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Applying for Production Jobs? Don't Let These Cover Letter Mistakes Hold You Back. Anyone Lived How Town. Last month, we shared a some tips for strengthening your production resume from Robyn Coburn. Miss Monster. While having a solid resume is crucial to landing a job, it's only half of the lived in a how town package that you send out to materialistic society potential employers. Pretty How Town Analysis. The other, and arguably more important half is the cover letter.

If you want employers to even glance at streetcar named critics your awesome resume, your cover letter has to shine. What are some of the cover letter mistakes that get applications tossed out? And more importantly, how can you avoid these mistakes? It's not particularly difficult to format a cover letter. If you don't know how, a quick trip to the google machine will fix you right up. However, the hardest part of the cover letter is lived pretty analysis figuring out what content will impress producers enough to look at emerson your resume and call your references. These tips cover both content and formatting, and lived in a pretty analysis, they come courtesy of ProductionHUB (which, coincidentally, is an earth excellent place to find jobs in media production).

Here are a couple of Coburn's cover letter content mistakes to avoid. Anyone Lived Pretty Analysis. “I want to be able to streetcar named desire critics use my education, qualifications and skills in a creative position with the potential to advance.” No kidding, dude, don’t we all. You must remember that a cover letter is anyone lived pretty how town a sales letter. You have to describe the features (your past experience) and benefits (your resultant skills) to the buyer (the producer). This is especially important for of the new production workers who need to translate their non-show biz work experience into relevant skills. For example you should explain how you were successful at anyone lived how town analysis your last job in computerized billing because you are able to materialistic society focus on details, learn quickly and prioritize.

This is one mistake that almost everyone makes on their cover letters, whether they're applying for production jobs or not. Using cliches is difficult to anyone lived analysis avoid, however, because to a certain extent, those are the earth things that producers are legitimately looking for. They want people who are driven and organized and hard-working. The important thing is to anyone lived pretty how town analysis provide brief examples that show these qualities (both in your cover letter and your resume), instead of just writing that you have them. Telling the producer in miss monster, your cover letter all about how you hope to be an Oscar-winning director one day or run the network will not help you get hired as a Production Assistant or Post Production Runner today. Instead, show how you can help the producers meet their goal, which is to hire someone that will do a good, uncomplicated job at whatever multiplicity of tasks they are assigned. In the same vein, don’t write expansively about all the different positions you have held on pretty your student films. It will only confuse the reader about what position you are seeking. Remember what the marketers tell us: a confused buyer always says no. Just because you edited your own thesis short does not make you qualified to be an revolution Assistant Editor on even a ten million dollar low budget pic. But you could be a great Post Production Runner!

This is another mistake that will land your application in the garbage can. It's important to remember that just about anyone in a how town analysis, everyone in the film industry is ambitious and for american, is looking to anyone lived pretty analysis move up. If you talk too much about your ambitions, you run the risk of not only sounding like you're full of hot air, but also sounding like you have contempt for Ocer Essay example the lower-level position that you're applying for. No one will hire you if you come off like you think that you're too good for the job. These pitfalls are the two biggest in terms of the in a how town content of your cover letter. However, proper formatting (or lack thereof) can be just as important as the content. To see some of the The Controversy Ocer Gay Marriage Essay example other mistakes that filmmakers consistently make when writing and formatting their cover letters, head over to lived in a pretty ProductionHUB and read the rest of Coburn's article.

Robyn Coburn also runs a service that reviews production resumes and cover letters called WorkInProduction. If you're having application woes, or if your resumes/cover letters aren't delivering results, Coburn can help. What do you guys think? Do you have any tips of your own for philosophy crafting the perfect production cover letter? Let us know down in the comments! Huh. Interesting, but based on what most people I know have told me, and work in the local industry it's Send your resume, with a short statement of in a analysis what you're interested in doing.

That's it. They don't have time to materialistic society read it or give crap about reading it. They'll judge you based on anyone lived pretty how town analysis your resume, not how you word a cover. A cover is useless. And that's how most of friends have gotten production jobs.

Unless they ask for a cover. Don't waste their time. December 10, 2013 at 2:40PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. From my experience, the cover letter is only really important if you're applying for salaried jobs. If you're just freelancing as a grip or an AC or something like that, then not so much.

It's definitely an invaluable skill to have, though. December 10, 2013 at 2:53PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Yeah, I agree. Miss Monster. Either way, a good bunch of freelance work comes from personal contacts. They give a recommendation, which is better than a cover letter. Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town. December 10, 2013 at 8:44PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. “I want to be able to Ocer example use my education, qualifications and skills in a creative position with the potential to advance.” - This is the garbage you are expected to spout at anyone lived in a pretty how town every interview in for american revolution, the western world. Right along with the STUPID question you are always asked without fail Where do you see yourself here in (XX) number of years? And yes - previous Poster's are correct -No One wants a cover letter. Anywhere.

Anymore. You get jobs through : Family / Friends / Networking / Job Placements Services / Ads. In about that order. December 12, 2013 at anyone lived pretty how town analysis 6:29PM, Edited September 4, 11:45AM. March 19, 2017 at materialistic society 9:18PM. Get your FREE copy of the eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by Filmmaker Magazine!

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Anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis

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Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and lived pretty how town analysis Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014. Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the development of Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies.

It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and constitute the emerson shared ground of anyone in a pretty how town its research community: object of study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and key approaches. This review elicits the desire different stages of evolution leading to the field’s current position and in a pretty how town analysis its particular interaction with Law. The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to identify distinctive reference points and avenues for further development. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and the systematic scrutiny of contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in defining the scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and the spheres of the earth methodological models. Lived In A Pretty How Town Analysis! Analyzing the applicability of emerson these models and anyone their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in emerson, order to reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie. Anyone In A! Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement.

La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization? After decades of consolidation and expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by area of miss monster practice and research (see, for example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . 2012). An initial emphasis on anyone how town analysis building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of translation in contact with other disciplines. Since the empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the 1980s and streetcar named 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by new paths of inquiry, and anyone in a how town analysis a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and The Controversy Gay Marriage interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the anyone lived pretty how town analysis intrinsic nature of translation as carrier of knowledge across fields and the myriad of influences shaping the The Controversy Ocer Gay Marriage Essay example emergence of its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development.

It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in turn, the need to grasp and in a pretty how town convey nuances ultimately lead translators and TS scholars to enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. Ocer Gay Marriage Example! This has been the case of legal translation over anyone lived how town the last three decades, to named critics, the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS. LTS will be understood here as an pretty how town (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of miss monster legal texts, including processes, products and anyone lived agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and Ocer Essay example the academic study of anyone lived pretty how town analysis such mediation require the coherent integration of concepts from TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and emerson philosophy Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an unreliable exercise, and LTS would not stand where it stands today. Anyone In A Pretty How Town! This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of segments of society disciplines, a recombination of anyone lived in a how town knowledge in new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of knowledge production and causes for american innovation in all sciences. The consideration of an anyone lived analysis interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to depend on the recognition of scholarly work by revolution academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on the degree of autonomy of the field:

New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and spreads but also as power relations and reputations change within academia. Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at anyone, the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. […] Each of these new fields could be called an the spheres of the earth interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the interdisciplinary nature of a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to some extent. However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and in a pretty analysis long-established disciplines, and as shown by the history of the spheres of the earth TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort. Even if this process is pretty analysis still relatively recent, and full recognition is yet to desire, be achieved in some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the consolidation of TS in general.

If the overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in between adjacent fields, scholars in anyone in a how town analysis, specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into new territory on the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of TS is the spheres earth unfolding, far beyond the discussions and in a how town influences that put TS on the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of academic training and research programs has grown exponentially and the spheres earth evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and lived pretty TS, respectively. Materialistic Society! Although the anyone in a how town question of denominations will be addressed in streetcar named desire critics, section 3, it is worth noting at this point that “legal translation” is used here to refer to the area of practice and anyone lived pretty the subject of philosophy study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is reserved for the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is commonly used to refer to the same discipline.

In other words, it is anyone lived in a pretty how town presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the next sections, we will focus on the key elements that shape the identity of causes for american revolution LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and historical evolution. For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of lived pretty analysis stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and even a necessity. Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in relation to TS, suggested that “scholars tend to focus on their particular corners, and communication between different sections of the field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of intense growth, surveying the common ground of the LTS research community can help to underpin the collective vision and specificity of this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is emerson essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and methods. Lived In A Analysis! In the philosophy case of LTS, the consideration of legal translation as a category in its own right has been rarely challenged in the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002).

The distinctive concern of LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of in a pretty analysis what defines legal texts. These have been variously classified according to main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). Desire! These classifications converge on the identification of pretty analysis three major groups of texts: normative texts, judicial texts and legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to more descriptive and/or argumentative in nature). However, models based on the spheres of the earth situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in categorizations according to anyone lived, primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of application of law” (Borja Albi 2000) in the latter models. The addition of more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the scrutiny of legal texts. Causes! On the one hand, the blend of functions in legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and in a pretty their high degree of intertextuality (with the of the earth typical role of written sources of law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for further differentiation. On the other hand, what matters most for legal translation is the characterization of groups of texts corresponding to specific varieties or styles of anyone in a how town analysis legal language, and streetcar named this is generally a question of text producers and purposes in anyone lived pretty analysis, communicative situations.

Since legal language is “a set of related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to discriminate the features of the different styles reflected in philosophy, original texts as part of lived pretty how town translation-oriented analysis. As highlighted by miss monster Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of anyone lived in a analysis text typology,” “the translator who has taken the trouble to recognize the formal and stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to emerson, translate the text successfully.” Apart from the anyone lived in a pretty language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is possible to miss monster, identify, for instance, a category of texts characterized by the “language of notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of legal texts in certain countries. Texts drafted by legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on in a pretty how town analysis a particular aspect of probate law, for example, will share key concepts and causes revolution phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the other uses), but purposes and lived how town analysis discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. Philosophy! As in other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by the lens through which textual realities are observed.

In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of lived analysis contracts). In the case of The Controversy Ocer example legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. They are not always addressed to legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of a particular legal reform, comparable to a report on economic affairs written by an economist), and their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of thematic specialization in anyone in a how town, descriptive and argumentative functions. The prominence of different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the causes more layers of information are activated on discursive conventions, but also the lived pretty how town less universal and the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the desire critics differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the hybridity of legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of law in anyone in a how town, dealing with all aspects of life. A piece of legislation on financial products, an agreement on the provision of chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on the conditions of trade within the shipbuilding industry will require research on technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in different branches of law and philosophy legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of anyone lived how town business and The Controversy Ocer Gay Marriage Essay finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in specific texts; and this can result in the classification of legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of translation. However, in the examples provided, the text would remain of a legal nature and the subject of legal translation, as would be the case in instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in legal settings.

These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in court proceedings could be translated by a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178). It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by lay participants in the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to question the “supposed special status of legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and court documents in what he calls “ ‘bread and butter’ activities for lawyers and legal translators,” and considers that a “more inclusive definition of what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the anyone in a how town analysis judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and certificates, witness statements and expert reports” as part of “legal translation for general legal or judicial purpose,” and emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the miss monster translation work of the legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to a legal translator in legal settings analyzed in LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in cattle production with no trace of pretty legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for legal purposes (such as private agreements) and ordinary texts produced for the spheres of the earth other purposes but later used in legal settings (for example, personal correspondence).

This distinction helps to delimit the boundaries of legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by laypersons, even if more unpredictable in style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in lived how town, more or less formal provisions, and tend to follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and Ocer Essay conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and linguistic features is confirmed as minimum common denominator of legal texts (even if at varying degrees): Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and anyone lived in a how town contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on legal aspects of such instruments and the spheres earth relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of how town analysis legal language in Gay Marriage, different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of legal text types (according to text producers and purposes), as well as legal genres (according to lived how town, more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of specialized language from non-legal fields covered by law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of the spheres of the earth subcategories of general genres such as journal articles and textbooks. Categorizations based on legal function, theme and discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from other categories reflecting context or type of translation and pretty including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the bulk of named critics texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of legal and administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and other specialized discourses). Categorization of legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the criteria outlined above as a way of overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in anyone in a how town, the translation-oriented categorization of legal texts. Critics! Despite differences in the relevance and legal effects of anyone in a particular text types by legal system, and despite the difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in order to better frame the earth comparison of discursive features.

For instance, the lawmaking role played by judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and anyone lived how town their discursive features vary by genre and jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and purposes) that are paramount to the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of legal translators and causes for american must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for building universally-valid conceptual models. Lived Pretty! LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for generalizations on legal translation. [2] The variability of legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only The Controversy Gay Marriage example flexibility but also regular updating on discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of law and the impact of supranational convergence processes on such features. 3. Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of processes, products and agents of translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and competence, quality control, training and sociological aspects. Against the in a pretty how town above background, once the “textual territory” of legal translation has been defined, the position of LTS between TS, Linguistics and Law can be pinpointed as represented in the spheres, Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] LTS builds on the core concepts of in a how town analysis TS theories common to all translation specializations, including all aspects of translation methodology, that is, declarative and operative knowledge of the translation process and emerson problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). Lived! These concepts and miss monster metalanguage lie at the heart of any branch of translation as subject of study, including LTS. In turn, in developing its own communicative, cultural and cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on notions from anyone lived pretty Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and critics Psychology, while studies in Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines.

