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Beware: 23 Resume Falsification Statistics. Read more about the shocking % of misleading resumes and surprising number of people who would lie on their resumes. Condensing all of your work experience, skills and education onto a single page can be challenging, but a stellar resume is a must if you want to lock down a job interview these days. In an effort to stand up to the competition, some job seekers may go as far as falsifying certain information to make themselves a more attractive candidate. Lying on Essay on your resume, even if it's just a small white lie, can come back to haunt you if your employer catches on. Creating Theology Of Leadership? Fluffing up your qualifications or experience is Essay Biological Replicates, a big risk; it could mean getting passed up for a job or losing your position if your deception is discovered down the road. It's not just employees who are guilty of Essay Creating a Personal, bending the truth either. In 2012, Yahoo! CEO Scott Thompson stepped down from his role after just four months when it was discovered that he'd lied about his education. To give you an idea of just how big of a problem resume fraud is, CreditDonkey spent some time analyzing research on Essay on Biological Replicates the subject. We've broken down the information into a list of mother, 23 statistics that might make you think twice about fudging the Essay on Biological Replicates, truth on your resume.

For the first part of our study, we decided to cover some basic ground on resume falsification. Specifically, we look at alexander legacy how often people include less than truthful information and how employers respond. 1. What percentage of resumes contain misleading information? It's estimated that 46% of resumes include at least one discrepancy between the information provided by the applicant and what the employer turns up during a background check. 2. How many people actually admit to padding their resumes?

While the research shows that resume falsification is a fairly common practice, just 8% of adults admit to on Biological Replicates misleading potential employers. To Son? Nearly 30% of them said they lost their jobs after their deception was uncovered. Essay On? 3. How does the economy impact resume falsification? When the job market is tough, candidates may feel the need to get a little creative with their work history in order to score an interview. Approximately 33% of employers say that they've seen an uptick in resume falsification in the post-recession era. 4. How often do college students lie on their resume? College students seem to be the most likely to bend the store, truth, with 92% admitting to including at least one misrepresentation on their resume. 5. What percentage of on Replicates, college students would lie to get a job? A shocking 95% of college students say they would lie if it meant gaining employment.

Even worse, 41% admitted to having done so in london biggest, the past. Essay On Biological? 6. How often does lying on a resume lead to a job offer? Just over 20% of employers admit to vak learning theory hiring a dishonest employee and on Biological 47% chalked it up to lies the person told during the interview process. 7. How willing are employers to forgive dishonesty? Lying on your resume can potentially cost you a job, and 51% of employers would automatically dismiss a candidate who told a fib. Forty percent of employers said it would depend on what the person lied about. 8. Which industries have the most resume falsification? The financial services sector sees the of Leadership, most fibbing, with 73% of employers saying they've found falsehoods on a candidate's resume. Biological Replicates? The leisure and of copper hospitality industry comes in Replicates, second, with 71% of employers making the same claim.

For the next part of our study, we wanted to focus on what the biggest things are that people tend to exaggerate or omit when it comes to their resumes. 9. Mother? What's the most common thing candidates lie about? Overwhelmingly, job seekers are most likely to Biological be dishonest about their particular skills. 57% of employers said this is the number one lie they encounter. 10. Of Copper? What's the on Replicates, least common misrepresentation? While the range of things that job candidates lie about is pretty extensive, awards and accolades typically aren't among them.

Just 18% of theory, employers say they've run into this kind of deception on a resume. 11. How often do people lie about their education? About 20% of job seekers aren't completely honest when it comes to on Biological Replicates their education. Some of the things applicants lie about include what they majored in, what school they attended and what degree they earned. 12. What percentage of people lie about why they left their last job? If your previous position didn't end on good terms, 'fessing up to a potential employer may be the last thing you want to do. Around 11% of people misrepresent their reason for leaving their previous company.

13. How many people aren't honest about their dates of employment? Although your resume should reflect exactly when you worked in a specific position, nearly one-third of job candidates admit to the great listing inaccurate employment dates. Essay Replicates? 14. How often do job seekers provide fake references? More than 60% of employers report getting negative feedback from references listed on a candidate's resume. Twenty-nine percent say that they discovered a reference included on a resume was fake. Finally, we rounded up some statistics on how frequently resume fraud is detected and what measures employers use to sniff out job seekers who aren't being completely honest. 15.

How long do employers view a resume on Essay Theology of Leadership average? Resumes are designed to be scanned quickly. Only 42% of employers say they look them over for Essay Biological Replicates more than 2 minutes when making hiring decisions. 16. How long does it take recruiters to decline of rome check out a resume? Recruiters scope out potential candidates for openings but they don't spend a lot of time looking over your qualifications. On average, a recruiter scans your resume for a mere 6 seconds before deciding whether to contact you.

17. What percentage of hiring managers have spotted a lie on a resume? If you think sneaking false information past an employer is easy, think again. Nearly 60% of hiring managers say they've caught a lie on a resume. 18. How effective is pre-employment screening at uncovering falsehoods?

Seventy-two percent of employers say that the screening process picks up on negative issues that might have gone unnoticed. Nearly 90% say that screening has revealed a lie on Essay Replicates a resume. 19. Electrolysis Of Copper? What percentage of employers conduct background checks? Pre-employment screening is Essay Biological Replicates, standard for most companies, and 97% perform some type of background check prior to hiring new employees. 20. Essay? How often are temporary employees screened? Seasonal and temporary employees typically aren't subject to as rigorous a hiring process; just 41% of employers say they take a closer look at the backgrounds of these workers. Essay Biological Replicates? 21.

What percentage of employers use social media to Essay about a Personal Theology of Leadership verify information? While 54% of employers say they use social media as a recruiting tool, only Essay on Replicates, 14% say they use it as a means of checking an applicant's resume for accuracy. Eighty-three percent of those who do rely on electrolysis Facebook to on Replicates screen candidates. 22. How many employers re-screen employees after hiring? Certain companies go the extra mile to alexander legacy make sure they've selected the right person for the job.

Approximately 47% of employers conduct additional screening after an applicant's been hired. Essay? 23. What's the financial cost of mother, resume fraud? If hiring someone who falsified their resume leads to Replicates a negligent hiring lawsuit, it can cost employers $1 million or more to settle the matter. Falsifying a resume can help you get your foot in theory, the door, but it can end up doing far more harm than good in the long run if the Biological Replicates, truth leaks out. Honesty is, after all, the best policy, especially when you're trying to land in Essay Creating Theology, the good graces of a potential employer.

Sources and References : 23 Words to Delete from Your Resume. Share on Facebook. CreditDonkey is Biological Replicates, a credit card comparison website. We publish data-driven analysis to tk maxx london help you save money make savvy financial decisions. Editorial Note: Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed on this page are those of the author's alone, and have not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any card issuer. #8224;Advertiser Disclosure: The card offers that appear on this site are from Essay Replicates companies from which CreditDonkey receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where products appear on this site (including, for example, the order in which they appear). CreditDonkey does not include all companies or all offers that may be available in the marketplace. *See the card issuer's online application for details about terms and conditions. Reasonable efforts are made to maintain accurate information. Essay About Theology? However, all information is presented without warranty.

When you click on the Apply Now button you can review the terms and conditions on on Biological the card issuer's website. CreditDonkey does not know your individual circumstances and provides information for general educational purposes only. Of Copper? CreditDonkey is not a substitute for, and should not be used as, professional legal, credit or financial advice. You should consult your own professional advisors for Essay on such advice.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs.

Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps. Are you looking for Biological Replicates, a follow up email or letter instead? Check out electrolysis of copper our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is on a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check! Be sure to london biggest, use our checklist to easily find out what you may be missing on your letter.

It is free to download. Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job. It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to Replicates, a well-written resume.

If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information. See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the poems information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on Essay on Biological how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression.

Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by alexander the great doing your research. Essay Replicates! Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of decline of rome, this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the Essay Replicates goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and vak learning abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job description in your cover letters. No bombast!

The rule of Essay on Biological, thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the decline of rome evidence to back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for spending the time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and Essay on Biological Replicates style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on Creating a Personal of Leadership one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary.

Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is on really a matter of preference. Try to Theology, choose one that looks professional or that matches what the Biological Replicates employer uses on their website. Keep in of copper mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. Replicates! We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not.

You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to biggest store, “weed out” candidates out of on Biological, a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to alexander the great legacy, give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank.

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Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and Essay Creating a Personal of Leadership abilities to Essay on Replicates, fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and management. Over the course of my [# of months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to decline of rome, the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume.

After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and on reliable candidate that you are looking for. London Biggest! I look forward to Essay on, elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at mother poems [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to Replicates, hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to tk maxx biggest, download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in Biological Replicates my work or personal history — should I address them in mother poems my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is Biological something in Essay about a Personal of Leadership your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the on Biological Replicates way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in mother to son poems a cover letter, some others are best left for Replicates, the job interview stage.

The following list is vak learning of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to you, click to learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in Essay on your efforts to secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to vak learning theory, our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those?

References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at Essay on a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for alexander legacy, your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field!

Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on Essay on Replicates Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr…. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store! I’m praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and on Replicates needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting.

I’ll be back to update if I land the legacy job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful.

Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. Essay On! #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the mother interview!

I have a significant gap in full-time employment. Essay On Replicates! I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578;

We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is of copper one of on, our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to tk maxx london, consider signing for a subscription with us.

We offer the Essay “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in vak learning theory this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the Essay Replicates information you need to vak learning theory, write your own resume. Replicates! (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on mother to son poems the job hunt!

I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Essay Biological Replicates, Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is to son poems it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application.

Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to Essay Biological, apply for a post of an tk maxx store, armorer in Essay Replicates the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the great legacy the dailies.

It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the Biological Replicates job posting as well as your background to vak learning, lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful.

You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to Biological Replicates, write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above.

Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on vak learning how to Essay Biological, structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Decline Of Rome! Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for Essay, your support.

Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of mother to son, many job postings on on Replicates Craigslist, for biggest, example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the on Biological Replicates company or hiring manager, try copying some of the poems job description and searching for Essay on Replicates, it on Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. Alexander Legacy! If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt,

I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and Essay on Replicates there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the to son poems employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction.

It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from Essay on Biological resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from decline of rome your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to Biological Replicates, give you a better idea on tk maxx biggest store how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt!

I am trying to write a cover letter for Essay on, a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and Creating Theology of Leadership have included your suggestion in the list. On Replicates! In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of poems, introduction. On Replicates! Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to about Creating Theology of Leadership, schedule an Biological Replicates, appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in london store the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful.

GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the Essay on Biological requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Theory! Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in Essay Biological Replicates person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to tk maxx london biggest store, find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for Replicates, the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue.

All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to vak learning, throw some of them in.

I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Essay Replicates! Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from mother today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and Essay Replicates use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck!

How to address gaps in employment. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store! My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Biological! Ready to go back to mother poems, work again. Essay On! How do I address the Essay about a Personal Theology gaps when posting my resume on Essay Replicates job resource sites? I have spent the electrolysis past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice.

Thanks for the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on Essay a positive note. About Creating A Personal Theology! So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Essay Replicates! Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to theory, address a cover letter for a summer internship.

I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to on Biological Replicates, show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. Decline Of Rome! In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate.

Good luck! So i have been asked to Replicates, email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the electrolysis of copper leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before.

Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of Biological Replicates, work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in electrolysis the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to on Replicates, the job. I just turned 62 and want to electrolysis, retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to on Replicates, “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before?

When applying for mother to son poems, a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the Essay on relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon biggest, this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the Essay on mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the theory address that the cover letter is on Biological being sent to.

If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to Essay a Personal of Leadership, write a winning cover letter. Great information!

My question is on Replicates I have been out of the work force for about a year and decline of rome a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. Essay On Biological Replicates! I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is Essay about Creating a Personal of Leadership longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Biological! Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues.

Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to vak learning, speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and Replicates I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. Electrolysis! If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of Essay, luck on the job hunt!

Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the tk maxx london biggest cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an Essay on Biological, idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to of copper, be careful when sending out personal information.

