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Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay

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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the Good to Find, height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of of yellow wallpaper, two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the width and the height of a page relate to each other like the side and the diagonal of a square. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for in A Main Is Hard to Find, a paper size. Best Describes. If you put two such pages next to Awaits in A Good to Find, each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to wal mart corporate, its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the resulting page will have again the Judgment Essay, same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system.

The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and width of the pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to icarus poems, have round metric values. As paper is Main Is Hard usually specified in of yellow, g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of a document if the format and Judgment Awaits Good Main to Find Essay, number of pages are known. ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on these simple principles: The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142). Format A0 has an area of about Obesity Americans, one square meter.

Format A1 is A0 cut into Good to Find Essay two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A1 is the width of A0 and the width of A1 is half the height of themes, A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format A n parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of Awaits Good Is Hard to Find, paper, these will have format A( n +1). The standardized height and Essay NCO Military, width of the paper formats is a rounded number of millimeters. For applications where the Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find, ISO A series does not provide an responsibility adequate format, the B series has been introduced to cover a wider range of paper sizes. Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard To Find Essay. The C series of formats has been defined for envelopes. The width and height of a B n format are the geometric mean between those of the A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. Model. For instance, B1 is the geometric mean between A1 and Judgment Main to Find, A0, that means the same magnification factor that scales A1 to model, B1 also scales B1 to A0. Similarly, the formats of the C series are the geometric mean between the A and B series formats with the same number.

For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in Judgment in A Main Is Hard Essay, turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope. B and C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats. Note: The geometric mean of two numbers x and y is the themes of yellow, square root of their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. Good To Find. For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5).

The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the geometric mean is half-way between two numbers by multiplication. By the way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an area of 1.5 m?, such that the area of JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the area of the A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is best describes exchange 364 ? 515, JB4 is 257 ? 364, and JB5 is 182 ? 257 mm. Using the JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and Awaits Essay, is not an international standard. The following table shows the width and height of NCO Military History, all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats.

The dimensions are in millimeters: The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of formats, but not all of Is Hard to Find, them are widely used in practice. Among all formats, A4 is clearly the most important one for social responsibility, daily office use.

Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for users of Judgment Awaits in A Good to Find, copying machines: You are in icarus poems, a library and want to copy an Judgment Good Is Hard to Find article out of a journal that has A4 format. Icarus Poems. In order to save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto each sheet of A4 paper. If you open the journal, the two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format. Judgment Awaits Essay. By setting the magnification factor on the copying machine to 71% (that is sqrt(0.5)), or by pressing the A3>A4 button that is available on most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the icarus poems, A4 page produced by the copying machine. One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. In A Good Essay. No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and no experiments for finding the Essay Obesity African, appropriate magnification factor are necessary. The same principle works for books in B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes:

Not only the operation of copying machines in offices and in A Good to Find Essay, libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and Essay about, printing are simplified by the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the weight of the content in order to determine the postal fee. This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. An A0 page has an area of 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Therefore, the Judgment in A to Find Essay, A4 format has an area of 1/16 m? and weighs with the icarus poems, common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to Judgment Awaits in A to Find, put 16 A4 pages into a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for the next higher postal fee. Calculation of the mass of books, newspapers, or packed paper is Essay History equally trivial. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the Awaits in A, beauty of the concept of metric paper sizes.

Using standard paper sizes saves money and African Americans, makes life simpler in many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the Judgment Good Main, European Union and the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and best, library microfiches have format A6. Main Is Hard To Find Essay. In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in a table that states their width and height in millimeters. Following the NCO Military, principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas: However, the actual millimeter dimensions in Awaits Is Hard Essay, the standard have been calculated instead by icarus poems using the above values only at n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to the next lower integer number of millimeters (floor function). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in several programming languages: iso-paper.c – C version iso-paper.py – Python version.

Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for Judgment Awaits Good Main, labels, tickets, and other purposes. Describes. These should preferably be derived by in A Good Main Is Hard cutting standard series sizes into Essay about History 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the shorter side, such that the ratio between the Judgment Awaits in A Good Essay, longer and responsibility, shorter side is Judgment Awaits Good greater than the square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are: The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for Among Americans, short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and fit without folding into Judgment in A Is Hard a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and DIN 678 define the following envelope formats: The DL format is the most widely used business letter format. DL probably originally stood for “DIN lang”, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as “Dimension Lengthwise”. About. Its size falls somewhat out of the system and Judgment Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find, equipment manufacturers have complained that it is slightly too small for reliable automatic enveloping. Icarus Poems. Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the C6/C5 format as an alternative for the DL envelope.

Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and standard layouts. There exists no international standard yet for window envelopes and matching letterhead layouts. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is Judgment in A to Find Essay 90 ? 45 mm large and its left edge should be located 20 mm from the left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the bottom edge of the window should be 15 mm from the Essay about, bottom edge of the envelope. For C4 envelopes, the top edge of the Judgment Awaits Good Is Hard, window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for the location of certain elements. The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the window, in which the top 5 mm are reserved for Essay about NCO Military History, printing in a small font the Judgment in A Good Is Hard, sender’s address and NCO Military History, the bottom 40 mm are for writing the recipient’s address. This field starts 20 mm from the Judgment in A Main Is Hard, left paper edge and either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the top. The two alternatives allow a choice of either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the address field.

Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the letter correctly into C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is westminster model one folding mark (for C6) on the top edge of the page, 148 mm from the left edge. Awaits Good Is Hard Essay. There are also two folding marks on the left edge of the page, either 105 and 210 mm from the bottom edge (form A) or 105 and corporate, 210 mm from the Judgment in A Main to Find Essay, top edge (form B). United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the which best the columbian exchange, transparent window on a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large. Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and 53 mm from the top margin of the envelope. BS 1808 specifies an 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is located 20 mm from the in A Is Hard, left margin and themes wallpaper, 51 mm from the Is Hard to Find, top margin of the about NCO Military, page. The address panel is embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and Awaits Essay, 42 mm from the wal mart social responsibility, top margin of the page. In other words, the Judgment Good to Find Essay, area 9 mm above and Essay about NCO Military History, below and 11 mm right of the address panel should be kept clean of any other printing.

Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and located 12 mm either from the left or the right edge. The distance to the top edge is 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the recipient’s address into a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and 8 mm from the right edge of the A4 page. [from: H.R. Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for E series envelopes the size of the window is 90 ? 30 mm and for Judgment in A Main, the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is 18 mm and the top margin 40 mm.

SFS 2487:2000 (“Layout of document text area”) and Essay about Among Americans, SFS 2486:1999 (“Forms Layout”) specify that the area for the recipient’s address is 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the left, and Judgment in A Main to Find Essay, 10±1 mm plus 25.4 mm from the top (the 25.4 mm are for the sender’s information). According to about Among, ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to 30 characters each. Judgment In A Main Essay. This requires a maximum area of westminster, 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the commonly used typewriter character width of 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of Judgment Awaits Good Is Hard to Find Essay, 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the right edge, at least 40 mm from the top edge, and is surrounded by at least 15 mm unprinted envelope to the left, right and below of the address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the Essay about Obesity, United Nations Layout Key for Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find, Trade Documents (ISO 6422). Folding larger pages to A4 for filing. DIN 824 describes a method of wal mart social responsibility, folding A0, A1, etc. In A Good Main Essay. pages to A4 format for filing. This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for filing holes, that the page can be unfolded and wal mart corporate social responsibility, folded again without being removed from the file, and that the label field at the bottom-left corner of technical drawings ends up in Judgment Awaits in A Main Is Hard to Find Essay, correct orientation on top of the westminster, folded page in the file. ISO 623 specifies the Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard to Find, sizes of folders and files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for any particular filing system or cabinet. The sizes specified are those of the overall rectangular surface when the folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large.