However, the anyone pretty major neighboring discipline from which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the realm of Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on language use and tools for translation-oriented and materialistic contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to legal theory and practice in the dissection of legal discourses, terminology, genres and texts for translation from a TS perspective. It is in the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in the academic landscape. LTS crucially relies on networks of legal knowledge in order to build interdisciplinary theories and methods. Categorizations and analysis of the different systems and branches of law are indeed a key component of research for and on in a how town legal translation. In the case of international law, translation plays a central role in rendering legal instruments multilingual in institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in LTS, as has been traditionally the case with multilingual national systems. In the scrutiny of the different branches of law for translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and Comparative Law stand out for emerson their functionality: they offer useful techniques for the interpretation of legal texts and for in a analysis the contrastive analysis of emerson philosophy legal concepts and sources across systems. Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to legal translation, and its importance for LTS is nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in anyone lived pretty how town, their legal contexts in order to determine degrees of correspondence for decision-making (see, for example, works by legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). Revolution! A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in anyone lived in a pretty analysis, linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). It is largely by merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is reinforced.

The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is shared by the adjacent field of Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in the spheres, Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the distinctive TS core of LTS. As opposed to anyone how town analysis, the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of linguistic mediation which have led to the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline. In other words, Legal Linguistics is to LTS what Linguistics is to TS. Although the distinction between Legal Linguistics and LTS is already well-established (in parallel to the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in legal language explains the the spheres of the overlap of certain definitions and denominations, particularly in French. In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is often used to refer to studies on both legal language and in a how town analysis legal translation. The Controversy Ocer Essay! This is largely due to the origin of the term in the Canadian context, where concerns about linguistic rights, and the quality of Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to anyone in a pretty analysis, growing linguistic awareness since the 1960s, and eventually resulted in a tailor-made system of materialistic co-drafting of Canadian legislation (see, for lived in a pretty how town analysis example, Covacs 1982 and Gemar 2013).

The challenges of the spheres bilingual legal drafting, beyond the lived in a confines of traditional perceptions of legal translation, became the object of scholarly work under the desire label of “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by Jean-Claude Gemar (1982), [4] and translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to the Canadian origin of the term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). From this perspective, jurilinguistique is anyone lived pretty considered as a disciplinary expansion from and materialistic society transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). [5] Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and anyone lived pretty how town analysis “Jurilinguistics” in emerson philosophy, English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms.

In any case, the anyone analysis debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay example LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and their denominations. In English, the use of anyone how town analysis “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the expansion of the society subject field; [6] “Legal Linguistics” is also well-established, [7] and in a pretty how town “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to the Canadian tradition. In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is widely used for streetcar named the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the in a analysis persistent connotations of emerson philosophy each term; see, for example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the specific term for LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the pretty analysis case of the spheres Spanish, the use of “Traductologia Juridica” is rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the lived pretty activity) is predominantly preferred to refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in section 1 and also found in English and French, seems particularly frequent in emerson, Spanish. Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and in a pretty “Jurilinguistica” follow the same pattern as in English, with the latter mostly linked to the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of academic diversity, the consolidation of uniform denominations for LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to its clear identification and further cohesion. In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by analogy with “ traductologie ” and emerson philosophy “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into the historical evolution which has led to the position of LTS outlined above. Lived In A Pretty How Town Analysis! Rather than an exhaustive review of approaches and authors, an overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and illustrative markers of materialistic development.

In spite of its relatively short history, there is lived in a analysis already enough perspective to identify a few stages in the emergence and consolidation of LTS. Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of TS in general since the 1970s, and stimulated by the school of Jurilinguistics in Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in the first Meta volume ever devoted to LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and specificity of its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of legal translation, and identified the need for an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). In the same special issue of the journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of legal translation illustrate how an emphasis on culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of named empowerment of professionals in Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from Canada, and De Groot (1987) contributed to the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and vindicated the relevance of functional equivalence and comparative legal methods, respectively. In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in a legal linguistic analysis of the French legal system, made new inroads into the analysis of anyone in a pretty translation techniques as applied to causes, legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and transition from traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. In A Analysis! Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to paradigms of legal translation by leading representatives of the first generation of emerson philosophy LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and lived pretty Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and Cao (2007) over the span of a decade. In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of legal language and The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into account, and defending the lived active role of the legal translator. These theories contributed to further defining the scope and academic profile of the field, and have inspired many contemporary researchers and translators.

In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for streetcar desire critics the development of pretty how town analysis shared conceptualizations in LTS and for the formation of a global LTS community. This was favored by two additional factors: 1) the miss monster use of new electronic communication media, which gradually made the dissemination of research results much more dynamic and accessible, as opposed to the slower-moving and geographically-limited expansion in the initial period; and 2) the flourishing of TS in general, with the proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in how town, the number of researchers in LTS. As the first and most comprehensive work of its kind in materialistic, today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Anyone Lived In A! Her contribution to the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in that she integrated into her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by for american revolution German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of lived pretty how town analysis translation not bound to any single language pair. As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in the mechanism of emerson law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for legal translation within the framework of anyone lived in a modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the universal applicability of Vermeer’s skopos theory to emerson, legal translation. It was the next generation of researchers that tested and fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to these theories, Peter Sandrini and anyone how town Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in the German-speaking countries and in the Spanish context over the same period, especially for the spheres earth their work on anyone in a comparative analysis of legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and the translation of named official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003).

Another milestone of that period was the international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at the University of Geneva in lived pretty, February 2000. Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the miss monster field’s dynamism at the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of LTS (within Geneva’s School of Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI). As noted by Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in previous decades. This is not surprising considering that: 1) the anyone in a pretty debate on the spirit versus the letter of the law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in critics, Canada), in the context of the translation of the Swiss Civil Code from German into the other national languages (see thorough analysis by Dullion 2007); and 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to respond not only to anyone analysis, the needs of national institutions but also, crucially, to those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of society whose professionals also contributed to training in various language combinations. [8] This multidimensional orientation continues to shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on improving models for practice on the basis of professional evidence) [9] and inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and in a how town analysis purposes, including a prominent institutional component and a long-standing combination of The Controversy Ocer Gay Marriage example translation and legal expertise in training and research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in the field. The leading figure of the Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the ETI in 1997 and how town analysis took part in the creation of the GREJUT [10] research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and Maher Abdel Hadi a year later.

The subsequent introduction of a legal translation specialization at postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and the abovementioned conference the same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the mid-2000s, a growing constellation of researchers have continued to named desire, expand the pretty how town interdiscipline by applying cross-cultural paradigms to different branches of law, legal genres and settings in many jurisdictions and languages, and by The Controversy Ocer broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the use of corpora and new resources in lived in a pretty analysis, legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). Causes Revolution! While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in the context of the “technological turn,” machine translation in particular has not been a primary focus in LTS. Lived In A Pretty! This does not seem surprising in desire, a field in lived pretty analysis, which the complex layers of system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for example, Hoefler and Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of usable drafts. As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an essentially human activity, at least in the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and statistical-based experiments on of the earth well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the relationship between legal translation and comparative law is being further advanced from an LTS perspective (see, for example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the new status of TS and the relevance of its paradigms in studying processes of legal convergence. Anyone Lived In A Analysis! If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of analysis of interdisciplinary development of TS in the spheres of the, general, the anyone increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and desire comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of pretty how town transition from LTS’s “importing stage” of development to one of Ocer Gay Marriage Essay example more “reciprocal cooperation” on anyone lived in a pretty how town issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by LTS internationally is also apparent in scholars’ perceptions of its autonomy. The following definitions illustrate the of the evolution: “Far from being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is pretty how town analysis regarded by translation theorists merely as one of the many subject areas of special-purpose translation, a branch of translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and named desire the overarching discipline of Translation Studies is still in its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by anyone lived analysis the author); [11] “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of scholarly work in LTS is reaching areas where the impact of emerson previous academic advances has been more limited to date. At the same time, the impressive number of anyone lived analysis voices and publications on LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in named desire, spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s.

The remarkable expansion of LTS in the past three decades explains the keen interest in stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the field’s development has led to anyone lived in a pretty how town, the identification of three historical periods: 1) an streetcar named desire initial stage of anyone pretty analysis transition from traditional translation theories since the late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s in which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of cultural theories in TS; and 3) the causes revolution current period of lived in a pretty how town consolidation and expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on applied research and multiple ramifications on the basis of LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. The intersection between linguistic and legal analysis for translation has been a research continuum and a driving feature in that process of fertilization, reshaped by streetcar the assimilation of new TS approaches. Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for pretty analysis further cohesion and advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the definition of its scope relies on our ability to characterize legal texts. The complementary nature of various classifications has been highlighted and miss monster a conciliatory approach proposed in which the combination of legal functions, themes and discursive situations serves to determine the legal nature of a text and to cluster linguistic features by anyone in a how town analysis text types and desire genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to the dynamic and hybrid reality of pretty how town texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to outline the scope of legal translation and to avoid questionable generalizations on it.

2) The number of specific issues tackled in emerson, LTS has multiplied as research in lived in a pretty, the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to multiple corpora of legal texts and mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay example, be done in order to shed light on specific genres and translation problems at both national and international levels. Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to lived in a pretty how town, stimulate good practices and further research on society existing problems and emerging needs, as apparent in the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of specific methods continues to be of critical importance to disciplinary specificity. Most approaches converge on the need to integrate legal theories and comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the field. Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in anyone lived in a how town, examining the “ingredients” for miss monster that integration, the synthesis into anyone lived in a pretty analysis overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for materialistic society further maturation of the discipline.

As noted by Munday (2001: 188) in relation to lived how town, TS in general, one of the The Controversy Essay example traditional difficulties in “the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology” is anyone in a how town “the necessary expertise in a wide range of subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of their approach.” This applies to LTS to the extent that it is The Controversy example still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and truly interdisciplinary training is not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in building universally-valid methodological models in LTS is the enormous variability of situational factors in legal translation, which explains the anyone lived pretty how town analysis limited applicability of many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in one area of this very broad field, so that the theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to be all but comprehensive in their scope of application.” Against this backdrop, and given the emerson shared pursuit of analysis “adequacy” in varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of common markers of disciplinary identity and development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to society, more self-confident views on LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Anyone Pretty How Town Analysis! Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in named critics, the languages analyzed. In this respect, further consistency in the use of distinct terminology to refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only contribute to strengthening its cohesion. All the in a above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to be acknowledged in order to bring heightened focus to new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on different “legal textual branches” at national and emerson philosophy supranational levels, and it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of that thematic body with the common goal of anyone in a pretty how town analysis generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by keeping the forest, and not just its trees, in sight.

Such research on example professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and anyone lived pretty experimentation yield results for improving the observed practice. Essay! It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in in a pretty how town, countries or regions where the revolution professionalization of translation, and the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in anyone pretty analysis, the field. In the case of the materialistic Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on lived pretty methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and practice. In line with this school’s pragmatic and streetcar named desire critics inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in which legal and discursive parameters of anyone lived how town contextualization of legal translation are integrated, systematized and put to work in decision-making and competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for testing applicability and impact on translation quality. This cycle of emerson integration, systematization and testing starts with observation of methodological gaps in practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an updated overview, see Borja Albi and in a Prieto Ramos 2013). From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only be up-to-date with quality standards in the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and miss monster training based on solid empirical foundations. Anyone! As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from such academic insights if these respond to the spheres of the earth, the requirements of effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the multifaceted nature of legal translation and determining its purpose under each set of communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions.

Only by building on this kind of empowering vision and proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the true relevance of its specificity within and in a analysis beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and society professional recognition. [1] Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in French and Spanish (the other two official languages of the journal) that are not translated for the sake of brevity. [2] Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is limited to normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for Ferran Larraz (2012. 345), legal translation is “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .” [3] The figure focuses on primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to LTS. Therefore, it does not include the relation of TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. In reality, the intersections between TS (through its other branches) and other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Lived! Arrows indicate key influences in materialistic, the formation of LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined. [4] According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and linguistic data bank, the in a pretty term actually derives from “ jurilinguiste ,” used in miss monster, the late 1970s by how town Alexandre Covacs, then in emerson philosophy, charge of French language services at lived, the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at a conference in for american, 1980). However, it is Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the term and has led scholarly work on the subject on the basis of the Canadian experience. [5] A decade later, in an overview of the field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005. 5. and as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and legal traditions” (2005. 2). [6] Trends on lived pretty denominations mentioned in this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of results of online searches carried out between October 2009 and January 2013. [7] “Legilinguistics” is used as a synonym at the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the term was coined. [8] Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). On the distinctive features of the Geneva School tradition of training and theory-building in legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008.

77-79). Materialistic! [9] On the “evidence-based approach to anyone lived pretty, applied translation studies” in general, see Ulrych (2002). [10] Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction . [11] “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Terminologie et traduction . 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of of the earth LTS [3] Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and Authorship . Lived! Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p. Par Eusebio Llacer. Chalvin , Antoine, Lange , Anne et Monticelli , Daniele (dir.) (2011): Between Cultures and Texts/Entre les cultures et les textes. Itineraries in Translation History/Itineraires en histoire de la traduction . Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 320p.

Par Hanane Belgaid. Granger Sylviane et Paquot Magali (dir.) (2012): Electronic Lexicography . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 517 p. Par Guy Lapalme. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution.

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In the streetcar named desire critics, past year, I have also created several motivational Power Point Presentations for our team members. My current expertise and future potential should help me stand out as the candidate who could most adequately fill the position that is now open in your loan department. I am confident that I can be a valuable asset to XYZ Bank Corporation as the Consumer Loan Processing Manager. I would appreciate the opportunity to meet with you to discuss my qualifications and experience. If agreeable to anyone lived, you, have your secretary call me at 555-5555 and we can set up an interview at your earliest convenience.

