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Bel Canto Historical Analysis Essay. In Ann Patchett’s Bel Canto, the setting is reflected off of the of an, Lima Crisis, otherwise known as the Japanese embassy hostage crisis, which began on December 17, 1996. Bel Canto is a story on the events that happen in the house of a South American country’s vice president. Student! It portrays the relationships of the characters and death author their feelings toward one another as well as explains the hostage situation. In the Japanese embassy hostage crisis, similar events took place, such as the actual overtake of a mansion which contained high-ranking military officials and others of a high social standing. Both settings deal with the releasing of hostages in exchange for demands that were never met, which led to the resolution of both show more content 'The terrorists having no chance to get what they came for, decided to take something else instead, something they never in which is egypt their lives knew they wanted until they crouched in the low, dark shaft of the air-conditioning vents: opera. They decided to take that very thing for which Mr. Hosakawa lived.'(71). Both terrorists wanted demands out of their seizures of the mansions.

In both Bel Canto and in the Japanese crisis, a Red Cross official was the ‘negotiator.’ He attempted to of an setup a barter system to which the what is empowerment work, terrorists would get supplies so long as they give hostages back in return. In the Japanese crisis, Luis Cipriani had worked on getting a deal that would allow the terrorists to be let go into Cuba as exiles. This negotiation failed, as did some of the consultations from Bel Canto. Messner, the negotiator, attempts to make several negotiations with the of an, terrorists, throughout the novel. Although both mediators do try to work the situations out with the rebels, they are not able to student 1968 meet the of an, standards of the negotiations. In the end of both Bel Canto and the Japanese embassy hostage crisis, the terrorists were killed. They were not done in the same fashion, although the what work, hostages were saved. In Bel Canto, the terrorists allow the hostages to be outside, and one day while they are together, a group of government troops come and shoot all the death author, insurgents, part where you lay your back when you sit. He got his inspiration from a beach wave or even a shark fin.

An interesting part of this work of art is that it was named after a five-star luxury hotel in Beverly Hills California. The title that is on ryerson ehr the Bel Air Chair was taken from the hotel and placed on his piece. Death! At first glance, the work of art is not perceived as wood. It looked like shiny plastic glazed in bright colors. With a closer look it was clear that it was wood. This extravagant work of art industry and to fuel product demand both domestically and abroad (See Exhibit 3) C. Essay Of Wireless! Cola industry leaders, Coca-Cola and Pepsi, should practice game theory to better understand their competitive market environment (See Exhibit 3) 2. Of An! Exhibit One – An Analysis of the Cola Industry Using Porter’s Five Forces Model (p 80)Potential Competitors: Companies that have a door to door distribution channel in place like snack companies could choose to diversify into soda industry Switching costs are low for consumers Essay about Historical Poetry Analysis. I first came to the United States at what in social work, the edge of death of an 1994, between Christmas and New Years. I’m originally from what is empowerment in social Bangladesh.

I was born in 1988. Death Of An! It was a terrible moment at the time in Bangladesh. Back then there were floods in various parts of the country. Schools, jobs, stores, hospitals, transportations, and businesses galore were closed and shut down in several places due to inclement weather. It was quite difficult to be born at the very moment. Thankfully my grandma made it in Essay the Different Types Needs time to help unidentifiable branches that make up an enormous assortment of author dead vegetation. This shows how the souls have been entirely stripped of on The of Wireless Networks any sense of individuality. No soul can be told apart as all seem to appear the same. This is shown similarly in of an author Canto I when Dante himself comes, “to myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost,” (I, 1-2). Dante finds himself in some woods seemingly lost in his relationship with God, and because of this he understands that he must embark on a journey seeking Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution.

Adam Smith declared in his book that if this economy was perfectly executed in a society, it would use people’s naturally selfish actions to the society’s advantage, getting the ultimate best from the society, making it prosperous, innovative, and equal. During the revolution, capitalism was used as the dominant form of economy in England. This helped England’s economy become consistent and organized throughout the ryerson ehr, country. However, it also posed certain, significant, problems. In order for the major former of novel wealth, goods as well as services for death of an author, utilization and for an ever widening marketplace.

Labor history has at times been depicted as a sub-section of American past, as many Americans in history were servants, slaves or workers. Historical development in the place of work has taken the shape of an array of mixed images offering it a contradicting character. For some period, it has been at the gaining end of both optimistic and is empowerment work malign treatment. To numerous individuals the death, workplace The Quest for the Historical Jesus Essay. which is which basically how each piece of data fits into new situations. Last is creation, the fact that much of the gospels are creations of their authors, to death author fit the needs of the time. Student 1968! The second triad deals with compiling the texts used to study the historical Jesus. The first step within that triad is inventory.

Crossan includes all major texts, both intracanonical and extracanonical that deal with Jesus, and relies heavily on the work of the ancient Jewish scholar of the time named Josephus. The next An Analysis of the Central Themes of the Bhagavad Gita and Its Influence on death author Significant Historical Figures and Literature. In the story, this is taken to mean that the world will be thrown out of balance because this man is not the true king; the throne belongs to Arjuna, and in Essay on Exploring the Different Types Needs order to of an author restore balance, Arjuna is going to fight him for it. As Arjuna begins to edward mabo rush onto author the field, driven by the God Krishna (who has taken the student protests, form of death his charioteer) he begins to see people he knows on the other side; friends and family and teachers and which continent is egypt meaningful people to his daily life. Arjuna is overcome with despair and tells Krishna Essay on A Historical Look Into the death of an author, “Ballad of Birmingham. of arresting protestors they would use police dogs to keep protesters away for local downtown businesses. What In Social! This same tactic was also used with police clubs and water hoses in order to deter protestors. Unfortunately, these tactics have their own historical place in the African American community like no other nationality. Randall makes sure to author include these in his poem as they are important in the understanding of the history of the Different Needs Education that time as well as the forces used to detain and refrain African Americans Historical Overview of Therapy Termination Essay. Glover (1955) stated that termination is necessary to a successful analysis and that termination is not just the end of the analytic process, but an analytic process in itself.

However, to this day, and despite almost 100 years of discussions on termination, theoretical and author methodological considerations are still generally inconsistent (Bass, 2009; Joyce, Piper, Ogrodniczuk, Klein, 2007; Mendenhall, 2009). Major areas of discussion of this phase of therapy are time, date setting, methods, and

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Graffiti Art: An Essay Concerning The Recognition of Some Forms of Graffiti As Art. Phil 651 Aesthetics. Graffiti art is an art form. Of An! The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an art form far outweigh the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. The objective of this paper is to explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an art form. Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the recognized artisans of Western European culture were alive in the present day. Which Continent! Then, suppose that one of these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on the side of your house or on your front door or on a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monet's markings be graffiti or art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in the form of graffiti. Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission.

The same answer holds for the present day, genre of graffiti known as graffiti art. Graffiti art originated in the late 1960's, and it has been developing ever since. However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum. It is of an author not strictly denied the status of genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the opposition to graffiti art is ryerson ehr due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of graffiti can be accepted as art. This type of graffiti is known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. The arguments of vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the death, ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by an explanation of on Exploring Education, those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art.

To show this, I provide a historical context of graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is death author art. The origins of graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on walls in Pompeii. Student! Graffiti is the plural form of the death of an author, Italian word grafficar. In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is scratched on walls.

In reference to present day graffiti, the definition is qualified by adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of graffiti. One of the which is egypt in, simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Examples of death author, this type of graffiti commonly are found in bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten. Protests! Another simple form is that of the tag which is death of an author a fancy, scribble-like writing of one's name or nick-name. That is, tag signifies one's name or nick-name. Both the tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. While they might suggest a flair or style of writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of a lack of aesthetic qualities and inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in 1968 the viewer. In fact, the tag or individual mark is not produced for artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the writer's presence, i.e., the age old statement of I was here.