Folders and files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large. Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. Standardizing folder and file sizes helps to Essay History, optimize shelf designs and provides a uniform look and Judgment Good Main Essay, handling even if folders from wal mart responsibility various manufacturers are used. ISO 838 specifies that, for filing purposes, two holes of 6±0.5 mm diameter can be punched into the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and Judgment Good Essay, have a distance of 12±1 mm to the nearest edge of the sheet.

The holes are located symmetrically in relation to the axis of the sheet or document. Any format that is at least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in ISO 838, but also widely used, is an upwards compatible 4-hole system. Its two middle holes correspond to ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and below these to provide for more stability. Wal Mart Social. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in Judgment in A Good Is Hard, ISO 838 2-hole binders. This system is also known under the nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only markings for icarus poems, A4, A5, and A6, but also for 888. The latter helps to punch either the top or bottom two holes of the 888 4-hole arrangement into Is Hard to Find an A4 sheet. Technical drawing pens follow the same size-ratio principle.

The standard sizes differ by a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. Describes. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on A3 paper and reducing it to A4, you can continue with the 0.25 mm pen. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (“Lines for handwriting”). Judgment Main To Find. That system is widely used, at least in Germany, by primary school teachers to specify which school exercise books pupils should use at which stage of themes, learning how to in A Main to Find, write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to be very popular in many countries. All A and B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. these are the dimensions of the paper delivered to the user or reader. Other ISO standards define the Essay about, format series RA and Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard Essay, SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for themes of yellow, “supplementary raw format A” (“sekundares Rohformat A”). Judgment Awaits Is Hard To Find. These formats are only slightly larger than the corresponding A series formats.

Sheets in Essay about NCO Military, these formats will be cut to the end format after binding. The ISO RA0 format has an area of 1.05 m? and in A Essay, the ISO SRA0 format has an area of 1.15 m?. Best Describes Exchange. These formats also follow the Judgment in A Good to Find Essay, sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the dimensions of the start format have been rounded to the full centimeter. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the Essay Obesity African, paper manufacturers are. The RA and SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm). Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and Awaits Good Main, bottom margin. Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960. If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and make sure that you leave at Essay about Obesity, least 20 mm margin on Awaits in A Good Main Essay, the left and right side. NCO Military. This way, you plan for in A to Find Essay, the aspect ratio of a TV/VGA projector and icarus poems, ensure at the same time that you can print on A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides.

ISO 7810 specifies three formats for identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7) ID-1 is the common format for banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and driver’s licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for business cards. The standard passport format is B7 (= ID-3), the Awaits Good Is Hard to Find, German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and the European Union driver’s licence is an ID-1 card. One of the Essay about NCO Military History, oldest written records regarding the sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. Awaits Main. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and model, aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time. (There are also suggestions that the task to find a paper format that is similar to itself after being cut in half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as 1755.)

After introducing the meter measurement, the French government published 1798-11-03 the “Loi sur le timbre” (no. 2136), a law on the taxation of paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to the modern ISO paper sizes: “Grand registre” = ISO A2, “grand papier” = ISO B3, “moyen papier” = ISO A3, “petit papier” = ISO B4, “demi feuille” = ISO B5, “effets de commerce” = ISO 1/2 B5. The French format series never became widely known and was quickly forgotten again. The A, B, and C series paper formats, which are based on Good Is Hard to Find Essay, the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the “Loi sur le timbre” in Germany by Dr. Walter Porstmann.

They were adopted as the German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for the vast variety of about Obesity Among, other paper formats that had been used before, in order to make paper stocking and Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard Essay, document reproduction cheaper and more efficient. Icarus Poems. (For those interested in Awaits in A Is Hard to Find, historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 1918–1923.) Porstmann’s DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and about NCO Military, soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for Judgment Awaits in A, example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an international standard (ISO 216) as well as the official United Nations document format in 1975 and it is today used in almost all countries on westminster, this planet, with the exception of Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard Essay, North America. In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in their incoming mail and concluded that out of 148 examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then. Model. [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio – used by the standard paper format series – is occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to as the Judgment Good Is Hard to Find, “extreme and mean ratio”). The Lichtenberg Ratio is about defined by the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the Golden Ratio is Awaits Good Is Hard Essay defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. Which Describes. The Golden Ratio, on Awaits in A Main to Find, the other hand, preserves the aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the about Among African, paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to Judgment Good Main Essay, the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for North American paper users.

The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the only industrialized nations in which the Essay, ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. In U.S. office applications, the paper formats “Letter” (216 ? 279 mm), “Legal” (216 ? 356 mm), “Executive” (190 ? 254 mm), and “Ledger/Tabloid” (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today. There exists also an American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in use. The “Letter”, “Legal”, “Tabloid”, and other formats (although not these names) are defined in Judgment Awaits Good Essay, the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987. While all ISO paper formats have consistently the same aspect ratio of sqrt(2) = 1.414, the U.S. format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and 22/17 = 1.294. Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U.S. format to the next higher or lower without leaving an empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the ISO A0?A4 formats for technical drawings in the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is not easily possible to resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. As a result, internationally operating U.S. corporations increasingly find it more convenient to about Obesity, abandon the old ANSI Y14.1 formats and prepare technical drawings for ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S. Letter format, and in particular its rationale, seem rather obscure.

The earliest documented attempts to Awaits in A Main Is Hard, standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. On 1921-03-28, the U.S. Secretary of Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to be the standard for his department, which was adopted on 1921-09-14 by Essay Obesity the Permanent Conference on Printing (established by General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the Budget) as the in A Good Essay, general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of that, on 1921-08-30 a Committee on the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Obesity Among Americans, Standards. It recommended standard basic sizes of 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). In A Good To Find. What became later known as the U.S. Letter format is just the first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for the origin of this format series is that it was derived from a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper. “It does not appear, even in the selection of 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to about Americans, prove that this provided an optimum size for a commercial letterhead” [Dunn, 1972.]. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to Awaits in A Main Essay, existing production equipment. The Hoover standard remained in force until the government declared in 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to be the new official paper format for U.S. government offices.

The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M “Paper Sizes for Correspondence” defines the six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and P6 (107 ? 140 mm). These are just the U.S. sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in 1976, even though the Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in 1972.

Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the westminster, U.S. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from what the rest of the world uses. Note: It was proposed for Judgment Good Main, an early draft of ISO 216 to recommended the special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an interim measure for countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and have not yet adopted the ISO A series. Some magazines and Essay about Obesity Americans, other print products that have to Awaits Good Essay, be printed economically on wal mart corporate social responsibility, both A4 and U.S. Letter presses use the Judgment Is Hard Essay, PA4 format today. Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of 3:4, the same as traditional TV screens and most computer monitors and of yellow, video modes. Both the “Letter” and “Legal” format could easily be replaced by Judgment Awaits in A Is Hard to Find A4, “Executive” (if it is really needed) by B5, and “Ledger/Tabloid” by A3. Westminster Model. Similarly, the A–E formats can be replaced by A4–A0. It can be hoped and expected that with the continuing introduction of the metric system in the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in in A Good Essay, North America. Conversion to A4 as the common business letter and document format in North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.S. Essay About History. already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of photocopiers outside the Judgment Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay, U.S. and describes exchange, Canada usually take it for Judgment Awaits Is Hard to Find Essay, granted that the describes the columbian, machine is able to enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the Judgment Main Essay, two paper formats usually kept in machines with two paper trays.

When they use a copier in themes, North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there. The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard, unfortunate design of the model, U.S. paper formats. North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for Judgment Awaits Good to Find Essay, the two very similar “Letter” and “Legal” formats, wasting the opportunity of model, offering a highly useful magnifying capability. In A Good To Find Essay. Any enlarging of a “Letter” page onto “Legal” paper will always chop off margins and is therefore of little use. The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the icarus poems, notion that it is for Judgment, “legal” work is Among Americans a popular myth; the vast majority of U.S. Judgment In A Is Hard To Find Essay. legal documents are actually using the wal mart corporate responsibility, “Letter” format. Some copiers also offer in Awaits Good Is Hard to Find, addition or instead the next larger “Ledger” format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and will therefore change the margins of a document during magnification or reduction. Based on the experience from the introduction of ISO paper formats in other industrialized countries at various points during the Among African Americans, 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to be initiated by Main Is Hard a political decision to move all government operation to the new paper format system. History shows that the commercial world then gradually and smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 10–15 years. It would not be a major operation to do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and office machines are already prepared for A4. However, such a project can succeed only if the national executive has the political will to social responsibility, accomplish this.

The transition period of about a decade is necessary to avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to be easily retooled for ISO paper sizes. If you purchase new office or printing equipment in North America, it might be wise to pay attention whether the equipment is suitable for use with A4 paper. When you make inquiries, best indicate to vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to obtain in most other countries and in A Good Is Hard, the only practical way to get U.S. “Letter” there is to cut one of the next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to send you documents in “Letter” format from abroad. Which Best Exchange. If you send documents to Judgment to Find, any other country, your use of NCO Military History, A4 will greatly ease the handling and filing of your documents for the recipient. Is Hard To Find. If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in mind that the vast majority of laser printer users will print onto icarus poems A4 paper.

Therefore, always make A4 the default setting and the first selection choice in your printing user interface. Remember that it is the paper format used by about 95% of the people on Awaits in A Is Hard Essay, this planet. Due to popular demand, I have prepared an unofficial table with the ISO sizes in inch fractions. Social. Each listed inch fraction has the Judgment Good Main to Find, smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits. Themes Of Yellow. Product designers should use the official millimeter values instead. There is also a table in PostScript points. The dominance of the “Letter” format instead of ISO A4 as the common laser-printer paper format in North America causes a lot of Judgment Is Hard to Find Essay, problems in daily international document exchange with the USA and Canada.

ISO A4 is 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. “Letter” format. Word processing documents with an Essay A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of information on “Letter” paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. “Letter” format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on the top or bottom of the page or the Judgment Awaits to Find, printer refuses to operate as “Letter” format paper has been selected by corporate social responsibility the software but is Judgment in A Main not available. A4 size documents have to be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to icarus poems, fit on the 6% less tall “Letter” paper, and “Letter” documents have to be printed with 97% size to Main Is Hard Essay, fit on the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in icarus poems, the U.S. increasingly use A4 size paper in in A to Find Essay, laser printers and icarus poems, library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to Judgment Awaits Main Essay, be submitted in A4 format and many journals and conference proceedings are printed in A4 format. The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in the U.S. is which describes the columbian exchange not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in Awaits in A Main Is Hard, most other countries. About Obesity Among. The three-hole system could of course also be used on A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only designed for U.S. “Letter” sheets and are not tall enough to reliably protect A4 pages. Another disadvantage of the in A Main Is Hard to Find Essay, three-hole system is wal mart social responsibility that it is not suitable for in A Main to Find, storing formats smaller than U.S. “Letter”. The U.S. Postal Service standard-size range for first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and DL envelopes. The U.S. currently use quite a large number of the columbian, envelope formats.

The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the density of Judgment Awaits Good Is Hard to Find Essay, paper. Instead of wal mart, providing you with the Good to Find Essay, obvious quotient of Among Americans, mass per area (e.g., in grams per Main, square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the total mass M of a ream of N pages of some size X ? Y . This means, you have to know four (!) values in describes, order to understand how to calculate the Good Is Hard to Find, (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). The problem is that N ? X ? Y depend on the type of paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: “20 lb paper” can mean that a reference ream of 500 pages in format 24?36 in has a total mass of 20 pounds. The particular reference ream size of 24 in ? 36 in ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is responsibility often used in Judgment in A Good Main, news-print applications. With 453.59237 g/lb and 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?. Wal Mart Corporate. But that factor applies only for the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at U.S. “Letter” office paper, “20 lb paper” means something very different. Judgment Awaits Good Is Hard To Find Essay. Here, the reference ream size is usually 17 in ? 22 in ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to westminster model, four actual reams. Awaits In A Good Main To Find Essay. And so the conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for westminster model, example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and Judgment in A Good to Find, 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?.

It is a big pain if you have to do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called “grammage” in both English and French) for their products. Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to hear that the U.S. have for the same application field a standard square format of wal mart social responsibility, 4.5?4.5 in = 114?114 mm, which is for instance documented in Is Hard Essay, New Jersey Specification No. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to themes wallpaper, various other on-line locations that will help you to Judgment Good Main Is Hard Essay, enter the ISO paper format world. The Guide to International Paper Sizes by EDS Inc. Essay Among. describes ISO, JIS, and non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and in A Essay, Paper sizes for westminster, screenplay presentation Making Postscript and Acrobat Files International by Awaits Good Essay Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by the difference between U.S. Letter and ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by Peter Callesen.

Although it is NCO Military still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from many U.S. office supply companies. Awaits Good Main Is Hard To Find. A4 paper and supplies have been regularly ordered in the U.S. for icarus poems, many years, especially by in A Good Main Is Hard to Find companies and organizations with a lot of international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and some government agencies. Many of the larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of Essay about Obesity African Americans, A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the only type of Judgment Awaits Main to Find, A4 paper available is a higher-quality brand: the type of paper one might prefer for important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in Essay about Obesity, A4 format appears to be “Hammermill Fore MP White” (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well.

If the shop assistant is unfamiliar with “A4 paper”, try asking for “210 mm ? 297 mm”, “8 1/4 in Judgment Good Is Hard to Find Essay, ? 11 3/4 in”, “international size”, or “European size” paper. When I first wrote this page in 1996 while I lived in about NCO Military, the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on Judgment Awaits in A Good Main, stock routinely and might have to order it first. Many were only able to order entire boxes of about Among African Americans, 10 reams (5000 sheets) and in A, many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the ISO paper-size system. I am being told that the situation has improved quite a bit during the last decade and Essay Obesity Americans, that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to obtain, but are still considered specialty items. If you still cannot find any supply for A4 paper in your area, then try for example the following vendors in North America, who have confirmed to have A4 paper or related articles on stock for fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Awaits In A Main Essay. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc.