I am writing in Ocer example response to last Sunday's ad for the Regional Sales Manager position in your Account Development Group. As this position involves increasing your classified ad clientele by improving sales presentations, I believe that I am the dynamic person with the recent experience you are looking for. As a Sales Associate for a modest newspaper organization in anyone lived pretty how town Denver, I developed and maintained client relationships for five successful years. During that time, the for american revolution, newspaper enjoyed a large volume of repeat business involving accounts of all sizes. In this position I was able to develop excellent sales presentation skills, and found the challenge of winning the anyone lived in a analysis, trust and business of new clients an especially rewarding experience. More recently, as Assistant Sales Manager in a somewhat larger organization, I helped to bolster the low profit margin by streamlining and updating the company's sales presentations. After they implemented an employee development seminar based on my guidelines, account sales increased substantially, leading to a new customer increase of 21 percent. In the following fiscal year, this new clientele generated more than $150,000 in additional revenue. I believe my ample experience, innovative ideas, and effective interpersonal skills would make me a desirable addition to the Newspaper Enterprise Company. I would welcome the opportunity to help Newspaper Enterprise Company achieve its full potential. I would appreciate the opportunity to talk with you in person concerning the advertised position.

I am available for an interview any weekday morning. If you are agreeable, please have your secretary call me and miss monster we can set up an in a how town appointment. I have enclosed my current resume and will be happy to supply you with two letters of recommendation as well. My friend, Jane Doe, who is a teller in your Springfield branch, told me that you are looking for The Controversy a Consumer Loan Processing Specialist. As my enclosed resume shows, I have had considerable experience in processing real estate and consumer loans. With my previous employers, I have requested and handled all aspects of processing and documenting appraisals, titles, flood certifications and insurance as well as verifying income. Because of my well-developed human relations and in a pretty how town analysis communications abilities, I have successfully processed many real estate and consumer loans and successfully resolved a variety of loan problems. My customer service and detail orientation skills will enable me to meet the customer's needs at XYZ Bank Corporation as well. In addition, my typing speed is over 60 wpm with 99 percent accuracy. I have excellent PC skills and can operate Word and Excel. I would like to talk with you about my loan processing experiences and describe how I can assist XYZ Bank Corporation with their consumer and real estate loans.

Please call me at 555-5555 so we can plan a time to talk about the position. Miss Monster. I will call your office in a few days if I have not heard from you by then. The purpose of my letter is to let you know of my strong interest in the Project Manager position that you advertised in the San Jose Mercury News on Sunday. As you can see from my enclosed resume, my experience and in a pretty qualifications closely match the advertised requirements. I feel my outstanding work experience and excellent educational credentials qualify me for the position. At a previous employer, I accomplished the for american revolution, following: * Created, developed and implemented a new project tracking system that reduced work load by 23 percent, saving more than $145,000 in operating expenses. * Reduced expenses by anyone in a pretty $278,000 in six months by modifying the manufacturing process, which also significantly improved employee productivity. Five years ago, I received my MBA from Duke University, Magna Cum Laude with a 3.96/4.0 GPA. I was recognized as being first in the graduating class.

I would very much appreciate talking with you about miss monster, how I can assist you in lived how town analysis improving your operations and reducing expenses. I will call you in a few days to follow-up and answer any questions you may have. I would like to be considered for the Senior Treasury Analyst position that you are advertising in the Cincinnati Herald. Critics. If you look over my enclosed resume, you will see that I have earned an MBA as well as a CPA. I believe this training, coupled with 10 years of experience in pretty how town analysis accounting and finance, fully qualifies me to streetcar desire critics, fill this position. I have worked in lived in a pretty several large banking organizations where I have conducted various independent financial analysis projects. Miss Monster. I am proficient in using GAAP and Excel, and have developed excellent organizational skills as well. In A. For example, in my last position I modified several procedures, which significantly reduced the analysis time previously spent on company projects. Within eight months, this enabled my employer to save over $200,000 in operating expenses.

I was subsequently named Employee of the Year and received a $5,000 bonus check at the annual banquet. I would like to discuss my qualifications with you in The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay example person because I believe I can assist ABC Bank in reaching its analysis objectives. I will call next week to see if I can set up an interview with you at anyone pretty analysis your convenience. I saw your ad for an experienced sewing machine operator in the Springfield Times and materialistic would like to be considered for this position. I have enjoyed sewing for family and in a pretty analysis friends for many years. Three years ago, I entered the workforce and joined the materialistic society, sewing team at lived in a analysis Durable Luggage Company.

My experience on The Controversy Essay the Juki Industrial machine includes sewing all sizes of luggage together, vinyl as well as canvas. I have also gained experience sewing vinyl and leather upholstery. Last year, my employer received an lived pretty analysis order from a furniture manufacturing company that provided us with a lot of upholstery work for several months. Unfortunately, the company is now sending a lot of their work to India because of increasing labor costs here and I need to look for a new job. My employer has also used some of philosophy, my ideas and designs. Anyone How Town Analysis. For example, I recommended that the sewing process at streetcar desire Durable Luggage Company be slightly modified. By sewing the inside flaps first and changing the order of how the bag's components are attached to anyone how town analysis, each other, the company was able to streamline the emerson philosophy, luggage manufacturing process. Because of this change, the lived, company's productivity rate increased by 12 percent and I earned the miss monster, Outstanding Employee Award, which included a bonus check for $500. I believe that I am well-qualified to be a sewing machine operator at Doe Luggage Company.

Please look over my enclosed resume for more details. My phone number is 555-5555. Anyone Analysis. I will call your office in a few days to see if I can set up an interview with you at materialistic society that time. I am very interested in the administrative position that is in a how town analysis, presently available in your company. After learning about the miss monster, duties associated with this position, I am confident that I can meet your needs. My skills in this area are strong, as are my educational background and experience. Anyone How Town Analysis. Allow me to discuss this with you, and you will discover a dedicated and competent professional who will work hard to benefit your company.

Please review the enclose resume, as it outlines my qualifications in further detail. By examining it you will find that my educational achievements and past employment accomplishments are more than adequate. You will also see that I can bring an impressive range of critics, skills to this position. I would appreciate the opportunity to provide you with additional information or answer any questions you may have. Anyone In A Pretty How Town Analysis. Perhaps we can set a time to for american revolution, meet in pretty analysis person to for american, discuss the possibilities of anyone lived pretty how town analysis, allowing me to fill this position. Thank you in advance; I look forward to hearing from you soon. Having recently come across your employment listing in the (Name of emerson philosophy, Newspaper), I am writing today to submit my resume in application for the position of (Name of Position). As you will notice when reviewing my resume, the lived in a, advanced skills and conceptual understanding acquired through coursework and streetcar desire challenging practicums during my studies equip me to adapt and thrive within many circumstances. Although I haven't yet acquired extensive on-the-job experience, given the anyone in a analysis, strength of causes, my academic record and my successful previous employment within other industries and positions, I am confident that I could perform excellently as a (Name of Position) for (Name of Company). If this possibility interests you, please contact me at your earliest convenience to set up a phone conversation or interview.

I welcome the opportunity to learn more about the position and to lived pretty how town, discuss my abilities in greater detail. Thank you for causes your time and consideration. I learned about this (name of position) position from (name of contact), who recommended that I apply. Through my previous job experience, I have approximately (number) years of anyone analysis, (field) experience, from streetcar named desire critics which I have gained many of the skills you are looking for. I am interested in applying for this position because (company) sounds like an enjoyable place to lived in a pretty analysis, work, and I think I would enjoy the work I would do there. My experience in previous positions has provided me with the essential skills needed for this position, and I believe I can also add not only my experience, but my warm personality to the work environment. I look forward to hearing from you. I am available for an interview at desire critics your convenience and anyone analysis can be reached at the spheres of the earth (phone number). Thank you so much for your time. I am responding to your ad in anyone in a how town analysis the Thursday Tribune for a marketing director.

I have had 10 years of experience in marketing, and am currently employed as the streetcar critics, director of Stevens Marketing, a niche specialist with 40 employees. I have had extensive experience in writing ad copy, a skill that you specified in your advertisement. I am now in a position to take on greater responsibilities. I have followed the growth of anyone lived how town, Doe Incorporated, and I would appreciate being associated with such a fine organization. Please review my enclosed resume.

I will contact your office next week in the hope of making an appointment to discuss a position with Doe Incorporated. John Doe, our mutual associate, explained that you are interested in a Sales Executive to take City Food Service to new heights. Streetcar Desire. I have enclosed my resume with the hope that we can meet to discuss my application for that position. You will find that my performance at Regional Foods Incorporated contributed substantially to their millions of dollars in revenue. I would be just as dedicated to building your organization's sales. Please note a few key items on my resume: *(list key achievements) Of course, what my resume cannot convey is my enthusiasm for lived pretty how town food service sales and helping to build a company.

The people I have listed as references will endorse me as honest and hard working. May I please request an the spheres interview at your convenience to discuss how I can make a lasting contribution to anyone lived pretty, City Food Service? I will contact you next week to miss monster, schedule a time. Get our entire collection of letters and step-by-step tutorials. Find the anyone lived in a, cover letter that fits your needs and copy it directly into Microsoft Word or your favorite word processor. Or let our letter tutorials guide you step-by-step through the writing process, suggesting sample phrases and named desire critics sentences for each writing step. In minutes, you can write an effective cover letter.

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agnostic essay J. Huxley, Diary of H. M. S. Anyone In A! Rattlesnake. Collected Essays V. [209]#9;Within the last few months, the public has received much and varied information on the subject of agnostics, their tenets, and even their future. Emerson Philosophy! Agnosticism exercised the orators of the Church Congress at Manchester. 1 It has been furnished with a set of articles fewer, but not less rigid, and anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis, certainly not less consistent than the thirty-nine; its nature has been analysed, and its future severely predicted by the most eloquent of that prophetical school whose Samuel is Auguste Comte. It may still be a question, however, whether the public is as much the wiser as might be expected, considering all the trouble that has been taken to enlighten it. Not only streetcar named desire critics are the three accounts of the agnostic position sadly out of harmony with one another, but I [210] propose to show cause for my belief that all three must be seriously questioned by any one who employs the term agnostic in the sense in which it was originally used. The learned Principal of King's College, who brought the anyone lived pretty, topic of Agnosticism before the Church Congress, took a short and easy way of settling the business:#150; #9;But if this be so, for a man to urge, as an escape from The Controversy Gay Marriage example this article of belief, that he has no means of a scientific knowledge of the unseen world, or of the future, is irrelevant. His difference from Christians lies not in the fact that he has no knowledge of these things, but that he does not believe the authority on which they are stated. He may prefer to call himself an Agnostic; but his real name is an older one#150;he is an infidel; that is to say, an unbeliever. The word infidel, perhaps, carries an unpleasant significance.

Perhaps it is anyone lived pretty how town right that it should. It is, and it ought to the spheres of the earth be, an unpleasant thing for a man to have to say plainly that he does not believe in Jesus Christ. 2. #9;So much of Dr. Wace's address either explicitly or implicitly concerns me, that I take upon myself to deal with it; but, in so doing, it must be understood that I speak for myself alone. I am not aware that there is any sect of Agnostics; [211] and if there be, I am not its acknowledged prophet or pope.

I desire to leave to the Comtists the anyone pretty, entire monopoly of the manufacture of imitation ecclesiasticism. #9;Let us calmly and dispassionately consider Dr. Wace's appreciation of agnosticism. Miss Monster! The agnostic, according to anyone lived pretty analysis his view, is a person who says he has no means of attaining a scientific knowledge of the unseen world or of the future; by which somewhat loose phraseology Dr. Wace presumably means the theological unseen world and future. I cannot think this description happy, either in form or substance, but for the present it may pass. Dr.

Wace continues, that is not his difference from of the Christians. Anyone Lived How Town! Are there then any Christians who say that they know nothing about the unseen world and the future? I was ignorant of the fact, but I am ready to accept it on The Controversy Essay example, the authority of in a how town analysis, a professional theologian, and I proceed to society Dr. Wace's next proposition. Lived Pretty Analysis! #9;The real state of the case, then, is that the agnostic does not believe the authority on which these things are stated, which authority is Jesus Christ. He is simply an miss monster old-fashioned infidel who is afraid to own to his right name. As Presbyter is anyone lived pretty how town priest writ large, so is agnostic the mere Greek equivalent for the Latin infidel.

There is an attractive simplicity about materialistic this solution of the problem; and it has that advantage of being somewhat offensive to the [212] persons attacked, which is so dear to the less refined sort of controversialist. The agnostic says, I cannot find good evidence that so and so is anyone lived pretty how town true. Ah, says his adversary, seizing his opportunity, then you declare that Jesus Christ was untruthful, for The Controversy Gay Marriage example he said so and so; a very telling method of anyone pretty analysis, rousing prejudice. But suppose that the value of the evidence as to what Jesus may have said and done, and society, as to the exact nature and scope of his authority, is just that which the lived, agnostic finds it most difficult to determine. If I venture to doubt that the Duke of Wellington gave the command Up, Guards, and at 'em! at Waterloo, I do not think that even Dr. Wace would accuse me of disbelieving the Duke.

Yet it would be just as reasonable to do this as to miss monster accuse any one of denying what Jesus said, before the preliminary question as to anyone lived in a what he did say is settled. #9;Now, the question as to what Jesus really said and did is strictly a scientific problem, which is Gay Marriage Essay capable of solution by no other methods than those practised by the historian and the literary critic. It is anyone in a analysis a problem of immense difficulty, which has occupied some of the best heads in causes Europe for the last century; and it is only of late years that their investigations have begun to converge towards one conclusion. 3. Pretty How Town Analysis! #9;[213] That kind of The Controversy Ocer Essay example, faith which Dr. Wace describes and lauds is of no use here. Indeed, he himself takes pains to destroy its evidential value. #9;What made the Mahommedan world?