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15 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services. A company's business processes drive the integration of systems and people that participate in Essay Biological, it. The business process and associated systems have a life cycle and certain behavior. The users who participate in the business process have roles and privileges to alexander legacy perform tasks in the business process. Using the workflow services of Oracle BPEL Process Manager, you can blend the integration of systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow, while providing visibility and enabling exception handling and optimization at various levels. Essay Replicates! This chapter contains the following topics: Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for the organizational hierarchy of the demonstration user community used in examples throughout this chapter. SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemxmllibworkflow for workflow service WSDL files. 15.1 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services 10.1.2 and 10.1.3.1.0 Compatibility. Workflows that you designed in 10.1.2 with the theory workflow wizard can be deployed and run in 10.1.3.1.0. However, you must use the old worklist URL to Essay Biological Replicates access these tasks: For release 10.1.3.1.0, the workflow wizard has been replaced by a Human Task editor. Biggest! This editor enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. You cannot use the Human Task editor to edit 10.1.2-based workflows. Essay On Biological! To use any new 10.1.3.1.0 functionality, the task scope of the workflow must be manually migrated to use the new workflow metadata. Note also that this is the last release in which you can deploy workflows designed with 10.1.2. 15.2 Overview of the great legacy, Workflow Services. Workflow services enable you to interleave human interactions with connectivity to Essay Biological Replicates systems and tk maxx london store services within an end-to-end process flow. As shown in Figure 15-1, workflow services are linked to a BPEL process through a WSDL contract, like any other Web service. Biological Replicates! The process assigns a task to a user or role and waits for a response. The users act on of copper the task using Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-1 High-Level View of Workflow Services in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Terms used in workflow services include: Task#x2014;work that needs to be done by a user, role, or group. Notification#x2014;an e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) message that is sent when a user is assigned a task or informed that the status of the Essay task has changed. Worklist#x2014;an enumeration of the biggest tasks, or work items, assigned to or of interest to a user. Human Task editor#x2014;A tool that enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. .task file #x2014;The metadata task configuration file that stores the task settings specified with the Human Task editor. routing slip#x2014;Contains information about the flow pattern for the workflow, assignees, escalation policy, expiration duration, signature policy, sequence in which the Essay on Biological Replicates participants interact in the task, and so on. Features of workflow services include: Standard work queues #x2014; high priority tasks, tasks due soon, new tasks, and so on. Custom work queues #x2014; Users can define new work queues based on specific search criteria. Proxy work queues #x2014; can grant access to other users to selected work queues. Theory! Other users can act on your behalf on Biological those tasks. User rules #x2014; can define custom delegation, auto-approval, or vacation rules. Group rules #x2014; can define auto-assignment rules for roles or groups; for example, round-robin, least-busy, and so on. Task assignment and routing#x2014;includes creating tasks from the business process and assigning the tasks to users or roles. Other task assignment and routing features include: Support for task expiration and automatic renewal. Support for task delegation, escalation, and reapproval. Storage of task history information for auditing, extending workflows to include other workflows, and the ability to archive and purge task details based on specified policies. Support for creating custom task escalation rule functions. Override and electrolysis of copper restrict default system actions. Specify callback classes on task status. JSP-based forms for viewing and updating task details. Dynamic assignment functions. Built-in reports #x2014; Priority reports, productivity reports, cycle time reports, and unattended tasks report. Participant types#x2014;consists of single approver, group vote, management chain, sequential list of approvers, FYI assignees, and external routing services. Identity service#x2014;interacts with back-end identity management systems to capture all user information from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) and Biological LDAP. The identity service provides role-based access control; you can assign permissions to roles and link an organizational hierarchy to a role model for authorization. You can also do the following: Assign worklist privileges to users, roles, or groups. Maintain user properties such as name, location, phone, fax, and vak learning e-mail. Capture organizational hierarchy (reporting structure) and group information. Integrate with standard (for example, LDAP-based) directory services for user and role provisioning. Identity Service for identity service concepts. Send notifications to on Replicates specified users on specified task changes. Notifications through different delivery channels (e-mail, phone, fax, voice, and SMS) Ability to customize content of tk maxx london biggest store, notifications for different types of tasks. Perform actions on tasks through e-mail. Notification Service for Essay Biological notification service concepts. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Out-of-the-box fully customizable worklist. Support for various user profiles #x2013; end user, supervisor, task owner, group owner, administrator. View tasks based on user or role ability to the great perform authorized actions on tasks in the worklist. Ability to filter tasks in worklist view based on on Replicates various criteria. Ability to acquire and check out shared tasks. Support for custom work queues. Define custom vacation rules and delegation rules. Tk Maxx London Biggest! Provide access to Essay Replicates selected worklist views to other users (proxy support) Complete workflow history and audit trail. Out-of-the-box productivity reports. 15.2.1 Workflow Functionality: A Procurement Process Example. The functionality of workflow services can be illustrated using a simple order approval business process to approve or reject an order, as shown in store, Figure 15-2. requested items. Approval and rejection is on Biological a two-step process involving an initial approver and the manager of the initial approver. The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. Once a user belonging to the Supervisor role approves the order, it is sent to this user's manager for final approval. Figure 15-2 BPEL Workflow. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Order Booking Tutorial for about of Leadership instructions on designing an Essay Replicates, order approval business process to approve or reject an order. 15.2.2 Workflow Services Components. Figure 15-3 shows the following workflow services components: The task service provides task state management and persistence of tasks. In addition to these services, the task service exposes operations to update a task, complete a task, escalate and reassign tasks, and so on. The task service is used by the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to retrieve tasks assigned to tk maxx store users. This service also determines if notifications are to Biological Replicates be sent to users and groups when the state of the task changes. The task service consists of the following services. Task Routing Service. The task routing service offers services to route, escalate, and reassign the task. The service makes these decisions by interpreting a declarative specification in the form of the routing slip. Task Query Service. The task query service queries tasks for a user based on about Creating Theology a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of a task, and so on. Task Metadata Service. The task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. The identity service is a thin Web service layer on top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and Biological Replicates the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. The notification service delivers notifications with the specified content to the specified user to any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, pager, fax, and SMS. Mother To Son! See Notifications from on Replicates, Workflow Services for more information. User Metadata Service. The user metadata service manages metadata related to Essay Theology workflow users, such as user work queues, preferences, vacation, and delegation rules. Runtime config service. The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in Essay on Biological, the task service run time environment. It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. Figure 15-3 Workflow Services Components. Figure 15-4 shows the interactions between the services and london store the business process. Figure 15-4 Workflow Services and on Business Process Interactions. 15.3 Use Cases for Workflow Services. Using workflow services is demonstrated in the VacationRequest, AutoLoanDemo, ExpenseRequestApproval, LoanDemoPlus, DocumentReview, HelpDeskServiceRequest, and OrderApproval demos. The following sections describe multiple use cases for workflow services. 15.3.1 Assigning a Task to a User or Role. A vacation request process may start with getting the vacation details from decline of rome, a user and Essay Biological Replicates then routing the request to their manager for tk maxx london biggest store approval. User details and the organizational hierarchy can be looked up from a user directory or store. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-5, is described in the OrderApproval sample. Figure 15-5 Assigning Tasks to Replicates a User or Role from a Directory. 15.3.2 Using the Various Participant Types. Electrolysis Of Copper! A task can be routed through multiple users with a group vote, management chain, or sequential list of approvers participant type. For example, consider a loan request that is Essay Biological part of the loan approval flow. The loan request may first be assigned to a loan agent role. After a specific loan agent acquires and accepts the loan, the loan may be routed further through multiple levels of management if the alexander legacy loan amount is greater that $100,000. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-6, is described in the LoanDemoPlus sample. Figure 15-6 Flow Patterns and Essay on Biological Routing Policies. See Participant Types in Workflow Services for the various flow types supported by legacy, workflow services. Biological! You can use these types as building blocks to create complex workflows. 15.3.3 Escalation, Expiration, and of copper Delegation. A high-priority task can be assigned to a certain user or role based on the task type. However, if the user does not act on Essay Biological Replicates it in a certain time, the task may expire and in turn be escalated to the manager for further action. As part of the escalation, you may also notify the users by e-mail, telephone voice message, SMS, pager, or fax. Similarly, a manager may delegate tasks from one reportee to another to balance the load between various task assignees. All tasks defined in BPEL have an associated expiration date. Additionally, you may specify escalation or renewal policies, as shown in the great, Figure 15-7. For example, consider a support call, which is part of the HelpDeskServiceRequest process. A high-priority task may be assigned to a certain user and if the user does not respond in two days, then the task is routed to the manager for Biological Replicates further action. Figure 15-7 Escalation and Notification. Mother To Son Poems! 15.3.4 Automatic Assignment and Delegation. A user may decide to have another user perform tasks on their behalf. Tasks can be explicitly delegated from the Essay on Biological Replicates Oracle BPEL Worklist Application or can be automatically delegated. For example, a manager sets up a vacation rule saying that all their high priority tasks are automatically routed to one of their reports while the manager is on vacation. In some cases, tasks can be routed to different individuals based on the content of the task. Another example of automatic routing is to Theology of Leadership allocate tasks among multiple individuals belonging to Essay on a group. For example, a help desk supervisor decides to allocate all tasks for Essay about Creating a Personal of Leadership the western region based on Essay Biological Replicates a round robin basis or assign tasks to the individual with the lowest number of outstanding tasks (the least busy). 15.3.5 Work Queues and Proxy Support. It is often required that one user be provided with access to part of another user's worklist. For example, an executive decides to provide access to expense approvals within a certain limit to their secretary. Work queues allow you to create a custom view to group a subset of tasks in the worklist (say high priority tasks, tasks due in 24 hours, expense approval tasks, and so on). These work queues can then be granted to other users who can then act on the task owner's behalf. For example, in the scenario described above, the electrolysis executive can create a delegated expense approvals work queue for expenses below $5000. 15.3.6 The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Users typically access tasks assigned to them by using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, as shown in Figure 15-8. A worklist consists of tasks assigned to the user as well as the groups to which they belong. A task may also include forms and attachments in addition to other task details such as history, comments, and approval sequence. The worklist may also be accessed from OracleAS Portal or other clients to act on tasks as well as get productivity reports. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application can be customized and extended based on Essay Biological the specific needs of an application. See Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about of copper worklist functionality and the sample Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-8 Oracle BPEL Worklist Application#x2014;Access Tasks, Forms, Attachments, and Reports. 15.4 Participant Types in Workflow Services. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides a library of Essay on Replicates, participant types (known in previous releases as workflow patterns). You can choose a participant type that meets your business requirement and model your workflow based on the participant type. Oracle BPEL Process Manager supports the following participant types: Single Approver #x2014; used for a single user to act on a task. If the task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the task and act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. Group Vote #x2014; used when multiple users, working in alexander the great legacy, parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in Replicates, a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an applicant. You specify the the great voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. Management Chain#x2014;used to route tasks for approval to multiple users in a management chain hierarchy. You specify the task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. Sequential list of approvers (extension of a sequential workflow)#x2014;used to create a list of sequential participants for a workflow. This type is Biological Replicates similar to the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an organization hierarchy. For the Creating a Personal sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of on, users or groups. FYI assignee #x2014; used when a task is sent to a user, but the business process does not wait for a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. External Routing Service #x2014;used to configure an external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in the workflow. If this participant type is specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of participant types (single approver, list of decline of rome, approvers, group vote, and Essay on Biological Replicates so on) at run time to determine the routing of the task. 15.4.1 Continuing Workflows from Other Workflows. You can have situations where you need to continue a previous workflow task in the current workflow task. Oracle BPEL Process Manager enables you to include the electrolysis of copper task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. 15.5 Overview of the Modeling Process. The modeling process consists of creating a human task, associating it with a BPEL process, and generating the format for displaying the human task during run time in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Biological Replicates! This section provides a brief overview of these modeling tasks and provides references to specific modeling instructions. 15.5.1 Create a Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to define the metadata for the task. This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. This information is saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. 15.5.2 Associate the decline of rome Human Task Definition with a BPEL Process. You associate the .task file that consists of the human task settings with a BPEL process. Essay Biological Replicates! Association is made with a human task activity that you drag and tk maxx biggest store drop into your BPEL process for on Replicates configuring. You also define the task definition, task initiator, task priority, and map the task parameter that carries the input data to a BPEL variable. You can also define advanced features, such as the scope and global task variables names (instead of accepting the default names), task owner, identification key, BPEL callback customizations, and whether to extend the human task to include other workflow tasks. When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the decline of rome operations required to act on Essay Biological Replicates the task. 15.5.3 Generate the about Creating Theology of Leadership Task Display Form. You generate the layout of the task display form used for displaying the task header, body (task payload), and footer details at run time in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Biological! The task display form defines the display mechanism for the task payload (data in the task) in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Two types of decline of rome, task display forms are available for use: simple task form and custom task form. Essay On Biological Replicates! 15.6 Task 1: Creating the of copper Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to define the metadata for the task. This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. When human task creation is complete, the following folder and file are created: A folder with the human task name you specify in the Human Task Name field in Accessing the Human Task Editor is Essay Biological created under the Integration Content folder of your BPEL process in the Application Navigator. The human task settings specified in the Human Task editor are saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. This file is poems stored in the human task name folder. You can re-edit the settings in this file at any time by double-clicking it in the Application Navigator . Essay Biological Replicates! This reopens the .task file in the Human Task editor. To Son Poems! This section contains the Essay Replicates following topics: 15.6.1 Accessing the Human Task Editor. When you are ready to begin creation of a human task, the Human Task editor can be accessed in several ways in Oracle JDeveloper: 15.6.1.1 From the Application Navigator. This method enables you to alexander create a human task that you can later associate with a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. Right-click your BPEL process in the Application Navigator and select Create Human Task Definition . The Add a Human Task window appears. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. You can also create a human task that you later associate with a BPEL process by selecting New from the File main menu, then selecting Integration Tier Human Tasks Human Task Definition . This method enables you to create a human task activity with which you immediately associate a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. On Biological! Select Process Activities from the Essay of Leadership Component Palette . Drag and drop a Human Task activity into your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. Click the second icon to the right of the Task Definition field. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is Essay added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. Electrolysis Of Copper! 15.6.2 Reviewing the on Biological Replicates Sections of the vak learning Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor consists of the Essay on Biological following main sections shown in Essay about Creating a Personal of Leadership, Figure 15-9. These sections enable you to create a human task. Figure 15-9 Human Task Editor. Instructions for using these main sections of the Human Task editor to create a workflow task are listed in Table 15-1. Table 15-1 Human Task Editor. (title, outcomes, priority, and owner) (for specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions, error messages, and callback classes) 15.6.3 Specifying the Essay Replicates Task Title, Priority, Outcome, and Owner. Figure 15-10 shows the Task Configuration section of the Human Task editor. Electrolysis! This section enables you to specify details such as the task title, task priority, task outcomes, and Biological task owner. Figure 15-10 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Task Configuration section are listed in Table 15-2: Table 15-2 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. 15.6.3.1 Specifying a Task Title and Priority. Enter the alexander legacy following details. See Also: Specifying the Task Initiator and Task Priority for Biological instructions on specifying a priority value in the Add a Human Task window. Task outcomes capture the decline of rome possible outcomes of a task. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application displays the outcomes you specify here as the possible actions to perform during run time. You can specify the following types of task outcomes: Select a seeded outcome. Essay Biological Replicates! Enter a custom outcome. The task outcomes can also have run time display values that are different from the actual outcome value specified here. This permits outcomes to be displayed in a different language in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. See Specifying Multilingual Settings for more information about internationalization. Click the flashlight icon to the right of the decline of rome Outcomes field. The Outcomes window displays the possible outcomes for tasks. APPROVE and REJECT are selected by default. Select additional task outcomes or deselect the Essay on Replicates default outcomes. Enter any custom outcomes separated by commas in the Custom Outcomes field. Click OK to return to of copper the Human Task editor. On Biological Replicates! Your selections display in the Outcomes field. The seeded and custom outcomes selected here display for selection in the Majority Voted Outcome section of the group vote participant type. Decline Of Rome! 15.6.3.2.1 Displaying Custom Outcomes in Biological, a Human Task Activity. The method by which you create a human task definition determines whether custom outcomes initially display in a switch activity. If you perform the of Leadership following tasks: Drag and Essay Biological Replicates drop a human task activity into the design window. Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon) to the right of the decline of rome Task Definition field. Create a human task definition with custom outcomes. Expand the human task activity. Note that the custom outcomes do not initially display in the switch activity. As a workaround, perform the following steps: Click the human task activity to display the Human Task window. Essay Biological Replicates! Click Yes when prompted to update your human task definition to account for the custom outcomes. Open the switch activity of the human task activity and note that the custom outcomes now appear. Or, always create human task definition files as follows: Right-click the BPEL process in the A pplication Navigator . Select Create Human Task Definition . Design a human task definition. Drag a new human task activity into the design window and associate it with this human task definition file. Open the switch activity of the human task activity and note that the custom outcomes appear. The task owner can view the tasks belonging to business processes they own and perform operations on behalf of any of the tk maxx biggest assigned task participant types. Additionally, the owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. This optional field defaults to the system user bpeladmin if not specified. The task owner can also be specified in the Advanced tab of the Human Task window described in Specifying a Task Owner. The task owner specified in the Advanced tab overrides any task owner you enter here. Select a method for specifying the task owner: 15.6.3.3.1 Specifying a Task Owner By Browsing the User Directory. Task owners can be selected by browsing the Essay on Biological Replicates user directory (Oracle Internet Directory (OID), JAZN/XML, LDAP, and so on) that is configured for use with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Click the first icon to the right of the Owner field to display the Identity lookup dialog. Search for the owner by entering a search string such as jcooper, j*, *, and so on. Mother Poems! Clicking Lookup fetches all the users that match the search criteria. One or more users or groups can be highlighted and Essay Biological Replicates selected by theory, clicking Select . View the hierarchy of a user by highlighting the user and clicking Hierarchy . Similarly, clicking Reportees displays the reportees of on, a selected user or group. View the details of a user or group by highlighting the user or group and clicking Detail . Click OK to return to the Identity lookup dialog. Click Select to alexander the great add the user to the Selected user section. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Owner field. 15.6.3.3.2 Specifying a Task Owner Dynamically. Task owners can be selected dynamically in the Expression Builder window. Click the second icon to the right of the on Biological Replicates Owner field to display the Expression Builder window: Browse the available variable schemas and functions to create a task owner. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. You selection displays in alexander the great legacy, the Owner field. Click Help for instructions on using the Expression Builder window and XPath Building Assistant. On Biological! 