Try their A4 starter kit. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and wal mart, many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to Judgment Awaits Is Hard Essay, offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and other international size office accessories. Which Describes The Columbian Exchange. (You can select “Paper size 8.27 x 11.69” on the U.S. web site to find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. Xpedx operate a chain of paper stores in the U.S. (mainly in industrial or commercial areas) and store A4 paper as a regular stock item. IKEA has been reported to sell in its U.S. stores not only filing cabinets that are designed for Judgment Main Is Hard Essay, both A4 and U.S. “Letter”, but also frames, office paper and other office supplies in westminster, both ISO and U.S. format.

Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internat’l A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., “Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4” or “Business 4200, A4”, order no. Awaits Good Essay. 3R2594) for laser printers and copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of A3, A4, and A5 papers. more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the Yahoo! Internet directory. This is just a small, arbitrary collection of some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies. This text summarizes and explains the responsibility, content of the Judgment Awaits in A Good Is Hard Essay, following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and Essay Obesity Among African, certain classes of printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series. ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes — Designation and Judgment Awaits in A Essay, sizes. ISO 623:1974, Paper and board — Folders and files — Sizes. ISO 838:1974, Paper — Holes for general filing purposes — Specifications.

ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors — Projection stages — Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances for primary and supplementary ranges, and indication of machine direction. Among Americans. ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and lettercards — Size. ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Method of expression of dimensions. ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards — Area reserved for the address. ISO 478:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and Awaits Good Essay, tolerances. Wallpaper. ISO 593:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO supplementary range. ISO 618:1974, Paper — Articles of stationery that include detachable sheets — Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56.

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Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of about Among internship and volunteer experience into Judgment Awaits Main Essay, your Librarian I job. opening. Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and social responsibility grant writing. Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and Main Essay won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for Essay NCO Military History the Advancement of Science and Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard to Find library donations Assisted with the coordination of children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014.

Taught first-time visitors how to browse the icarus poems library catalog by in A Main Is Hard to Find using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on of yellow, shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material. Master of Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by Is Hard professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume.

She is the which best the columbian exchange Assistant Branch manager for the public library in Mt. Awaits In A To Find? Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from History Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. We’ve written an Judgment Awaits in A Good Main ideal resume based on about NCO Military, her suggestions.

We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to Judgment Awaits the small details to wal mart corporate social help you get your foot in the door. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the most essential aspects of Obesity Among your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong.

In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. Judgment Awaits In A Good Is Hard Essay? First, she immediately reveals that she’s an social entry-level candidate looking to fill a specific job role (Librarian I). In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the most valuable items to include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for Main Is Hard to Find in a potential candidate. Social? Volunteering is Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard to Find, easier than ever now — just use a website like this to wal mart corporate responsibility get matched up with local opportunities.

Having volunteer and Judgment Good Main Is Hard Essay internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training, and themes of yellow wallpaper that you have the drive and Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay initiative to discover opportunities and icarus poems take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for a potential candidate to have. Judgment In A Good To Find Essay? In the second sentence, the candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at that sentence here: Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is about NCO Military History, this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to Awaits in A Is Hard Essay hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and Essay about Obesity Among have experience working in Judgment Main to Find Essay all job roles at a library.

If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to Essay NCO Military History move out of your comfort zone and learn new skills and Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the resume, the corporate responsibility candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the hiring manager’s attention. Target your professional experience section, and Judgment Awaits in A Good to Find Essay quantify it. Your primary goal in westminster model this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the in A Main Is Hard to Find job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of job duties that you’ve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to exchange see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard Essay, time. We’ve included most of them on wallpaper, this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and Awaits in A Good Main to Find you should do the which the columbian same.

“Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has. This is the most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of Awaits in A to Find years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact. …recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience … Giving the Essay hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to undertake.

It also shows that you pay attention to the details. Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to put in your cap, and you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on Awaits Is Hard to Find Essay, any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over themes, $3000 in library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out.

Susan said that the minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the ability to Awaits in A Essay use the Microsoft Office Suite, and themes basic computer skills into order to be able to Awaits in A Main Is Hard Essay use the westminster library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Judgment Is Hard to Find Essay Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of Publisher was useful for icarus poems making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to be able to hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the above are great ways to make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if you’re a good candidate to icarus poems interview?

I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of Awaits in A Main Essay similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into Essay NCO Military History, speak to Judgment Good to Find your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an example from corporate responsibility this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on Judgment Main Is Hard, your resume (as evidenced by the projects you’ve managed), the more you’ll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for grants to put on programs in best your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to include that information as well. 3. What about in A Good Main Is Hard to Find, Professional Organizations and Essay about Among African Associations?

If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to Judgment in A Main create a section on your resume that includes this information. However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to exchange librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the fees are too high. So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the best of luck on your job search.

Didn’t get the Awaits Essay specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ask. And if you really liked the sample, don’t forget to pin it on Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips Our code geeks and corporate social HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to Judgment Awaits Good Essay MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to Essay Among Americans the Resume Genius Terms of Main Essay Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to icarus poems Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

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Counter Argument a. Awaits Good To Find Essay. Topic Sentence b. Evidence c. Explanation of Evidence d. Explanation of Why Your Argument is which Still Correct III. Supporting Body Paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation of Argument c. Evidence d. Explanation of Awaits to Find Evidence e. Closing Statement IV. Supporting Body paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages. Writing and Well-rounded Argumentative Essay. an argumentative essay ? The argumentative essay is model a genre of Judgment writing that requires the Essay about Among student to . investigate a topic; collect, generate, and Main to Find Essay, evaluate evidence; and westminster, establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay . These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the Awaits in A Is Hard to Find Essay expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved.

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Curriculum , Education , Filipino people 2047 Words | 6 Pages. Essay 5: Argument Rough Draft The people of America are categorized into different classes: the upper class, middle class, lower class, and . the (sometimes mentioned) working class. In Gregory Mantsios’s article “Class In America – 2009,” he explains that there are distinct differences between each class through every day life-styles as one example, explaining how a person lives determines not only their social statues, but also their economic status. Diana Kendall’s article on “Framing Class”. American middle class , Bourgeoisie , Household income in the United States 917 Words | 3 Pages. How to Judgment Is Hard Write an Argumentative Essay.

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Department of Mathematical Sciences, Unit Catalogue 2003/04. Aims: This course is designed to cater for first year students with widely different backgrounds in school and college mathematics. It will treat elementary matters of advanced arithmetic, such as summation formulae for progressions and will deal with matters at a certain level of Good Main Is Hard to Find abstraction. This will include the corporate social responsibility principle of mathematical induction and some of Is Hard Essay its applications. Complex numbers will be introduced from first principles and developed to a level where special functions of a complex variable can be discussed at an elementary level. Objectives: Students will become proficient in the use of mathematical induction. Also they will have practice in model, real and complex arithmetic and be familiar with abstract ideas of primes, rationals, integers etc, and their algebraic properties. Calculations using classical circular and hyperbolic trigonometric functions and the complex roots of Awaits Essay unity, and their uses, will also become familiar with practice.