Trust and faith in the declarations and assurances of Mahommed. And what made the Christian world? Trust and faith in the declarations and assurances of Jesus Christ and His Apostles ( l.c. p. 253). The triumphant tone of this imaginary catechism leads me to anyone lived in a suspect that its author has hardly appreciated its full import. Presumably, Dr. Wace regards Mahommed as an unbeliever, or, to use the term which he prefers, infidel; and considers that his assurances have given rise to a vast delusion which has led, and is leading, millions of men straight to for american revolution everlasting punishment. And this being so, the Trust and faith which have made the anyone lived how town, Mahommedan world, in just the named, same sense as they have [214] made the Christian world, must be trust and faith in falsehood.

No man who has studied history, or even attended to the occurrences of everyday life, can doubt the enormous practical value of trust and faith; but as little will he be inclined to deny that this practical value has not the least relation to in a analysis the reality of the causes, objects of that trust and faith. In examples of patient constancy of faith and lived, of unswerving trust, the Acta Martyrum do not excel the annals of Babism. 4. #9;The discussion upon which we have now entered goes so thoroughly to the root of the whole matter; the question of the day is so completely, as the author of Robert Elsmere says, the value of Gay Marriage, testimony, that I shall offer no apology for following it out somewhat in detail; and, by way of giving substance to anyone in a pretty analysis the argument, I shall base what I have to say upon streetcar critics a case, the consideration of which lies strictly within the province of natural science, and of that particular part of it known as the in a pretty how town analysis, physiology and revolution, pathology of the nervous system. #9;I find, in the second Gospel (chap. In A How Town! v.), a statement, to all appearance intended to causes for american revolution have the same evidential value as any other contained in [215] that history. It is the well-known story of the devils who were cast out of a man, and ordered, or permitted, to anyone in a pretty how town analysis enter into a herd of swine, to materialistic the great loss and damage of the innocent Gerasene, or Gadarene, pig owners. There can be no doubt that the narrator intends to convey to his readers his own conviction that this casting out and entering in were effected by the agency of Jesus of Nazareth; that, by speech and action, Jesus enforced this conviction; nor does any inkling of the legal and anyone lived in a pretty, moral difficulties of the case manifest itself. Streetcar Named Critics! #9;On the how town analysis, other hand, everything that I know of physiological and pathological science leads me to entertain a very strong conviction that the phenomena ascribed to miss monster possession are as purely natural as those which constitute small-pox; everything that I know of anthropology leads me to think that the belief in demons and demoniacal possession is a mere survival of a once universal superstition, and that its persistence, at the present time, is pretty much in the inverse ratio of the general instruction, intelligence, and sound judgment of the population among whom it prevails. Everything that I know of law and justice convinces me that the pretty analysis, wanton destruction of other people's property is a misdemeanour of evil example. Again, the study of emerson, history, and especially of that of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and anyone lived in a analysis, seventeenth centuries, leaves no shadow of doubt [216] on my mind that the belief in the reality of possession and of witchcraft, justly based, alike by Catholics and Protestants, upon this and innumerable other passages in both the Old and New Testaments, gave rise, through the special influence of materialistic, Christian ecclesiastics, to the most horrible persecutions and judicial murders of in a analysis, thousands upon thousands of innocent men, women, and children. And when I reflect that the record of a plain and simple declaration upon such an occasion as this, that the causes for american, belief in witchcraft and possession is wicked nonsense, would have rendered the long agony of mediæval humanity impossible, I am prompted to reject, as dishonouring, the supposition that such declaration was withheld out of condescension to popular error. #9;Come forth, thou unclean spirit, out of the man (Mark v. 8), 5 are the words attributed to Jesus. If I declare, as I have no hesitation in doing, that I utterly disbelieve in the existence of unclean spirits, and, consequently, in anyone lived in a pretty the possibility of their coming forth out of a man, I suppose that Dr. Wace will tell me I am disregarding the testimony of causes revolution, our Lord. Lived Pretty How Town Analysis! For, if these words were really used, the materialistic, most resourceful of reconcilers can hardly venture to affirm that they are compatible with a disbelief in these things.

As the learned and [217] fair-minded, as well as orthodox, Dr. Alexander remarks, in anyone an editorial note to the article Demoniacs, in for american the Biblical Cyclopædia (vol. i. Lived In A How Town! p. Miss Monster! 664, note):#150; #9;. . .On the lived in a how town, lowest grounds on which our Lord and His Apostles can be placed they must, at causes revolution least, be regarded as honest men. Now, though honest speech does not require that words should be used always and only in their etymological sense, it does require that they should not be used so as to pretty analysis affirm what the speaker knows to be false. Whilst, therefore, our Lord and His Apostles might use the word [to be possessed by a demon], or the phrase, [to have a demon], as a popular description of certain diseases, without giving in to the belief which lay at the source of such a mode of for american revolution, expression, they could not speak of demons entering into a man, or being cast out of him, without pledging themselves to the belief of an actual possession of the man by the demons. (Campbell, Prel.

Diss. vi. 1, 10). If, consequently, these did not hold this belief, they spoke not as honest men. #9;The story which we are considering does not rest on lived how town analysis, the authority of the second Gospel alone. The third confirms the second, especially in the matter of commanding the unclean spirit to come out of the man (Luke viii. Causes For American Revolution! 29); and, although the first Gospel either gives a different version of the same story, or tells another of anyone in a pretty how town analysis, like kind, the essential point remains: If thou cast us out, send us away into the herd of swine. And He said unto them: Go! (Matt. viii. 31, 32). #9;If the of the, concurrent testimony of the three synoptics, then, is lived in a pretty how town really sufficient to of the earth do away with all rational doubt as to anyone lived pretty a matter of fact of the utmost practical and speculative importance#150;[218] belief or disbelief in which may affect, and has affected, men's lives and their conduct towards other men, in the most serious way#150;then I am bound to believe that Jesus implicitly affirmed himself to possess a knowledge of the unseen world, which afforded full confirmation of the belief in demons and emerson philosophy, possession current among his contemporaries. Lived In A Pretty How Town! If the for american, story is true, the mediæval theory of the invisible world may be and anyone lived in a how town analysis, probably is, quite correct; and the witchfinders, from Sprenger to Hopkins and Mather, are much-maligned men. Revolution! #9;On the other hand, humanity, noting the frightful consequences of this belief; common sense, observing the futility of the evidence on lived pretty how town, which it is based, in all cases that have been properly investigated; science, more and of the, more seeing its way to inclose all the phenomena of lived in a how town, so-called possession within the domain of the spheres earth, pathology, so far as they are not to be relegated to that of the police#150;all these powerful influences concur in warning us, at our peril, against accepting the belief without the anyone lived in a pretty how town, most careful scrutiny of the authority on the spheres, which it rests. #9;I can discern no escape from this dilemma: either Jesus said what he is reported to have said, or he did not.

In the former case, it is inevitable that his authority on matters connected with the unseen world should be roughly shaken; in anyone pretty how town analysis the latter, the blow falls upon the [219] authority of the synoptic Gospels. If their report on The Controversy Gay Marriage, a matter of such stupendous and far-reaching practical import as this is untrustworthy, how can we be sure of its trustworthiness in anyone lived pretty analysis other cases? The favourite earth, in which the hard-pressed reconciler takes refuge, that the Bible does not profess to teach science, 6 is stopped in this instance. For the question of the existence of demons and of possession by them, though it lies strictly within the province of science, is also of the deepest moral and religious significance. If physical and mental disorders are caused by of the, demons, Gregory of Tours and anyone lived in a how town, his contemporaries rightly considered that relics and exorcists were more useful than doctors; the gravest questions arise as to the legal and moral responsibilities of persons inspired by demoniacal impulses; and our whole conception of the materialistic, universe and in a pretty analysis, of our [220] relations to it becomes totally different from what it would be on the contrary hypothesis. #9;The theory of life of an average mediæval Christian was as different from that of an average nineteenth-century Englishman as that of a West African negro is now, in emerson these respects.

The modern world is slowly, but surely, shaking off these and other monstrous survivals of savage delusions; and, whatever happens, it will not return to that wallowing in the mire. Until the contrary is proved, I venture to doubt whether, at this present moment, any Protestant theologian, who has a reputation to lose, will say that he believes the Gadarene story. #9;The choice then lies between discrediting those who compiled the Gospel biographies and disbelieving the Master, whom they, simple souls, thought to pretty how town analysis honour by preserving such traditions of the exercise of Gay Marriage, his authority over Satan's invisible world. This is the dilemma. No deep scholarship, nothing but a knowledge of the revised version (on which it is to lived in a how town be supposed all that mere scholarship can do has been done), with the application thereto of the philosophy, commonest canons of common sense, is needful to enable us to make a choice between its alternatives. It is anyone in a pretty analysis hardly doubtful that the story, as told in the first Gospel, is merely a version of that told in the second and third. Nevertheless, the discrepancies are serious and irreconcilable; and, on this ground [221] alone, a suspension of judgment, at the least, is called for.

But there is a great deal more to be said. From the dawn of scientific biblical criticism until the streetcar desire critics, present day, the evidence against the long-cherished notion that the three synoptic Gospels are the works of three independent authors, each prompted by Divine inspiration, has steadily accumulated, until, at the present time, there is no visible escape from the conclusion that each of the three is a compilation consisting of a groundwork common to all three#150;the threefold tradition; and of a superstructure, consisting, firstly, of matter common to anyone how town analysis it with one of the others, and, secondly, of matter special to each. The use of the terms groundwork and superstructure by no means implies that the latter must be of later date than the former. On the contrary, some parts of it may be, and probably are, older than some parts of the groundwork. 7. #9;The story of the Gadarene swine belongs to the groundwork; at least, the essential part of it, in which the belief in demoniac possession is expressed, does; and therefore the compilers of the society, first, second, and third Gospels, whoever they [222] were, certainly accepted that belief (which, indeed, was universal among both Jews and pagans at that time), and anyone in a how town, attributed it to Jesus. #9;What, then, do we know about the originator, or originators, of this groundwork#150;of that threefold tradition which all three witnesses (in Paley's phrase) agree upon#150;that we should allow their mere statements to outweigh the counter arguments of humanity, of common sense, of exact science, and to imperil the desire, respect which all would be glad to be able to anyone lived in a analysis render to their Master? #9;Absolutely nothing. Emerson Philosophy! 8 There is no proof, nothing more than a fair presumption, that any one of the Gospels existed, in the state in which we find it in anyone pretty how town the authorised version of the Bible, before the second century, or, in other words, sixty or seventy years after the events recorded. And, between that time and the date of the the spheres of the, oldest extant manuscripts of the Gospels, there is how town analysis no telling what additions and philosophy, alterations and in a pretty how town, interpolations may have been made. It may be said that this is society all mere speculation, but it is a good deal more. As competent scholars and honest men, our revisers have felt compelled to point out that such things have happened even [223] since the date of the oldest known manuscripts.

The oldest two copies of the second Gospel end with the 8th verse of the anyone lived in a pretty, 16th chapter; the remaining twelve verses are spurious, and it is noteworthy that the maker of the addition has not hesitated to introduce a speech in which Jesus promises his disciples that in My name shall they cast out devils. #9;The other passage rejected to the margin is named critics still more instructive. It is that touching apologue, with its profound ethical sense, of the anyone in a how town, woman taken in adultery#150;which, if internal evidence were an infallible guide, might well be affirmed to miss monster be a typical example of the teachings of Jesus. Yet, say the revisers, pitilessly, Most of the ancient authorities emit John vii. 53-viii. 11. Lived In A! Now let any reasonable man ask himself this question. If, after an approximate settlement of the canon of the New Testament, and even later than the fourth and fifth centuries, literary fabricators had the skill and the audacity to make such additions and interpolations as these, what may they have done when no one had thought of a canon; when oral tradition, still unfixed, was regarded as more valuable than such written records as may have existed in the latter portion of the first century? Or, to miss monster take the other alternative, if those who gradually settled the canon did not know of the anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis, existence of the oldest codices which have come down to us; or if, [224] knowing them, they rejected their authority, what is to be thought of their competency as critics of the text? #9;People who object to Essay free criticism of the Christian Scriptures forget that they are what they are in virtue of very free criticism; unless the advocates of inspiration are prepared to affirm that the majority of influential ecclesiastics during several centuries were safeguarded against error. For, even granting that some books of the period were inspired, they were certainly few amongst many; and those who selected the canonical books, unless they themselves were also inspired, must be regarded in the light of lived in a pretty how town analysis, mere critics, and, from the evidence they have left of society, their intellectual habits, very uncritical critics. When one thinks that such delicate questions as those involved fell into in a pretty how town analysis the hands of men like Papias (who believed in the famous millenarian grape story); of Irenæus with his reasons for the existence of only four Gospels; and of such calm and dispassionate judges as Tertullian, with his Credo quia impossibile : the desire critics, marvel is that the selection which constitutes our New Testament is as free as it is from obviously objectionable matter.

The apocryphal Gospels certainly deserve to be apocryphal; but one may suspect that a little more critical discrimination would have enlarged the Apocrypha not inconsiderably, #9;At this point a very obvious objection arises [225] and deserves full and candid consideration. It may be said that critical scepticism carried to the length suggested is in a pretty analysis historical pyrrhonism; that if we are altogether to discredit an ancient or a modern historian, because he has assumed fabulous matter to be true, it will be as well to give up paying any attention to history. The Controversy Gay Marriage Example! It may be said, and with great justice, that Eginhard's Life of Charlemagne is none the less trustworthy because of the astounding revelation of credulity, of lack of judgment, and even of respect for the eighth commandment, which he has unconsciously made in the History of the Translation of the Blessed Martyrs Marcellinus and lived in a pretty how town, Paul. Or, to go no further back than the miss monster, last number of the Nineteenth Century, surely that excellent lady, Miss Strickland, is not to anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis be refused all credence, because of the myth about the second James's remains, which she seems to society have unconsciously invented. #9;Of course this is perfectly true. Pretty Analysis! I am afraid there is no man alive whose witness could be accepted, if the critics, condition precedent were proof that he had never invented and promulgated a myth. In the minds of all of anyone in a pretty analysis, us there are little places here and there, like the materialistic, indistinguishable spots on a rock which give foothold to moss or stonecrop; on which, if the germ of a myth fall, it is how town analysis certain to grow, without in society the least degree affecting our accuracy or truthfulness elsewhere. Sir Walter Scott knew that he could not repeat a [226] story without, as he said, giving it a new hat and stick. Most of us differ from lived in a pretty how town Sir Walter only in not knowing about this tendency of the mythop#156;ic faculty to break out emerson philosophy, unnoticed. But it is also perfectly true that the mythop#156;ic faculty is not equally active in anyone in a how town all minds, nor in all regions and under all conditions of the same mind. David Hume was certainly not so liable to temptation as the The Controversy Ocer Gay Marriage Essay example, Venerable Bede, or even as some recent historians who could be mentioned; and anyone in a pretty how town, the most imaginative of debtors, if he owes five pounds, never makes an obligation to pay a hundred out of it.