Gang markings of death, territory also fit the edward mabo, definition of graffiti, and they mainly consists of tags and of an author messages that provide news of happenings in continent is egypt in the neighborhood. Murals for death of an author community enhancement and beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and complex. They take considerable amount of skill to complete, and Essay Evolution Networks murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. The last form of graffiti is graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to produce an of an artwork that is graffiti or done in a graffiti-like style, and this the is the concern of this discussion. Modern graffiti art originated in Essay on Exploring Types Needs Education New York City, and it was known first as New York Style graffiti. This art form began in the late 1960's when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by the number of the street on which they lived, in subway cars. This trend originated with the appearance of Taki 183 which was the tag of a Greek American boy named Demitrius. Tagging soon became a way to get one's name known throughout the city.

However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York. The monikers, Cornbread and of an Top Cat were well known in Philadelphia, and when Top Cat's style appeared in student 1968 New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for the tag to develop in size and color. For it was not enough just to death of an author have one's name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this. Which Continent In! The spraycan separated the taggers from the artists in that color, form, and style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is monochromatic and a writing style that just about anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering. Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved. The stamp is a little harder and involves the use straight letters to of an produce a 3-D effect. Edward Mabo! The piece, which is short for of an author masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work.

A production is a piece that is usually on the scale of Essay Networks, a mural, and death author it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in addition to the writer or graffiti artist's name. It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the artist's name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the student protests, piece because writers want to be known. Hence, finding new and creative ways to display one's tag in of an author a highly visible place, as opposed to just scribbling it everywhere, was the fundamental force spurring the development of modern graffiti art. In the middle to late 1970's, writers started painting subway trains; thus the name, subway art. Train painting was instrumental to the development of graffiti art because the trains became the stage for the style wars which was a time when everyone who wanted to be recognized as the best artist or the King or Queen of a subway line got- up, i.e., painted trains as often as possible. If one's name was on protests a train in death a colorful and unique style, it was guaranteed to be seen by many people; most importantly by the other writers, because the subway trains in New York City travel in circuits throughout different boroughs. To be a King or Queen one could not just get-up or simply paint his or her name in a thousand different places. On the ryerson ehr, contrary, style and death artistic talent were and continue to be extremely important. The goal was and is to create burners which are pieces that stand out because of the Different of Special Needs, creativity, color, vibrancy, crisp outlines, i.e. no drips, and overall artistic appeal.

It is the recognizable artistic talent of the graffiti artist that established his or her reign on the subway line and not just the appearance of s name in a thousand different places. The styles that emerged with the previously mentioned forms during this time were round popcorn or bubble letters, wildstyle which is an intricate, interlocking type of of an, calligraphy that is Essay on The of Wireless Networks difficult and almost impossible to read, computer and gothic lettering, 3-D lettering, fading which blends colors, and the use of cartoon characters. The ability to produce complicated pieces is what separates the tagger from the graffiti artist; graffitist for short. Taggers scribble and graffitists do art. The high visibility of the train and the potential audience encouraged more artists to participate in this new form of art. Despite New York City's vigorous anti-graffiti efforts the author, style flourished and soon influenced artists in student cities all over the world. The biggest promotional vehicle for graffiti art worldwide has been the of an, Hip-Hop phenomenon which is the culture associated with rap music. Subway art now is termed as spraycan art because subway trains are no longer the canvas of choice. Besides, every graffitist could not possibly do all of Essay on The Evolution, his or her work on subway cars because of death, laws, police, and the dangerous environment of the subway yards and lay-up stations.

Ironically, the latest innovation in spraycan art has been that of freight art in which graffitists paint railroad, freight cars with the expectation that their artwork will travel across the United States and throughout the what is empowerment work, continent. There are two major questions associated with the explanation of graffiti. One, who is responsible for it, and two, why do graffitists produce spraycan art. Death Author! To the surprise of most people, graffiti art is what is empowerment in social work not the sole possession of poor, urban, lower-class American kids. Not only do half of the graffitists come from Caucasian middle-class families, but there are graffitists all over the world.

When asked, What sorts of kids write graffiti?, police officer Kevin Hickey of the New York Transit Police Department's graffiti squad replied, The type of kids that live in New York City. They range from the ultra-rich to the ultra-poor. There is no general classification of the kids Graffitist range in age from 12-30 years old, and there are male and of an female artists. In the past, graffiti artists usually worked alone, but the size and complexity of pieces as well as safety concerns motivated artists to on Exploring the Different of Special Needs work together in crews, which are groups of graffitists that vary in membership from 3 to 10 or more persons. Of An! A member of a crew can be down with, i.e., affiliated, with more than one crew. To join a crew, one must have produced stylish pieces and show potential for is egypt developing his or her own, unique style.

A crew is headed by death of an a king or queen who is usually that person recognized as having the best artistic ability among the members of the crew. The reasons and values for what is empowerment in social work why one might engage in graffiti art are as varied as the artists who produce it. A chief reason is the prospect of fame and recognition of one's artistic talent. Death Author! Graffiti is also a form of self expression. The art as writing is a creative method of student, communicating with other writers and death of an the general public. What it communicates is the artist's identity, expression, and ideas. Judgments are based solely on one's artistic ability. This type of communication is ryerson ehr of value because it links people regardless of cultural, lingual, or racial differences in way that nothing else can. In addition, producing graffiti art with a crew builds team work in that the author, crew works together for the accomplishment of a common goal. The feeling of this achievement in league with others is Essay of value to the artist.

In his book, Graffito, Walsh notes that some graffitists view their art as a ritual transgression against a repressive political and economic order. For some artists see themselves as revolutionaries reacting against death author the established art market or gallery system in that art is not only that which appears in the gallery as determined by the curator. Some artists also view their creations on public and private spaces as a statement against Western ideas of capitalism and private property. Of course, the majority of graffitists enjoy what they do and continent is egypt in find it to be fun, rewarding, and exciting. Death Author! Although these reasons are valid, they do not conclusively settle the matter as to why graffiti art is art or why it is a valid art form despite its illegal origins. Graffiti as seen and experienced on the New York City subway trains and edward mabo that which developed into the modern-day form of spraycan art is art. The production of graffiti art includes established techniques and styles, and the art form also is characterized by a standard medium; spraypaint. For example, novices are taught how to death of an author use spraypaint according to various styles and how to adjust nozzles as well as how to fit and Essay Evolution of Wireless use other types of of an, aerosol caps onto spraycans for different artistic effects. The forms of graffiti art have developed through the years from the mere gestures of which in, tagging to established conventional practices of the graffiti art world such as creating the tag according to a method, like wildstyle, that makes it an integral, flowing element of the overall piece. In addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of fancy scribble. The completion of a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and effort.

The graffitist first does a sketch. Then he or she plans out characters and selects colors. Next, the artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by a filling in death of an of colors and ornamentation, and then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of protests, lines, color, and of an structures that are present in the work in order to produce a narrative about it. Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by considering the is empowerment in social, producer's intention. Graffitists intend their work to of an be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to the audience. This is in line with Tolstoy's mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and share in each other's feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of not only communicating to is egypt in others, but it also beautifies the community by appearing on death of an author areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in a vacant lot or an abandoned building.

Furthermore, all of the aesthetic properties and criteria from the on Exploring the Different Types of Special Education, base element of color to the complex issue of artist intention which are ascribed to other works in order to characterize them as art can all be found in examples of death of an author, spraycan art. The only difference between those works in is empowerment work a gallery or museum and graffiti art in terms of death of an, how and why the Essay Types Education, latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation. Indeed the issues of location and presentation are the most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is not presented in the conventional location and death of an manner, i.e., framed and placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art. Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only justifies a removal of it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and in social not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is author very temporary. A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and which is egypt in take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of minutes. Another challenge to graffiti art is that it is forced upon author, the public because people have no say in its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. Is Egypt! Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and death of an author flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner.

Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and simply a matter of tagging. Work! However, only 20% of author, graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in _Graffito_. Because he used anecdotes from LA and the Different Types of Special Education San Francisco to obtain his figures, and death author it is not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is ryerson ehr questionable.], and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is also criticized for being too hard to understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from being art anymore than the obscurity of abstract art or Picasso's cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art. Goldman's aesthetic theory is of use to clarify the problem of location and presentation in of an author relation to graffiti art. Goldman claims that art takes us to other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and aesthetically.

This removal from the real world is enhanced by the mood of the gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. Most of the time when we encounter art and Essay on Exploring of Special Needs are transported by it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. However, this is death not the case with graffiti art. For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places. Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to these other worlds at a time and in a place that we are not accustomed to ryerson ehr doing so. We are not used to art approaching us outside of conventional settings such as a museum.

Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in a startling manner. Death Author! One can only imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to Essay Evolution Networks see a colorful train moving swiftly through the dingy stations and drab boroughs of death author, New York City. Spraycan art is an art form that is completely open to the public because it is not hemmed in by the confines or laws of the gallery system or the museum. Perhaps, this is its only crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is that which is displayed by the art world to be accepted as art as determined by what the members of the art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the death of an author, art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970's, galleries in New York and Europe brought graffiti to the attention of the art world. Lee Quinones, a prominent writer in New York and student protests one of the few graffitists to bomb, i.e., paint, a whole train from top to bottom and end to end, was invited to exhibit his work on canvas in Claudio Bruni's Galleria Madusa in Rome. Likewise, Yaki Kornblit of Denmark, an art dealer, helped to launch the careers of several graffitists during the years of 1984 and 1985 at Museum Boyanano von Beuningen in Rotterdam. Jean Paul Basquiat collaborated with Andy Warhol for of an joint paintings in 1985.

And recently, in 1996, Barry McGee, also known by edward mabo his tag, Twist, was commissioned to do a graffiti art mural for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. As graffiti was introduced to the art world, two trends happened. Death Of An! One, the art world of the Different of Special Needs Education, collectors, dealers, curators, artists, and the like helped graffitists evolve in style, presumably by sharing their artistic knowledge with the newcomers. Two, the exposure helped to expand graffiti to all parts of the world. Furthermore, cities such as LA and Chicago have recognized the death of an author, talent of graffitists by providing a means for them to do legal graffiti art which has helped to foster the art form and lessened the ryerson ehr, amount of graffiti art that appears in the city as vandalism. Likewise, organizations of graffiti artists such as the Phun Factory or the United Graffiti Artists in New York solicit places to do legal graffiti such as abandoned buildings, businesses, or community walls in parks. What this shows is that some graffiti, particularly in death of an the form of spraycan art, is recognized as art by the art world.

This recognition of graffiti art by the art world is in social work important for two reasons. One because of the social, political, and economic influence of the art world, its recognition of graffiti art as art helps to increase the awareness and overall understanding of the art form. Two, this recognition prevents the sweeping generalization that all graffiti is vandalism and therefore something that always should be eradicated. For in actuality, spraycan art does not necessarily have to be illegal or on a wall to be considered as graffiti art, although, philosophically, this might be the purest essence of the art form. What matters is that the art is produced according to a graffiti art style. So examples of art works that are produced on canvas with spraypaint and in a graffiti style can be considered as spraycan art. And the exhortation that graffiti should be on death of an author a visible private or public space in order to be in student 1968 its optimal context is not so much to glorify any illegalities but rather, to highlight the idea that graffiti is of an author meant to be completely accessible to what is empowerment the public for death immediate appreciation. Also, the is egypt, increasing acceptance of graffiti art is not due so much to its adoption of traditional techniques. Death! On the contrary, books, magazines, movies, and the artists themselves have helped people to student understand how and where graffiti harmonizes with and goes a step beyond traditional methods. For example, wildstyle changes with each artist's interpretation of the alphabet, but it also relies on the use of primary colors, fading, foreground and background, and the like to create these letters.

Thus, it is important and valuable to death characterize some forms of graffiti as art because this challenges people, who are conditioned to accept art works as art only if they are created in a traditional manner and appear in ryerson ehr institutional setting, to appreciate art works that originate and author develop outside of these constraints. In doing so, people come to realize graffiti is not an art form that is done just for the sake of rebellious destruction. Quite the which is egypt, opposite, it is an innovative and truly original art form that is meant to bring an aesthetic pleasure to the audience like any other recognized art form. In summary, some forms of graffiti become art according to four criteria. First, graffiti art is separated from everyday graffiti markings by the artist's intention to produce a work of of an, art. Second, graffiti art has an established history of development in style and technique. Ryerson Ehr! Third, graffiti art even has been recognized by the art world. A fourth criterion is that the public response to graffiti art indicates that it is art. Whether or not all of the public agrees that graffiti art is good, bad, or extremely valuable is a different discussion about evaluation and death not whether or not graffiti art is work art.

The evaluative concerns actually play more into where, when, and author how graffiti art should be displayed. The above criteria are defensible in so much as they have been used to legitimize other artistic forms. However, what appears to be the most significant answer to edward mabo describing how and why graffiti art is author art is the notion of understanding where the on Exploring Types of Special Needs, artist and the audience synchronize in agreement about a particular work being an example of art. It is a matter of comprehending what makes a creation art for of an the artist and what makes this same creation art for the audience. When and according to what criteria that these two viewpoints coincide is what thoroughly determines graffiti art as art. And like other art forms, graffiti art is Evolution definitively art when both the artist and the audience agree on the works ability to provide maximal aesthetic satisfaction. While it is of an author almost impossible to formulate a theory of necessary conditions or rules specifying when graffiti art is art, I think it is sufficient to draw on student protests already established aesthetic theories and criteria to author point out that some forms of graffiti do qualify as art. Therefore, graffiti in the Different the form of spraycan art is art. It has form, color, and other base properties as well as an arrangement of these elements into structures that qualify it aesthetically as being art. Of An! Just doing something with spraypaint might make it graffiti, but it does not necessarily qualify it as art or graffiti art. In addition, when the spraycan art is edward mabo analyzed according to the artist's intention and value to audience, there is even more evidence to death of an author suggest that it is genuine art.

The only obstacle that has hindered the general acceptance of graffiti art is its location and presentation. Continent Is Egypt In! However, the instances of acceptance of graffiti art by the art world shows that conventional methods of author, presentation are not all that matters in determining if something is art. And graffiti art is not to be disqualified as art simply because it might appear unsolicited. In short, graffiti in Essay on Exploring the Different of Special Needs the form of spray can art is art like any other work that might be found in a gallery or a museum. Castleman, Craig. Death! Getting Up.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.

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+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at your resume. And we want to tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An employer who just threw your resume in the trash. Poor Michelle. Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is preparing to change her career.

Michelle could have used a great resume objective to grab the recruiter’s attention and let the recruiter know that her resume is in the right place. The recruiter would have known from the of an, beginning that Michelle was the protests, right person for the job. This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for death author, a resume should look like. When to write an objective on a resume. Which Continent Is Egypt! How to author, write a resume objective. And I will explain the differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and resume profile. For industry-specific examples , keep reading. If you don't find a sample resume objective for the Different Types Needs Education, your industry, let us know in the comments and we'll write an example for death author, you. A resume objective is a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of continent a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and how you are a perfect match for the position that is on offer.

Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an death of an author, MBA and +2 years of experience in specialized tax services. Seeking to Essay on The Evolution Networks, leverage my technical and professional expertise to grow in death the new role of Accountant at your company. Edward Mabo! Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and I can quickly fall asleep anywhere. Here is death author a template from our resume builder . Notice how the ryerson ehr, sample resume objective stands out. If you want to save time, get professional tips, and quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder.

It's fast and death of an, easy to use. See more templates and create your resume here. So, what does objective mean? The dictionary definition of ‘objective’ (noun) is Essay on Exploring Needs Education a goal or aim to get something specific. Of An Author! What is your goal for applying for a job? Employers know you want the job.

You gave them your resume. But, once upon a time, the resume objective definition was a statement that told hiring managers who you were and why you wanted the student protests 1968, job. Resume Objective Statement Example. Want fun, stimulating job that pays me in tacos and a mountain of money every month. Oh, and fifty days of author paid vacation. And a gym membership. Oh, and one of continent those people who follow you around and get you coffee - a personal assistant. Yes, one of death of an author those. You can write an objective for a resume like this and of Wireless Networks, still get good jobs (kind of).

But, some experts argue that it is no longer fashionable to include a resume objective like the resume objective statement example I just gave you. In fact, the general consensus is that the old resume objective format is a 90’s relics that is about as fashionable as wearing denim on denim. Because employers care more about what they want. Surprise, surprise. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa.

When you send your resume to large companies in author 2016, it could end up in a pile of +250 other resumes on average. The modern recruiter needs to quickly scan each resume. They only have time to look for what they want and need. Attracting a recruiter's attention in the fastest, most direct way possible is now invaluable. So the beginning of the resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the student protests, information that the recruiter wants and needs. This is why the death, format for great resume objectives has changed. Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to which, achieve the employer’s objective not your own. Resume Objective Statement Example. Experienced chef interested in of an author becoming a zoo keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to ryerson ehr, taking care of angry lions at the Zoo.

Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to show that you are a perfect match for death of an author, that position . You will need to change the objective statement for a resume every time you apply for what is empowerment in social, a different job. You may also want to take a look at our guides and resume examples (here) for specific positions. So, if you apply for 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need? Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives. You don't need to change everything, just re-tailor each objective on a resume to death author, match the new job post. The topic of writing a resume objective is confusing. There seem to be about a dozen different names for what you can put in the space at the top of a resume. The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of qualifications.

Here’s the thing - they are all basically the Essay the Different Types of Special Needs, same. But, there are minor differences and you should not confuse them. Just remember: put your resume objective or summary at the top of your resume. Death Of An Author! You can choose one of work our +20 resume templates, and use our resume builder to save time, and quickly create your resume here. Author! Take a look at a sample resume below: When Do You Need a Great Resume Objective? When you're writing a resume, the first thing you will probably include after adding your contact information is some sort of introduction. Student 1968! Think of this section as an elevator pitch that you've designed to sell yourself to the employer. The introduction comprises what you would say to author, the hiring manager if you were to pitch your resume face to face.

A recent study by student protests The Ladders has shown that recruiters will only spend 6 seconds looking at a resume. So, you need to catch a recruiter’s eye immediately to make sure they keep reading. And the best way to make recruiters keep reading is to introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Death Author! Okay, but let's go back to edward mabo, writing a resume objective for author, a resume. There are three main types of introductions for resumes: 1. The Resume Objective. 2. Is Empowerment In Social Work! The Resume Summary or Executive Summary. 3. Death Author! The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of ryerson ehr choice for three types of people: 1. People who are entering the job market for the first time. Author! 2. Edward Mabo! People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explain an unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. Author! The rest of you might want to ryerson ehr, consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. You can just jump right into your experience or education section.

It depends on what you think is of an most important and what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs. The Summary vs. The Profile. Ryerson Ehr! Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the resume summary and the resume profile. Here are the death, differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for ryerson ehr, the position on death of an offer. This type of introduction is useful for people who have little or no work experience. Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and 2 years of experience. Essay Evolution Of Wireless Networks! Wishing to leverage my experience to fill the position of Truck Driver at your company. Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career. Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and death, become a high-level professional.

A resume summary is also a couple of ryerson ehr lines at the beginning of your resume. But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the position. Professional Dietician and Caterer with 6+ years in author the foodservice industry. Highly entrepreneurial and efficient at building and maintaining client relationships. Seeking to leverage my interpersonal skills to bring a solid customer service perspective to the position of Catering Manager at your company. Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education in terms of the what in social, company’s needs and death author, values. It is exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive.

It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points. Let’s look at IT jobs for a moment. The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to see a list of all the different software and hardware you are familiar using. Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and student 1968, 3.5 GPA (1). Undergraduate studying computer science with an emphasis on computer systems and architecture.

Strong exposure to Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and of an, Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2). Working understanding of edward mabo remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and 4). Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and of an, Internet email (5). In the end, the real difference is whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . 1968! Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters. Yes, it is death still necessary to write cover letters. Cover letters introduce you to an employer and explain why your skills and experiences fit the job for which you are applying. An introduction to your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume. Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in your resume.

Five Examples of Resume Objectives for edward mabo, Specific Situations. Death! In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of examples of great resume objectives for people in specific situations. These examples are for the three types of people I mentioned at the beginning of the article: People who are entering the job market for the first time (entry level). People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explaing an edward mabo, unclear career path. Of An! People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples.

Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and no higher-level education. College graduates looking for student 1968, their first professional job. People who have been out of work for longer periods of time or have not worked. If you are a person looking for your first job, you should focus on the traits that will make you a good employee. Author! But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of thin air. Look back at the Different Types Needs, your accomplishments and activities as a student. Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume.

A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and death, communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant (2) . I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . Lead with your strongest trait. The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description. What! Here is the example of the server job description with the keywords marked: Here is our career objective example again with the of an author, keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant. I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different: Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and want to what is empowerment in social, find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals. Death Of An! 1. Lead with a strong trait. 2. Follow with the type of education you have and any work experience you have. 3. State the position you are seeking. 4. Essay On The Networks! End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to the company.

Let’s say you’ve just been out of the game for a long time. You took time off to be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to death, go back to work. Edward Mabo! If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective. Death Author! Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago. Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. What would a good resume objective example look like then?

Organized and motivated (1) employee able to apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments. Seeking a position as an on The of Wireless, office assistant (2) in (name of company). I am personable and reliable and will prove to be an asset to the company. B. Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples. You have experience, you just have it in another industry. A career objective for a resume is of an author a place for edward mabo, you to state that you are making a change and death of an, that where you were is relevant to where you are going. That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in the wrong place. What is this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash. What Is Empowerment In Social! Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of death of an author experience in the retail real estate industry (4). Seeking to use my background in planning, overseeing, and implementing marketing campaigns (5) to take on the role of of Special Needs Brand Manager (6) at death, (name of company).

I am creative and effective at presenting and developing the brands I represent (7 and 8) . Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of on Exploring the Different Types Education Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to your education either at death, the beginning or end of the is empowerment in social work, resume objective statement. C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for death author, a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an interest in a specific position. IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of experience in systems management and configuration at a large telecommunications company (3). Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and communication skills (4 and what is empowerment, 5) to effectively fill the of an, position of student 1968 Network Engineer (6) at (name of company). Possess a BA in Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and of an, Training (7) Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective.

1. Here Is the ryerson ehr, Best Way To Be Credible. One of the benefits of putting a good resume objective on of an author a resume is that it makes you stand out to on The, an employer at first glance. Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to use my skills to benefit the company. Remember? We already talked about this.

This is the “Nice person applying for nice job at of an author, nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to pur resume objectives on on The Evolution of Wireless Networks a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions: What job do you want to death author, pursue? What skills do you have? How will they benefit the company? Be specific. Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to any job seeker looking for any job in the world. Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to student protests 1968, use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of death Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Now that’s specific.

Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on Essay the Different of Special offer. That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to specific job offers. They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of traits and death author, skills the employer wants. It won’t box you in if you show that you have everything they want in the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the exact person they need to hire for the job. 2. Edward Mabo! How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention.

Use numbers and details when possible: 2 years of death of an author experience 50% increase in sales 100 people in attendance at my event managed a team of 50 people saved 25 baby seals from poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of events that drew over 100 people each. Ryerson Ehr! Both of these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on a resume. The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for a resume: How are your skills and traits going to death, benefit the employer? This is on The of Wireless especially important for people transitioning from of an one industry to another.

How does your past experience translate to ryerson ehr, your future position? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and of an author, customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. We can see that the interpersonal and customer service skills that this waitress used at her old job can be used to help achieve the customer service goals of ryerson ehr Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the of an author, skills that employers desire most. Oh, and did I mention that the article comes with a fun and actionable infographic? Go check. 4. Student! How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be?

Make it short and of an author, sweet. Resumes are short documents. A career objective for a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of your resume. No one wants to read a novel about what is empowerment work, your job experience. Death! 5. Should You Use First Person Pronouns? Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the first person on on The Evolution your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the pronoun and starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in the third person and in the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to imagine you transferring your skills and duties to their open role.

It focuses on author the employer by edward mabo leaving direct references to you out author of the equation. But, like I said before, there are no real rules. As long as you are making a clear point and showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns. Is Egypt! Also, what are you supposed to call the thing? As I mentioned before, there are endless names for death of an author, the introduction section of a resume. You can start a good objective for student, a resume like this: Or forget the title and just start writing. Death Of An Author! Make it work for you. Write what’s comfortable and compelling.

Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in Essay Needs the sample section of this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on death of an a resume are seen as cliche and out of fashion, it might be better not to edward mabo, slap the label in front. 6. Of An Author! How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Instead of using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the adjectives from the job description. Note: use “hard working” and “dedicated” if they are in the job description. This is a form of on The Evolution of Wireless Networks keyword optimization. All you need to do is go back through the job description looking for keywords. These keywords should be written throughout your resume. A couple of them can show up in your resume objective as well. Death! Whoever is Types Needs looking at your resume will probably start by scanning the document.

Recruiters will be looking for death, the keywords they put in the job description, and if you add them to a resume and student protests, an objective in a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to know how to use keywords to tailor your resume to the job description? I'll show you in our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description 7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay. I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Never use the word utilize and don't lie. Never use “utilize” in death of an a job objective on a resume (or any unscientific situation for that matter) - just do not do it. Ryerson Ehr! You will sound pretentious. You will sound like you are trying too hard to of an author, sound intelligent. Essay Evolution Of Wireless! You will sound like someone who slips French words into conversations at of an, parties.

There are only a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people. Also, don’t lie about your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to emphasize. Writing a resume may seem scary and intimidating. You have to catch the what, attention of hiring managers within the first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into a full read.

Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the one thing that keeps your resume on the hiring manager’s desk and out of the trash can. A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience. It signals to the person reading your resume that you are right for the job, even if you have never had a job. Of An! Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about how to write a great resume objective for edward mabo, a resume? Leave a comment. Death Of An! We'll be happy to help.

Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about ryerson ehr, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on death author Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for the age of the edward mabo Earth. All these methods point to Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of inaccuracies and riddled with sources of author, error.

When I first became interested in the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for sources that clearly and simply explained what radiometric dating is and ryerson ehr, why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to stand alone and simple enough for a non-geologist to understand them. Thus this essay, which is my attempt at author, producing such a source. What is radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is a way of determining the age of on Exploring the Different Types, a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to death of an provide a 'clock.' It relies on three basic rules, plus a couple of critical assumptions. The rules are the edward mabo same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. To explain those rules, I'll need to talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Elements are identified by their atomic number , the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of protons and neutrons. Of An. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an element, also called an isotope of an element, is an atom of that element that has a specific number of ryerson ehr, nucleons. Since all atoms of the same element have the death of an same number of Education, protons, different nuclides of an element differ in the number of neutrons they contain. For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and 143 neutrons. Death Of An Author. To keep it short, a nuclide is usually written using the element’s abbreviation. Uranium’s abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in the process into another element. There are two common kinds of radioactive decay, alpha decay and beta decay . In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons. After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to balance the two protons, and becomes an electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an alpha particle, its atomic number drops by edward mabo 2, and its mass number (number of nucleons) drops by 4. Thus, an atom of U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an alpha particle and becomes an atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. Death Author. When an atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is transformed to a proton. The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by 1. Thus, an atom of carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an which continent is egypt in, atom of nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of death of an author, radioactive decay is called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. In other words, electron absorption is the exact reverse of beta decay.

The mass number doesn’t change, while the atomic number goes down by 1. So an atom of potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an electron to 1968 become an atom of argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of death author, a radioactive nuclide is defined as the time it takes half of edward mabo, a sample of the element to decay. A mathematical formula can be used to calculate the half-life from the number of of an, breakdowns per second in a sample of the nuclide. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in tenths or hundredths of a second. The decay rate and therefore the in half-life are fixed characteristics of a nuclide. They don’t change at all. That’s the death of an first axiom of radiometric dating techniques: the work half-life of a given nuclide is a constant. Death Of An Author. (Note that this doesn’t mean the half-life of an element is a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is a purely statistical measurement. Essay The Different Of Special Education. It doesn’t depend on the age of individual atoms. A sample of author, U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. So, if we know how much of the student nuclide was originally present, and how much there is now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for death author, the missing amount to decay, and therefore how long it’s been since that particular sample was formed. That’s the essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount that’s present, calculate how much is missing, and figure out how long it would take for that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because it’s a statistical measure- ment , there’s always a margin of error in the age figure, but if the procedure is done properly, the margin is very small. Obviously, the major question here is how much of the nuclide was originally present in our sample? In some cases, we don’t know. Such cases are useless for Essay the Different Types of Special Education, radiometric dating. We must know the death author original quantity of the parent nuclide in order to date our sample radiometrically . Essay On Exploring The Different Types. Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide that’s part of a mineral compound.

Why? Because there’s a basic law of author, chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the edward mabo same element. They simply can’t do it. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and a mineral forms in death of an a magma melt that includes that element, the element’s different nuclides will appear in the mineral in Essay on The Evolution precisely the same ratio that they occurred in the environment where and of an, when the student 1968 mineral was formed. This is the second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an death, atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and also its chemical behavior change. Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the continent is egypt in periodic table, and elements in different rows behave in of an different ways. The new atom doesn’t form the same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. Essay Evolution Of Wireless Networks. It may not form the same kinds of death of an, compounds. It may not even be able to hold the parent atom’s place in the compound it finds itself in, which results in an immediate breaking of the Evolution chemical bonds that hold the atom to the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atom’s chemical activity pattern is a result of its electron shell structure. (The exact details of this are rather complicated, so I won’t go into them here.) When the number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. Of An. So when an atom decays and changes into an atom of a different element, its shell structure changes and it behaves in ryerson ehr a different way chemically. That’s it. That’s the author sum total of the chemical and what in social work, physical basis of radiometric dating. Death Of An Author. That’s all you really need to know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, I’ll examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and show how the axioms I cited above translate into useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of radiometric dating. To start, let's look at on The Evolution of Wireless Networks, the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in three nuclides: C12, C13, and C14. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in 800 billion is of an author, C14. The remainder are C13. Of the three, C12 and protests 1968, C13 are stable. Death Of An Author. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is also formed continuously from N14 (nitrogen-14) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. In Social. And since carbon is an essential element in living organisms, C14 appears in all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in the same proportions it appears in the atmosphere. Plants and protists get C14 from the death author environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an organism dies, it stops taking in what is empowerment in social work C14. The C14 already in the organism doesn’t stop decaying, so as time goes on death of an there is less and less C14 left in the organism’s remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the organism died, and therefore how much has decayed. When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Many archaeological sites have been dated by applying radiocarbon dating to samples of bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. Edward Mabo. One is that the death author thing being dated is organic in origin. Radiocarbon dating does not work on anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Essay Of Wireless Networks. Only things that once were alive and now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. Death Of An. The second assumption is that the ryerson ehr organism in question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the thing has remained closed to C14 since the organism from which it was created died. The fourth one is that we know what the concentration of death, atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and died. That last one is more important than it sounds. When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in Essay on Exploring Needs 1949, he assumed that the amount of C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. However, after a few years a number of scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by the C14 method weren’t tallying with dates obtained by other means. A long series of studies of C14 content produced an equally long series of corrective factors that must be taken into account when using C14 dating. Death Author. So the dates derived from C14 decay had to be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of protests 1968, corrective factors for the change in atmospheric C14 over time. C14 dating serves as both an of an author, illustration of how useful radiometric dating can be, and of the Essay pitfalls that can be found in untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and of an author, U235 are both nuclides of the element uranium. U235 is well known as the major fissionable nuclide of uranium. It’s the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. Edward Mabo. It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. Author. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of 4.3 billion years. Essay. Th232 is the most common nuclide of the element thorium, and has a half-life of death of an, 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . A radioactive series is a sequence of nuclides that form one from another by radioactive decay. Student 1968. The series for of an, U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the half-lives of all of these elements. All the ryerson ehr intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. Of An Author. That means they don’t stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides don’t appear on in social work Earth today except as the result of uranium decay.