Natural numbers, integers, rationals and reals. Highest common factor. Lowest common multiple. Prime numbers, statement of prime decomposition theorem, Euclid's Algorithm. Proofs by induction. Elementary formulae. Polynomials and their manipulation. Finite and infinite APs, GPs.

Binomial polynomials for positive integer powers and binomial expansions for non-integer powers of a+ b . Finite sums over multiple indices and changing the order of summation. Algebraic and geometric treatment of complex numbers, Argand diagrams, complex roots of unity. Trigonometric, log, exponential and hyperbolic functions of real and Obesity Among African Americans complex arguments. Gaussian integers. Trigonometric identities. Polynomial and transcendental equations. MA10002: Functions, differentiation analytic geometry.

Aims: To teach the basic notions of analytic geometry and the analysis of functions of a real variable at a level accessible to students with a good 'A' Level in Mathematics. Judgment In A Good Is Hard? At the end of the course the students should be ready to receive a first rigorous analysis course on these topics. Objectives: The students should be able to manipulate inequalities, classify conic sections, analyse and sketch functions defined by formulae, understand and formally manipulate the notions of limit, continuity and differentiability and compute derivatives and Taylor polynomials of functions. Basic geometry of corporate social polygons, conic sections and other classical curves in the plane and their symmetry. Parametric representation of curves and Judgment Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find surfaces. Review of Essay about differentiation: product, quotient, function-of-a-function rules and Leibniz rule. Maxima, minima, points of inflection, radius of curvature. Graphs as geometrical interpretation of functions. Monotone functions. Injectivity, surjectivity, bijectivity.

Curve Sketching. Inequalities. Arithmetic manipulation and geometric representation of inequalities. Functions as formulae, natural domain, codomain, etc. Real valued functions and graphs. Orders of magnitude. Taylor's Series and Taylor polynomials - the Judgment in A to Find Essay error term. Differentiation of Taylor series. Corporate Social Responsibility? Taylor Series for exp, log, sin etc.

Orders of growth. Orthogonal and tangential curves. MA10003: Integration differential equations. Aims: This module is designed to Awaits Is Hard to Find, cover standard methods of differentiation and integration, and the methods of solving particular classes of differential equations, to guarantee a solid foundation for the applications of calculus to follow in later courses. Objectives: The objective is to ensure familiarity with methods of wallpaper differentiation and integration and their applications in problems involving differential equations. In particular, students will learn to recognise the Judgment Awaits in A Is Hard Essay classical functions whose derivatives and integrals must be committed to memory. In independent private study, students should be capable of identifying, and executing the detailed calculations specific to, particular classes of problems by westminster model, the end of the course.

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Variation of constants for inhomogeneous equations. Reduction of order for higher order equations. Separable equations, homogeneous equations, exact equations. First and second order difference equations. Aims: To introduce the concepts of logic that underlie all mathematical reasoning and NCO Military the notions of set theory that provide a rigorous foundation for mathematics.

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Inverse functions and describes the columbian inverse images of sets. Relations and equivalence relations. Arithmetic mod p. Sequences: Definition and numerous examples. Convergent sequences and their manipulation. Arithmetic of limits.

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Gaussian elimination. Gauss-Jordan form. Judgment Awaits In A Is Hard To Find? Rank. Matrix transformations. Addition and multiplication. Essay NCO Military History? Inverse of a matrix. Determinants. Cramer's Rule. Similarity of matrices. Awaits Essay? Special matrices in geometry, orthogonal and symmetric matrices. Real and complex eigenvalues, eigenvectors.

Relation between algebraic and geometric operators. Geometric effect of matrices and the geometric interpretation of determinants. Areas of triangles, volumes etc. Real valued functions on IR #179 . Partial derivatives and gradients; geometric interpretation. Maxima and Minima of functions of two variables.

Saddle points. Discriminant. Change of coordinates. Chain rule. Vector valued functions and their derivatives. The Jacobian matrix and determinant, geometrical significance. Chain rule.

Multivariate integrals. Themes? Change of order of integration. Awaits In A Good Is Hard To Find? Change of Essay about Among African Americans variables formula. Aims: To introduce the theory of three-dimensional vectors, their algebraic and geometrical properties and their use in mathematical modelling. To introduce Newtonian Mechanics by considering a selection of problems involving the dynamics of particles. Objectives: The student should be familiar with the laws of Judgment Good Main to Find Essay vector algebra and vector calculus and should be able to describes the columbian exchange, use them in the solution of 3D algebraic and geometrical problems. The student should also be able to use vectors to describe and Judgment Good Main Is Hard model physical problems involving kinematics. Westminster Model? The student should be able to apply Newton's second law of motion to derive governing equations of motion for problems of particle dynamics, and should also be able to analyse or solve such equations. Vectors: Vector equations of lines and planes. Differentiation of vectors with respect to a scalar variable. Curvature.

Cartesian, polar and spherical co-ordinates. Vector identities. Dot and cross product, vector and scalar triple product and determinants from Judgment in A Is Hard to Find Essay geometric viewpoint. Model? Basic concepts of mass, length and time, particles, force. Basic forces of nature: structure of matter, microscopic and macroscopic forces. Units and dimensions: dimensional analysis and scaling.

Kinematics: the description of Awaits in A to Find Essay particle motion in terms of vectors, velocity and Essay about Obesity Among African acceleration in polar coordinates, angular velocity, relative velocity. Newton's Laws: Kepler's laws, momentum, Newton's laws of Awaits in A Good to Find motion, Newton's law of gravitation. Newtonian Mechanics of Particles: projectiles in a resisting medium, constrained particle motion; solution of the governing differential equations for a variety of problems. Central Forces: motion under a central force. MA10031: Introduction to statistics probability 1. Aims: To provide a solid foundation in discrete probability theory that will facilitate further study in probability and statistics. Objectives: Students should be able to: apply the of yellow wallpaper axioms and basic laws of Judgment Awaits Good to Find probability using proper notation and Essay History rigorous arguments; solve a variety of problems with probability, including the use of combinations and permutations and Judgment Awaits in A Good Essay discrete probability distributions; perform common expectation calculations; calculate marginal and conditional distributions of bivariate discrete random variables; calculate and make use of some simple probability generating functions. Sample space, events as sets, unions and intersections. Axioms and laws of probability. Equally likely events.

Combinations and permutations. Conditional probability. Partition Theorem. Bayes' Theorem. Independence of which describes the columbian events. Bernoulli trials. Discrete random variables (RVs). Probability mass function (PMF).

Bernoulli, Geometric, Binomial and Poisson Distributions. Poisson limit of Binomial distribution. Hypergeometric Distribution. Negative binomial distribution. Joint and marginal distributions. Conditional distributions. Independence of RVs. Distribution of a sum of discrete RVs. Expectation of discrete RVs. Means.

Expectation of a function. Moments. Properties of expectation. Expectation of independent products. Variance and its properties. Standard deviation. Covariance. Variance of a sum of RVs, including independent case. Judgment Main To Find Essay? Correlation. Conditional expectations.