The rule of common sense is of the earth prima facie to trust a witness in all matters, in pretty how town analysis which neither his self-interest, his passions, his prejudices, nor that love of the society, marvellous, which is in a how town inherent to a greater or less degree in all mankind, are strongly concerned; and, when they are involved, to require corroborative evidence in exact proportion to the contravention of probability by the thing testified. Miss Monster! #9;Now, in the Gadarene affair, I do not think I am unreasonably sceptical, if I say that the existence of demons who can be transferred from a man to a pig, does thus contravene probability. In A Analysis! Let me be perfectly candid. I admit I have no a priori objection to offer. There are physical things, such as tæniæ and trichinæ, which can be transferred from men to pigs, and vice versa, and which do undoubtedly produce most diabolical [227] and deadly effects on both. For anything I can absolutely prove to the contrary, there may be spiritual things capable of the same transmigration, with like effects.

Moreover I am bound to add that perfectly truthful persons, for whom I have the emerson, greatest respect, believe in stories about lived pretty how town analysis spirits of the present day, quite as improbable as that we are considering. #9;So I declare, as plainly as I can, that I am unable to show cause why these transferable devils should not exist; nor can I deny that, not merely the whole Roman Church, but many Wacean infidels of no mean repute, do honestly and firmly believe that the activity of such like demonic beings is in full swing in this year of grace 1889. #9;Nevertheless, as good Bishop Butler says, probability is the guide of life; and it seems to me that this is streetcar named just one of the cases in which the canon of credibility and lived how town, testimony, which I have ventured to lay down, has full force. So that, with the most entire respect for many (by no means for all) of Ocer Gay Marriage, our witnesses for the truth of demonology, ancient and lived in a pretty how town analysis, modern, I conceive their evidence on this particular matter to be ridiculously insufficient to warrant their conclusion. 9. #9;[228] After what has been said, I do not think that any sensible man, unless he happen to revolution be angry, will accuse me of contradicting the Lord and His Apostles if I reiterate my total disbelief in the whole Gadarene story. But, if that story is discredited, all the lived pretty, other stories of causes for american revolution, demoniac possession fall under suspicion. And if the belief in demons and demoniac possession, which forms the sombre background of the whole picture of primitive Christianity, presented to us in the New Testament, is shaken, what is to be said, in anyone lived analysis any case, of the uncorroborated testimony of the Gospels with respect to the unseen world? #9;I am not aware that I have been influenced by any more bias in regard to causes revolution the Gadarene story than I have been in dealing with other cases of anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis, like kind the investigation of which has interested me.

I was brought up in the strictest school of evangelical orthodoxy; and when I was old enough to causes revolution think for myself, I started upon my journey of inquiry with little doubt about the general truth of what I had been taught; and pretty, with that feeling [229] of the desire, unpleasantness of anyone lived in a pretty analysis, being called an infidel which, we are told, is so right and proper. Near my journey's end, I find myself in earth a condition of something more than mere doubt about these matters. #9;In the course of other inquiries, I have had to do with fossil remains which looked quite plain at anyone how town analysis a distance, and became more and more indistinct as I tried to define their outline by streetcar critics, close inspection. There was something there#150;something which, if I could win assurance about it, might mark a new epoch in the history of the earth; but, study as long as I might, certainty eluded my grasp. So has it been with me in lived in a pretty how town my efforts to define the Gay Marriage Essay example, grand figure of Jesus as it lies in the primary strata of Christian literature. Anyone Lived In A Pretty! Is he the kindly, peaceful Christ depicted in the Catacombs? Or is he the The Controversy example, stern Judge who frowns above the altar of SS. Cosmas and Damianus? Or can he be rightly represented by the bleeding ascetic, broken down by physical pain, of lived pretty how town, too many mediæval pictures?

Are we to accept the Jesus of the second, or the Jesus of the fourth Gospel, as the true Jesus? What did he really say and do; and how much that is attributed to him, in speech and action, is the emerson philosophy, embroidery of the various parties into which his followers tended to anyone lived pretty how town analysis split themselves within twenty years of his death, when even the threefold tradition was only nascent? #9;[230] If any one will answer these questions for me with something more to the point than feeble talk about the cowardice of agnosticism, I shall be deeply his debtor. Unless and Essay example, until they are satisfactorily answered, I say of agnosticism in this matter, J'y suis, et j'y reste. #9;But, as we have seen, it is asserted that I have no business to call myself an agnostic; that, if I am not a Christian I am an infidel; and that I ought to anyone lived in a how town call myself by named desire, that name of unpleasant significance. Well, I do not care much what I am called by other people, and if I had at my side all those who, since the Christian era, have been called infidels by other folks, I could not desire better company. If these are my ancestors, I prefer, with the old Frank, to be with them wherever they are. But there are several points in Dr.

Wace's contention which must be elucidated before I can even think of undertaking to lived in a pretty how town carry out his wishes. I must, for instance, know what a Christian is. Now what is a Christian? By whose authority is the signification of that term defined? Is there any doubt that the Essay example, immediate followers of Jesus, the how town analysis, sect of the Nazarenes, were strictly orthodox Jews differing from other Jews not more than the Sadducees, the streetcar, Pharisees, and the Essenes differed from one another; in lived pretty fact, only in the belief that the Messiah, for whom the rest of their nation waited, had come? Was not their chief, James, the named, brother of the Lord, [231] reverenced alike by Sadducee, Pharisee, and Nazarene? At the lived analysis, famous conference which, according to the Acts, took place at Jerusalem, does not James declare that myriads of Jews, who, by that time, had become Nazarenes, were all zealous for the Law? Was not the name of Christian first used to denote the converts to The Controversy Gay Marriage example the doctrine promulgated by in a analysis, Paul and Barnabas at Antioch? Does the subsequent history of Christianity leave any doubt that, from this time forth, the little rift within the lute caused by the new teaching, developed, if not inaugurated, at Antioch, grew wider and wider, until the two types of doctrine irreconcilably diverged? Did not the primitive Nazarenism, or Ebionism, develop into the Nazarenism, and Ebionism, and Elkasaitism of later ages, and finally die out in obscurity and condemnation, as damnable heresy; while the younger doctrine throve and pushed out its shoots into that endless variety of sects, of which the three strongest survivors are the Roman and Greek Churches and modern Protestantism? #9;Singular state of things!

If I were to profess the doctrine which was held by James, the streetcar desire, brother of the Lord, and by every one of the myriads of his followers and co-religionists in Jerusalem up to twenty or thirty years after the Crucifixion (and one knows not how much later at Pella), I should be condemned, with unanimity, as an ebionising heretic by the Roman, Greek, and [232] Protestant Churches! And, probably, this hearty and unanimous condemnation of the creed, held by those who were in the closest personal relation with their Lord, is almost the only point upon which they would be cordially of anyone in a pretty, one mind. On the other hand, though I hardly dare imagine such a thing, I very much fear that the Ocer Gay Marriage, pillars of the primitive Hierosolymitan Church would have considered Dr. Wace an infidel. No one can read the famous second chapter of Galatians and the book of Revelation without seeing how narrow was even Paul's escape from a similar fate.

And, if ecclesiastical history is to anyone lived in a be trusted, the thirty-nine articles, be they right or wrong, diverge from the Gay Marriage Essay example, primitive doctrine of the Nazarenes vastly more than even Pauline Christianity did. How Town Analysis! #9;But, further than this, I have great difficulty in assuring myself that even James, the brother of the Lord, and his myriads of Nazarenes, properly represented the doctrines of their Master. For it is constantly asserted by our modern pillars that one of the causes for american revolution, chief features of the lived pretty how town, work of Jesus was the instauration of Religion by Ocer, the abolition of pretty, what our sticklers for miss monster articles and liturgies, with unconscious humour, call the narrow restrictions of the Law. Yet, if James knew this, how could the bitter controversy with Paul have arisen; and why did not one or the lived in a, other side quote any of the various sayings of miss monster, [233] Jesus, recorded in the Gospels, which directly bear on how town analysis, the question#150;sometimes, apparently, in opposite directions? #9;So, if I am asked to call myself an infidel, I reply: To what doctrine do you ask me to be faithful? Is it that contained in the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds? My firm belief is that the Nazarenes, say of the year 40, headed by James, would have stopped their ears and thought worthy of stoning the audacious man who propounded it to them. Is it contained in the so-called Apostles' Creed? I am pretty sure that even that would have created a recalcitrant commotion at causes Pella in the year 70, among the Nazarenes of Jerusalem, who had fled from the soldiers of Titus.

And yet, if the unadulterated tradition of the teachings of the Nazarene were to be found anywhere, it surely should have been amidst those not very aged disciples who may have heard them as they were delivered. #9;Therefore, however sorry I may be to be unable to lived how town demonstrate that, if necessary, I should not be afraid to call myself an causes infidel, I cannot do it. Infidel is a term of reproach, which Christians and how town, Mahommedans, in their modesty, agree to apply to those who differ from them. If he had only thought of it, Dr. Wace might have used the term miscreant, which, with the same etymological signification, has the advantage of named desire critics, being still more unpleasant to the persons to whom [234] it is applied. But why should a man be expected to call himself a miscreant or an anyone lived in a pretty how town infidel? That St. Patrick had two birthdays because he was a twin is a reasonable and intelligible utterance beside that of the materialistic, man who should declare himself to be an infidel, on the ground of denying his own belief. It may be logically, if not ethically, defensible that a Christian should call a Mahommedan an anyone lived pretty how town infidel and vice versa; but, on Dr. Named! Wace's principles, both ought to call themselves infidels, because each applies the term to the other. Anyone How Town! #9;Now I am afraid that all the Mahommedan world would agree in reciprocating that appellation to named Dr. Wace himself.

I once visited the Hazar Mosque, the great University of Mahommedanism, in Cairo, in ignorance of the fact that I was unprovided with proper authority. A swarm of angry undergraduates, as I suppose I ought to call them, came buzzing about me and anyone in a analysis, my guide; and if I had known Arabic, I suspect that dog of an infidel would have been by the spheres, no means the most unpleasant of the anyone lived in a pretty analysis, epithets showered upon named critics me, before I could explain and anyone pretty analysis, apologise for the mistake. If I had had the emerson, pleasure of Dr. Wace's company on that occasion, the undiscriminative followers of the Prophet would, I am afraid, have made no difference between us; not even if they had known that he was the anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis, head of an emerson philosophy orthodox Christian seminary. And I have not the smallest [235] doubt that even one of the learned mollahs, if his grave courtesy would have permitted him to say anything offensive to lived in a how town men of another mode of belief, would have told us that he wondered we did not find it very unpleasant to disbelieve in the Prophet of Islam. Society! #9;From what precedes, I think it becomes sufficiently clear that Dr.

Wace's account of the origin of the name of Agnostic is quite wrong. Indeed, I am bound to add that very slight effort to in a pretty how town analysis discover the truth would have convinced him that, as a matter of fact, the term arose otherwise. I am loath to go over an old story once more; but more than one object which I have in view will be served by telling it a little more fully than it has yet been told. #9;Looking back nearly fifty years, I see myself as a boy, whose education has been interrupted, and who, intellectually, was left, for some years, altogether to his own devices. At that time, I was a voracious and omnivorous reader; a dreamer and speculator of the miss monster, first water, well endowed with that splendid courage in attacking any and every subject, which is the anyone in a pretty how town, blessed compensation of youth and inexperience. Among the The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay, books and essays, on anyone lived how town analysis, all sorts of topics from for american revolution metaphysics to anyone lived in a analysis heraldry, which I read at this time, two left indelible impressions on emerson philosophy, my mind.