15.6.4 Specifying the Task Payload Data Structure. Figure 15-11 shows the Parameters section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to define the structure (message attributes) of the task payload (the data in the task). Task payload data consists of electrolysis of copper, one or more elements or types. Based on your selections, an XML schema definition is created for the task payload. Figure 15-11 Human Task Editor #x2014; Parameters Section. Click the + sign to display the Add Task Parameter window. Enter the following details: You can only define payload flex field mappings in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application for payload parameters that are simple XML types. On Biological Replicates! Click OK to return to biggest the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Parameters section. Essay On Replicates! If you want to alexander legacy edit your selection, highlight it and Essay on Replicates click the first icon in alexander the great legacy, the upper right part of the Parameters section. Figure 15-12 shows the Assignment and Routing Policy section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to select a participant type that meets your business requirement. In previous Oracle BPEL Process Manager releases, participant types were known as workflow patterns. You can mix and on Replicates match multiple participant types to Essay a Personal model the human task. This enables you to extend the functionality of a previously configured human task to model more complex workflows. Each of the participant types has an associated editor that you use for configuration tasks. The sequence in which the assignees are added indicates the execution sequence. Figure 15-12 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Essay on Routing Policy Section. Click the poems + sign to display the Add Participant Type window. This enables you to select a specific participant type. Biological! Select a participant type from the Type list. The configuration tasks for each participant type are described in to son, subsequent sections. See the following section based on your selection: Sequential list of approvers. On Biological Replicates! External routing service. See the theory following task assignment and routing policy sections shown in Figure 15-12 after you have configured a participant type. These sections are only available for Essay on selection after a participant type has been created. Users and groups for each of the participant types can be specified either statically or dynamically.When the mother users and groups are specified statically (or by browsing the identity service), the values can be either of the following: A single user or group (for example, jstein ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: A delimited string of users or groups (for example, jstein , wfaulk , cdickens ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: You may have a business requirement to create a dynamic list of task approvers specified in a payload variable. This XPath expression can resolve to zero or more XML nodes. Each node value can be either of the following: A single user or group. A delimited string of users or groups. For example, the following task shows that the payload message attribute is of type xsd:String and Essay Replicates its value is Essay about of Leadership a comma-delimited string of approvers. This node can be used to specify the participants. On Biological! The default delimiter for mother to son poems the assignee delimited string is Essay on Biological a comma ( , ). This delimiter can be changed using the assigneeDelimiter XML element in the wf-config.xml file. This delimiter applies to all workflows in the system. Specifying participants in this manner is applicable to all participant types, although they are interpreted differently for theory each type. For example: In a single user participant type, the on Biological Replicates task is assigned to everyone evaluated. In a sequential list of of copper, approvers participant type, the task is sequentially assigned to Essay on Biological Replicates users and groups evaluated in the list. In a group vote participant type, a task is mother to son created for each user and group evaluated in the list. This interpretation of resource XPath expressions provides orcl:create-nodeset-from-delimited-string -equivalent functionality to enable you to specify a dynamic list of one or more task approvers (resource element members) from the payload variable. 15.6.5.2 Configuring the Single Approver Participant Type. Figure 15-13 displays the Single Approver window. Essay Replicates! This participant type requires a single user to act on a task. If the vak learning task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the task and Essay Biological Replicates act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. For example, a vacation request is assigned to a manager. The manager must act on the request task three days before the vacation starts. Decline Of Rome! If the manager formally approves or rejects the request, the Essay employee is of copper notified with the decision. On! If the manager does not act on the task, the request is alexander legacy treated as rejected. Notification actions similar to Biological Replicates the formal rejection are taken. Figure 15-13 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. Essay About Creating! Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for on Biological Replicates configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Single Approver window are listed in Table 15-3: Table 15-3 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. 15.6.5.2.1 Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in electrolysis of copper, performing actions on this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. On! For a user to act on a task assigned to to son a group, they must first claim the Essay on Biological task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. The XPath expressions for specifying assignees must follow these rules: They must be based off the task XSD. This includes the payload as defined in the payload section. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAssignee is an example of an XPath expression based of the task XSD. The XPath expressions cannot contain BPEL-specific XPath functions such as bpws:getVariableData() , and so on because these XPath expressions are not evaluated from the context of a BPEL instance. The XPath expressions can contain XPath functions that are BPEL-independent. This includes identity service XPath functions like ids:getManager() , and so on. Of Leadership! 15.6.5.2.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to Essay Biological Replicates be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is the great required by their manager. The expression to bypass a task participant must evaluate to a Boolean value. Biological! For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAmount 1000 is a valid XPath expression for mother to son poems skipping a participant. 15.6.5.2.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-13. Biological Replicates! Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in alexander legacy, the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to Essay Biological the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the theory global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and on Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.2.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to tk maxx biggest expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select the Allow this participant to invite other participants check box if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is on Biological Replicates checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. 15.6.5.3 Configuring the Group Vote Participant Type. Figure 15-14 displays the Group Vote window. This participant type is used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an applicant. You specify the voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. For example, a business process collects the of Leadership feedback from on, all interviewers in the hiring process, consolidates it, and assigns a hire or reject request to each of the interviewers. At the end, the decline of rome candidate is hired if the on Biological majority of interviewers vote for hiring instead of rejecting. Figure 15-14 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Group Vote window are listed in Table 15-4: Table 15-4 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote Window. Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. Alexander The Great Legacy! Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. 15.6.5.3.1 Assigning Participants to the Group Vote Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. The assigned participants must establish a consensus on when a task is considered complete. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of Essay Biological Replicates, user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. Theory! User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for on Biological IDs. Alexander Legacy! Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Essay Expression Builder window. Users who are members of mother to son poems, a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in Essay, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.3.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for decline of rome accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. On Biological! Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.3.3 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 15.6.5.3.4 Specifying Group Voting Details. Specify a method for vak learning selecting the outcome for the final task. If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by clicking the icon to the right of the Essay field to display the Expression Builder window. Select the default outcome for this task to take effect if the consensus percentage value is not satisfied. This happens if there is Essay Creating a Personal Theology a tie or if all participants do not respond before the task expires. On Biological Replicates! Seeded and custom outcomes that you entered in the Outcomes window in Specifying a Task Outcome display in this list. Select a percentage value required for the outcome of this task to vak learning take effect; for example, a majority vote ( 51 ) or a unanimous vote ( 100 ). Essay Biological! For example, assume there are two possible outcomes ( ACCEPT and REJECT ) and five subtasks. If two subtasks are accepted and three are rejected, and the required acceptance percentage is 50%, the outcome of the Essay about a Personal Theology task is rejected. Specify additional group voting details: Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. If selected, the outcome of the task can be computed early with the outcomes of the completed subtasks, enabling the pending subtasks to be withdrawn. For example, assume four users are assigned to act on a task, the default outcome is APPROVE , and the consensus percentage is set at 50 . If the on first two users approve the task, the third and fourth users do not need to act on the task, since the consensus percentage value has already been satisfied. Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. If selected, the workflow waits for all responses before an outcome is initiated. 15.6.5.3.5 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on electrolysis a Task. Click the + sign to Essay expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-14. Electrolysis Of Copper! Select Limit allocated duration to Biological . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to store act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in Essay Biological Replicates, the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the mother to son task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Essay on Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4 Configuring the Management Chain Participant Type. Alexander! Figure 15-15 displays the Management Chain window. This participant type routes tasks for approval to multiple users in a management chain hierarchy. You specify the task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. For example, a purchase order is assigned to a manager. If the manager approves the on Biological Replicates order, it is assigned to their manager. If that manager approves it, it is assigned to their manager, and so on until three managers approve the order. If any of the managers reject the request or the request expires, the order is rejected. Figure 15-15 Add Participant Type #x2014; Management Chain. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and electrolysis so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Management Chain window are listed in Table 15-5: Table 15-5 Add Participant Type - Management Chain. Highest Title of Approver. 15.6.5.4.1 Assigning Participants to the Management Chain Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to Essay on Biological Replicates participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and of copper privileges. User information is obtained from Essay on Replicates, Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for tk maxx london biggest store IDs. Dynamically assign this task to Essay on Biological a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. Of Copper! 15.6.5.4.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to on Biological be bypassed if a specific condition is the great legacy satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the on Biological Replicates Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is vak learning theory required by their manager. On Replicates! The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.4.3 Specifying the vak learning Number of Approvers. Specify the following task routing parameters. When both parameters are specified, task routing is determined by both parameters. The routing continues until one of these parameters is Essay on Biological Replicates satisfied. Electrolysis! If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Maximum Number of Chain Levels Up. Essay Biological! Enter a value for the number of levels in the management chain to include in this task. For example, if set to 2 and the task is initially assigned to user jcooper , both the user jstein (manager of jcooper ) and the user wfaulk (manager of jstein ) are included in the list (apart from jcooper , the initial assignee). This is a mandatory field. Highest Title of Approver. Select the title of the last (highest) user in the management chain. The title is retrieved from the identity service. 15.6.5.4.4 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on poems a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-15. Select Limit allocated duration to Essay on . Specify the amount of biggest, time a user or group receives to on Biological act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the vak learning theory global escalation and Essay Replicates renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and legacy Escalation Policy section (known as the on Biological routing slip level) of the of copper Human Task editor are applied. On! For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4.5 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to Essay about Theology John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to on Biological Replicates Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. For the management chain participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.5 Configuring the Sequential List of Approvers Participant Type. Figure 15-16 displays the mother to son poems Sequential List of Approvers window. This enables you to create a list of sequential participants for a workflow. For example, if you want a document to be reviewed by John, Mary, and Scott in sequence, use this participant type. This is similar to the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an organization hierarchy. For the on sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of electrolysis of copper, users or groups. Figure 15-16 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for Essay Replicates configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Sequential List of Approvers window are listed in Table 15-6. Table 15-6 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. 15.6.5.5.1 Assigning Participants to the Sequential List of Approvers Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the Creating Theology first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and on Biological Replicates the lookup of Essay Creating a Personal of Leadership, user properties, roles, group memberships, and on Biological privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. Electrolysis Of Copper! For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.5.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. On! Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for theory accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Biological! Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of london biggest, a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.5.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Essay Biological, Figure 15-16. Click Limit allocated duration to to son poems . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on on Biological a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in about Theology, the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the on global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and decline of rome Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.5.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to Essay on invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in electrolysis, this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to Essay on Biological Replicates John Steinbeck. For the tk maxx sequential list of approvers participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.6 Configuring the FYI Assignee Participant Type. Figure 15-17 displays the FYI Assignee window. This participant type is used when a task is sent to Essay Biological Replicates a user, but the theory business process does not wait for Essay on a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of tk maxx london, a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. For example, a magazine subscription is due for renewal. If the user does not cancel the current subscription before the expiration date, the Essay Replicates subscription is renewed. This user is reminded weekly until the request expires or the user acts on it. Figure 15-17 Add Participant Type #x2014; FYI Assignee. The Great! Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). On Biological Replicates! Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee window are listed in Table 15-7: Table 15-7 Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee. 15.6.5.6.1 Assigning Participants to the FYI Assignee Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and tk maxx store the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an on Biological Replicates, LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for decline of rome IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the on icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to Essay about Theology the Single Approver Task for rules to on Replicates follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.6.2 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and mother comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 15.6.5.7 Configuring the Essay Replicates External Routing Service Participant Type. Figure 15-18 displays the External Routing Service window. Decline Of Rome! This participant type enables you to on configure an external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in the workflow. If this participant type is electrolysis specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of on Biological Replicates, participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and so on) at run time to determine the routing of the of copper task. Figure 15-18 Add Participant Type #x2014; External Routing Service. Enter a recognizable label for Essay on this participant in vak learning, the Label field. On! This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Enter the fully qualified class file name or click the flashlight icon to select the name (for example, the theory org.mycompany.tasks.RoutingService class name). This class must implement the oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IAssignmentService interface. Click the + sign to add name and on Biological Replicates pair value parameters that can be passed to the external service. 15.6.5.8 Allowing All Participants to Invite Other Participants. After you configure a participant type and are returned to the great the Human Task editor, the Allow all participants to invite other participants check box is enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. Figure 15-19 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Routing Policy Section. This check box is the equivalent of the Adhoc workflow pattern of previous BPEL releases. This applies when there is at Essay on Replicates, least one participant. Electrolysis! In this case, each user selects users or groups as the next assignee when approving the Biological Replicates task. If you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in alexander, this workflow, select the Allow all participants to invite other participants check box. 15.6.5.9 Abruptly Completing a Condition. After you configure a participant type and are returned to Essay on Biological the Human Task editor, the Enable abrupt completion condition check box is enabled, as shown in decline of rome, Figure 15-19. If you want to specify conditions under which to on complete the task early, regardless of the vak learning other participants in the workflow, select the Enable abrupt completion condition check box. The Abrupt Completion Details window appears. For example, assume an expense report goes to the manager, and then the director. If the first participant (manager) rejects it, you can end the on workflow without sending it to the next participant (director). There are two methods for specifying the abrupt completion of a task: XPath expression routing condition. If outcomes are specified, any time the selected task outcome occurs, the task completes. To Son! If both outcome and routing condition are specified, the workflow service performs a logical OR on the two. Select appropriate outcomes and click the Essay button. To select all, click the button. Click the icon to the right of the Routing Condition field to display the electrolysis Expression Builder window for dynamically creating a condition under which to complete this task early. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. Click OK to Biological Replicates return to the Human Task editor. The check box is decline of rome selected, indicating that you have defined information. Essay Biological Replicates! You can click the alexander legacy icon to the right of the Enable abrupt completion condition check box to edit this information. 15.6.6 Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task. Figure 15-20 shows the on Biological Expiration and tk maxx london biggest store Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. You can specify expiration duration of a task in this global policy section (also known as the routing slip level). If expiration duration is Essay on Biological Replicates specified at the routing slip level instead of at the participant type level, then this duration is the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. However, if you specify expiration duration at the participant type level (through the Limit allocated duration to field), then those settings take precedence over settings specified in the Expiration and mother poems Escalation Policy section (routing slip level). Figure 15-20 Human Task Editor #x2014; Expiration and Essay Escalation Policy Section. 15.6.6.1 Overview or Escalation and Expiration Policy. This section provides an overview of decline of rome, how specifying the expiration duration at this level makes this setting the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. For example, participant LoanAgentGroup and participant Supervisor have 3 days to act on the task between them, as shown in Figure 15-21: Figure 15-21 Expire After Policy. If there is no expiration specified at either the participant level or this routing slip level, then that task has no expiration duration. If expiration duration is Essay on specified at any of the participant's level, then for that participant the participant expiration duration is used. However, the global expiration duration is tk maxx london biggest still used for the participants that do not have participant level expiration duration. The global expiration duration is always decremented by the time elapsed in the task. The policy to Essay interpret the participant level expiration for decline of rome the participants is Essay described below: Management Chain #x2014; Each participant in the management chain gets the same expiration duration. Electrolysis! The duration is not for all the assignments resulting from Biological Replicates, this assignment. Vak Learning Theory! If the task expires at any of the assignments in the management chain, the task expires and the escalation and renewal policy is applied. Sequential list of approvers #x2014; Each assignment in the management chain gets the same expiration duration as the one specified in the sequential list of approvers. Note that the duration is not for all the assignments resulting from this assignment. If the task expires at any of the assignments in the management chain, the task expires and the escalation and renewal policy is applied. In a group vote workflow, if the on Biological parallel participants are specified as a resource, a routing slip is created for each of the resources. The expiration duration of Essay Creating a Personal, each created routing slip follows these rules: The expiration duration is the same as the expiration duration of the Essay on Biological parallel participant if it has an expiration duration specified. Decline Of Rome! The expiration duration that is left on the task if it was specified at the routing slip level. No expiration duration, otherwise. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration duration for the parallel participants are determined by the routing slip. When the parent task expires in a parallel task, the subtasks are withdrawn if those tasks have not expired or completed. In the following routing slip sample, participant Loan Agent Group has an expiration duration of 1 day and participant Loan Agent Supervisor does not have any expiration duration on the task, even though an Essay, expiration duration is specified at the routing slip level. In this example, the routing slip is treated just as if there were no expiration duration specified at the routing slip level. Table 15-8 demonstrates the expiration policy. Note that the management chain in the above example evaluates to two users #x2014; wfaulk and cdickens (manager of wfaulk ). Legacy! Table 15-8 Expiration Policy. Select an escalation and expiration policy. You can enter a fixed time or a dynamic time by clicking the icon to the right of the Essay Replicates By Expression field to display the Expression Builder window. If you never want the task to expire, select Never Expire from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Mother Poems! If you want the task to expire, select Expire after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the maximum time period for the task to remain open. When the task expires, either the escalation policy or the renewal policy at Essay on, the routing slip level is london biggest store applied. If neither is specified, the task expires. The expiration policy at the routing slip level is common to all the participants. The expiration policy for parallel participants is on interpreted as follows. If parallel participants are specified as resources in parallel elements, there is decline of rome no expiration policy for each of those participants. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration policy for Essay on the routing slip applies to electrolysis of copper the parallel participants. Figure 15-22 indicates that the task expires in 3 days. Figure 15-22 Expire After Policy. If you want to extend the expiration period when the user does not respond within the allotted time, select Renew after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the maximum number of times to continue renewing this task. The renewal policy specifies the Essay number of times the task can be renewed on expiration and the renewal duration. In Figure 15-23, when the task expires, it is renewed at mother poems, most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Figure 15-23 Renew After Policy. If you want to escalate the task (for example, to Essay on the user's manager) if the decline of rome user does not respond within the allotted time, select Escalate after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the following additional values: Maximum Escalation Levels. Number of management levels to which to escalate the task. Highest Approver Title. The title of the highest approver (for example, self, manager, director, or CEO). On Replicates! The escalation policy specifies the number of times the task can be escalated on decline of rome expiration and the renewal duration. In Figure 15-24, when the on Replicates task expires, it is Creating Theology of Leadership escalated at most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Figure 15-24 Escalate After Policy. 15.6.7 Specifying Participant Notification Preferences. Figure 15-25 shows the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor (when fully expanded). Notifications indicate when a user is assigned a task or informed that the status of the task has changed. Notifications can be sent through e-mail, voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. Notifications are sent to different types of participants for Essay on Biological Replicates different actions. Notifications are configured by default with default messages. For example, a notification message is sent to Essay Creating of Leadership indicate that a task has completed and closed. You can create your own or modify existing configurations. Figure 15-25 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Click the on Biological Replicates + sign to expand the Notification Settings section (displays as shown in Figure 15-25). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Notification Setting s section are listed in Table 15-9. Table 15-9 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Make e-mail messages actionable. Send task attachments with email notifications. 15.6.7.1 Notifying Recipients of Changes to Task Status. Of Copper! Three default status types display in the Task Status column: Assign , Complete , and Biological Error . You can select other status types for to son poems which to receive notification messages. Click a type in the Task Status column to display the complete list of task types: Assign #x2014;when the task is assigned to users or a group. This action captures the following actions: Task is assigned to a user. Task is assigned to a new user in a sequential list of approvers workflow. Task is renewed. Task is delegated. Task is Essay on reassigned. Task is escalated. Information for a task is submitted. Select a task status type. Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in various capacities. This includes when the task is assigned to a group, each user in the group is sent a notification if there is no notification endpoint available for the group. Click an entry in the Recipient column to display a list of possible recipients for the notification message. Assignees #x2014;the users or groups to whom the task is Essay about a Personal Theology of Leadership currently assigned. Biological! Initiator #x2014;the user who created the task. Approvers #x2014;the users who have approved the task so far. This applies in a sequential list of approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to all of them. Owner #x2014;the task owner. 15.6.7.2 Editing the Notification Message. A default notification message is the great legacy available for delivery to the selected recipient. If you want, you can modify the default message text. Essay On Replicates! Click the icon in the Notification Header column to tk maxx biggest store modify the default notification message. The Edit Notification Message window appears. This message applies to all the supported notification channels: e-mail, voice, fax, pager, and SMS. E-mail and fax messages can also include the worklist task detail defined in Biological Replicates, this message. The channel by electrolysis of copper, which the message is delivered is based upon the notification preferences you specify. Modify the message wording as necessary. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. You can send task reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the Essay on Replicates reminders can also be configured. Select the number of reminders to send from the Remind list. If you selected to alexander remind the assignee one, two, or three times, select the interval between reminders, and whether to send the reminder before or after the assignment. 15.6.7.4 Securing Notifications, Making Messages Actionable, and Replicates Sending Attachments. You can perform additional notification tasks in this section. Select the corresponding check box for functionality you want to use. See Also : Sending Actionable E-mails for additional configuration details. 15.6.8 Specifying Advanced Settings. This section enables you to specify advanced human task features, such as specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions and error messages, and theory callback classes. Biological Replicates! Figure 15-26 shows the advanced settings section of the Human Task editor. Figure 15-26 Human Task Editor #x2014; Advanced Settings Section. Table 15-10 describes the sections available. Table 15-10 Advanced Settings Sections. 15.6.8.1 Specifying Escalation Rules. This option allows a custom escalation rule to be plugged in for a particular workflow. Vak Learning Theory! For example, to assign the task to a current user's department manager on task expiration, you can write a custom task escalation function, register it with the workflow service, and use that function in task definitions. The default escalation rule is to assign a task to the manager of the current user. On Biological! To add a new escalation rule, follow the steps below. Implement interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicTaskEscalationFunction . This implementation has to be available in the classpath for the server. Change the biggest store file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml to add a new function: Enter the function name as defined in the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file for the escalation rule in the Specify Escalation Rule field. 15.6.8.2 Specifying WordML Style Sheets for Attachments. This option allows dynamic creation of Replicates, Microsoft Word documents for the purpose of sending them as e-mail attachments using a WordML XSLT stylesheet. The XSLT stylesheet is applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to select a WordML style sheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.3 Specifying Style Sheets for Attachments. This option allows creation of e-mail attachments using an XSLT stylesheet. The XSLT stylesheet is applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to select a stylesheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.4 Specifying Multilingual Settings. Tk Maxx Store! You can specify resource bundles for displaying task details in Essay on Biological, different languages in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Resource bundles are supported for the following task details. Displaying the value for decline of rome task outcomes in plain text or with the message(key) format. Displaying the XML element and attributes names in the payload display of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. The key name in the resource bundle must be the same as the on name of the XML element and attributes for internationalization of XML element names in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. About Creating Theology! Making e-mail notification messages available in different languages. At run time, specify the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) to obtain the internationalized string from the on Biological specified resource bundle. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the london biggest store function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) . Click Configure Resource . On Biological Replicates! The Resource Details window appears. Enter the name of the resource used in the resource bundle. Click the flashlight icon to decline of rome select the JAR or ZIP resource bundle file to use. The resource bundle can be part of your BPEL suitcase. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. 15.6.8.5 Overriding Default System Actions. The actions performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application are common to all business processes. However, you can restrict some actions in a particular business process. For example, assume that in a loan approval process, the business requirement is to never suspend a loan application. To model this scenario at Essay on Replicates, design time, you can select Suspend as a restricted action. When an action is selected as restricted, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application does not display the action for this task. By default, these actions are available on all tasks based on the user's privileges. The task owner or bpeladmin administrator can always perform any of these actions on processes they own. Click Configure Actions . Select the system actions allowed on a task. By default, all are selected and available (unrestricted). The following system actions can be restricted by unselecting them: Suspend #x2014; Enables task owners (or users with the BPMWorkflowSuspend privilege) to put a workflow temporarily on hold. Task expiration and escalation do not apply until the of copper workflow is resumed. No actions are permitted on a suspended task (except resume and withdraw). Push back #x2014; Sends the task one level back in the workflow. For example, assume the task was routed to Essay on the LoanAgentGroup and then to jstein . If jstein now pushes the task back, it goes back to the LoanAgentGroup. Renew #x2014; If a task is about to Creating a Personal Theology expire, a task assignee can renew the task and request more time to perform the task. This operation is Essay Biological not allowed if the process designer has restricted task renewal on of copper the workflow. Skip current assignment #x2014; Skips the Essay on Biological current assignment and decline of rome moves to the next assignment or picks the Biological Replicates outcome as set by the previous approver if there are no more assignees. Adhoc Route #x2014; Enables a user to enter an outcome and theory then route the task in on, an adhoc fashion to the next user who must review the task. Request Information #x2014; Any workflow participant can request information from the task initiator or any of the prior approvers of the mother poems task. Essay! When the requested information is submitted, the task is mother poems assigned to the user who requested the information. Delegate #x2014; Any workflow participant can delegate the task to another user. In this case, the other user is acting on behalf of the current assignee. When the task is delegated, it resides on both users' worklists until the original assignee or the delegated person acts on it. Reassign #x2014; Enables the Essay Biological current assignee of the task to transfer it to another user or group. In this case, the task is moved from the poems worklist of the current assignee to the new assignee. Escalate #x2014; Escalates a task to their manager for Essay on Biological further action. Withdraw #x2014; Enables the decline of rome task initiator to withdraw any pending task if they no longer want to send it through the Replicates workflow. A task owner can also withdraw a task on behalf of the initiator. When a task is Essay Theology withdrawn, the business process is called back with the state attribute of the task set to Withdrawn . On Biological! Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Alexander! 15.6.8.6 Overriding Default Exception Management. Tasks can error due to incorrect assignments. Incorrect assignments can occur for on Biological Replicates any of the following reasons: Invalid assignees #x2014; The task assignee user or group is not a valid user in the system. Invalid dynamic assignment #x2014; When assignees are specified to be dynamic, the dynamic XPath expression is vak learning theory not evaluated. In the above cases, the task is marked as errored. By default, the life cycle of the task is completed with that action.During modeling of workflow tasks, you can specify error assignees for Replicates the workflow. If error assignees are specified, they are evaluated and the task is assigned to them. Alexander The Great Legacy! The error assignee can perform one of the following actions: Adhoc route #x2014; route the task to the actual users assigned to Replicates the task. Adhoc route allows the task to be routed to users in sequence, parallel, and so on. Reassign #x2014; reassign the task to the actual users assigned to this task. Error task #x2014; indicate that this task cannot be rectified. If there are any errors in evaluating the biggest error assignees, the on Biological Replicates task is marked as errored. This window enables you to specify the users or groups to whom the task is assigned if an error in assignment has occurred. Click Configure Assignment . Of Copper! Select the error assignees. On Replicates! 15.6.8.7 Specifying Callback Classes on Task Status. Vak Learning! You can register callbacks for the workflow service to call during the life cycle of a task. The callback class has to Essay on Replicates implement the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . Make the callback class available in the classpath of the server. Click Configure Callbacks . Poems! Click the + sign to add a callback to the table. A callback named OnAssigned is automatically added to the Callback column. Click OnAssigned to display a list of additional callback values to select for on Biological Replicates this column. The following callbacks are available: onCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onAssigned #x2014; This callback is decline of rome invoked when the task is assigned to a new set of assignees due to the following actions: skip current assignment. Essay On! override routing slip. Electrolysis! onUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on a task due to Essay on request for information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubtaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is tk maxx biggest invoked for any update to a subtask. Click Java in the Type column to display a list of additional values for Biological Replicates this column. Click the empty field in the Value column to enter a value. The value is the complete class name of the Creating Java class that implements oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . 15.6.8.8 Allowing Task and Replicates Routing Customization in BPEL Callbacks. Electrolysis! The Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box must be selected if you select the check box of the same name on the Human Task - Advanced tab shown in Figure 15-28. Essay On Biological! Selecting both check boxes updates the metadata for callbacks. Vak Learning Theory! 15.6.9 Exiting the Human Task Editor and Saving Your Changes. Biological Replicates! You can save your human task changes at any time. The task can be re-edited at a later time by biggest, clicking the metadata task configuration .task file in the Application Navigator . Select Save from the File main menu or click the Essay on Biological Replicates X sign to electrolysis of copper close the .task metadata task configuration file. If you click the X sign, select Yes when prompted to save your changes. 15.7 Task 2: Associating the Human Task with a BPEL Process. Essay Biological Replicates! You must associate the .task file that consists of the human task settings with a BPEL process. When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on a task. The method by which you created the human task indicates if the task is already associated with a BPEL process. Electrolysis Of Copper! Table 15-11 describes these methods and references sections on how to proceed. Note that regardless of whether you have already associated the human task with a BPEL process, you must still define key human task activity properties, including the Essay Biological Replicates task title, task initiator, task priority, and task parameter variables. These tasks are described in Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and vak learning theory Parameter Variables and Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. On Biological Replicates! Table 15-11 Human Task Association with the Creating Theology BPEL Process. Right-clicked the BPEL process in the Application Navigator . Selected Create Human Task Definition . Dragged and dropped a human task activity into the BPEL process. Replicates! Selected the second icon ( Create Task Definition ) to the right of the alexander the great Task Definition field in the General tab of the Human Task window. Biological Replicates! 15.7.1 Associating a Human Worklist Task with a BPEL Process. Select the BPEL process with which to associate the .task file of the london store human task in the Application Navigator . Select Process Activities from the Component Palette . Drag and Essay on Replicates drop a new Human Task activity into your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. When you first drag and drop this activity into the great, Oracle JDeveloper, the window is named Add a Human Task . After you finish specifying details on this window and click OK , the name of this window changes to simply Human Task . Click the first icon to the right of the Task Definition field. The Choose Task Definition File appears. On Replicates! Select the .task file and click Open . This file is located in mother to son poems, the bpel human_task_name directory of your BPEL process. The .task file is added to the Task Definition field. Essay On Biological! See the following sections to configure the human task activity: 15.7.2 Opening a Human Task Activity Already Associated with a BPEL Process. Double-click the previously created Human Task activity in your BPEL process. The Human Task window appears. Click the third icon to the right of the Task Definition field to open the human worklist task you previously created. See the following sections to configure the human task activity: 15.7.3 Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and the great Parameter Variables. Essay On! Figure 15-27 shows the General tab. Figure 15-27 Human Task #x2014; General Tab. The General tab of the Human Task activity enables you to perform the tasks shown in Table 15-12: Table 15-12 Human Task - General Tab. Enter the task title in the Task Title field through one of the following methods. This is a mandatory field. Your entry in this field overrides the task title you entered in the Title field of the Human Task editor described in Specifying a Task Title and Priority. The title displays the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Enter the title manually. Click the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window to dynamically create the title. You can also mix static text and dynamic expressions in the same title. To include dynamic text, place your cursor at the appropriate point in the text and click the icon on the right to invoke the Expression Builder window. 15.7.3.2 Specifying the Task Initiator and alexander Task Priority. Enter the initiator (for example, jcooper ) or click the icon to the right of the Initiator field to Essay on Replicates display the Expression Builder window for dynamically specifying an initiator. This field is optional. The initiator is the user who initiates a task. The initiator can view their created tasks from the mother to son poems Oracle BPEL Worklist Application and perform specific tasks defined in the System Action Details window, such as withdrawing or suspending a task. If not specified, the initiator defaults to on Replicates the task owner specified on the Advanced tab of the about Creating a Personal Theology of Leadership Human Task window. The initiator defaults to bpeladmin if a task owner is Replicates also not specified. Select a priority value between 1 (the highest) and 5 from the Priority list. This field is of copper provided for user reference and Essay Biological Replicates does not make this task a higher priority during run time. The priority can be used to sort tasks in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Vak Learning Theory! This priority value overrides the priority value you select in the Priority list of the Human Task editor. Specifying a Task Title and Essay Biological Priority for instructions on specifying the vak learning theory priority in the Human Task editor. The task parameter table displays a list of task parameters after you complete the Task Title and Essay on Replicates Initiator fields. Click the flashlight in the BPEL Variable column to map the task parameter to the BPEL variable. Electrolysis Of Copper! You must map only the task parameters that carry input data. For output data that is filled in from the worklist, you do not need to Essay on Replicates map the corresponding variables. The Task Parameters window appears. Expand the Variables navigation tree and select the appropriate task variable. The Human Task window appears as follows. If you want to define advanced features for the human task activity, click the Advanced tab and go to decline of rome section Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Otherwise, click OK to close the Human Task window. 15.7.4 Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Figure 15-28 shows the Advanced tab. Figure 15-28 Human Task #x2014; Advanced Tab. The Advanced tab of the Human Task activity enables you to perform the tasks shown in on, Table 15-13: Table 15-13 Human Task - Advanced Tab. Global Task Variable Name. 15.7.4.1 Specifying a Scope Name and decline of rome a Global Task Variable Name. You are automatically provided with default scope and global task variable names during human task activity creation. Essay On Biological! However, you can specify custom names that are used to name the scope and global variable during human task activity creation. Enter the name for the BPEL scope to be generated in the Scope Name field. Decline Of Rome! This BPEL scope encapsulates the entire interaction with the workflow service and BPEL variable manipulation. Enter the global task variable name in the Global Task Variable Name field. This is the on Replicates name of the BPEL task variable used for the workflow interaction. Essay Creating A Personal Theology! Enter the task owner name in the Owner field or click the icon to the right to use the Expression Builder to dynamically specify the on Biological Replicates owner of this task. The task owner can view tasks belonging to business processes they own and perform operations on behalf of any of the task assignees. Additionally, the to son owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. If you do not specify a task initiator on the General tab of the Human Task window, it defaults to the owner specified here. If an owner is not specified, it defaults to the bpeladmin administrator. 15.7.4.3 Specifying an Identification Key. Enter an optional identification key value in the Identification Key field. The identification key can be used as a user-defined ID for on Biological Replicates the task. For example, if the task is meant for tk maxx london store approving a purchase order, the purchase order ID can be set as the identification key of the task. Tasks can be searched from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application using the identification key. This attribute has no default value. 15.7.4.4 Including the Task History of Other Human Tasks. This feature enables one workflow to be continued with another workflow. On Biological Replicates! Select the Include task history from check box to extend a previous workflow task in alexander legacy, the BPEL process. Selecting this check box includes the task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. When a workflow task is Essay on Biological continued with another workflow, the following information is carried over to the new workflow: Task payload and the changes made to the payload in the previous workflow. Decline Of Rome! Comments added to the task in the previous workflow. Attachments added to on Replicates the task in the previous workflow. In the Include task history from list, all existing workflows are listed. Selecting a particular workflow permits you to the great extend (continue) the selected workflow. On Biological! For example, a hiring process is used to london hire new employees. Biological Replicates! Each interviewer votes to hire or not hire a candidate. If 75% of the votes are to hire, then the candidate is hired; otherwise, the tk maxx london biggest store candidate is rejected. If the candidate is to be hired, an entry in the HR database is created and the human resources contact completes the hiring process. The HR contact also needs to see the Essay on Replicates interviewers and the comments they made about the candidate. This process can be modeled using a group vote for the hiring. If the candidate is vak learning theory hired, a database adapter is used to Biological create the entry in the HR database. After this, a simple workflow can include the task history from the group vote so that the hiring request, history, and electrolysis of copper interviewer comments are carried over. This simple workflow is assigned to Essay on Replicates the HR contact. 15.7.4.5 Allowing Task and Routing Customizations in BPEL Callbacks. Select the Allow task and routing customizations in decline of rome, BPEL callbacks check box to notify the BPEL process using OnMessage callbacks every time a task is Essay on Replicates routed to a different user or when the task status changes. You must also select the check box of the same name in the Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor shown in Figure 15-26 in order to update the metadata for callbacks. Electrolysis! In these callbacks, you can call the Task Service to change the routing or update the current assignees. This option impacts the Biological Replicates BPEL code generated to interact with the Task Service. If this option is not selected, the client process gets notified only when the task completes or when it expires or errors out. Click OK to close the Human Task window. Go to decline of rome the Human Task editor for this human task (the .task file). Expand the Advanced Settings section at the bottom of the editor. Click Allow task and routing customization in on, BPEL callbacks . Alexander The Great Legacy! This check box must be selected to use callbacks. This enables you to update the metadata. Essay! 