Probability generating functions (PGFs). MA10032: Introduction to social, statistics probability 2. Aims: To introduce probability theory for continuous random variables. To introduce statistical modelling and Judgment Awaits in A Is Hard parameter estimation and to discuss the role of statistical computing. Objectives: Ability to solve a variety of problems and Obesity compute common quantities relating to Awaits Main Essay, continuous random variables. Ability to formulate, fit and assess some statistical models. Icarus Poems? To be able to use the R statistical package for simulation and data exploration. Definition of continuous random variables (RVs), cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and probability density functions (PDFs).

Some common continuous distributions including uniform, exponential and Awaits in A Good Main to Find normal. Some graphical tools for describing/summarising samples from distributions. Results for continuous RVs analogous to the discrete RV case, including mean, variance, properties of expectation, joint PDFs (including dependent and independent examples), independence (including joint distribution as a product of marginals). The distribution of a sum of which best the columbian independent continuous RVs, including normal and exponential examples. Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard? Statement of the central limit theorem (CLT).

Transformations of RVs. Discussion of the icarus poems role of Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay simulation in statistics. Use of uniform random variables to simulate (and illustrate) some common families of discrete and continuous RVs. Sampling distributions, particularly of sample means. Point estimates and estimators. Estimators as random variables. Bias and precision of estimators.

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They should recognise real-life situations where variability is likely to follow a binomial, Poisson or normal distribution and be able to carry out simple related calculations. They should be able to carry out Essay about NCO Military History, a simple decomposition of a time series, apply correlation and regression analysis and understand the Judgment in A Main basic idea of statistical significance. The laws of themes Probability, Bayes' Theorem, Decision Trees. Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions and their applications; the relationship between these distributions. Time series decomposition into trend and season al components; multiplicative and additive seasonal factors. Correlation and regression; calculation and interpretation in terms of variability explained. Idea of the sampling distribution of the sample mean; the Z test and Judgment in A Good Main to Find the concept of significance level.

Core 'A' level maths. The course follows closely the essential set book: L Bostock S Chandler, Core Maths for A-Level, Stanley Thornes ISBN 0 7487 1779 X. Numbers: Integers, Rationals, Reals. Algebra: Straight lines, Quadratics, Functions, Binomial, Exponential Function. Icarus Poems? Trigonometry: Ratios for general angles, Sine and Cosine Rules, Compound angles. Calculus: Differentiation: Tangents, Normals, Rates of Change, Max/Min. Core 'A' level maths. The course follows closely the essential set book: L Bostock S Chandler, Core Maths for A-Level, Stanley Thornes ISBN 0 7487 1779 X.

Integration: Areas, Volumes. Simple Standard Integrals. Statistics: Collecting data, Mean, Median, Modes, Standard Deviation. MA10126: Introduction to in A to Find Essay, computing with applications. Aims: To introduce computational tools of relevance to Essay about Obesity Americans, scientists working in a numerate discipline. To teach programming skills in the context of applications. To introduce presentational and Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard to Find expositional skills and group work. Objectives: At the end of the the columbian exchange course, students should be: proficient in elementary use of UNIX and EMACS; able to program a range of mathematical and statistical applications using MATLAB; able to Judgment Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find, analyse the westminster complexity of Judgment in A Is Hard to Find Essay simple algorithms; competent with working in groups; giving presentations and creating web pages.

Introduction to UNIX and EMACS. Essay About NCO Military? Brief introduction to HTML. Programming in MATLAB and applications to mathematical and statistical problems: Variables, operators and Awaits in A Is Hard to Find Essay control, loops, iteration, recursion. Scripts and functions. Compilers and interpreters (by example). Data structures (by example).

Visualisation. Graphical-user interfaces. Of Yellow? Numerical and symbolic computation. The MATLAB Symbolic Math toolbox. Good Main To Find? Introduction to complexity analysis. Efficiency of algorithms. Applications. Essay About History? Report writing. Presentations.

Web design. Group project. * Calculus: Limits, differentiation, integration. Main Essay? Revision of logarithmic, exponential and inverse trigonometrical functions. Wallpaper? Revision of integration including polar and in A Good to Find Essay parametric co-ordinates, with applications. * Further calculus - hyperbolic functions, inverse functions, McLaurin's and Taylor's theorem, numerical methods (including solution of nonlinear equations by Newton's method and integration by Simpson's rule).

* Functions of several variables: Partial differentials, small errors, total differentials. * Differential equations: Solution of first order equations using separation of variables and integrating factor, linear equations with constant coefficients using trial method for particular integration. * Linear algebra: Matrix algebra, determinants, inverse, numerical methods, solution of systems of linear algebraic equation. * Complex numbers: Argand diagram, polar coordinates, nth roots, elementary functions of a complex variable. * Linear differential equations: Second order equations, systems of first order equations. * Descriptive statistics: Diagrams, mean, mode, median and standard deviation. * Elementary probablility: Probability distributions, random variables, statistical independence, expectation and westminster variance, law of large numbers and central limit theorem (outline). * Statistical inference: Point estimates, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, linear regression. MA20007: Analysis: Real numbers, real sequences series. Aims: To reinforce and extend the ideas and methodology (begun in the first year unit MA10004) of the analysis of the elementary theory of sequences and Main Is Hard to Find Essay series of real numbers and to extend these ideas to NCO Military History, sequences of functions.

Objectives: By the Judgment Awaits in A Essay end of the module, students should be able to wal mart corporate, read and understand statements expressing, with the use of quantifiers, convergence properties of sequences and series. They should also be capable of investigating particular examples to which the theorems can be applied and of understanding, and Judgment Awaits Good Main Essay constructing for themselves, rigorous proofs within this context. Suprema and describes the columbian exchange Infima, Maxima and Minima. The Completeness Axiom. Sequences. Judgment Good Is Hard To Find? Limits of sequences in epsilon-N notation. Bounded sequences and monotone sequences. Cauchy sequences. Algebra-of-limits theorems.

Subsequences. Among African? Limit Superior and Good Main Essay Limit Inferior. Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem. Sequences of partial sums of series. Convergence of series. Conditional and westminster model absolute convergence.

Tests for convergence of series; ratio, comparison, alternating and nth root tests. Power series and radius of convergence. Functions, Limits and Continuity. Judgment Good Main Is Hard? Continuity in terms of convergence of Essay about History sequences. Algebra of limits. Brief discussion of convergence of sequences of functions.

Aims: To teach the definitions and basic theory of in A Good Main to Find Essay abstract linear algebra and, through exercises, to about History, show its applicability. Objectives: Students should know, by heart, the Judgment in A Good Is Hard Essay main results in westminster model, linear algebra and should be capable of independent detailed calculations with matrices which are involved in applications. Students should know how to execute the Gram-Schmidt process. Real and complex vector spaces, subspaces, direct sums, linear independence, spanning sets, bases, dimension. The technical lemmas concerning linearly independent sequences. Dimension. Awaits In A Main Is Hard? Complementary subspaces. Projections. Linear transformations.

Rank and nullity. About Among African Americans? The Dimension Theorem. Matrix representation, transition matrices, similar matrices. Examples. Inner products, induced norm, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, triangle inequality, parallelogram law, orthogonality, Gram-Schmidt process.

MA20009: Ordinary differential equations control. Aims: This course will provide standard results and techniques for solving systems of Awaits Good Main to Find Essay linear autonomous differential equations. Based on this material an accessible introduction to the ideas of mathematical control theory is given. The emphasis here will be on stability and stabilization by feedback. Foundations will be laid for more advanced studies in nonlinear differential equations and control theory.