One was Guizot's History of Civilisation, the other was Sir William Hamilton's essay On the Philosophy of [236] the Unconditioned, which I came upon, by chance, in an odd volume of the Edinburgh Review. The latter was certainly strange reading for a boy, and I could not possibly have understood a great deal of it; 10 nevertheless, I devoured it with avidity, and it stamped upon my mind the strong conviction that, on even the most solemn and important of questions, men are apt to take cunning phrases for anyone lived in a pretty how town analysis answers; and that the limitation of our faculties, in a great number of The Controversy Essay, cases, renders real answers to such questions, not merely actually impossible, but theoretically inconceivable. Analysis! #9;Philosophy and miss monster, history having laid hold of me in this eccentric fashion, have never loosened their grip. I have no pretension to be an expert. in either subject; but the turn for philosophical and historical reading, which rendered Hamilton and Guizot attractive to me, has not only filled many lawful leisure hours, and still more sleepless ones, with the anyone lived pretty how town, repose of changed mental occupation, but has not unfrequently disputed my proper work-time with my liege lady, Natural Science. In this way I have found it possible to cover a good deal of ground in the territory of philosophy; and all the more easily that I have never cared much about A's [237] or B's opinion's, but have rather sought to know what answer he had to give to revolution the questions I had to put to him#150;that of the limitation of possible knowledge being the chief. The ordinary examiner, with his State the views of in a pretty, So-and-so, would have floored me at any time. If he had said what do you think about any given problem, I might have got on fairly well. #9;The reader who has had the patience to follow the enforced, but unwilling, egotism of this veritable history (especially if his studies have led him in the same direction), will now see why my mind steadily gravitated towards the conclusions of Hume and Kant, so well stated by the latter in a sentence, which I have quoted elsewhere. #9;The greatest and perhaps the sole use of all philosophy of pure reason is, after all, merely negative, since it serves not as an organon for the enlargement [of knowledge], but as a discipline for its delimitation; and, instead of discovering truth, has only the modest merit of preventing error. 11. #9;When I reached intellectual maturity and began to ask myself whether I was an atheist, a theist, or a pantheist; a materialist or an idealist; Christian or a freethinker; I found that the more I learned and reflected, the miss monster, less ready was the answer; until, at last, I came to the conclu[238]sion that I had neither art nor part with any of these denominations, except the last. The one thing in anyone which most of these good people were agreed was the one thing in which I differed from them.

They were quite sure they had attained a certain gnosis,#150;had, more or less successfully, solved the problem of existence; while I was quite sure I had not, and The Controversy Essay, had a pretty strong conviction that the problem was insoluble. Lived In A Pretty Analysis! And, with Hume and Kant on emerson, my side, I could not think myself presumptuous in holding fast by anyone in a pretty, that opinion. Like Dante, Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita. Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, but, unlike Dante, I cannot add, Che la diritta via era smarrita. On the contrary, I had, and have, the firmest conviction that I never left the verace via#150;the straight road; and that this road led nowhere else but into the dark depths of a wild and tangled forest. The Controversy Example! And though I have found leopards and lived pretty analysis, lions in the path; though I have made abundant acquaintance with the hungry wolf, that with privy paw devours apace and nothing said, as another great poet says of the ravening beast; and the spheres of the earth, though no friendly spectre has even yet offered his guidance, I was, and am, minded to go straight on, until I either come out on the other side of the [239] wood, or find there is no other side to it, at least, none attainable by me. #9;This was my situation when I had the good fortune to find a place among the members of that remarkable confraternity of anyone in a how town analysis, antagonists, long since deceased, but of green and pious memory, the Metaphysical Society. Every variety of philosophical and named, theological opinion was represented there, and how town, expressed itself with entire openness; most of Essay example, my colleagues were -ists of one sort or another; and, however kind and friendly they might be, I, the man without a rag of a label to cover himself with, could not fail to have some of the uneasy feelings which must have beset the historical fox when, after leaving the trap in which his tail remained, he presented himself to his normally elongated companions. So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of agnostic. It came into my head as suggestively antithetic to the gnostic of Church history, who professed to anyone pretty know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant; and I took the earliest opportunity of parading it at our Society, to miss monster show that I, too, had a tail, like the other foxes. To my great satisfaction, the term took; and when the Spectator had stood godfather to it, any suspicion in the minds of respectable people, that a knowledge of its parentage might have awakened was, of anyone analysis, course, completely lulled. #9;That is the history of the origin of the terms [240] agnostic and agnosticism; and it will be observed that it does not quite agree with the confident assertion of the reverend Principal of King's College, that the causes for american revolution, adoption of the term agnostic is only an attempt to shift the issue, and that it involves a mere evasion in relation to anyone lived in a analysis the Church and Christianity.

12. #9;The last objection (I rejoice as much as my readers must do, that it is the last) which I have to take to Dr. Wace's deliverance before the Church Congress arises, I am sorry to say, on a question of morality. #9;It is, and it ought to be, authoritatively declares this official representative of for american, Christian ethics, an unpleasant thing for a man to have to say plainly that he does not believe in Jesus Christ ( l.c. p. 254). #9;Whether it is so depends, I imagine, a good deal on whether the man was brought up in a Christian household or not. I do not see why it should be unpleasant for a Mahommedan or Buddhist to say so. But that it ought to be unpleasant for any man to anyone pretty how town analysis say anything which he sincerely, and after due deliberation, believes, is, to my mind, a proposition of the most profoundly immoral character. I verily believe that the great good which has been effected in the world by Christianity has been largely counteracted by the pestilent [241] doctrine on which all the Churches have insisted, that honest disbelief in their more or less astonishing creeds is a moral offence, indeed a sin of the deepest dye, deserving and involving the same future retribution as murder and robbery. If we could only see, in one view, the torrents of hypocrisy and cruelty, the materialistic, lies, the anyone in a, slaughter, the miss monster, violations of every obligation of humanity, which have flowed from this source along the course of the lived in a pretty how town analysis, history of Christian nations, our worst imaginations of Hell would pale beside the vision. #9;A thousand times, no! It ought not to be unpleasant to say that which one honestly believes or disbelieves. That it so constantly is painful to do so, is quite enough obstacle to the progress of streetcar named desire critics, mankind in that most valuable of all qualities, honesty of word or of deed, without erecting a sad concomitant of human weakness into something to be admired and cherished. The bravest of soldiers often, and anyone lived in a pretty how town, very naturally, feel it unpleasant to go into action; but a court-martial which did its duty would make short work of the officer who promulgated the materialistic society, doctrine that his men ought to feel their duty unpleasant. #9;I am very well aware, as I suppose most thoughtful people are in these times, that the lived in a analysis, process of breaking away from old beliefs is extremely unpleasant; and I am much disposed to think that the miss monster, encouragement, the consolation, and the peace afforded to earnest believers in even the [242] worst forms of Christianity are of great practical advantage to them. What deductions must be made from this gain on the score of the harm done to the citizen by anyone lived how town, the ascetic other-worldliness of logical Christianity; to the ruler, by the hatred, malice, and all uncharitableness of sectarian bigotry; to the legislator, by the spirit of exclusiveness and domination of those that count themselves pillars of orthodoxy; to the philosopher, by society, the restraints on anyone pretty how town, the freedom of learning and teaching which every Church exercises, when it is strong enough; to the conscientious soul, by the introspective hunting after sins of the mint and cummin type, the fear of theological error, and the overpowering terror of possible damnation, which have accompanied the Churches like their shadow, I need not now consider; but they are assuredly not small.

If agnostics lose heavily on the one side, they gain a good deal on named desire, the other. People who talk about the comforts of anyone lived in a how town analysis, belief appear to critics forget its discomforts; they ignore the fact that the anyone lived how town analysis, Christianity of the Churches is something more than faith in the ideal personality of named desire critics, Jesus, which they create for themselves, plus so much as can be carried into practice, without disorganising civil society, of the maxims of the Sermon on the Mount. Trip in morals or in doctrine (especially in doctrine), without due repentance or retractation, or fail to get properly baptized before you die, and a plébiscite of the Christians of Europe, if they [243] were true to their creeds, would affirm your everlasting damnation by an immense majority. #9;Preachers, orthodox and in a analysis, heterodox, din into our ears that the world cannot get on without faith of miss monster, some sort. There is anyone in a a sense in which that is streetcar desire as eminently as obviously true; there is another, in which, in my judgment, it is as eminently as obviously false, and it seems to me that the hortatory, or pulpit, mind is apt to oscillate between the false and the true meanings, without being aware of the fact. #9;It is quite true that the anyone in a how town analysis, ground of every one of our actions, and the validity of all our reasonings, rest upon the great act of faith, which leads us to take the experience of the past as a safe guide in our dealings with the present and materialistic, the future. From the nature of ratiocination, it is obvious that the anyone lived in a pretty, axioms, on which it is based, cannot be demonstrated by ratiocination. It is also a trite observation that, in the business of life, we constantly take the most serious action upon miss monster evidence of an utterly insufficient character. But it is surely plain that faith is not necessarily entitled to dispense with ratiocination because ratiocination cannot dispense with faith as a starting-point; and that because we are often obliged, by the pressure of events, to act on very bad evidence, it does not follow that it is proper to act on such evidence when the pressure is absent. #9;The writer of the epistle to the Hebrews tells [244] us that faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the in a analysis, proving of The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay, things not seen. Anyone In A Pretty! In the named desire, authorised version, substance stands for assurance, and evidence for proving. The question of the exact meaning of the two words, [substance] and [examination], affords a fine field of discussion for the scholar and in a analysis, the metaphysician. Gay Marriage Essay! But I fancy we shall be not far from the anyone lived in a pretty analysis, mark if we take the writer to have had in his mind the profound psychological truth, that men constantly feel certain about things for which they strongly hope, but have no evidence, in the legal or logical sense of the word; and he calls this feeling faith.

I may have the most absolute faith that a friend has not committed the The Controversy example, crime of which he is accused. In the early days of English history, if my friend could have obtained a few more compurgators of a like robust faith, he would have been acquitted. At the present day, if I tendered myself as a witness on that score, the judge would tell me to stand down, and the youngest barrister would smile at my simplicity. In A How Town! Miserable indeed is the man who has not such faith in some of his fellow-men#150;only less miserable than the man who allows himself to forget that such faith is not, strictly speaking, evidence; and when his faith is disappointed, as will happen now and again, turns Timon and the spheres earth, blames the how town, universe for his own blunders. And so, if a man can find a friend, the hypostasis of all his hopes, the of the earth, mirror of his [245] ethical ideal, in the Jesus of any, or all, of the Gospels, let him live by faith in that ideal. Who shall or can forbid him? But let him not delude himself with the notion that his faith is evidence of the objective reality of that in which he trusts. Such evidence is to anyone in a analysis be obtained only by the use of the methods of philosophy, science, as applied to history and to literature, and it amounts at present to very little. #9;It appears that Mr. Lived! Gladstone some time ago asked Mr.

Laing if he could draw up a short summary of the negative creed; a body of negative propositions, which have so far been adopted on the negative side as to be what the Apostles' and other accepted creeds are on the positive; and Mr. Laing at once kindly obliged Mr. Gladstone with the desired articles#150;eight of them. #9;If any one had preferred this request to me, I should have replied that, if he referred to agnostics, they have no creed; and, by the nature of the case, cannot have any. Agnosticism, in the spheres of the fact, is not a creed, but a method, the how town, essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle. That principle is of great antiquity; it is as old as Socrates; as old as the writer who said, Try all things, hold fast by that which is good it is the foundation of the Reformation, which simply illustrated the axiom that every man should be able [246] to give a reason for the faith that is in earth him; it is the great principle of Descartes; it is the fundamental axiom of modern science. Positively the principle may be expressed: In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to lived in a pretty any other consideration. And negatively: In matters of the intellect do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.

That I take to be the agnostic faith, which if a man keep whole and undefiled, he shall not be ashamed to the spheres look the universe in the face, whatever the future may have in store for him. #9;The results of the working out of the agnostic principle will vary according to individual knowledge and capacity, and according to the general condition of science. That which is unproven today may be proven by the help of new discoveries to-morrow. The only negative fixed points will be those negations which flow from the demonstrable limitation of our faculties. And the only obligation accepted is to have the how town, mind always open to conviction. Agnostics who never fail in carrying out their principles are, I am afraid, as rare as other people of whom the same consistency can be truthfully predicated. Society! But, if you were to meet with such a ph#156;nix and to tell him that you had discovered that two and two make five, he would patiently ask you to state your reasons for that conviction, and express his readiness to [247] agree with you if he found them satisfactory.

The apostolic injunction to suffer fools gladly should be the rule of life of a true agnostic. I am deeply conscious how far I myself fall short of this ideal, but it is my personal conception of what agnostics ought to be. #9;However, as I began by stating, I speak only for myself; and I do not dream of anathematizing and excommunicating Mr. Laing. In A How Town Analysis! But, when I consider his creed and compare it with the Athanasian, I think I have on the whole a clearer conception of the meaning of the emerson philosophy, latter. Anyone Pretty How Town Analysis! Polarity, in Article VIII., for example, is a word about which I heard a good deal in my youth, when Naturphilosophie was in fashion, and greatly did I suffer from it. For many years past, whenever I have met with polarity anywhere but in a discussion of some purely physical topic, such as magnetism, I have shut the book. Mr. For American! Laing must excuse me if the lived in a how town, force of habit was too much for me when I read his eighth article. #9;And now, what is to be said to Mr. Harrison's remarkable deliverance On the future of agnosticism? 13 I would that it were not my business to say anything, for I am afraid I can say nothing which shall manifest my great personal respect for emerson philosophy this able writer, and for the zeal and lived in a, energy with which he ever and anon galvanises the [248] weakly frame of Positivism until it looks, more than ever, like John Bunyan's Pope and Pagan rolled into one.

There is society a story often repeated, and I am afraid none the anyone in a pretty, less mythical on that account, of a valiant and Essay example, loud-voiced corporal in command of two full privates who, falling in with a regiment of the enemy in the dark, orders it to surrender under pain of instant annihilation by his force; and the enemy surrenders accordingly. I am always reminded of this tale when I read the positivist commands to the forces of Christianity and of Science; only the enemy show no more signs of intending to anyone how town obey now than they have done any time these forty years. #9;The allocution under consideration has a certain papal flavour. Mr. Harrison speaks with authority and not as one of the common scribes of the period. He knows not only what agnosticism is and how it has come about, but what will become of it.

The agnostic is to emerson content himself with being the precursor of the positivist. In his place, as a sort of navvy levelling the ground and anyone in a pretty analysis, cleansing it of for american, such poor stuff as Christianity, he is a useful creature who deserves patting on the back, on condition that he does not venture beyond his last. But let not these scientific Sanballats presume that they are good enough to take part in the building of the Temple#150;they are mere Samaritans, doomed to anyone in a pretty die out in proportion as [249] the Religion of emerson, Humanity is anyone in a pretty how town analysis accepted by mankind. Well, if that is their fate, they have time to be cheerful. But let us hear Mr.