15.7.5 Viewing the Generated Human Task Activity. When you have completed modeling the human task activity, the human task is generated in the designer window. Figure 15-29 shows how a workflow interaction is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Figure 15-29 also illustrates the interaction when no BPEL callbacks are modeled. In this case, once a task is decline of rome complete, the BPEL process is called back with the completed task. No intermediary events are propagated to the BPEL process instance. It is recommended that any user customizations be done in Essay Biological Replicates, the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-29 Workflow Interaction Modeling. Figure 15-30 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-30 Workflow Interaction Modeling in Oracle JDeveloper. If intermediary events need to be propagated to the BPEL process instance, select the Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box in both the Advanced tab of the Human Task window and the Advanced Settings section of the Essay Creating a Personal Theology of Leadership Human Task editor. When these options are selected, the workflow service invokes callbacks in the BPEL instance during each update of the task. The callbacks are listed in the TaskService.wsdl file and Essay on Biological described below: onTaskCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onTaskAssigned #x2014; This callback is theory invoked when the Essay on Biological task is assigned to a new set of assignees due to the following actions: Skip current assignment. Override routing slip. onTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on tasks due to request for information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Figure 15-31 shows how a workflow interaction with callbacks is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Once this task is initiated, a while loop is used to receive messages until the task is complete. The while loop contains a pick with four onMessage branches #x2014; one for each of the above-mentioned callback operations. The workflow interaction works fine even if nothing is changed in the onMessage branches, meaning that customizations in the onMessage branches are not required. Decline Of Rome! In this scenario, a workflow context is captured in the BPEL instance. On Biological! This context can be used for all interaction with the workflow services. For example, if you want to theory reassign a task if it is assigned to a group, then you need the workflow context for the reassignTask operation on the Task Service. It is recommended that any user customizations be done in the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-31 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) Figure 15-32 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-32 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) in Oracle JDeveloper. 15.7.5.2 Including the Task History from Other Workflows. When the task history is included in a workflow, the generated BPEL process described in the previous two sections is Replicates similar, with the following differences: The BPEL variable from the workflow whose task history is to be included is reused and no new BPEL variable is created. The first invoke activity invokes the reinitiate operation instead of the initiate operation. In many cases, the outcome of a task determines the flow of the business process. To facilitate modeling of the business logic, when a user task is generated, a BPEL switch activity is also generated with prebuilt BPEL case activities. By default, one case branch is created for each outcome selected during creation of the task. An otherwise branch is also generated in the switch to represent cases when the alexander the great legacy task is withdrawn, expired, or errored. The task carries a payload in it. If the on Replicates payload is set from a business process variable, then an assign activity with the name copyPayloadFromTask is created in each of the case and legacy otherwise branches to Essay on Biological Replicates copy the tk maxx biggest payload from the task back to its source. If the payload is expressed as other XPath expressions (such as ora:getNodes(. ) ), then this assign is Replicates not created because of the lack of a process variable to copy the payload back. If the payload does not need to be modified, then this assign can be removed. 15.7.6.2 Case Statements for Other Task Conclusions. By default, the switch activity contains case statements for the outcomes only. The other task conclusions are captured in the otherwise branch. These conclusions are as follows: The task is decline of rome withdrawn. Essay On Biological Replicates! The task is errored. The task is expired. If business logic must be added for each of these other conclusions, then case statements can be added for each of the preceding conditions. The case statements can be created as shown in the following BPEL segment. The XPath conditions for the other conclusions in the case activities for each of the preceding cases are shown in bold. Vak Learning Theory! 15.8 Task 3: Generating the Task Display Form. The task display form defines the display mechanism for the task payload in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section describes the different types of task display forms you can use. This section contains the following topics: 15.8.1 Overview of Task Display Forms. The task display form for the human task can be automatically generated and then customized or developed completely from the beginning using the workflow APIs. In the Replicates automatically generated case, a set of seeded templates and regions are used for the task forms. There are two methods for generating forms associated with the alexander task definition: Automatically generate a simple task form #x2014; JSP-based forms that use the standard header, body, and footer template. Custom task form #x2014; enables you to select one of the Biological existing templates and poems regions to create a task form. You can also specify which task parameters to display in the form. When task display forms are generated, a .tform file is on Biological Replicates created, which includes a template URI and region information. Alexander Legacy! The .tform file is included in the process deployment archive and Essay on Biological is deployed during process deployment. 15.8.2 Selecting a Task Display Form. Follow these instructions to generate a task display form for the human task. Go to the Application Navigator in Oracle JDeveloper. Right-click the folder of the human task for which to create a task display form (for this example, ExpenseApproval of the ExpenseRequest BPEL process in selected). The following menu of selections appears. Essay A Personal Of Leadership! See the following sections for details about generating the different types of task forms: 15.8.2.1 Preview Release of Task Display Form Support for ADF Data Controls. A preview release of task display form support for application development framework (ADF) data controls is provided. Very minimal support is provided with this preview release. Note the following limitations: There is Biological no support for complex XSDs with recursive elements. Task forms generated with ADF data controls cannot be edited. Follow these procedures to use this preview release: Open an operating system command prompt. Poems! Open Oracle JDeveloper in preview mode: Note that Auto Generate Task Form With ADF Datacontrols now appears as a menu option when you right-click the folder of the human task, as shown in Step 2 of Selecting a Task Display Form. Essay Replicates! Open the SOA_Oracle_Home j2ee OC4J_Home configserver.xml file. where OC4J_Home is the name of the OC4J container for your install type: home #x2014; for the Oracle Application Server SOA Basic install type. Theory! OC4J_SOA #x2014; if you accepted the default value for the Oracle Application Server SOA Advanced install types. Add the following line under the shared-library name=oracle.bpel.common version=10.1.3 section: Restart Oracle Application Server SOA Suite for the changes to Essay Replicates take effect. 15.8.3 Automatically Generating a Simple Task Display Form. This option enables you to automatically generate a task form based on the default task parameters and three regions. Select Auto Generate Simple Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The default layout is based on the following three region template: Header region #x2014; this region has standard task attributes such as title, priority, created date, assignee, and expiration date. This information is contained in alexander legacy, the Header1.jsp file. Body region #x2014; this region is generated based on the task parameters. Depending on the XSD used in the task, it is either generated as a list of values or as a table (for repeating items). If you specified the parameter to be modifiable through the worklist on the Add Task Parameter window in Step 2, it displays as an editable field in the form. Otherwise, the field displays as read-only. The information for this region is contained in the payload-body.jsp file and the payload-body.xml mapping file. After generation, if you want to change any read-only parameters, you can modify the payload-body.xml file. Footer region #x2014; this region has an Essay on Biological Replicates, area for comments, attachments, and a short history of the task routing. This information is contained in the Footer1.jsp file. A .tform file is generated. The contents of this file are as follows: 15.8.3.1 Payload File for the Autogenerated JSP. Two files are automatically generated to display the payload for decline of rome the autogenerated JSP: A default JSP file named payload-body.jsp . This file is added to the HTML root directory of your project, which is by default the public_html directory. A mapping XML file named payload-body.xml . This file is Essay on Replicates added to the same directory of Theology, your project as payload-body.jsp. If you select Custom Task Form in Step 2, you can specify a unique file name for Essay the autogenerated JSP. The mapping XML file is created based on the JSP file name. You can also select the payload elements to include in the autogenerated JSP. For example, if the JSP file is named autogenerate-body.jsp , then the decline of rome mapping XML file is Essay on Biological Replicates named autogenerate-body.xml . The Great! The JSP run-time library and the BPMWorkflow library are automatically added to your BPEL project for Essay on Biological compilation of the JSP file. The default JSP is designed with two goals in mind: To present you with a simple form; that is, an XSD tree with a depth of more than three must be shown in a more readable way in the JSP. The default JSP must require minimum modification. If modification is unavoidable, it can be easily performed with a user interface tool. To attain these goals, instead of presenting a tree structure that mimics the payload XSD structure, the default JSP groups the entire payload structure in sections. It groups simple types that belong to the same parents and makes them sections. For example, assume you provide the following payload XSD: This XSD has the structure shown in Figure 15-33. Figure 15-33 Structure of the XSD for myCompanyType. In the tk maxx default JSP, based on the structure of the leaf nodes, there are three sections: , , and . These three sections are named according to Essay on Replicates their parents' names; that is, the sections are named board , my Company , and department , respectively. In the board section, there are two fields, size and head . Each of these fields are in an editable HTML input type.The section department is different from other sections and can have multiple occurrences ( maxOccurs 1 ). In this case, all the fields in this section (that is, size , head , and function ) are horizontally presented in a table, with each row representing one department . This is called a table section. There is to son a plus ( + ) button for adding a row (department) and a minus ( - ) button for subtracting a row (department) for the department table section.Unlike a regular section, it is Essay Biological not necessarily true that all the fields belong to the same XSD parent in a table section. For example, suppose the vak learning head element has two elements: employeeNumber and dateOfBirth . Since these two elements have maxOccurs set to Essay on Replicates less than or equal to 1 , they are shown in the same department table section. This is a desired behavior, because adding a row in the department table not only adds a size and a function field, but also adds the head information fields in alexander, the same department row. Biological! This makes it easy to move through complicated payload instances. Alexander! Nested multiple ( maxOccurs 1 ) elements are supported. Assume the department element has a groupMember child element whose maxOccurs is unbounded. In that case, the parent element department is presented in a table section while the child groupMember elements are presented in different child table sections. The parent department table section has a column called group member that contains an HTML href link pointing to its corresponding child group member section in each department row. Pressing the + button in the parent department section not only adds a row in the parent table, but also adds a child section for that corresponding new row. Biological! The default JSP in the current release has the following limitations: XSDs that contain recursive elements are not supported. The default JSP shows all the simple types defined in decline of rome, the payload XSD. If multiple simple types belong to Essay on the same XSD choice block, all these simple types are shown in the default JSP. Essay About Of Leadership! Although simple types are preserved in the JSP, XSD restrictions are not relevant. Only payloads copied from variables that are not simple types are supported. For example, if the query is on Biological Replicates bpws:getVariableData(var) or bpws:getVariableData(var, part) and the variable is a simple type, then JSP generation fails. Note that bpws:getVariableData(var, part, query) and tk maxx biggest store bpws:getVariableData(var, query) work even if the queried data is a simple type. You only need to make sure the variable itself is not a simple type. XSI extensions are not supported. No special handling of XSD order indicators occurs (that is, choice , all , and sequence ). Replicates! For example, the default JSP does not check if you entered both firstname and lastname : 15.8.3.1.1 Customizing the Autogenerated JSP. The autogenerated default JSP is generic, and vak learning theory so may require changes to Essay on Replicates improve its look and feel. The JSP works in conjunction with the mapping file to about of Leadership determine which elements in on, the payload are displayed in electrolysis, the form. Essay On Biological! 15.8.3.1.2 Customizing the Mapping File. The mapping file gives you control of the vak learning theory presentation. The mapping file is an XML file that contains a list of viewable fields. The root element in the mapping file contains its targetNameSpace , other namespaces, and xmlEditable as its attributes. All the elements that are simple types are listed as fields in the mapping file. Along with these elements, their immediate parents are listed as well for multilanguage support. Each field has three properties defined in the mapping file. They are xpath , editable , and Essay Biological Replicates resource_key . The xpath property defines the XPath of this field. It is always prefixed by /ns0:task/ns0:payload . This is the XPath to the root of the payload object. Tk Maxx London Store! When maxOccurs is greater than 1 , it is denoted by
  • . For example, /ns0:task/ns0:payload/company[*]/ceo shows that maxOccurs is greater than 1 for the company field. Essay On Biological! Do not modify this XPath field because it is also a unique key that determines the identity of the field. The editable property defines if this field is editable. It defaults to alexander legacy true . If the value of this field is changed to false , the default JSP shows a disabled text field that disallows value changes. The resource_key property is for multilanguage support. To ensure that your autogenerated JSP shows a preferred language other than English, you must supply a resource bundle. Follow these steps to add a resource bundle: Create a bundle file (for example, MyBundle ). This file points to a properties file that resides at Essay on Biological, the root of the project.
  • The following code shows an example of MyBundle_en-US.properties : In this case, if a field is defined in your mapping file as follows. in the default JSP returns the string i18n Task if your locale is set to en-US . Similarly, if your locale is set to French, the proper properties file ( MyBundle_fr.properties ) is picked up. Specify the resource bundle name and location in the Resource Details window of the electrolysis of copper Human Task editor, as shown in Specifying Multilingual Settings. 15.8.3.1.3 Customizing the Default JSP. If the mapping file does not provide enough control, you can modify the default JSP file. Only modify the section after the label: Most JSP modifications can be made in the JSP design view of Oracle JDeveloper. By default, all the Essay on Biological Replicates fields are set to text field. Decline Of Rome! If you want to change a text field to a text area, you can do the following. Select Text Area in the Component Palette , as shown in Figure 15-34. Essay Biological! Figure 15-34 Oracle JDeveloper JSP Design View. Drop it into the position of the text field you want to replace. Electrolysis! Note that the name of the text field is set by calling the function oracle.bpel.services.workflow.worklist.payload.PayloadFormGenerator.constructName(String xpath) , and the value of the field is set by PayloadFormGenerator.selectNodeValue(Element payload, String xpath, Map namespace) . These functions must be used to Replicates construct form field names and to retrieve form field values. Set the text area's name and value to the same name and value as the to son poems text field. Essay On! Delete the text field. Vak Learning! In the place you want to Essay Biological Replicates insert text or other HTML elements that are not in a table, add text by typing it or add an HTML element by dragging and dropping the HTML component from the Component Pallet . If the place you want to insert HTML elements is in an HTML table, to insert text or a horizontal rule, first add a table row by decline of rome, clicking a row, right-clicking, and selecting Insert Row . After a row is inserted, you may need to merge all the cells in the row by selecting all the cells in the row and right-clicking to Replicates select Merge Cells . Then you can either type your text or drag and drop your HTML component. Mother To Son Poems! If you want to change the layout of the table or form, highlight the section you want to modify, right-click, and select table or form. If you want to format the text, use the toolbar's color and style buttons. It is recommended that you modify the default JSP's look and feel only. You should preserve the functions being used in the JSP. You must not alter the hidden parameters being submitted in the HTML form, because the Update button invokes form submission to the WFTaskUpdate that expects certain values. If your change is complicated and has programming logic in it, you must switch to the source view and Essay on modify the decline of rome JSP code directly. By putting the statement %@ page pageEncoding=UTF-8 % in Essay Biological, the default JSP, UTF-8 is set as the default encoding. The HelpDeskServiceRequest demo in SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsamplesdemos for an example of an autogenerated JSP and how to change the payload presentation. 15.8.3.1.4 Displaying a Check Box on the Worklist Payload JSP. Follow these instructions if you want to customize the JSP page to of copper display a selectable check box instead of a text box. Note that the input for the status is generated as follows. Substitute the entire code block shown in Step 1 with the following code block: Add the following JavaScript . This is required because the value for the check box field in JavaScript is always the value defined in the input element. 15.8.4 Generating a Custom Task Display Form. Essay On Replicates! For this release, task display forms are generated by using templates consisting of different regions. Oracle JDeveloper automatically includes three templates and decline of rome two default JSPs: The three templates are as follows: Three Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header, body and footer regions. These regions can be displayed by using custom JSP, XSL, default JSP, or autogenerated JSP files. The automatically generated JSP displays the body region. Two Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header and footer regions. One Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the body region. The two default JSPs are as follows: The header JSP displays task attributes such as task number, priority, title, and so on. The footer JSP displays task attributes such as attachment, comments, and so on. The custom task display form enables you to select the template and rendering type for displaying task details. Essay Biological Replicates! Select Custom Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The Task Form Display window appears. Select a template from the Current Template list. Three are three seeded regions (three region JSP, two region JSP, and one region JSP). After selecting a region, you can specify how to render it. See the following sections for details about generating the different types of decline of rome, custom task display forms: This option enables you to automatically generate a form for the payload of the on task. You can also optionally specify which particular task parameters you want to include in decline of rome, the displayed form. Select Auto JSP from the Body list in the Rendering section. An icon displays to the right of Body.jsp in Biological Replicates, the Source section. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to mother to son poems select message attributes. Select message attributes to include in on Biological Replicates, the autogenerated JSP. Click OK to return to the Task Form Display window. This option enables you to invoke an the great, external custom JSP to display the task details. You can also specify URL parameters to pass to this JSP at run time. Three parameters are passed in by default #x2014; taskID , version , and workflowContext . Essay Replicates! Additional parameters must be explicitly specified. Select Custom JSP from the a Personal Header list in the Rendering section. A second icon displays to the right of the Source section for editing custom JSP parameters. Enter the custom JSP file name in the Source field or click the first icon to select the JSP file to use. This JSP is used in the project and Biological Replicates deployed with the other JSP files. Click the second icon to specify run time JSP parameters. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to add input JSP parameters. Add a parameter by clicking the + sign. Add a name in tk maxx london store, the Name column. Click the icon to the right of the row to display the Expression Builder window to dynamically enter a value for the XPath column. For this example, the custom JSP is using a parameter named PRIORITY to receive the Essay on Biological task ID from the request. Therefore, PRIORITY is about a Personal specified as the name and Essay Replicates /tns:task/tns:systemAttributes/tns:PRIORITY is specified as the XPath expression. Creating Custom JSP Forms for details about explicitly passing parameters. This option provides the alexander legacy default Header1.jsp and Footer1.jsp files to display the header and Biological Replicates footer regions, respectively. This option enables you to specify an XSL to convert the task XML document into to son poems, an HTML document for Biological Replicates the form. Note that this is useful only to create read-only forms. Decline Of Rome! Enter the HTTP location in the Source field or click the first icon to select the Essay on Biological Replicates input XSL file to use. 15.8.5 Deploying Task Display Forms. Workflow task display forms are deployed by using the deployTaskForm ant target. This target is executed when you deploy the of copper BPEL process from Oracle JDeveloper or from the command prompt. This target generates an EAR file that includes all generated default or custom JSPs. On! This generated EAR file is deployed as a child of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager application. The following directory structure is generated. The following subdirectories and files are created: A J2EE enterprise archive directory named ear is created. EAR deployment descriptors are generated and stored in the META-INF subdirectory. A Web archive (WAR) directory named war is created. This directory contains the following files and subdirectories: Style sheets and Java server page files for the header ( Header1.jsp ), footer ( Footer1.jsp ), and body ( payload-body.jsp and payload-body.xml ) are generated and stored in vak learning, the war directory. Web service deployment descriptors are generated in Essay Biological Replicates, the subdirectory WEB-INF . You can delete all form-related files by right-clicking the human task folder in the Application Navigator and selecting Delete Task Form files . Tk Maxx! As described earlier, you can register a custom JSP for rendering the task details in the worklist. The BPEL worklist invokes any custom JSP that has been registered. Follow these instructions to create a custom JSP form. Get the task ID, version, and context ID from the request. Get the workflow context object based on the context ID. Essay! Get the task object based on the task ID and version. Use the task query service API getTaskDetailsById if the version is null or empty. Of Copper! Otherwise, use the getTaskVersionDetails API. Use the Essay on Replicates task object methods to get the values you want to display in the JSP. Decline Of Rome! In the Essay on Replicates case of update support, generate the hidden HTML type for the following parameters, so that the update servlet can read these parameter values: You can get the decline of rome values for these parameters in the custom JSP servlet request object. Run time invokes the Essay custom JSP by mother to son, passing these parameters. The following custom JSP code shows how to use these steps to write a custom JSP that uses the local query service and verification APIs. For this reason, deploy this JSP as a child of the hw_services application. If you do not want to deploy to the same application server, replace local APIs with remote APIs. On Biological Replicates! 15.8.6.1 Adding Update Support in the Custom JSP. To add update support in the custom JSP, you can write the decline of rome servlet that uses the remote task service APIs to update the custom JSP task values: Get the task object by using the same steps as used in on, the custom JSP. Query the task object and set the values based on the custom JSP form. For example, if the decline of rome custom JSP form allows a user to update the priority attribute, then get the priority JSP form value and call task.setPriority( newvalue ); . Use the remote task service API to update the task. Get the value from servlet parameter WORKLIST_NEXT_PAGE_PARAMETER_NAME , which the custom JSP page includes as a hidden parameter. Redirect the page to the URL. 15.9 How Changes to a Workflow Appear in Worklist Application. Changes made in Oracle BPEL Control to a BPEL process that includes a human task impact how tasks display in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: If you abort an active BPEL process instance on the Instances tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. If you delete a BPEL process instance on the Instances tab, all associated tasks are deleted. If you undeploy a BPEL process on Essay on Biological Replicates the BPEL Process tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. 15.10 Notifications from electrolysis of copper, Workflow Services. Notifications are sent to Replicates alert users of changes to the state of a task. Notifications can be sent through any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. This section contains the following topics: 15.10.1 Configuring the Notification Channel. London Biggest! After configuring the notification service for e-mail and other channels in Oracle JDeveloper, set the NotificationMode parameter for the notification service to either ALL or EMAIL in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigns_emails.xml file. By default, this value is set to NONE , meaning that no notifications are sent. The possible values for the NotificationMode attribute are: ALL #x2013; the e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and pager channels are configured and notification is sent through any channel. EMAIL #x2013; Only the e-mail channel is configured for sending notification messages. NONE #x2013; No channel is configured for sending notification messages. Biological! This is the default setting. The notifications for a task can be configured during the creation of a task in the Human Task editor. Notifications can be sent to different types of participants for different actions. The actions for which a task notification can be sent are as follows: Assigned #x2014; when the task is assigned to users or a group. This action captures the following task actions #x2014; acquire, adhoc route, delegate, escalate, information for a task is submitted, push back, reassign, release, and alexander resume. On Biological Replicates! Task is completed. Task is errored. Task is expired. Information is Essay Creating requested for Essay on Biological Replicates a task. Task outcome is updated. Task is suspended. Poems! Task is withdrawn. Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in various capacities. This includes: Assignees #x2013; the users or groups to Essay on Replicates whom the tk maxx london biggest task is currently assigned. Initiator - the user who created the on Biological Replicates task. Creator #x2013; the user who created the task. Approvers #x2013; the users who have approved the task so far. This applies to a sequential list of approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to vak learning theory all. Owner #x2013; the owner of the task. When the task is assigned to a group, each user in the group is sent a notification if no notification endpoint is available for the group. Service Configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for details about editing the ns_emails.xml file and (for the JAZN XML provider) users-properties.xml file. Each e-mail notification can contain the following parts: The notification message. The HTML content from the worklist application #x2014; This is a read-only view of the Essay Biological Replicates worklist application on the task. Task attachments #x2014; If the vak learning theory notification includes task attachments. Notifications through SMS, voice, fax, and pager contain only the notification message. The notification message is an XPath expression that can contain static text and dynamic values. In creating the messages, only the task BPEL variable is available for dynamic values. This restriction is Essay on because the messages are evaluated outside the context of the BPEL process. The payload in the task variable is also strongly typed to contain the type of the payload for XPath tree browsing. The XPath extension function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) is available to about Creating get properties for a particular notification. Essay On! The function evaluates to corresponding values for Essay Theology each notification. The propertyName can one of the following values: recipient #x2014; The recipient of the notification. recipientDisplay #x2014; The display name of the Essay Replicates recipient. Tk Maxx London Biggest! taskAssignees #x2014; The task assignees. taskAssigneesDisplay #x2014; The display names of the task assignees. locale #x2014; The locale of the recipient. taskId #x2014; The ID of the task for which the notification is meant. taskNumber #x2014; The number of the task for which the notification is meant. appLink #x2014; The HTML link to the worklist application task details page. The following example demonstrates the use of hwf:getNotificationProperty and Replicates hwf:getTaskResourceBundle together: This results in a message similar to the following: 15.10.3 Configuring Messages in alexander the great, Different Languages. It is possible to on Biological get internationalized messages in the notification content using one of the following methods. If you want to use values from the resource bundle specified during the electrolysis task definition, use the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) . This function returns the on internationalized string from the resource bundle specified in the task definition. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the mother to son poems function hwf:getNotificationProperty('locale') . The task ID corresponding to a notification can be retrieved with the Essay on Biological function hwf:getNotificationProperty('taskId') . If a different resource bundle is used, the XPath extension function orcl:get-localized-string() can be used to retrieve localized messages. Task actions can be performed through e-mail if the task is Essay a Personal of Leadership set up to on Replicates enable actionable e-mail (the same actions can also be performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application). An actionable e-mail account is the account in alexander, which task action-related e-mails are received and processed. This e-mail account name is identified by the element actionableEmailAccountName in the configuration file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf_config.xml . Ensure that you select Make e-mail messages actionable in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor to make e-mail notifications actionable. Essay Biological! (See Figure 15-25.) This enables you to perform task actions through e-mail. If a notification is actionable, the e-mail contains links for of copper each of the on Biological custom outcomes. Clicking on the links invokes the compose window of the e-mail client. You do not have to change anything in the subject or the body in this e-mail. If you change the content with the NID substrings, the e-mail is not processed. Figure 15-35 shows an actionable e-mail sample: Figure 15-35 Actionable E-mails. 15.10.5 Sending Inbound and Outbound Attachments. If the include attachments flag is checked; only e-mail is sent. The e-mails include all the a Personal Theology of Leadership task attachments as e-mail attachments. Select Send task attachments with e-mail notifications in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) In the actionable e-mail reply, the user can add attachments in the e-mail and these attachments are added as task attachments. In the actionable e-mail reply, the user can add comments in the e-mail between Comments[[' and ']] and those contents are added as task comments. For example, Comments[[looks good]]. In previous releases, the workflow outbound notification was not reliable. This meant that notifications were sent by using threads and on Replicates the list of notifications to send was stored in memory. If Oracle BPEL Server went down, workflow lost any notification messages that had not yet been sent. With release 10.1.3, the vak learning workflow outbound notification service uses queues with the persistency service to send notifications to users. Essay Biological! Whenever a workflow needs to send a notification to a user, it stores the task information such as notification ID, task ID, version, and so on in the dehydration store and enqueues the notification ID to the queue. A message-driven bean (MDB) listening on this queue dequeues the message and about Theology of Leadership creates the notification message to send to the user. It then uses the notification service to send this message, which uses the queue with the Essay on Replicates dehydration store. 15.10.8 Sending Secure Notifications. If a notification is marked as secure in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor, a default notification message is used. (See Figure 15-25.) The default notification message includes a link to the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. You must log in to see task details. 15.10.9 Channels Used for Notifications. The channel through which a user is notified is tk maxx determined by the notification preference attribute of the user specified in JAZN. The notification preference is identified by the attribute orclWorkflowNotificationPreference . In a JAZN file-based system, the value for this attribute can be changed in the users-properties.xml file located at Biological, SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig . In an Oracle Internet Directory-based system, the user properties can be changed using the Oracle Delegated Administration Service. If this attribute is not set, the e-mail channel is of copper used as the default. Tasks can be configured to send reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. The message used for reminders is the message that is meant for ASSIGNEES when the task is marked as ASSIGNED . You set reminders in Biological, the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) Reminder configuration involves these parameters. Recurrence #x2014; The recurrence specifies the number of times reminders are sent. The possible values for of copper recurrence are EVERY , NEVER , 0 , 1 , 2 #x2026;, 10 . RelativeDate #x2014; The relativeDate specifies if the reminder duration is computed relative to the assigned date or to the expiration date of the task. The possible values for the relativeDate are ASSIGNED and EXPIRATION . Duration #x2014; The duration from the Essay on Biological Replicates relativeDate and the first reminder and each reminder since then. The data type of duration is xsd:duration , whose format is defined by ISO 8601 under the form PnYnMnDTnHnMnS . Vak Learning! The capital letters are delimiters and can be omitted when the Essay on Replicates corresponding member is not used. Examples include PT1004199059S , PT130S , PT2M10S , P1DT2S , -P1Y, or P1Y2M3DT5H20M30.123S . The following examples illustrate when reminders are sent. The relativeDate is ASSIGNED , the recurrence is EVERY , and the reminder duration is PT1D . If the task is assigned at decline of rome, 3/24/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/25/2005 10:00 AM , 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , 3/27/2005 10:00 AM , and so on until the user acts on the task. If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is PT1D, and the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM and 3/25/2005 10:00 AM if the on Replicates task was assigned before 3 /24/2005 10:00 AM . If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is PT1D , the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , and the task was assigned at 3/24/2005 3:00 PM , then only one reminder is vak learning theory sent at 3/25/2005 10:00 AM . Essay Biological Replicates! Table 15-14 shows the end-to-end workflow examples included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Follow the theory documentation included in the same directories with these samples. In addition to the demonstration features listed in Table 15-14, all samples show the use of worklist applications and workflow notifications. Table 15-14 End-to-End Examples. Integration with a business rule engine. Replicates! Adding attachments to tasks. Use of decision service to determine the levels of approvals required for a particular expense request. Microsoft Office integration. Custom worklist user interface. Promotion of task payload message attributes. Group assignment (in StarLoan process) Custom worklist user interface (in LoanFlowPlusUI and StarLoanUI) FYI tasks (in LoanFlowPlus process) This example describes how to create a vacation request business process. In this business process, the manager of a user requesting a vacation approves or rejects the request. Electrolysis! The approval or rejection is a one-step process. This example highlights the use of the following: Modeling a single approval workflow using Oracle JDeveloper. Using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to view and respond to tasks. This example assumes the following: You are familiar with basic BPEL constructs, including BPEL activities and partner links, and basic XPath functions. Familiarity with Oracle JDeveloper#x2014;the environment for creating and deploying BPEL processes#x2014;is also assumed. You must configure the e-mail server settings for the account Default to enable e-mail notifications. The Default account is on used to send e-mails. The e-mail server configuration is in. The following code example from the file shows the parameters that may require configuration in bold. You must set the NotificationMode parameter to one of the poems following values in the ns_emails.xml file: ALL #x2013; If you have the Essay Biological Replicates e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and pager channels set up. EMAIL #x2013; If you have only the electrolysis of copper e-mail channel set up. You must change the e-mail address for the user jstein to an accessible e-mail address. If the XML-based JAZN provider is used, these properties can be changed in: The following XML segment from the users-properties.xml file shows where the e-mail is configured: You must restart Oracle BPEL Process Manager after making any of the preceding changes. 15.11.3 Modeling the Essay Replicates Vacation Request Process. In this phase of the tutorial, you create a new project, OrderApproval, and define the tk maxx human workflow process, a single approver workflow in Essay on Biological, which the decline of rome order is Biological approved or rejected. The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. After a user with the Supervisor role approves the order, it is tk maxx biggest sent to the user's manager for final approval. This section contains these tasks: 15.11.3.1 Creating the Vacation Request Process and Essay on Replicates Importing the Schema. Right-click your application in the Application Navigator and select New Project . Select BPEL Process Project . Create an asynchronous BPEL process with the name VacationRequest . Click the flashlight next to Input Schema Element to browse for VacationRequest.xsd in. The Type Chooser window appears. Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest . Click the flashlight next to Output Schema Element . Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessResponse . The schemas are now imported into decline of rome, the project. VacationRequest.xsd appears under VacationRequest Integration Content Schemas in the Application Navigator , and under Schemas in the Structure section. The BPEL process#x2014;a Receive activity ( receiveInput ) and an Invoke activity ( callbackClient )#x2014;is displayed. Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.2 Adding a Human Task to the Order Approval Process. When you define the human task, the VacationApproval.task file#x2014;the task configuration metadata file#x2014;is created. Drag and drop a Human Task activity between receiveInput and callbackClient . Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon). On Biological! Enter VacationApproval for the human task name and click OK . (Accept the default location.) The VacationApproval.task file is created. The Human Task editor is displayed. For Title , enter Vacation Approval . Accept the default values for Priority and Outcomes . For Parameters , click the + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Task Parameter window is displayed. Of Copper! Click Element and then the flashlight icon. In the Biological Type Chooser window, expand and select Project Schema Files VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest , and click OK . In the Add Task Parameter window, click Modifiable via worklist and click OK . Tk Maxx London Biggest! This ensures that you can modify task data using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. In the Assignment and Routing Policy section, click the + icon on Biological the right side of the window. The Add Participant Type window is displayed. Electrolysis Of Copper! For Type , select Single Approver . This participant type acts alone on the task. For Label , enter Vacation Approver . Click By expression . Essay On! In this example, you assign the task to the manager of the vacation requester. Click the icon to the right of the Dynamic User Xpath field to electrolysis display the Expression Builder window. Select Identity Service Functions from the list in the Functions section. Go to the Schema section on Replicates the left side of the legacy Expression Builder window. Expand task:task task:payload ns0:VacationRequestProcessRequest ns0:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The Expression Builder window appears as follows: Click OK to Biological return to the Add Participant Type window. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Click the + sign to expand the Expiration and alexander Escalation Policy section. Select Expire after from the drop-down list. Click Fixed Duration and select 1 from the Day list. Select Save from the File main menu. Click the X next to on Replicates VacationApproval.task to close the Human Task editor. 15.11.3.3 Assigning Input and Output Parameters for the Human Task. Map the fields to the variables in the BPEL process. Double-click the VacationApproval_1 human task service in the BPEL process. This displays the Essay about a Personal Human Task window. In the Task Title field, enter the word for after the on Replicates words Vacation Approval . Click the Essay of Leadership icon at the right to Essay Replicates display the Expression Builder window. About A Personal Theology! In the BPEL Variables section, expand and select inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest client:creator . On Replicates! Click Insert Into Expression . The XPath expression appears in the Expression section. The XPath expression is legacy appended to the task title. Click the icon to the right of the Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to insert the same XPath expression in the Initiator field. Click the flashlight icon under the BPEL Variable column. The Task Parameters window appears. In the Task Parameters window, expand and select Variables inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest . In the Human Task window, click OK . Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.4 Creating a Task Form for the Worklist. An autogenerated task form, payload-body.jsp , is created. In the on Application Navigator , right-click the VacationApproval folder and select Auto Generate Simple Task Form . Decline Of Rome! This automatically generates a task form file. Close payload-body.jsp by clicking the Essay on Replicates X sign at the top. The Switch activity reflects the possible outcomes, or cases, specified previously, Approve and Reject. It also has an mother poems, Otherwise case to represent other outcomes, such as errored, stale, or expired. Inside each of the cases, you can add activities to complete modeling of the business process. The copyPayloadFromTask Assign activities copy the Essay on payload back to its source. Expand the taskSwitch Switch activity. Drag and drop an Assign activity to below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in to son poems, the case Task outcome is APPROVE section of the Switch activity. Double-click the Assign icon to display the Essay on Biological Replicates Assign window. Click the General tab. Enter assignVacationApproval1 in the Name field. Click the Copy Operation tab. Click Create and alexander the great legacy select Copy Operation . Enter the following details: Note: The namespace number values (for example, client , ns1 ) can vary. Essay On Replicates! Use the namespace values that automatically appear. Click OK to close the Create Copy Operation window and the Assign window. Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to create an Assign activity below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the case Task outcome is REJECT section. Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval2. Set the Expression field to string('Rejected') Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to vak learning create an Essay Biological Replicates, Assign Activity below the mother to son poems copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in Essay Biological Replicates, the otherwise section. Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval3. Set the Expression field to string('Rejected') The process looks as follows: Select Save from the File main menu. Click the - sign to close the taskSwitch Switch activity. 15.11.3.6 Validating, Compiling, and Deploying the Order Approval Process. Go to the Application Navigator section. About Creating Theology Of Leadership! Select Deploy my_integration_server_connection Deploy to Essay default domain . This compiles the BPEL process. Tk Maxx London! Check for errors by clicking the buttons at the bottom of the on Biological Replicates window. If there are no errors, deployment was successful. 15.11.3.7 Running the london Order Approval Process. Log into Oracle BPEL Control by selecting Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager BPEL Control . The Dashboard tab of Biological, Oracle BPEL Control appears. Enter the following details to log into Oracle BPEL Control and click Login : Click VacationApproval in the Deployed BPEL Processes list. Creating Theology Of Leadership! Enter jcooper for the creator of the vacation. Enter appropriate values for the remaining fields. Click Post XML Message . The BPEL Processes tab displays a message similar to the following: Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the OrderApproval instance. A message appears indicating that the instance is active. Essay Biological! Select Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager Sample Worklist Application to access the login window for Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: Log in as jstein / welcome1 . The user jstein is the manager of jcooper . This displays Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. A task waiting to be approved appears. Select Claim in the Actions list for vak learning theory the task to approve. Essay! The task details and payload information appear. Review the information. For example, the following information appears if you copied and legacy pasted in the contents of OrderBookingPO_1.xml . Select Approve from the Task Action list and Essay Biological click Go . Log out as user jcooper . Log into Oracle BPEL Worklist Application as jstein / welcome1 . Theory! Select Approve from the Actions list and click Go . After processing, no tasks appear in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Return to Oracle BPEL Control. Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the VacationApproval instance. A message appears indicating that the instance has completed. Click the Audit and Flow links to observe additional details about the completed OrderApproval process. Workflow services and functions are responsible for a variety of tasks. This section describes the responsibilities of the Essay on following workflow services: 15.12.1 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support for the Workflow Services. Table 15-15 lists the type of SOAP, EJB, and decline of rome Java support provided for Biological Replicates the task services. Table 15-15 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support. Table 15-16 lists the tk maxx biggest location for the SOAP WSDL file for each task service. Essay On Biological! Table 15-16 SOAP WSDL Location for the Task Services. 15.12.2 Security Model for Services. Electrolysis Of Copper! With the exception of the identity service, all services that use the above-mentioned APIs (SOAP, remote EJB, local EJB, and Java WSIF) require authentication to Replicates be invoked. All the above channels support passing the user identity using the workflow context. The workflow context contains either of the following: Login and alexander the great legacy password. The task query service exposes the authenticate operation that takes the login and password and returns the workflow context used for all services. Optionally, with each request, you can pass the workflow context with the login and password. On Replicates! The authenticate operation also supports the alexander the great legacy concept of creating the on Replicates context on mother behalf of a user with the Essay on admin ID and of copper admin password. This enables you to create the context for a logged-in user to the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application if the password for that user is Essay on Biological not available. 15.12.2.1 Security in SOAP Web Services. Theory! SOAP Web services also support Web service security. Essay On Biological Replicates! When Web service security is used, the workflow context does not need to theory be present in the SOAP input. The Web service security can be configured from the Essay Oracle Enterprise Manager 10 g Application Server Control Console. Workflow service SOAP clients cannot be used when Web service security is used. Configuring Single Sign-on Using SAML in the Oracle Application Server Web Services Security Guide for details about propagating the identity of vak learning, a user from a Web application to the Web service. The workflow service EJBs also take a workflow context parameter that is used for authentication and authorization. 15.12.2.3 Creating Workflow Context on Essay on Biological Replicates Behalf of a User. The authenticate API operation on about Theology the task query service can create the workflow context on behalf of a user by passing the user ID and Biological Replicates password of an admin user in the request. Vak Learning! An admin user is a user who has the Essay on BPMWorkflowAdmin role. This created context is as if it was created using the to son poems password on behalf of the user. In this example, the workflow context is created for Essay on user jcooper . Theology! The task service exposes operations to act on tasks. Table 15-17 describes the operations of the task service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task corresponds to the task service. On Replicates! Table 15-17 Task Service Methods. The task query service queries tasks based on a variety of tk maxx london, search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of Biological Replicates, a task, and so on. Table 15-18 describes the to son operations of the task query service, including how to Biological Replicates use the tk maxx london service over Essay Replicates SOAP. A Personal! Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.query corresponds to the task query service. Table 15-18 Task Query Service Methods. assignmentFilter #x2014; Filters tasks according to whom the task is assigned, or who created the Essay on task. Possible values for the assignment filter are as follows: ADMIN #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. ALL #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. CREATOR #x2014; Returns tasks where the context user is the creator. GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to one of the groups of alexander legacy, which the Essay on Replicates context user is a member. MY #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to Creating Theology of Leadership the context user. MY_AND_GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to either the context user, or one of the groups of which they are a member. OWNER #x2014; Returns tasks where the context user is the task owner. PREVIOUS #x2014; Returns tasks the context user previously updated. REPORTEES #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to reportees of the context user. Essay On Biological Replicates! keywords #x2014; An optional search string. This only returns tasks where the string is contained in the task title, task identification key, or one of the task text flex fields. predicate #x2014; An optional oracle.bpel.services.workflow.repos.Predicate object that allows clients to specify complex, SQL-like query predicates. Tk Maxx London Store! Note: To use the task query service over SOAP, call Predicate.enableXMLSerialization(true); to make the predicate object serializable. This section describes the on Biological Replicates identity service component of electrolysis, Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The identity service is a thin Web service layer on on Replicates top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure, namely OracleAS JAAS Provider (JAZN), or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. Some users and roles are automatically created when Oracle BPEL Process Manager is installed. Seeded users include: The identity service predefines the electrolysis of copper following roles, which can be granted to users to perform workflow-related operations: PUBLIC #x2014;This role is an implicit JAZN role; it does not need to on Replicates be granted explicitly to any of the theory users. If any user can authenticate with the worklist, then they can see tasks assigned to them or groups they belong to and act on these tasks. On Replicates! The BPMPublic role can be used and explicitly granted to each user if a third-party provider does not support an implicit PUBLIC role. Vak Learning! BPMWorkflowReassign #x2014;This role enables a user to reassign tasks to any other user in the organization. On Biological Replicates! A manager can always delegate tasks to any users under him in the organization hierarchy without any Reassign privileges. However, to reassign to london users outside the management hierarchy, the BPMWorkflowReassign role is required. BPMWorkflowSuspend #x2014;This role enables users to suspend a process. Essay Biological Replicates! If a process is suspended, then the expiration time does not apply. When the process is decline of rome resumed, the expiration date is recomputed. Users cannot suspend the on Replicates workflow if the process designer has designated Suspend as a restricted action, even if the user has the BPMWorkflowSuspend role. BPMWorkflowViewHistory #x2014;In general, a user can see only the task assignment sequence as part of their worklist. This role enables a user to drill down further into the BPEL business process audit trail from the decline of rome task approval sequence. BPMWorkflowAdmin #x2014;This role enables a user to Biological perform system actions on any workflow in of copper, the system. Biological! This role does not allow you to change the about a Personal outcome of the task (such as approve or reject); it only on, allows you to perform actions such as delegate, escalate, and suspend. Mother To Son! Only the task assignee or the on Biological task owner can change the outcome of the task. BPMSystemAdmin #x2014;Both BPMWorkflowAdmin and BPMSystemAdmin have the same level of workflow privileges. BPMDefaultDomainAdmin #x2014;This role provides a user with access to the default domain through Oracle BPEL Control. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for vak learning instructions on Essay Replicates configuring the identity service and additional details about the BPMSystemAdmin and BPMDefaultDomainAdmin roles. Some of these roles are nested. Of Copper! The BPMWorkflowReassign , BPMWorkflowSuspend , and BPMWorkflowViewHistory roles are granted to the BPMWorkflowAdmin role. The BPMSystemAdmin role is granted to on Replicates the seeded bpeladmin user. The following table represents the relationship between the decline of rome grantees and roles: You use directory-specific tools to create realms, users, or groups. For example: To create users and groups when using OID, you use the Oracle Delegated Administration Services tools. See Oracle Identity Management Guide to Delegated Administration for more information. Essay! To create user and group credentials when using the theory XML-based JAZN provider, you use the JAZN Admintool to modify the jazn-data.xml file. To add or remove an XML-based JAZN user or role, the JAZN Admintool must be used. You can manually edit the users-properties.xml file to specify detailed user properties that JAZN does not support. For example, to add a user to Biological a specified realm, issue the mother to son poems following command: java -jar jazn.jar -user adminUser -password adminPassword -adduser realmName newUser newUserPassword. The JAZN Admintool provides different command options. You can list all the Essay on Biological options and their syntax with the -help option, as in: java -jar jazn.jar -help. Of Copper! If you are using a third-party LDAP server or a custom user repository, you must use the specific tools available for on Replicates that directory. 15.12.5.2 Identity Service Providers. Oracle BPEL Process Manager identity service supports three types of providers: JAZN, third-party LDAP, or custom plug-in, as shown in decline of rome, Figure 15-36. Figure 15-36 Identity Service Providers. The identity service providers perform the following operations: Authentication#x2014;authenticates users given their username and password. Authorization#x2014;determines roles and group memberships for a specific user. These roles are then used to control access to various work items and operations on the worklist. Retrieve user properties#x2014;includes contact information such as first name, last name, phone, e-mail, preferred notification channel, language preference, time zone, and Essay Replicates organization details such as manager name and reportees. The JAZN provider mode, which is preconfigured, delegates all authentication and authorization inquires to the JAZN layer. Decline Of Rome! Two JAAS providers are supplied as part of the OC4J security infrastructure: the XML-based file and Essay Biological LDAP-based OID. XML-Based JAZN Provider Type #x2014; The XML-based provider type is used for lightweight storage of decline of rome, information in the XML files. All the user names, roles, and Essay permissions are stored in XML files. Vak Learning Theory! In this case, user names, passwords, and privileges are stored in the jazn-data.xml file. Essay Biological Replicates! In addition, Oracle BPEL Process Manager uses a user-properties.xml file that works in conjunction with this file to store detailed user properties such as name, e-mail, phone, and manager. Poems! LDAP-Based JAZN Provider Type (Oracle Internet Directory) #x2014; The LDAP-based provider type is based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for centralized storage of information in a directory. OID is a standard LDAP-based directory that provides a single, centralized repository for all user data. On! It allows sites to manage user identities, roles, authorization, and authentication credentials, as well as application-specific preferences and Essay about a Personal Theology profiles in a single repository. The third-party LDAP provider mode enables identity service to work with third-party LDAP servers such as Sun Directory Server (iPlanet), Microsoft Active Directory, or openLDAP. In this mode, identity service assumes that the directory is the central repository of all user data, including authentication credentials, roles, and profiles. The standard organizationalPerson , inetOrgPerson objects from the LDAP schema retrieve these details. 15.12.5.2.3 Custom User Repository Plug-ins. This mode enables you to Biological plug in a non-LDAP-based user repository by registering a custom identity service provider. The custom identity service plug-in must implement the BPMIdentityService interface (see Javadoc). This identityservice class name must be registered in is_config.xml . See SOA_Oracle_Home bpeldocsworkfloworacletippcservicesidentity for Javadoc on the BPMIdentityService interface. The identity service supports the following user properties : Given name, middle name, and last name. Home phone number. Mobile phone number. Owners (applies to groups and mother to son poems roles, but not users) Language preference (Java locale) Notification preference (preferred notification channel) The preceding properties are optional for Oracle BPEL Process Manager users. However, some features, such as task notification, are not available if the contact information is Essay Biological Replicates not present in Essay a Personal Theology of Leadership, the directory or in Essay on Biological Replicates, the users-properties file for the JAZN XML-based provider. Also, automatic escalation and poems manager views are not available if the manager field is not available to Biological Replicates the identity service. If the user is not listed among the owners of the group, they cannot modify the rule defined for the group. The service configuration chapter of Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on defining group ownership. The following OID objectClasses specify user and role properties such as mail , manager , and telephoneNumber . Mother Poems! The identity service maintains a connection pool to retrieve these properties from the LDAP directory. If you are using the on Biological XML-based JAZN provider, the same entries are represented as XML elements in the users-properties.xml file in. The identity service enables you to specify multiple configuration settings (to express identity contexts, supported realms, and mother so on) in the is_config.xml file. Biological Replicates! The business process uses one of the defined configurations at run time. Electrolysis! The configuration must specify the realm name to enable a business process to resolve the on Biological context at run time. For the JAZN provider, the realm name must match one of electrolysis of copper, supported JAZN realm names. Otherwise, a run time exception is thrown. For the JAZN XML-based provider, extended user and Essay Biological role properties for different realms must be stored in different files. For the LDAP provider, the electrolysis realm name can be any unique name, while the Essay Biological context is defined by the LDAP URL, user search base, and role search base nodes in the LDAP server tree. These properties are controlled by the connection , userControls , and roleControls provider elements in is_config.xml . If the is_config.xml file contains more than one configuration, then one is defined as the default configuration. The default context is used by the BPEL process if no specific context information is found at the great, run time. The identity service resolves the Essay on Biological Replicates configuration context based on about the realm name. The service configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for configuration instructions. On Replicates! 15.12.5.5 Authentication, Authorization, and Identity Service Providers. The identity service supports authentication, authorization, and mother to son poems identity service providers. The identity service provider is the default pseudoservice provider. It must be defined for Essay Biological each configuration in the is_config.xml file. It delegates all calls either to the authentication or authorization service provider. By default, all three service providers share the same context setting defined in the identity provider.The identity service can define additional service providers with its own setting attributes for authentication or authorization services.If the provider service attribute is set to Authentication , the setting and the provider context are used only for all authentication calls for the configuration. If the provider service attribute is set to mother Authorization , the Essay on Biological Replicates setting and provider context are used only for authorization calls. The multiple service providers section of the mother to son service configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for Essay on Replicates an example of a configuration with two providers: The JAZN XML-based identity service provider is used for all calls, except authentication. The custom plug-in provider is used only for authentication calls. The notification service exposes operations that can be invoked from the BPEL business process to send notifications through e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) channels. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on configuring notification service delivery channels. Task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. Table 15-19 describes these methods. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.metadata corresponds to the task metadata service. Table 15-19 Task Metadata Service Methods. The user metadata service provides methods for to son managing metadata specific to individual users and groups. It is used for getting and setting user worklist preferences, managing user custom views, and managing workflow rules for users and groups. For most methods in the user metadata service, the authenticated user can query and update their own user metadata. However, they cannot update metadata belonging to other users. In the case of group metadata (for example, workflow rules for groups), only a user designated as an owner of a group (or a BPMWorkflowAdmin user) can query and update the metadata for Essay on that group. However, a user that has been granted the tk maxx london BPMWorkflowAdmin role can query and Essay on update metadata for any user or group. Table 15-20 describes the methods in the user metadata service. Mother Poems! Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.user corresponds to the user metadata service. Essay Biological Replicates! Table 15-20 User Metadata Service Methods. Chapter 16, Worklist Application for decline of rome details about the rule configuration and user preference pages. The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. The task object used by the task service contains a number of on Replicates, flex field attributes, which can be populated with information from the store task payload. This allows the task payload information to be queried, displayed in Biological Replicates, task listings, and used in workflow rules. The runtime config service allows administrators to create mappings between simple task payload attributes and Essay these flex field attributes. Essay On Replicates! Only a user with the BPMWorkflowAdmin privilege can make updates to payload mappings. However, any authenticated user can use the query methods in this service. An administrator can create attribute labels for the various flex field attributes. These attribute labels provide a meaningful label for the attribute (for example, a label Location may be created for the flex field attribute TextAttribute1 ). A given flex field attribute may have multiple labels associated with it. This attribute label is what is displayed to users when displaying lists of vak learning theory, attributes for a specific task in the worklist application. The attribute labels for a specific task type can be determined by Essay Biological Replicates, calling the getTaskAttributesForTaskDefinition method on the task metadata service. When defining attribute labels, the following fields are automatically populated by the service. You do not need to specify values for these attributes when creating or updating attribute labels: Valid values for the task attribute field are as follows: TextAttribute1 through TextAttribute10. FormAttribute1 through FormAttribute5. UrlAttribute1 through UrlAttribute5. DateAttribute1 through DateAttribute5. NumberAttribute1 through NumberAttribute5. Mappings can then be created between task payload fields and the attribute labels. For example, the payload field customerLocation can be mapped to the attribute label Location . Different task types can share the same attribute label. This allows payload attributes from different task types that have the same semantic meaning to be mapped to the same attribute label. Only payload fields that are simple XML types can be mapped. The runtime config service also provides methods for querying the dynamic assignment functions supported by the server. Table 15-21 describes the methods in the runtime config service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.runtimeconfig corresponds to the runtime config service. Table 15-21 Runtime Config Service. 15.12.9.1 Internationalization of Attribute Labels. Alexander Legacy! Attribute labels provide a method of on Biological, attaching a meaningful label to mother a task flex field attribute. It can be desirable to present attribute labels that are translated into on, the appropriate language for the locale of the user. To achieve this, you can add entries to a Personal of Leadership the WorkflowLabels.properties resource property file, and Essay Biological associated resource bundles in other languages. This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for flex field attribute labels must be of the form: For instance, the entry for the great legacy a label named Location is: Note that adding entries to these files for Replicates attribute labels is optional. If no entry is present in the file, the name of the attribute label as specified using the tk maxx API is used instead. 15.13 Configuring the Assignment Service. This section describes how to configure the assignment service. This section contains the following topics: 15.13.1 Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions select a particular user or group from either a group, or from on Biological Replicates, a list of users or groups. The selection is made according to criteria specific to the particular dynamic assignment function. The three dynamic assignment functions shown in Table 15-22 are included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Table 15-22 Dynamic Assignment Functions. These functions all check a user's vacation status. A user that is alexander the great legacy currently unavailable is not automatically assigned tasks. Replicates! These dynamic assignment functions can be called using the custom XPath functions in a BPEL process or task definition. These XPath functions must be called with at least two, and optionally more parameters: The name of the dynamic assignment function being called. Essay Of Leadership! The name of the group on which to execute the function (or a list of users or groups).(Optional) the identity realm to which the user or group belongs (default value is the default identity realm). Additional optional parameters specific to the dynamic assignment function. In the case of the most-productive assignment function, this is the length of time (in days) to calculate a user's productivity. The two other functions do not use additional parameters. In addition, workflow rules created for a group can use dynamic assignment functions to Biological select a member of that group for reassignment of a task. In addition to the three functions, a dynamic assignment framework is provided that allows you to implement and configure your own dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.1 Implementing a Dynamic Assignment Function. About Creating A Personal Theology! To implement your own dynamic assignment function, write a Java class that implements one or both of the following interfaces: If your dynamic assignment function selects users, implement the first interface. If it selects groups, implement the second interface. If it allows the selection of both users and Biological Replicates groups, implement both interfaces. The two interfaces above both extend the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicAssignmentFunction . Your Java class should also implement the methods in that interface. These interfaces as shown below: The dynamic assignment framework also provides the utility class oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.DynamicAssignmentUtils . This class provides a number of methods that are useful when implementing dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.2 Configuring Dynamic Assignment Functions. Alexander The Great! Dynamic assignment functions are configured using the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig directory. Each dynamic assignment function must have an entry in this file, in the form of a function tag. Essay Replicates! The function tag must contain two attributes: name #x2014; the name of the function. classpath #x2014; the classpath of the class that implements the function. In addition, the function tag can optionally contain any number of property tags. These tags pass initialization parameters to Essay about Theology the dynamic assignment function. Each property tag must contain a name attribute. The value of the property is specified in the body of the tag. The property values specified in these tags are passed as a map (indexed by the value of the name attributes) to the setInitParameters method of the dynamic assignment functions. Essay On! Two of the the great functions have initialization parameters. These are: ROUND_ROBIN #x2014; The parameter MAX_MAP_SIZE specifies the maximum number of sets of users or groups for Essay on Replicates which the function can maintain ROUND_ROBIN counts. The dynamic assignment function holds a list of users and groups in memory for each group (or list of users and groups) on which it is asked to electrolysis of copper execute the ROUND_ROBIN function. most-productive #x2014; The parameter DEAFULT_TIME_PERIOD specified the length of time (in days) over which to calculate the user's productivity. This value can be overridden when calling the on most-productive dynamic assignment function. Use an XPath function by specifying an alternative value as the third parameter in the XPath function call. 15.13.1.3 Configuring Display Names for vak learning Dynamic Assignment Functions. Biological! The runtime config service provides methods for vak learning returning a list of available user and group dynamic assignment functions. These functions return both the Essay Replicates name of the function, and a user-displayable label for the function. The functions support localization of the display name, so that it displays in the appropriate language for the context user. These functions are used by the worklist application to show a list of available dynamic assignment functions. Alexander! To specify display names (and appropriate translations) for your dynamic assignment functions, add entries to the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties , and associated resource property files in other languages. This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for dynamic assignment functions must be of the form: For instance, the entry for the ROUND_ROBIN function is: Note that adding entries to these files for dynamic assignment functions is optional. If no entry is present in Essay, the file, then the name of the function (for example, ROUND_ROBIN ') is used instead. 15.13.2 Dynamically Assigning Task Participants with the Assignment Service. Workflow task participants are specified declaratively in a routing slip. The routing slip guides the workflow by specifying the the great participants and how they participate in the workflow task (for example, management chain hierarchy, sequential list of approvers, and so on). There are scenarios where the workflow task participants are computed dynamically using complex rules. To support such dynamic assignment, an assignment service is used. The assignment service is responsible for Essay on determining the task assignees. You can also implement your own assignment service and plug in about Theology, that implementation for use with a particular workflow. This section contains the following topics: 15.13.2.1 Assignment Service Overview. The assignment service determines the following task assignment details in a workflow: The assignment when the task is initiated. The assignment when the task is reinitiated. Biological Replicates! The assignment when a user updates the task outcome. When the task outcome is Essay Theology updated, the task can either be routed to other users or completed. The assignees from whom information for the task can be requested. If the Replicates task supports reapproval from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, a user can request information for reapproval. Electrolysis Of Copper! The users who reapprove the Essay Biological task if reapproval is supported. The workflow service identifies and invokes the alexander the great assignment service for a particular task to determine the Essay Biological Replicates task assignment. For example, a simple assignment service iteration is as follows: A client initiates an expense approval task whose routing is determined by the assignment service. The assignment service determines that the task assignee is jcooper . When jcooper approves the task, the assignment service assigns the task to decline of rome jstein . The assignment service also specifies that a notification must be sent to the creator of the task, jlondon . jstein approves the task and Biological the assignment service indicates that there are no more users to which to assign the task. 15.13.2.2 Implementing an Assignment Service. The assignment service is implemented with the IAssignmentService interface. The workflow service passes the following information to decline of rome the assignment service to determine the task assignment: Task document #x2014; The task document that is executed by the workflow. The task document contains the payload and other task information like current state, and so on. Essay! Map of properties #x2014; When an assignment service is specified, a list of properties can also be specified to correlate callbacks with backend services that determine the task assignees. Task history #x2014; The task history is a list of chronologically ordered task documents to trace the history of the task. Vak Learning! The task documents in this list contain a subset of Biological Replicates, attributes in the actual task (such as state , updatedBy , outcome , updatedDate , and so on). 15.13.2.3 Example of Assignment Service Implementation. The assignment service class cannot be stateful because every time workflow services need to call the assignment service, it creates a new instance. The getAssigneesToRequestForInformation method can be called multiple times because one of the criteria to show the request-for-information action is decline of rome that there are users to request information. Therefore, this method is called every time the workflow service tries to determine the permitted actions for a task. You can implement your own assignment service plug-in that the workflow service invokes during workflow execution. Essay On! The following example provides a sample IAssignmentService implementation named TestAssignmentService.java . To Son Poems! 15.13.2.4 Deploying a Custom Assignment Service. You must use one of the following methods to make an assignment service implementation class and its related classes available in the class path of Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Load your classes in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemclasses directory and unzip your JAR files in the same directory. Change the Oracle BPEL Process Manager shared library to include your JAR files. You cannot create different versions of the assignment service for use in different BPEL processes unless you change package names or class names. Java classes and JAR files in the suitcase are not available in the class path and therefore cannot be used as a deployment model for the assignment service. The steps must be repeated for each node in a cluster. The custom escalation function enables you to integrate a custom rule in Essay on Replicates, a workflow. You create a custom task escalation function and register this with the workflow service that uses that function in electrolysis, task definitions. The Advanced Settings section of the Essay Replicates Human Task editor enables you to of copper integrate the rule in a human task. 15.14 Workflow Service and Identity Service Related XPath Extension Functions. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides XPath extension functions for use with the workflow services and the identity service. XPath extension functions mimic XPath 2.0 standards. Table 15-23 lists the supported workflow service functions and Table 15-24 lists the supported identity service functions. Essay Biological Replicates! Table 15-23 Workflow Service Functions. Tk Maxx Biggest Store! Table 15-24 Identity Service Functions. 15.14.1 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. Table 15-25 lists the workflow and identity service functions that are deprecated for this release. Table 15-25 Deprecated Workflow Service and Biological Identity Service Functions. Biggest! You can specify resource bundles for displaying task details in different languages in on Replicates, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. In addition, the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties can be used for setting display names for the following: Dynamic assignment functions. Decline Of Rome! Payload mapping attribute labels. This chapter describes how you can integrate systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The predefined workflow participant types are described, as are the components of workflow services#x2014;the task service, task routing service, identity service, worklist service, notification service, and others.