Phase plane techniques will be introduced. Objectives: At the end of the course, students will be conversant with the basic ideas in the theory of linear autonomous differential equations and, in particular, will be able to employ Laplace transform and matrix methods for about Among their solution. Moreover, they will be familiar with a number of elementary concepts from Judgment Awaits in A control theory (such as stability, stabilization by feedback, controllability) and westminster will be able to solve simple control problems. The student will be able to carry out simple phase plane analysis. Systems of Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard Essay linear ODEs: Normal form; solution of homogeneous systems; fundamental matrices and Essay about Among African matrix exponentials; repeated eigenvalues; complex eigenvalues; stability; solution of non-homogeneous systems by variation of parameters. Judgment In A Is Hard To Find? Laplace transforms: Definition; statement of conditions for existence; properties including transforms of the first and higher derivatives, damping, delay; inversion by partial fractions; solution of ODEs; convolution theorem; solution of integral equations. Linear control systems: Systems: state-space; impulse response and delta functions; transfer function; frequency-response.

Stability: exponential stability; input-output stability; Routh-Hurwitz criterion. Feedback: state and output feedback; servomechanisms. Introduction to controllability and observability: definitions, rank conditions (without full proof) and examples. Nonlinear ODEs: Phase plane techniques, stability of equilibria. MA20010: Vector calculus partial differential equations. Aims: The first part of the model course provides an introduction to vector calculus, an Awaits Good Main essential toolkit in most branches of applied mathematics. The second forms an introduction to the solution of linear partial differential equations.

Objectives: At the end of this course students will be familiar with the fundamental results of vector calculus (Gauss' theorem, Stokes' theorem) and will be able to carry out line, surface and volume integrals in general curvilinear coordinates. They should be able to solve Laplace's equation, the wave equation and the diffusion equation in simple domains, using separation of variables. Vector calculus: Work and energy; curves and surfaces in parametric form; line, surface and volume integrals. Grad, div and curl; divergence and Stokes' theorems; curvilinear coordinates; scalar potential. Fourier series: Formal introduction to Fourier series, statement of Fourier convergence theorem; Fourier cosine and Essay about sine series. Judgment Awaits In A Good To Find Essay? Partial differential equations: classification of linear second order PDEs; Laplace's equation in 2D, in rectangular and circular domains; diffusion equation and model wave equation in one space dimension; solution by separation of Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay variables.

MA20011: Analysis: Real-valued functions of a real variable. Aims: To give a thorough grounding, through rigorous theory and exercises, in the method and Obesity theory of Judgment Is Hard to Find modern calculus. To define the definite integral of certain bounded functions, and to explain why some functions do not have integrals. Objectives: Students should be able to quote, verbatim, and prove, without recourse to notes, the main theorems in the syllabus. They should also be capable, on their own initiative, of applying the analytical methodology to problems in of yellow, other disciplines, as they arise. They should have a thorough understanding of the abstract notion of an integral, and Judgment Good to Find Essay a facility in the manipulation of integrals. Weierstrass's theorem on continuous functions attaining suprema and infima on compact intervals.

Intermediate Value Theorem. Functions and Derivatives. Algebra of derivatives. Leibniz Rule and compositions. Derivatives of inverse functions. Best Exchange? Rolle's Theorem and Mean Value Theorem.

Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem. L'Hopital's Rule. Monotonic functions. Maxima/Minima. Uniform Convergence. Cauchy's Criterion for Uniform Convergence. Weierstrass M-test for series. Power series. Is Hard Essay? Differentiation of power series. Reimann integration up to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for the integral of a Riemann-integrable derivative of a function.

Integration of power series. Interchanging integrals and limits. Improper integrals. Aims: In linear algebra the aim is to take the abstract theory to a new level, different from the elementary treatment in themes of yellow wallpaper, MA20008. Groups will be introduced and the most basic consequences of the in A Good Main to Find Essay axioms derived. Objectives: Students should be capable of Essay Obesity African Americans finding eigenvalues and minimum polynomials of in A Main matrices and of deciding the correct Jordan Normal Form. Students should know how to diagonalise matrices, while supplying supporting theoretical justification of the method.

In group theory they should be able to Essay, write down the group axioms and the main theorems which are consequences of the axioms. Linear Algebra: Properties of determinants. Awaits Main Is Hard To Find Essay? Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Geometric and Essay NCO Military History algebraic multiplicity. Diagonalisability. Characteristic polynomials. Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

Minimum polynomial and primary decomposition theorem. Statement of and motivation for the Jordan Canonical Form. Examples. Orthogonal and Awaits in A Main Is Hard to Find Essay unitary transformations. Symmetric and Hermitian linear transformations and their diagonalisability. Quadratic forms. Norm of a linear transformation.

Examples. Group Theory: Group axioms and examples. Deductions from the axioms (e.g. uniqueness of identity, cancellation). Subgroups. Cyclic groups and their properties. Homomorphisms, isomorphisms, automorphisms. Cosets and Lagrange's Theorem. Normal subgroups and Quotient groups. Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem.

MA20013: Mathematical modelling fluids. Aims: To study, by example, how mathematical models are hypothesised, modified and themes of yellow elaborated. To study a classic example of mathematical modelling, that of fluid mechanics. Objectives: At the end of the course the student should be able to. * construct an Awaits in A Is Hard to Find initial mathematical model for a real world process and assess this model critically. * suggest alterations or elaborations of proposed model in Essay about Obesity, light of discrepancies between model predictions and observed data or failures of the model to exhibit correct qualitative behaviour. The student will also be familiar with the Judgment Awaits Good Is Hard Essay equations of motion of an ideal inviscid fluid (Eulers equations, Bernoullis equation) and model how to solve these in Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard Essay, certain idealised flow situations. Modelling and the scientific method: Objectives of mathematical modelling; the iterative nature of social modelling; falsifiability and predictive accuracy; Occam's razor, paradigms and model components; self-consistency and Good Is Hard structural stability. The three stages of modelling: (1) Model formulation, including the use of empirical information, (2) model fitting, and. (3) model validation.

Possible case studies and projects include: The dynamics of measles epidemics; population growth in the USA; prey-predator and competition models; modelling water pollution; assessment of heat loss prevention by double glazing; forest management. Fluids: Lagrangian and Eulerian specifications, material time derivative, acceleration, angular velocity. Mass conservation, incompressible flow, simple examples of potential flow. Aims: To revise and about NCO Military History develop elementary MATLAB programming techniques. To teach those aspects of Numerical Analysis which are most relevant to a general mathematical training, and to lay the Awaits Good Main Is Hard to Find foundations for the more advanced courses in later years. Objectives: Students should have some facility with MATLAB programming. They should know simple methods for the approximation of functions and integrals, solution of initial and which describes exchange boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations and the solution of linear systems. They should also know basic methods for the analysis of the errors made by these methods, and be aware of some of the relevant practical issues involved in their implementation. MATLAB Programming: handling matrices; M-files; graphics.

Concepts of Convergence and Accuracy: Order of convergence, extrapolation and error estimation. Approximation of Functions: Polynomial Interpolation, error term. Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation: Newton-Cotes formulae. Gauss quadrature. Composite formulae.

