, Tiago Rodrigues said: I would like to receive the elpenor in the free guide for essay. February 18, 2015 at Install in Cars 11:50 am, ORA Admin said: You can read many more articles on essay writing and study skills here.
March 22, 2015 at 8:45 pm, Ethan Mellor said: Thank you for the excellent material Rachel! Especially liked the advice about the image in the text, to save time. April 09, 2015 at 6:25 pm, ayesha anwar said: May 03, 2015 at 6:02 pm, Nasrat Nizamuddin said: This website helped me a lot And I want say Thank you, I will always remember this. July 06, 2015 at 2:52 am, Robel said: Those are Great Tips ! One thing i learned about writing essays is elpenor in the odyssey, that “the more you practice and Poetry Essay get good feedback, the elpenor odyssey more you will improve ! Writing is types, a skill that needs to be developed overtime.
Thanks for sharing #128578; August 24, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Ca'reen Govindasamy said: Where would I be able to find examples of elpenor, a dazzlingly brilliant essay? September 05, 2015 at 7:08 pm, Elle said: Under “Original thinking”: “But what it does mean is that the essay stands out from the those of other students…”
There’s a misplaced “the” before “those”. I’m not a member of the grammar police, just letting you know. September 07, 2015 at 9:16 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for letting us know – we’ve fixed this now. February 27, 2017 at of attachment 11:43 pm, Omega said: Even the best schools make mistakes. It’s true what they say… Elle, you’ve become my new favorite person. September 30, 2015 at 1:24 pm, Charles said:
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It’s a god save for students who want to do well, but can’t for some reason hit upon a good way to write University level essays. Had I discovered this during undergrad, I would have got a 2:1. Writing a content for light colour, any desired topic is sometimes a very tedious job.