We can find out the of an author normal distribution of lead nuclides by continent in looking at a lead ore that doesn’t contain any uranium, but that formed under the same conditions and from the same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Then any excess of Pb206 must be the death result of the decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the Essay Networks U238 in our sample has been decaying, and of an author, therefore how long ago the ryerson ehr rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to death author radioactive series -- different series from that of U238, containing different nuclides and in social work, ending in different nuclides of of an author, lead. Of Wireless Networks. Chemists can apply similar techniques to of an all three, resulting in the Different of Special Needs three different dates for the same rock sample. (Uranium and thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of these nuclides frequently occur in the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the author margin of error, the date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Since all three of these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for all three to agree indicates the technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. It’s always possible that migration of nuclides or chemical changes in is empowerment in social the rock could yield incorrect results. The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to uranium, thorium, and their daughter nuclides for of an, the method to work properly. Both the uranium and continent in, thorium series include nuclides of radon, an inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in the few days it lasts. Of An. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the original quantity and the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in ryerson ehr nature? The answer is yes.

Which brings us to the third method of radiometric dating . . . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. Of An. Only K40 is radioactive; the other two are stable. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an electron to become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. It’s one of the group of elements called noble gases or inert gases. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in any state it exists only as single atoms. It doesn’t form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the most active ones. It’s a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into a dense crystal’s molecular structure. By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the most active elements in nature.

They both form compounds readily and hold onto other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into minerals quite easily, but argon can’t. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an Essay the Different Types, atom of potassium inside the mineral, the argon is trapped in the mineral. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of K40 decay. We know K40’s half-life, and we know the probability of K40 decaying to Ar40 instead of Ca40. That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in our rock sample.

However, again it’s important to remember that we’re dealing with assumptions , and we always have to keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then it’s been decaying longer than we think, so the mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the result we get says it is. In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. When isochron dating can be used, the result is of an, a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of in social, several nuclides. If three minerals form at the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the different strontium nuclides. (Remember, chemical processes can’t differentiate between nuclides). The total amount of strontium might be different in the different minerals, but the death of an ratios will be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of ryerson ehr, Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of Rb87:Sr87. As time goes on, atoms of author, Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in a change in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and in, also in a change in the ratio of Sr87 to other nuclides of strontium. The decrease in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is death, exactly matched by what work the gain of Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to be -- the two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an isochron . The line’s slope then translates directly into a figure for the age of the rock that contains the different minerals. The power of the Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for it provides multiple independent ways of verifying the death author accuracy of the isochron . When every one of four or five different minerals from the same igneous formation matches the isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the edward mabo isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they don’t show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to name a few. However, I simply haven’t time or room to deal with all of death of an author, them. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to Gunter Faure’s textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for student 1968, this book is given in the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of Error. Now, why is all this relevant to of an author the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for the Earth.

For creationists to ryerson ehr destroy the author old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of radiometric dating. They have two ways to do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is what in social, based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of radioactivity levels and nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the Theory. Is there any way to criticize the theory of radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of death of an author, radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to Essay Evolution question. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at least, they seem to be. Do we know, for a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for author, accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the reasons are based in the remote and esoteric reaches of quantum mechanics, and I don’t intend to get into that in this article. On The Evolution. However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for death, believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of what in social work, it. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is author, yes. Which Continent Is Egypt. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to death author analyze the what work radiation produced by supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. We can detect the presence of the death author various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernova’s radiation.

We can also detect the characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in Essay on Exploring the Different Types of Special Needs Education those nuclides. We can use that information to calculate the half-lives of death author, those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the what in social measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the death supernova matches extremely well with measurements of that nuclide made here on Earth. Now, because light travels at a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per ryerson ehr second), and because stars are so far away, when we look at a distant star we’re seeing it as it was when that light left it and headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, we’re seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the death same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, let’s think about edward mabo it: Minerals form by recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on its size and the number of electrons in its outer shell. This is the foundation of the periodic table of the death of an elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and student 1968, fifty years. The shell structure depends only on the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the death of an author same as the number of protons in its nucleus. So the 1968 shell structure doesn’t change between different nuclides of the same element. K39 is death, chemically identical to K40; the only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. (Note: It’s true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over others. Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. The atoms used in radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the what is empowerment work axiom that mineral-forming processes can’t distinguish between different nuclides.) So the death of an processes that are involved in mineral formation can’t distinguish between nuclides. Sr86 atoms and Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from Essay Evolution that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the Techniques. So, we’ve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on a sound theoretical basis. The only other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is useless for dating. A sample that is taken from the surface, where atoms could get in and out easily, is also useless.

Samples must be taken by coring, from of an author deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into student protests, its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. Of An. If the ryerson ehr lab technique is death of an author, sloppy, the edward mabo date produced isn’t reliable. There’s no way to death of an eliminate the possibility of error. It can’t be done. Mistakes can always happen -- Murphy’s Law rules in science as much as in any other field of human endeavor. Edward Mabo. (For those who have never encountered it, Murphy’s Law is the death author simple rule that in any field of human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to what in social work minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at different labs over many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is usually considered a result of death author, some kind of error and of Wireless Networks, discarded. If the researcher doing the work can find and document a specific problem in analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then it’s virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. A 90% success ratio in death author a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is very impressive. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while it’s true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is on The Evolution of Wireless Networks, no source of author, error that could account for the enormous difference between the 6000-year age demanded by young-Earth creationists and the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on Earth. It’s completely illogical to think that these techniques could be wrong by on Exploring the Different of Special Needs that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the death author entire theory is based on edward mabo invalid assumptions. We’ve already seen that this doesn’t hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of dates obtained by death author radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the what is empowerment in social normally accepted values. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the author best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. He’s compiled a list of protests 1968, several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the of an author values accepted by conventional geology. Based on this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and ryerson ehr, that therefore the whole methodology of radiometric dating is worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by what they don’t say more than by author what they do say. Ryerson Ehr. In an article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is that those 350 were winnowed out of tens of thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. If we run dating tests on 500 samples and 350 (70% of the total tests) are scattered all over author the place, with only a few anywhere near the expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. Essay On Exploring Needs. But if we run dating tests on 10,000 samples and author, get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. If we test fifty samples from the ryerson ehr same rock formation and we get 2 ages of 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, it’s not a great leap of logic to conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at death of an, the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to Essay on The be a serious blow against the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of of an, ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out ryerson ehr, that Austin made a critical error in death author his work.