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    conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Essay on Replicates Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.

    Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

    1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.

    1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.

    1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is london biggest attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece.

    If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of Essay Biological Replicates, extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the the great legacy source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is Essay Replicates available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of electrolysis of copper, HMSO and Essay Biological Replicates the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. London Biggest Store. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the document is now available online.

    My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of education. Neo-liberalism became the on Biological Replicates dominant force in vak learning British politics with the election in 1979 of the Essay on Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Her government's policies 'accelerated the the great closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and on economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the mother poems Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Soaring inflation and a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Essay Biological Replicates Falkland Islands and she was able to play the part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and June 1982. The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.

    With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from 44 to 144), she felt emboldened to mother, take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in Essay on Biological Replicates 1987. Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the introduction of the great, a form of poll tax. It proved to Essay on Biological Replicates, be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only industry and commerce but also public services.

    Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and to son the promotion of new forms of public management. The outcome of these processes was a form of governance in which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of on Biological, Margaret Thatcher's education policies in the 1980s were to convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of this policy can be traced back to the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to persuade the Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in to son Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to Essay Replicates, the Black Paper of 1977. (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on 'absolute freedom of choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of tk maxx london, 'ability and aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the Essay on Biological possibility of closure.

    The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an 'effective and independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by commitment to electrolysis of copper, the market and to Biological, privatisation' (Benn and Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to tk maxx london biggest, be radical and modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to ditch the elitist policies of the Essay Biological Replicates past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the Essay popularity of comprehensive schools, and attempts to Biological Replicates, reintroduce or extend selection in of copper Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Essay on Biological Replicates Solihull all failed as a result of strong local opposition.

    But the Tories weren't going to give up. 'Such defeats served to encourage Conservative Ministers to opt for rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at Essay Theology, establishing a wider variety of Essay Biological, secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and vak learning Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of any popular demand for them from any section of the education community nationally or locally, nor even from the Essay Biological populist media. One by one all had to be imposed by means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from theory all other political parties and from much of the educational establishment. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the ground. When she took office in Essay on Biological Replicates May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and the great legacy essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and Dunford 1999:1).

    This suited Thatcher because at first reform of education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the rate of Essay on Biological, inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in the process) and with curbing the power and influence of the tk maxx biggest store trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for Essay Biological Replicates education Joseph found himself commanding an apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the everyday practice of schools. Vak Learning. . Joseph, like the ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of 'effective education' a vast new complex of Replicates, regulations and regulators that would measure and direct the processes and outcomes of schooling. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about preparing to take control. This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on the great three fronts: the curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to Essay on, enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and restricting their role in curriculum development; and the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the mother to son poems 'Great Debate' on the nature and purposes of education. On Biological. Under the Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the publication in 1979 of Essay Theology of Leadership, LEA Arrangements for on Biological the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by Essay Creating a Personal of Leadership, The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the secretaries of state (for Education and Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the Essay on Biological approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.

    Every local education authority was expected to frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in the light of the of copper advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in on Biological Replicates its area, and its arrangements for making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the of copper resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for the curriculum in its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by heads and other teachers, governors, parents and Essay on Replicates other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the biggest ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the Biological Replicates steps being taken and planned by the authority to seek to ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the electrolysis of copper curriculum is appropriately related to what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the on Replicates resources available to the authority . are enabling it to give effect to Essay about Theology of Leadership, its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the DES issued A framework for the school curriculum in 1980; and HMI produced a number of publications, including: A View of the Essay on Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for alexander legacy Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from Essay 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). The HMI documents were progressive in outlook. Electrolysis Of Copper. The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for example, argued that the school curriculum should be thought of in terms of 'areas of Essay on Replicates, learning and experience' and that it included not only the formal programme of lessons, but also the 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of relationships, the concern for equality of opportunity, the values exemplified in Essay about Creating a Personal Theology of Leadership the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is organised and Essay on Replicates managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.

    In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for the introduction of a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. Theory. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the Biological Replicates cover was printed but the contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over tk maxx london, teachers. In 1984 the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of teachers in on curriculum development, the Schools Council, in which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by vak learning theory, the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and performance-related pay. The result was a year of industrial action by teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the local authorities - many of Biological Replicates, them run by Labour - were an decline of rome irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on in the schools.

    Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in the running of schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the number of LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Essay Replicates. Many of the reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to some widely publicised resignations of Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over the service. Furthermore, after the 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for theory local politics to consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in on Replicates the 1980s, public spending was being cut and mother the differences between the spending of different LEAs widened. As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to on Biological Replicates, central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the absurdities perpetrated - often in the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of decline of rome, course (I know - I was there!), but the endless repetition of such stories damaged the image of local authorities in the eyes of the public - which is precisely what it was intended to do.

    The government took another swipe at on Biological, the local authorities in 1982, when it launched the tk maxx biggest store Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at 14-18 year olds. LEAs were not allowed to participate. Essay On Replicates. Instead, it was administered by the Department of alexander legacy, Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). On. It was not exactly a success. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and so was expenditure: £89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in 1986 to promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of vocational qualifications' (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) in an attempt to create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and Essay about a Personal of Leadership NVQ for qualifications gained through work. For a brief moment it looked as if at last a British government was going to catapult the country into a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of vocational and on Biological Replicates academic education. Decline Of Rome. (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.

    The Major administration (see the Essay Biological next chapter) chose not to pursue the integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the legacy process of giving more power to parents. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to choose schools (6) and the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the creation of new schools and the closing of existing ones (12), and the number of school places (15); the on Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to pay for 30,000 children to go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to mother, provide free milk and meals was removed, except in Replicates the case of children from families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).

    Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of the great, children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at School . 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Essay on Channel Islands or the Isle of Man' and to exclude such students from being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

    This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to theory, LEAs for Essay on government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the limit set in theory section 2(1) of the on Biological Replicates Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on expenditure approved for Essay Creating a Personal Theology of Leadership education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for lunchtime supervision from the Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in the job. On Replicates. The first (and much the biggest store shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and on Replicates the pooling of expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.

    2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the first, it was also profoundly more important. It implemented the proposals set out in of copper the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the on Biological importance of the LEAs and put the focus on the Department and the schools. Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for specific responsibilities including the decline of rome 'determination and on Biological organisation of the mother to son secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the concept of educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for Essay on the first time. It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of governing bodies was changed - the number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of theory, LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and on Biological Replicates others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). Decline Of Rome. ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in on Biological certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of alexander, its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.

    If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to Biological Replicates, encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of london, family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the on Biological Replicates school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and tk maxx london store appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an annual report (30) and Essay hold an annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in schools - this was an of Leadership attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in Essay Biological Replicates a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by the state (47); provision was made for the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to decline of rome, supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and the secretary of state was no longer required to Essay, produce annual report (60). Download the decline of rome Education (No. 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).

    The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from 'promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by Essay on, New Labour in November 2003). Download the electrolysis of copper Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. On. It is decline of rome sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).

    The Act was presented as giving power to Biological Replicates, the schools. In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and turned it into a market - something the Tories had been working towards for a decade. Chitty and legacy Dunford (1999:25) argue that the 'meretricious agenda' of the Essay on Biological 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to to son poems, the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to get selection reinstated in 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and Replicates the introduction of local markets . as attempts to introduce selection by the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and assessment councils; admission of pupils to county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of tk maxx biggest store, ILEA.

    Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in all maintained schools, consisting of religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and understanding which children would be expected to have by the end of each key stage; the on 'programmes of decline of rome, study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and physical education); plus a modern foreign language at Essay Biological, key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Schools in the great legacy Welsh-speaking areas of Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to begin with an on Biological Replicates 'act of collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of representatives of religious groups, the Church of England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).

    Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and mother to son poems practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for Biological Wales). The members of the councils would be appointed by the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the to son curriculum and advise the secretary of Essay on Biological Replicates, state, carry out alexander legacy, programmes of research and development, publish and disseminate information relating to the curriculum and Essay Biological perform 'such ancillary activities as the Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of examinations and assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of electrolysis of copper, assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of on Biological Replicates, Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the admission of pupils to maintained schools, in particular the vak learning theory conditions which were to be met if the Biological authority responsible for admissions to vak learning, a school wished to Biological Replicates, reduce the 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and Staff.

    Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and decline of rome materials. The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of schools' (LMS), the schools were to Essay Biological, be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the school in vak learning respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an on Biological Replicates 'allocation formula' based on the number and ages of the pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff would be transferred from the local authority to schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for the establishment of biggest, grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and Essay Biological Replicates funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to the governing bodies (74-5) and the grants (maintenance, special purpose and legacy capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the Biological relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.

    The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for decline of rome in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Biological Further Education. Part II of the legacy Act made changes to the provision and on funding of higher and further education and to son poems provided for the establishment of two new funding bodies: the Essay on Biological Replicates Universities Funding Council (UFC) and the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of tk maxx london biggest, state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for Essay Biological Replicates the funding of schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to the inner London boroughs.

    Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the electrolysis Act covered a number of Essay on Biological, other matters: the establishment and functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the vak learning theory Act was written by a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the University of London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the Essay Biological 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and electrolysis of copper therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the curriculum up into discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of Essay, it was that it prevented teachers and Essay about a Personal Theology schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to curriculum 'deliverers'.

    It was also constantly revised. Right-wing think-tanks and pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Essay on Replicates Anglicisation of the national testing system, so as to theory, emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). The New Right gained control of the curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from Essay Biological teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of to son, Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the national curriculum, reducing the on amount of detail and removing 'the stronger signs of the traditionalist and vak learning ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. The 1995 revision of the national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the curriculum, and its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Essay Replicates Assessment and Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).

    The report was sound on decline of rome the purposes of assessment. Essay. It began by listing four criteria for electrolysis a national assessment scheme: the assessment results should give direct information about pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the results should provide a basis for decisions about Essay on Biological Replicates, pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of Essay Creating Theology of Leadership, comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and scales are set up and Essay Replicates used should relate to expected routes of legacy, educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to Biological Replicates, be addressed: the undesirable effects of testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in alexander legacy league tables, 'leading to ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Unfortunately, the Report went on to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16 (at the end of the Key Stages) in which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of Essay Replicates, 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and favoured simpler external tests of children at 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). Mother. But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in the educational validity of the assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to on Replicates, send their children. Three inevitable - and undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to concentrate their efforts on children who were on of copper the borderline between one level and the next rather than on those who needed attention most; and the curriculum became skewed by Essay on Biological, the need to practise for the tests.

    On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to mother poems, compare the Act's stipulations that the majority of a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and that Christianity should be the predominant religion in religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is never mentioned - because it was taken for granted. For more on Essay religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an alexander the great institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of Essay on Replicates, a school's budget and to the appointment and dismissal of staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.

    Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on the role. Because school budgets were to the great, be based largely on on pupil numbers, schools had to Essay about of Leadership, attract as many pupils as possible in order to survive. This led to Biological Replicates, some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to around 85 per cent of the total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an 'education market'; it took financial control away from the local authorities; and it enabled the government to 'pass the buck' to the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the second year of LMS onwards. Decline Of Rome. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.

    The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the on Biological remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to become grant-maintained in the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the store schools that did opt out were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on education tended to Essay on Biological, be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in just 12 of the to son 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by Biological, New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the decline of rome TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to ten per cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per Essay on Biological, cent in the state-maintained sector. . What I think is about a Personal of Leadership striking in the British education system is that there is nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.

    I think many parents would as well. Essay On Biological Replicates. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to destroy the power of the LEAs (and to reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in education. A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per pupil far higher than in the neighbouring local authority schools. In the Essay a Personal Theology of Leadership event, only Replicates, a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the vak learning theory bill. The last CTC to be authorised, in Essay Biological Replicates April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. The chair of Cable and Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the required £2m; the government handed over decline of rome, the remaining £8m. Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that £8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the £4.5m he had for Essay Replicates capital spending on the county's other 150,000 children. Alexander The Great Legacy. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and Essay there would still have been enough left over to give all primary schools an extra nursery class for a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to comment on central government policies. Tory MPs called for its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by decline of rome, education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and she would have liked to get rid of ILEA at on Replicates, the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.

    But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for vak learning its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and state vandalism: it had had a proud record of supporting schools in deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and on Biological committed to the wellbeing of London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in 1977, had sought to combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in schools and mother to son poems society.

    And in 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in this country.' (A form of overall local government for Essay Biological London was reintroduced by New Labour in May 2000, when the first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Ken Livingstone became the decline of rome first elected Mayor of London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and so began the diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.

    As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the on Biological whole school age range. They were: 1978 Primary education in England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the tk maxx Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Essay Biological, Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).

    It noted that in poems both primary and secondary schools the curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to meet the on needs and alexander the great legacy backgrounds of West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of their lack of motivation and commitment to Essay Replicates, the work and alexander the great their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for Replicates the underachievement of West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on the part of teachers and electrolysis the education system as a whole, and on the part of on Replicates, West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). They therefore recommended a range of specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to decline of rome, bring about fundamental changes in Biological attitude and practice in the longer term. To Son. Taken together, these constitute a programme for action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to fulfil their true potential in Essay Biological Replicates our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on to son the teaching of maths, in the light of concerns expressed by on Biological, the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. These concerns related to the apparent lack of mother to son poems, basic computation skills in many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of Essay, qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Theory. Its terms of Replicates, reference were: To consider the electrolysis of copper teaching of on Replicates, mathematics in primary and poems secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and Replicates adult life generally, and to make recommendations. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and it was published in January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.

    The Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is no single cause of underachievement and therefore no single solution; education has a major role in changing the attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for to son greater sensitivity in the education of Essay on Biological, 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to raise teachers' awareness; in Theology initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the on Replicates first priority should be the learning of tk maxx london store, English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of instruction; and schools should not take on responsibility for the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the concerns and aspirations of both the majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is not how to educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to Essay on, educate all children. Theory. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the recommendations.

    1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on attainment targets and programmes of study for the English component of the new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for ages 5 to 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to lead an enquiry into discipline in schools in England and Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in the spring of Essay on Replicates, 1989. The Great. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and Replicates the School Examinations and Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the poems education of 3 and 4 year olds.

    It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the Essay on Biological bill which was shortly to become the vak learning 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in October 1986: It is crucial for Biological Replicates parents to understand where power in the education system lies. Mother To Son Poems. Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of school governing bodies. Biological Replicates. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. We will end the dominance of the tk maxx local authority and its political appointees. There will be more parent governors elected by Essay, all the parents. Control over sex education will be removed from the teachers and local authorities and given to theory, the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.

    But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and the last straw for on Biological many was her determination to introduce a form of poll tax. Mother. This led, in March 1990, to on, the worst riots London had seen for a century. She lost the confidence of her colleagues and in November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and about well or struggling to Essay on Replicates, survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in decline of rome Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.

    DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Essay Biological Replicates, Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.

    Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by choice' in CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of decline of rome, Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.