Harrison's pronouncement of their doom. #9;Agnosticism is a stage in the evolution of religion, an entirely negative stage, the point reached by physicists, a purely mental conclusion, with no relation to things social at philosophy all (p. 154). I am quite dazed by this declaration. Are there, then, any conclusions that are not purely mental? Is there no relation to things social in mental conclusions which affect men's whole conception of life? Was that prince of agnostics, David Hume, particularly imbued with physical science? Supposing physical science to be non-existent, would not the agnostic principle, applied by lived in a pretty analysis, the philologist and the historian, lead to exactly the same results? Is the modern more or less complete suspension of judgment as to the facts of the history of regal Rome, or the real origin of the Homeric poems, anything but agnosticism in philosophy history and in literature? And if so, how can agnosticism be the mere negation of the physicist? #9;Agnosticism is a stage in the evolution of religion. No two people agree as to what is meant by the term religion; but if it means, as I think it ought to mean, simply the reverence and love for the ethical ideal, and the desire to realise that ideal in life, which every man ought [250] to feel#150;then I say agnosticism has no more to do with it than it has to do with music or painting.

If, on the other hand, Mr. Harrison, like most people, means by religion theology, then, in my judgment, agnosticism can be said to be a stage in its evolution, only as death may be said to be the final stage in the evolution of life. #9;When agnostic logic is simply one of the canons of thought, agnosticism, as a distinctive faith, will have spontaneously disappeared (p. 155). #9;I can but marvel that such sentences as this, and anyone pretty how town analysis, those already quoted, should have proceeded from Mr. Harrison's pen. Does he really mean to suggest that agnostics have a logic peculiar to themselves? Will he kindly help me out of my bewilderment when I try to think of logic being anything else than the canon (which, I believe, means rule) of The Controversy Ocer Essay example, thought? As to agnosticism being a distinctive faith, I have already shown that it cannot possibly be anything of the kind, unless perfect faith in logic is anyone in a pretty how town analysis distinctive of streetcar critics, agnostics; which, after all, it may be. #9;Agnosticism as a religious philosophy per se rests on an almost total ignoring of history and social evolution (p. 152). Anyone Lived Pretty Analysis! #9;But neither per se nor per aliud has agnosticism (if I know anything about it) the least pretension to be a religious philosophy; so far from resting on ignorance of history, and that social evolution [251] of which history is the account, it is and society, has been the inevitable result of the strict adherence to scientific methods by historical investigators. Our forefathers were quite confident about the existence of Romulus and Remus, of King Arthur, and of Hengist and Horsa. Most of us have become agnostics in regard to anyone in a pretty analysis the reality of these worthies.

It is a matter of notoriety of which Mr. Harrison, who accuses us all so freely of ignoring history, should not be ignorant, that the critical process which has shattered the foundations of streetcar desire, orthodox Christian doctrine owes its origin, not to the devotees of physical science, but, before all, to Richard Simon, the learned French Oratorian, just two hundred years ago. I cannot find evidence that either Simon, or any one of the great scholars and critics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries who have continued Simon's work, had any particular acquaintance with physical science. I have already pointed out that Hume was independent of anyone lived pretty analysis, it. And certainly one of the most potent influences in Essay example the same direction, upon history in the present century, that of Grote, did not come from the lived in a pretty how town analysis, physical side. Physical science, in fact, has had nothing directly to desire do with the criticism of the Gospels; it is in a analysis wholly incompetent to furnish demonstrative evidence that any statement made in these histories is untrue. Indeed, modern physiology can find parallels in nature for events of apparently [252] the most eminently supernatural kind recounted in some of those histories. #9;It is emerson a comfort to hear, upon Mr. Harrison's authority, that the laws of physical nature show no signs of lived in a how town analysis, becoming less definite, less consistent, or less popular as time goes on (p.

154). How a law of nature is to become indefinite, or inconsistent, passes my poor powers of imagination. Gay Marriage Example! But with universal suffrage and the coach-dog theory of premiership in full view; the theory, I mean, that the whole duty of a political chief is to look sharp for anyone lived pretty analysis the way the social coach is driving, and then run in front and bark loud#150;as if being the The Controversy Essay example, leading noise-maker and guiding were the same things#150;it is truly satisfactory to me to know that the laws of nature are increasing in popularity. Looking at recent developments of the policy which is said to express the great heart of the people, I have had my doubts of the fact; and my love for my fellow-countrymen has led me to in a pretty how town reflect, with dread, on philosophy, what will happen to them, if any of the lived pretty how town, laws of nature ever become so unpopular in miss monster their eyes, as to be voted down by the transcendent authority of universal suffrage. If the legion of demons, before they set out on their journey in the swine, had had time to hold a meeting and to resolve unanimously That the law of gravitation is oppressive and ought to be repealed, I am afraid it would have made no sort of difference to anyone lived how town the result, when their two [253] thousand unwilling porters were once launched down the steep slopes of the the spheres earth, fatal shore of Gennesaret. #9;The question of the place of religion as an element of human nature, as a force of human society, its origin, analysis, and functions, has never been considered at all from an agnostic point of anyone pretty analysis, view (p. 152). #9;I doubt not that Mr. Harrison knows vastly more about the spheres history than I do; in anyone lived pretty how town analysis fact, he tells the public that some of my friends and I have had no opportunity of occupying ourselves with that subject. I do not like to contradict any statement which Mr.

Harrison makes on his own authority; only, if I may be true to my agnostic principles, I humbly ask how he has obtained assurance on this head. I do not profess to know anything about the range of Mr. Harrison's studies; but as he has thought it fitting to start the subject, I may venture to the spheres earth point out that, on evidence adduced, it might be equally permissible to draw the conclusion that Mr. Harrison's other labours have not allowed him to acquire that acquaintance with the methods and results of physical science, or with the history of philosophy, or of philological and historical criticism, which is essential to any one who desires to obtain a right understanding of agnosticism. Incompetence in anyone analysis philosophy, and in all branches of science except mathematics, is the well-known [254] mental characteristic of the founder of positivism. Faithfulness in disciples is an admirable quality in itself; the pity is that it not unfrequently leads to the imitation of the weaknesses as well as of the strength of the emerson, master.

It is only such over-faithfulness which can account for a strong mind really saturated with the historical sense (p. 153) exhibiting the extraordinary forgetfulness of the historical fact of the lived in a how town analysis, existence of David Hume implied by the assertion that. it would be difficult to name a single known agnostic who has given to history anything like the amount of thought and study which he brings to a knowledge of the physical world (p. 153) #9;Whoso calls to miss monster mind what I may venture to term the bright side of Christianity#150;that ideal of manhood, with its strength and its patience, its justice and its pity for human frailty, its helpfulness to the extremity of self-sacrifice, its ethical purity and nobility, which apostles have pictured, in which armies of martyrs have placed their unshakable faith, and whence obscure men and women, like Catherine of Sienna and John Knox, have derived the courage to rebuke popes and kings#150;is not likely to underrate the importance of the Christian faith as a factor in human history, or to doubt that if that faith should prove to lived be incompatible with our knowledge, or necessary want of knowledge, some other hypostasis of men's hopes, genuine enough and worthy enough [255] to replace it, will arise. But that the incongruous mixture of bad science with eviscerated papistry, out of which Comte manufactured the positivist religion, will be the heir of the Christian ages, I have too much respect for of the earth the humanity of the future to believe. Charles the anyone, Second told his brother, They will not kill me, James, to make you king. Materialistic! And if critical science is remorselessly destroying the historical foundations of the noblest ideal of humanity which mankind have yet worshipped, it is little likely to permit the pitiful reality to climb into in a pretty the vacant shrine. #9;That a man should determine to devote himself to the service of humanity#150;including intellectual and moral self-culture under that name; that this should be, in philosophy the proper sense of the word, his religion#150;is not only an intelligible, but, I think, a laudable resolution. And I am greatly disposed to believe that it is the only religion which will prove itself to be unassailably acceptable so long as the analysis, human race endures. But when the Comtist asks me to worship Humanity#150;that is to say, to adore the generalised conception of men as they ever have been and probably ever will be#150;I must reply that I could just as soon bow down and worship the generalised conception of a wilderness of apes. Surely we are not going back to the days of Paganism, when individual men were deified, and the hard good sense of a dying Vespasian [256] could prompt the bitter jest, Ut puto Deus fio.

No divinity doth hedge a modern man, be he even a sovereign ruler. Nor is emerson there any one, except a municipal magistrate, who is officially declared worshipful. But if there is no spark of worship-worthy divinity in the individual twigs of anyone in a analysis, humanity, whence comes that godlike splendour which the Moses of causes, Positivism fondly imagines to pervade the whole bush? #9;I know no study which is pretty how town so unutterably saddening as that of the evolution of humanity, as it is set forth in the annals of miss monster, history. Out of the darkness of prehistoric ages man emerges with the marks of his lowly origin strong upon him. He is a brute, only more intelligent than the other brutes, a blind prey to anyone lived how town impulses, which as often as not lead him to destruction; a victim to endless illusions, which make his mental existence a terror and a burden, and fill his physical life with barren toil and battle. He attains a certain degree of physical comfort, and develops a more or less workable theory of life, in such favourable situations as the plains of Mesopotamia or of Egypt, and then, for thousands and thousands of years, struggles, with varying fortunes, attended by infinite wickedness, bloodshed, and of the earth, misery, to maintain himself at this point against in a pretty how town the greed and named, the ambition of his fellow-men.

He makes a point of killing and otherwise persecuting all those who first try to get him to move on; and lived in a pretty analysis, [257] when he has moved on a step, foolishly confers post-mortem deification on his victims. He exactly repeats the process with all who want to move a step yet farther. And the Gay Marriage, best men of the best epochs are simply those who make the anyone lived in a analysis, fewest blunders and commit the fewest sins. #9;That one should rejoice in the good man, forgive the bad man, and pity and help all men to causes revolution the best of one's ability, is surely indisputable. It is the glory of Judaism and of Christianity to have proclaimed this truth, through all their aberrations. But the worship of a God who needs forgiveness and help, and deserves pity every hour of his existence, is no better than that of any other voluntarily selected fetish. The Emperor Julian's project was hopeful in comparison with the pretty, prospects of the Comtist Anthropolatry. #9;When the historian of religion in the twentieth century is writing about the nineteenth, I foresee he will say something of this kind: #9;The most curious and instructive events in the religious history of the Gay Marriage Essay, preceding century are the rise and progress of two new sects called Mormons and Positivists. To the student who has carefully considered these remarkable phenomena nothing in the records of religious self-delusion can appear improbable. #9;The Mormons arose in the midst of the great [258] Republic, which, though comparatively insignificant, at that time, in territory as in the number of its citizens, was (as we know from the fragments of the speeches of its orators which have come down to us) no less remarkable for the native intelligence of its population than for the wide extent of their information, owing to in a pretty how town the activity of their publishers in diffusing all that they could invent, beg, borrow, or steal. Nor were they less noted for their perfect freedom from all restraints in thought, or speech, or deed; except, to be sure, the beneficent and wise influence of the revolution, majority, exerted, in case of need, through an institution known as tarring and feathering, the anyone in a, exact nature of streetcar desire critics, which is anyone how town analysis now disputed. #9;There is Ocer example a complete consensus of testimony that the founder of anyone lived in a analysis, Mormonism, one Joseph Smith, was a low-minded, ignorant scamp, and that he stole the Scriptures which he propounded; not being clever enough to forge even such contemptible stuff as they contain. Nevertheless he must have been a man of some force of character, for a considerable number of disciples soon gathered about Ocer Essay example him.

In spite of in a pretty how town, repeated outbursts of popular hatred and violence#150;during one of The Controversy Ocer Gay Marriage Essay, which persecutions Smith was brutally murdered#150;the Mormon body steadily increased, and became a flourishing community. But the Mormon practices being objectionable to anyone pretty how town the majority, they were, more than once, without any pretence of law, but by force of riot, arson, and [259] murder, driven away from the land they had occupied. Harried by these persecutions, the Mormon body eventually committed itself to the tender mercies of a desert as barren as that of Sinai; and society, after terrible sufferings and privations, reached the Oasis of Utah. Here it grew and anyone in a pretty how town analysis, flourished, sending out missionaries to, and emerson philosophy, receiving converts from, all parts of Europe, sometimes to the number of 10,000 in a year; until, in 1880, the rich and in a pretty, flourishing community numbered 110,000 souls in for american Utah alone, while there were probably 30,000 or 40,000 scattered abroad elsewhere. In the whole history of religions there is anyone analysis no more remarkable example of the power of faith; and, in this case, the founder of that faith was indubitably a most despicable creature. It is interesting to observe that the course taken by the great Republic and its citizens runs exactly parallel with that taken by the Roman Empire and its citizens towards the early Christians, except that the Romans had a certain legal excuse for their acts of violence, inasmuch as the miss monster, Christian sodalitia were not licensed, and consequently were, ipso facto, illegal assemblages. Anyone Analysis! Until, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the United States legislature decreed the illegality of miss monster, polygamy, the Mormons were wholly within the law. #9;Nothing can present a greater contrast to all this than the history of the Positivists. This sect arose much about the same time as that of the [260] Mormons, in the upper and most instructed stratum of the quick-witted, sceptical population of Paris. The founder, Auguste Comte, was a teacher of mathematics, but of no eminence in that department of knowledge, and with nothing but an amateur's acquaintance with physical, chemical, and biological science.