The samples he took from the Plateau are from Evolution of Wireless Networks different rock formations. For any type of radiometric dating to work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. So it’s not surprising that Austin ’s results make no sense. We’re still not done, though. If all we had was the radiometric techniques that I’ve described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is throwing off all the death of an hundreds and Essay on Exploring Types Needs, thousands of of an author, radiometric dates that have been produced based on rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to radioactivity which serve as independent checks on the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the edward mabo American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . He noted that the of an author islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Hawaii toward the northwest. He interpreted this to work mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the of an chain. When rock samples were taken from the Hawaiian Islands and protests, dated radiometrically , they agreed with Dana’s conclusions of over a century before. The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. Of An. And the degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the Evolution of Wireless Networks radiometric dates. No island in the chain is dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is any island in the chain dated as being significantly younger than the erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in a year when the death of an coral was growing. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per year, more or less, just as it should. For corals that grew in formations identified as Early Devonian, the technique shows a little over 400 day-bands per year. Astronomers can measure the rate at of Wireless Networks, which Earth’s rotation is slowing. Assuming the rate of death author, slowing has remained constant, a day-count of Essay Evolution Networks, 400 days per death of an author year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of Essay Networks, roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is provided by plate tectonics. The plates that form the Earth’s surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of death, measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to do with radiometric dating. The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is moving northwest at at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of magma from a ‘hot spot’ in the Earth’s mantle, below the seafloor. The Pacific Plate is moving; the hot spot remains fixed; and edward mabo, the result is a series of volcanic islands growing upward over the hot spot. Between Hawaii and Midway Island (2400km northwest of Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and extinct. Many of these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. Of An. In all these cases, the radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Particularly striking is the edward mabo correlation for Midway Island itself. By drift rate it should be about author 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of motion to the Hawaiian Islands . They both correlate well with other measurements of the Pacific Plate’s motion. Continent. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of dating these islands, and they all agree within acceptable ranges of error. What are the chances of death author, all three being wrong in such ways as to ryerson ehr produce the same wrong answer?

There’s no way to calculate them, but I’d say they’re so miniscule that you’d have better odds of hitting the state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to wrap things up. In the late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field using the rocks in Olduvai Gorge in Africa . Of An. ( Olduvai Gorge is famous as one of the best sites in the world for early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of protests 1968, sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the Olduvai Event in his cores. Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of magnetic field reversals. Author. After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the which is egypt in Olduvai Event had spanned a period from roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from Olduvai Gorge is difficult for several reasons, but one of the few dates that’s considered solid comes from a specific layer of volcanic tuff called ‘Tuff 1B’. This tuff occurs near the bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in 1959 using the potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of sources of error and unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on a very sound theoretical and of an, procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of chemistry and a lot of atomic physics too. The periodic table is the edward mabo bedrock on which modern chemistry is author, built. The constancy of the velocity of light is a basic axiom of in social, Einstein’s theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from death of an quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. In short, everything we know in chemistry and in physics points to radiometric dating as being a viable and valuable method of calculating the ages of igneous and metamorphosed igneous rocks. To question it seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. To charge thousands of chemists all over the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for the past forty years. The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and ryerson ehr, instrumentation has been improved. There is simply no logical reason to throw this entire field of science out the window.

There is no reason to believe the of an theory is faulty, or to believe that thousands of different chemists could be so consistently wrong in the face of every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by the Different of Special Needs Education other dating techniques. When they are, the dates almost always agree within the death of an range of expected error. In cases where the ryerson ehr dates don’t agree, it’s always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the most powerful and most damning evidence against their idea of a young Earth.

But in death of an author the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. And that is ryerson ehr, not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and death author, evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to fit the ryerson ehr evidence. Creationists won’t do that. That reveals creation ‘science’ to author be a sham, and not any kind of science at all. Information on the nature of atoms, half-lives, and types of radioactive decay was taken from ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. Evolution Of Wireless Networks. Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from a variety of sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and of an author, David Dathe. c. Wm C. Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Miller. Essay in SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Ashley Montagu.

c. Essay Of Wireless Networks. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an death of an, excellent explanation of the Essay of Special rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIER’S ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by death Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and the flaws in those critiques, comes primarily from these sources: The Unreliability of Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServe’s Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. TXT. Evaluation of ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on the World Wide Web at the talk.origins FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. I’m using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappe’s claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on of Wireless the independent cross-checks for death, radiometric dates comes mainly from these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: ‘The Evolution of the edward mabo Pacific’ Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in of an author CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the Olduvai Event: LUCY ’S CHILD: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and James Shreeves. c. 1989, Wm Morrow and edward mabo, Company, Inc. On the length of the year as shown by coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of death of an author, Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Protests. Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in other books, numerous threads on author several CompuServe forums, and other papers and articles downloaded from CompuServe and the World Wide Web.

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Edexcel GCSE Statistics Coursework. Extracts from this document. Edexcel GCSE Statistics 1389. PLANNING SHEET – MAYFIELD HIGH. My aim in this investigation is to death of an author query whether or not there is a correlation between height and weight and find out if this varies between genders.

I believe that as a student becomes taller their weight will increase; due to this assumption I expect a graph of weight and height to student protests show a rising trend. Listed below are my hypotheses. With the cumulative frequency graph displaying weight, the female’s data produces an almost perfect S-shape curve, whereas the male’s data has, what seems to be, an anomaly (the third point allocated at the weight of death author 45KG and cumulative frequency of ryerson ehr 9) which affects its shape. For a symmetrical distribution, the median will lie halfway between the first and third quartile- neither of the medians lie halfway and so neither have exactly symmetrical distributions. The female’s median, however, is extremely close to death author being halfway between the two quartiles showing us a more symmetrical distribution than that of the males; this may explain the almost perfect curve on the frequency graph which the continent is egypt in points plotted for females produce. The inter-quartile range is a measure of the central tendency, much like the standard deviation. The advantage of the inter-quartile range over the standard deviation, however, is that the death of an inter-quartile range includes half of the points regardless of the shape of the distribution.

The smaller the inter-quartile range, the more consistent the data is. The inter-quartile range for ryerson ehr the weights of males appears to be 15 and the inter-quartile range for the weights of females is 10, 5 less than the males. This shows us the female’s weights are more consistent, another explanation as to why the female’s curve on the graph is closer to an S-shape than the of an author males. Overall, it is evident from the cumulative frequency graph; females generally weigh less than males. Neither curves on protests, the graph displaying height are perfect- nor near perfect, S-shape curves and neither median lies halfway between the first and third quartile, and so neither males nor females have symmetrical distributions. The inter-quartile range for the heights of males appears to be equal to the females showing us both sexes have an equal consistency, nevertheless, it is clear males are generally taller than females as their mean is higher.

After looking back at the cumulative frequency graphs it is death of an evident, particularly for the height of males, that I could have grouped the data more clearly. The third and fourth row in the group of male heights show a frequency of 0, which has an effect on the S-shape of the curve on my graph, and possibly having an effect on the lower quartile. To improve I should have used unequal groupings to ryerson ehr ensure no empty groups were present. Box plots are an death of an author, informative way to display a range of numerical data. It can show many things about a data set, like the what in social lowest term in the set, the highest term in the set, the median, the upper quartile, and the lower quartile. Using these from my cumulative frequency curves, I have drawn four box plots. Outliers are not present in every box plot drawn, except one where there is an of an, extreme value which deviates significantly from the on Exploring Types Needs Education rest of the sample.The size of the box can provide an of an, estimate of the kurtosis of the distribution. A thin box relative to the whiskers indicates that a very high number of cases are contained within a very small segment of the sample indicating a distribution with a thinner peak whereas a wider box is indicative of a wider peak and so, the wider the box, the more U-shaped the distribution becomes. Looking at the box plots representing height, we can see the box plot for females is slightly more negatively skewed than that of the the Different Types Education males, showing that most of the data are smaller values, proving females generally weigh less than males. The medians lie at the same point- 1.6M, and death of an author, they both have an equal inter-quartile range, nevertheless, the tallest male is 0.5M taller than the tallest female. As both boxes are of equal size both distributions are equally U-shaped.

The box represents the middle 50% of the data sample- half of all cases are contained within it. The 50% of data within the box for the males ranges between 1.55M and 1.7M whereas for ryerson ehr the females it ranges between 1.5M and 1.65M, showing us females are generally shorter than males. Looking at death the box plots for weight, we see that half the female's weights are between 45 and 55KG whereas half the men's weights lie between 45 and 60KG. The highest value for females is 70KG (ignoring the outlier) and for males: 75KG, the is empowerment in social median for of an the males’ weight is which continent 5KG higher than that of the of an females. The lowest value which appears on the box plot for males is Essay on Exploring the Different Types Education 30KG and the highest is 75KG, giving us a range of 45KG. Looking at death the same pieces of data for the females, we can work out that the range is in fact 5KG less than that of the males. It is evident that the distribution of the student 1968 female’s box plot has a thinner peak than the males attributable to the simple fact that the box of the female’s weight is far thinner than the of an males’. The distribution for the weight of males is, therefore, more U-shaped. The location of the box within the whiskers can provide insight on is empowerment, the normality of the sample's distribution, when the of an author box is student 1968 not centred between the whiskers, the sample may be positively or negatively skewed. If the box is shifted significantly to the low end, it is positively skewed; if the box is death of an author shifted significantly to the high end, it is negatively skewed, however, none of the four box plots are shifted significantly to either the on The of Wireless Networks high end or the low end.

Nevertheless, if I were to of an author be analytical, I could say both the box plot showing the weights are positively skewed, despite them being insignificantly shifted to the lower end; they are edging more towards that direction than the opposite. These all illustrate that females do in the Different Education, fact generally weigh less than males. An outlier appears on the box plot showing the weights of females, this may be the death of an author result of an error in measurement, in which case it will distort the interpretation of the data, having undue influence on many summary statistics- for example: the mean , however, if the outlier is a genuine result, it is important because it may perhaps indicate an extreme of behaviour or may have been affected by external behaviour, for example, dietary habits. For this reason, I have left the outlier in the data as I am not sure whether it be a genuine result or miscalculation, as a result of which is egypt in not having information on exercise or dietary habits. To conclude, it is construable that my hypothesis was in fact correct. It is evident from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and of an author, weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, as studies show, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the dissimilar hormones produced in both female and male bodies, it is known females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. Essay The Different Types Needs? When the average male and female both reach the age of 20 it is said ‘females are generally 10 percent shorter than males and 20 per cent lighter’ and between the death author ages of 11 and 16 ‘males appear to ryerson ehr generally be 15 percent taller and heavier than the female sex’. After comparing my results to articles and published graphs on the internet, I am able to confirm that my hypothesis stating females are generally shorter and author, weigh less than males, was correct. After calculating the edward mabo frequency density for the male and death author, female heights and weights, I created four histograms; the advantage of a histogram is student that it shows the shape of the distribution for author a large set of data and so was therefore able to show me the shape of the ryerson ehr distributions for male and female heights and weights, however, when using histograms it is more difficult to death compare two or more data sets as we are unable to read exact values as the data is Networks grouped into of an categories.

For this reason I used standard to show whether or not the data is what normally distributed. From a first glance at the histograms it is easy to see they are not completely symmetrical but not entirely asymmetrical, I expect if I were to have used a larger sample the histograms would have appeared more symmetrical. Tables in which I used to create the histograms. From looking at the histograms, it is clear only of an, two of which continent is egypt in these encompass curves which are appropriate to super impose normal distribution curves, and so for this reason I will not calculate the normal distribution. If I had, perhaps, selected a bigger sample it may have been possible to death of an author calculate the normal distribution as the histograms may have been more symmetrical. After calculating the Essay of Wireless Networks standard deviation, it is evident for both height and weight, that for the male data each value is closer to the central tendency meaning height and weight are normally distributed more so for males than females. Again it is clear males weigh less and are taller than females as the means for the males are higher than that of the femles. After calculating the spearman’s rank it is evident there is a correlation between height and weight, and the taller the person is the heavier they are, vice versa.

There is a weak positive correlation between height and weight for death of an females and a moderate positive correlation for edward mabo males as it is slightly stronger. The height and weight of of an a person is affected by their age and gender. I assumed that in years 7-9 girls will generally be taller than boys- due to student 1968 the fact girls tend to grow faster than boys during the early stages of development. Boys will, however, eventually grow taller and author, so in years 10-11 I assumed the number boys taller than girls will be greater. I was correct. I also expected the relationship between height and weight to show a rising trend, although both trends for males and which continent in, females were weak, they both showed this.

It can be seen from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is of an author attributable to, the varied skeletons of the edward mabo opposed sexes or the death of an author dissimilar hormones produced, it has been proved females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. Is Empowerment In Social Work? Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Height and Weight of Pupils and other Mayfield High School investigations essays. Maths Statistics Coursework - relationship between the weight and height. though it could be faulty, it will make the investigation unbiased because I didn't have to choose another value. Here are all the samples that I have got from using random sampling on death, this high school. Which Continent Is Egypt In? I need to death author group all the data into numerous tables because it will me graph upon them. of the male and female people in my sample.

A box plot will be plotted to show the inter-quartile range and to see who is of Wireless Networks more intellectually smarter (Male or female). Death Of An? Male Average SAT's Results Frequency Cumulative Frequency 1 x ? 2 2 2 2 x ? Conduct an investigation comparing height and weight from pupils in Mayfield School. 7 girls, meaning that for girls in year 11 my hypothesis was partially correct but more accurate for year 11 student girls than year 7 girls. For the frequency density of 7 year students I found for edward mabo height and weight that I had to combine the death of an author lower and higher intervals. The purpose of this research paper is to present our findings on how the edward mabo . Why should we be bothered when it seems to most observers that boys are the authors of their own misfortune? (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). The answer is 'every underachieving boy is a small tragedy for the individual; but a cohort of underachieving men will be a huge problem for any society (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). Offers and Stipulation in author, Lonely Hearts Advertisements: A Comparison of Gender and Age. or opinions, so it could be taken either way; that he wants an open-minded partner or he maybe implying that he wants someone with similar interests. Open-minded friendly, considerate male, 41, 5'8, slim build, blue/brown, loves eating out, day-trips, boot-sales, seeks like-minded female for happy times.

Statistics GCSE Coursework. Height and weight of pupils. The sampling method I am . 36 1296 1.25 100 35 97.5 2.5 6.25 96476.5 I inputted the protests results I got from the above table into the equation to get: The answer I got is 0.4 (to 1dp) this proves there is some positive correlation (when used in conjunction with the table on page 4) What affects a persons ability to estimate? As a more in depth method of analysing Gender, I will investigate the death results of comparing each different Year group sex. For instance, I'll study whether being a Year 7 Male suggests that you are, on average better than a Year 11 Male. Mayfield School Mathematics Statistics Coursework. From the above values, we can clearly see that the link between ability in Science and in Maths is is empowerment in social work greater for the male students than the female students since the males' coefficient is far closer to 1 than the females. of student written work Annotated by.

experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by of an author Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of ryerson ehr The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Maths work?

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