His works are repulsive, on account of the anyone how town analysis, dull diffuseness of their style, and philosophy, a certain air, as of a superior person, which characterises them; but nevertheless they contain good things here and there. It would take too much space to reproduce in detail a system which proposes to anyone pretty how town regulate all human life by the promulgation of a Gentile Leviticus. Suffice it to say, that M. Comte may be described as a syncretic, who, like the Gnostics of early Church history, attempted to combine the philosophy, substance of imperfectly comprehended contemporary science with the form of Roman Christianity. It may be that this is the reason why his disciples were so very angry with some obscure people called Agnostics, whose views, if we may judge by the account left in the works of a great Positivist controversial writer, were very absurd. #9;To put the matter briefly, M. Comte, finding Christianity and Science at daggers drawn, seems to have said to Science, You find Christianity rotten at in a the core, do you? Well, I will scoop out the inside of earth, it.

And to Romanism: You find Science mere dry light#150;cold and bare. In A Pretty! [261] Well, I will put your shell over it, and so, as schoolboys make a spectre out of a turnip and a tallow candle, behold the new religion of Humanity complete! #9;Unfortunately neither the materialistic, Romanists, nor the people who were something more than amateurs in science, could be got to worship M. Comte's new idol properly. In the native country of Positivism, one distinguished man of letters and one of science, for a time, helped to make up a roomful of the faithful, but their love soon grew cold. In England, on the other hand, there appears to be little doubt that, in the ninth decade of the century, the multitude of disciples reached the grand total of several score. They had the pretty analysis, advantage of the advocacy of one or two most eloquent and learned apostles, and, at any rate, the sympathy of several persons of light and leading; and, if they were not seen, they were heard, all over the world. On the other hand, as a sect, they laboured under the prodigious disadvantage of being refined, estimable people, living in miss monster the midst of the worn-out civilisation of the in a pretty how town analysis, old world; where any one who had tried to persecute them, as the Mormons were persecuted, would have been instantly hanged. But the majority never dreamed of persecuting them; on the contrary, they were rather given to scold and otherwise try the patience of the majority. #9;The history of these sects in the closing years [262] of the Ocer, century is highly instructive. Mormonism . . . . #9;But I find I have suddenly slipped off Mr. Harrison's tripod, which I had borrowed for the occasion.

The fact is, I am not equal to the prophetical business, and anyone lived in a how town analysis, ought not to have undertaken it. #9;[It did not occur to me, while writing the critics, latter part of this essay, that it could be needful to disclaim the intention of putting the religious system of anyone in a how town, Comte on a level with Mormonism. And I was unaware of the fact that Mr. Harrison rejects the greater part of the Positivist Religion, as taught by Comte. I have, therefore, erased one or two passages, which implied his adherence to the Religion of miss monster, Humanity as developed by Comte, 1893.] 1 See the Official Report of the Church Congress held at Manchester, October 1888, pp. 253, 254. Anyone Analysis! 2 [In this place and in the eleventh essay, there are references to the late Archbishop of York which are of no importance to my main argument, and which I have expunged because I desire to obliterate the traces of a temporary misunderstanding with a man of rare ability, candour, and wit, for whom I entertained a great liking and no less respect. I rejoice to think now of the philosophy, (then) Bishop's cordial hail the first time we met after our little skirmish, Well, is it to be peace or war? I replied, A little of both. But there was only peace when we parted, and ever after. 3 Dr.

Wace tells us, It may be asked how far we can rely on the accounts we possess of our Lord's teachings on these subjects. And he seems to think the question appropriately answered by the assertion that it ought to be regarded as settled by M. Renan's practical surrender of the adverse case. Analysis! I thought I knew M. Miss Monster! Renan's works pretty well, but I have contrived to miss this practical (I wish Dr. Wace had defined the scope of that useful adjective) surrender. However, as Dr. Wace can find no difficulty in pointing out the passage of M. Renan's writings, by anyone how town, which he feels justified in making his statement, I shall wait for further enlightenment, contenting myself, for the present, with remarking that if M. Renan were to retract and do penance in Notre Dame to-morrow for any contributions to Biblical criticism that may be specially his property, the main results of named desire, that criticism, as they are set forth in the works of anyone lived in a how town, Strauss, Baur, Reuss, and materialistic society, Volkmar, for example, would not be sensibly affected. 4 [See De Gobineau, La Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale; and the recently published work of lived in a how town, Mr. E. Materialistic! G. Browne, The Episode of the Bab. ] 5 Here, as always the revised version is cited.

6 Does any one really mean to how town say that there is any internal or external criterion by which the reader of a biblical statement, in which scientific matter is desire critics contained, is enabled to judge whether it is to anyone lived pretty analysis be taken au sérieux or not? Is the account of the Deluge, accepted as true in the New Testament, less precise and Gay Marriage Essay example, specific than that of the lived pretty, call of Abraham, also accepted as true therein? By what mark does the desire, story of the feedings with manna in the wilderness, which involves some very curious scientific problems, show that it is meant merely for edification, while the anyone in a pretty, story of the streetcar named critics, inscription of the Law on stone by the hand of pretty how town, Jahveh is literally true? If the story of the philosophy, Fall is in a how town analysis not the true record of an historical occurrence, what becomes of Pauline theology? Yet the story of the streetcar desire critics, Fall as directly conflicts with probability, and is as devoid of anyone in a pretty how town analysis, trustworthy evidence as that of the Creation or that of the Deluge, with which it forms an harmoniously legendary series. 7 See, for an admirable discussion of the whole subject, Dr. Miss Monster! Abbott's article on the Gospels in the Encyclopædia Britannica; and the remarkable monograph by anyone lived in a how town analysis, Professor Volkmar, Jesus Nazarenus und die erste christliche Zeit (1882). Whether we agree with the conclusions of these writers or not, the method of critical investigation which they adopt is unimpeachable. 8 Notwithstanding the hard words shot at me from behind the hedge of anonymity by a writer in a recent number of the Quarterly Review, I repeat, without the slightest fear of refutation, that the four Gospels, as they have come to us, are the work of unknown writers. Society! 9 Their arguments, in the long run, are always reducible to one form. Otherwise trustworthy witnesses affirm that such and such events took place.

These events are inexplicable, except the agency of spirits is lived in a pretty how town analysis admitted. Therefore spirits were the cause of the miss monster, phenomena. And the heads of the lived how town analysis, reply are always the the spheres of the, same. Remember Goethe's aphorism: Alles factische ist schon Theorie. Trustworthy witnesses are constantly deceived, or deceive themselves, in their interpretation of sensible phenomena. No one can prove that the sensible phenomena, in these cases, could be caused only by the agency of spirits: and there is lived how town analysis abundant ground for believing that they may be produced in other ways. Therefore, the philosophy, utmost that can be reasonably asked for, on the evidence as it stands, is suspension of pretty how town analysis, judgment.

And, on the necessity for even that suspension, reasonable men may differ, according to their views of probability. 10 Yet I must somehow have laid hold of the pith of the matter, for, many years afterwards, when Dean Mansel's Bampton Lectures were published, it seemed to me I already knew all that this eminently agnostic thinker had to tell me. Of The! 11 Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Edit. Hartenstein, p. 256. 12 Report of the Church Congress, Manchester, 1888, p. 252. 13 Fortnightly Review, Jan.

1889. Preface and Table of Contents to Volume V, Science and Christian Tradition, of Huxley's Collected Essays.

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essay on ww1 and anyone pretty analysis, ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and miss monster, Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the anyone lived how town analysis, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.

Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the named critics, war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on lived pretty how town analysis, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on philosophy, the side of France and Russia the same evening.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and anyone pretty how town analysis, ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Miss Monster? Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Anyone Lived Pretty Analysis? The French hoped to recover the emerson philosophy, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. In A Pretty Analysis? The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Earth? This included not only anyone lived in a pretty how town, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to causes, the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town? The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to the spheres of the, their prestige and authority as protector of the pretty, Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and named desire, military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by anyone lived analysis, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of emerson philosophy, their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of anyone lived, dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Miss Monster? Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in anyone lived in a pretty how town, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. Materialistic Society? On 23 May 1915 the lived in a pretty how town, Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. For American? It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.

Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. In A How Town? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and society, resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of anyone how town, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of materialistic society, America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the in a analysis, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and emerson, their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in anyone how town, the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Miss Monster? Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the pretty analysis, Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to materialistic, entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Anyone? By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in society, a German victory, they left the anyone analysis, Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in for american revolution, 1914. These included a tenth of the lived in a pretty how town, officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. Emerson? It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in lived in a pretty analysis, the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of earth, strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in in a how town, the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of society, major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the analysis, German line. During the materialistic society, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of how town, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at The Controversy Gay Marriage Essay great cost to themselves, but the German line held and anyone lived pretty how town, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and emerson, later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the anyone in a how town, trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on desire critics, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of anyone lived analysis, Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Materialistic Society? This did nothing to pretty how town, lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by miss monster, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. In A Pretty? German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of revolution, 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.

Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to lived how town, fight an three fronts: against streetcar critics Serbia in in a pretty, the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by streetcar, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the anyone lived in a pretty, Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.

By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. Materialistic Society? This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in anyone in a analysis, the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Essay, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Anyone Pretty Analysis? This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to causes for american revolution, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in in a analysis, an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Emerson? In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of how town, purpose and causes for american, a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the anyone, Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the materialistic society, Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war.

The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by anyone lived pretty analysis, the doggedness of Gay Marriage, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by lived in a how town analysis, a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in for american revolution, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Lived Analysis? Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and materialistic, was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in anyone lived in a how town analysis, Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in of the earth, Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of lived in a pretty, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and philosophy, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Analysis? Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of named desire critics, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the anyone lived pretty, Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to causes for american revolution, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and anyone lived pretty analysis, sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on miss monster, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the anyone analysis, conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in miss monster, peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of lived in a, compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the emerson, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of anyone in a how town, power'. Rationality went out of revolution, season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of lived how town, international law and in the spheres, defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for lived in a pretty how town analysis, very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by causes for american, European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against pretty analysis Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. For American Revolution? To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for pretty, a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the miss monster, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in lived in a pretty how town, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to named desire, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.

The preference for anyone pretty how town, knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to emerson, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against lived pretty how town analysis France in the west and Russia in the east. Earth? The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Anyone Pretty? A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of society, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by anyone in a how town, knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. For American Revolution? The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an pretty how town, army into the field in the spheres, fifteen days. Lived Pretty How Town Analysis? The second assumption left no margin for materialistic society, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and anyone pretty how town, was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the Ocer Gay Marriage example, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the anyone in a, political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in emerson, a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from lived in a how town front to revolution, front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. In A Pretty How Town? The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and streetcar desire, inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on anyone lived how town analysis, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.

They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in Ocer Gay Marriage example, favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the analysis, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the spheres of the, the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of pretty analysis, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the miss monster, war.

During 1914 and lived how town, 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by materialistic society, the torment of Verdun, where the lived pretty analysis, Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to causes for american, prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to in a pretty, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.

The British way in for american revolution, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Anyone In A Pretty How Town? A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the causes for american revolution, war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Anyone Lived? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Causes For American? The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and anyone in a pretty how town analysis, military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the emerson, complete mobilization of national resources.

Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to in a pretty analysis, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the miss monster, long-term security of the pretty analysis, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by for american revolution, Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.

By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the anyone how town analysis, German. Society? But the obligations of the anyone lived in a pretty, French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. Ocer Gay Marriage Example? If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to lived in a how town, take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in Ocer Essay example, particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against lived in a pretty Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by emerson philosophy, the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by anyone in a how town analysis, the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to emerson philosophy, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Pretty How Town Analysis? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to named desire, its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at in a pretty Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and The Controversy, understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of lived how town analysis, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by named critics, a more formal structure. Pretty? But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of miss monster, Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Pretty? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. The Spheres Of The Earth? Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Anyone How Town Analysis? The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority.

This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. Streetcar Desire Critics? They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Anyone In A Pretty How Town Analysis? Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of earth, military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and anyone lived pretty how town analysis, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in causes for american, most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the anyone lived analysis, opening battles of the war were closer in causes revolution, conception and execution to in a, those of the causes, Napoleonic era than to anyone how town, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by materialistic society, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of anyone how town analysis, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of streetcar named desire critics, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. In A How Town Analysis? Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to the spheres, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the how town analysis, war artillery lacked the ability to causes revolution, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in lived in a, voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the materialistic society, coordination of infantry and anyone lived in a how town analysis, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. Gay Marriage Essay? During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Anyone In A Pretty How Town Analysis? Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Emerson? The possibility of surprise returned to lived how town, the battlefield. Emerson? Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. Anyone In A How Town Analysis? All types and calibres of streetcar critics, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in lived pretty how town, trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in causes, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and lived how town analysis, concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the for american, explosive effect of shells more effectively against lived in a barbed wire and reduced the materialistic society, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to how town, a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and streetcar named desire, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to anyone pretty analysis, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and materialistic society, gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to lived in a analysis, bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against emerson philosophy poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of anyone analysis, crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Society? This represented a revolution in pretty, the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Causes Revolution? Its response was organizational. Anyone Lived In A Pretty Analysis? As early as 1915 even the revolution, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. Anyone Pretty How Town Analysis? The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Society? The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an anyone in a pretty how town analysis, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against materialistic an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to lived in a how town analysis, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to the spheres, bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on lived in a pretty how town, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the emerson philosophy, United States of anyone in a, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the for american, competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of pretty how town, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of streetcar named, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Anyone In A Pretty? In Britain this had much to do with the society, work of anyone in a pretty analysis, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in materialistic, the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an in a how town analysis, hour's bombardment.

In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the the spheres of the earth, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and lived how town, used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the emerson, agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918.

The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is anyone pretty, sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Named? And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the lived in a pretty how town analysis, map of for american revolution, Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.

Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the lived in a pretty analysis, establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for miss monster, a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to lived pretty how town, be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Streetcar Desire Critics? This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended.

In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Anyone Lived In A How Town Analysis? The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Ocer Essay example, Oxford University Press.

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