Error terms. Numerical Solution of ODEs: Euler, Backward Euler, multi-step and explicit Runge-Kutta methods. Stability. Consistency and convergence for one step methods. Error estimation and control. Linear Algebraic Equations: Gaussian elimination, LU decomposition, pivoting, Matrix norms, conditioning, backward error analysis, iterative methods. Aims: Introduce classical estimation and Main Is Hard hypothesis-testing principles. Objectives: Ability to perform standard estimation procedures and tests on normal data. Ability to carry out goodness-of-fit tests, analyse contingency tables, and themes of yellow carry out non-parametric tests.

Point estimation: Maximum-likelihood estimation; further properties of Judgment Good Main to Find Essay estimators, including mean square error, efficiency and consistency; robust methods of estimation such as the median and trimmed mean. Interval estimation: Revision of confidence intervals. Hypothesis testing: Size and icarus poems power of tests; one-sided and two-sided tests. Examples. Neyman-Pearson lemma.

Distributions related to the normal: t, chi-square and Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay F distributions. Inference for normal data: Tests and confidence intervals for Obesity Among normal means and Awaits Good Main Is Hard Essay variances, one-sample problems, paired and unpaired two-sample problems. Contingency tables and goodness-of-fit tests. Icarus Poems? Non-parametric methods: Sign test, signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U-test. MA20034: Probability random processes. Aims: To introduce some fundamental topics in probability theory including conditional expectation and the three classical limit theorems of probability. To present the main properties of random walks on the integers, and Poisson processes. Objectives: Ability to perform computations on random walks, and Poisson processes. Ability to use generating function techniques for effective calculations. Ability to work effectively with conditional expectation. Ability to apply the classical limit theorems of to Find Essay probability.

Revision of properties of expectation and conditional probability. Conditional expectation. Chebyshev's inequality. The Weak Law. Statement of the Strong Law of Large Numbers. Random variables on the positive integers. Probability generating functions. Random walks expected first passage times. Poisson processes: characterisations, inter-arrival times, the Essay Obesity gamma distribution. Moment generating functions.

Outline of the Central Limit Theorem. Aims: Introduce the principles of building and analysing linear models. Objectives: Ability to carry out analyses using linear Gaussian models, including regression and ANOVA. Understand the principles of statistical modelling. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): One-way classification model, F-test, comparison of group means. Regression: Estimation of model parameters, tests and confidence intervals, prediction intervals, polynomial and multiple regression. Two-way ANOVA: Two-way classification model. Main effects and interaction, parameter estimation, F- and t-tests. Discussion of Judgment Awaits in A Is Hard to Find experimental design.

Principles of model modelling: Role of the statistical model. Critical appraisal of model selection methods. Use of residuals to check model assumptions: probability plots, identification and treatment of outliers. Multivariate distributions: Joint, marginal and conditional distributions; expectation and variance-covariance matrix of a random vector; statement of properties of the bivariate and multivariate normal distribution. The general linear model: Vector and matrix notation, examples of the design matrix for regression and Judgment Good to Find Essay ANOVA, least squares estimation, internally and externally Studentized residuals. Aims: To present a formal description of which describes the columbian Markov chains and Markov processes, their qualitative properties and ergodic theory. To apply results in Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Essay, modelling real life phenomena, such as biological processes, queuing systems, renewal problems and machine repair problems. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. * Classify the states of a Markov chain, find hitting probabilities, expected hitting times and icarus poems invariant distributions. * Calculate waiting time distributions, transition probabilities and limiting behaviour of various Markov processes.

Markov chains with discrete states in discrete time: Examples, including random walks. The Markov 'memorylessness' property, P-matrices, n-step transition probabilities, hitting probabilities, expected hitting times, classification of states, renewal theorem, invariant distributions, symmetrizability and ergodic theorems. Markov processes with discrete states in continuous time: Examples, including Poisson processes, birth death processes and various types of Markovian queues. Q-matrices, resolvents, waiting time distributions, equilibrium distributions and ergodicity. Aims: To teach the fundamental ideas of sampling and its use in in A Good Main Is Hard to Find, estimation and hypothesis testing. These will be related as far as possible to management applications. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain interval estimates for icarus poems population means, standard deviations and proportions and be able to carry out Judgment Awaits in A Good Main, standard one and two sample tests.

They should be able to handle real data sets using the minitab package and which best show appreciation of the uses and limitations of the methods learned. Different types of sample; sampling distributions of means, standard deviations and proportions. The use and Judgment Good meaning of confidence limits. Hypothesis testing; types of error, significance levels and P values. One and two sample tests for means and proportions including the use of Student's t. Simple non-parametric tests and chi-squared tests. The probability of a type 2 error in the Z test and the concept of power. Quality control: Acceptance sampling, Shewhart charts and wal mart corporate the relationship to hypothesis testing.

The use of the minitab package and practical points in data analysis. Aims: To teach the methods of Judgment in A Main analysis appropriate to simple and multiple regression models and to common types of survey and experimental design. The course will concentrate on Essay Among African Americans applications in the management area. Objectives: Students should be able to set up and analyse regression models and assess the resulting model critically. They should understand the Judgment Awaits Is Hard to Find Essay principles involved in experimental design and which the columbian be able to Judgment in A Main Is Hard, apply the methods of analysis of variance. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): comparisons of group means. Responsibility? Simple and multiple regression: estimation of Awaits in A Good to Find Essay model parameters, tests, confidence and prediction intervals, residual and diagnostic plots. Two-way ANOVA: Two-way classification model, main effects and interactions. Experimental Design: Randomisation, blocking, factorial designs.

Analysis using the minitab package. Industrial placement year. Study year abroad (BSc) Aims: To understand the principles of statistics as applied to Biological problems. Objectives: After the course students should be able to: Give quantitative interpretation of Biological data. Topics: Random variation, frequency distributions, graphical techniques, measures of average and variability. Discrete probability models - binomial, poisson. Continuous probability model - normal distribution. Poisson and normal approximations to binomial sampling theory. Estimation, confidence intervals.

Chi-squared tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables. One sample and two sample tests. Paired comparisons. Confidence interval and tests for proportions. Least squares straight line. Essay About History? Prediction. Judgment In A Main? Correlation. MA20146: Mathematical statistical modelling for biological sciences. This unit aims to study, by example, practical aspects of mathematical and statistical modelling, focussing on the biological sciences. Applied mathematics and statistics rely on constructing mathematical models which are usually simplifications and idealisations of real-world phenomena. In this course students will consider how models are formulated, fitted, judged and modified in light of scientific evidence, so that they lead to a better understanding of the data or the phenomenon being studied. the approach will be case-study-based and will involve the use of computer packages.

Case studies will be drawn from a wide range of biological topics, which may include cell biology, genetics, ecology, evolution and epidemiology. After taking this unit, the student should be able to. * Construct an initial mathematical model for Essay Obesity Americans a real-world process and assess this model critically; and. * Suggest alterations or elaborations of a proposed model in light of discrepancies between model predictions and observed data, or failures of the model to exhibit correct quantitative behaviour. * Modelling and the scientific method. Objectives of mathematical and statistical modelling; the iterative nature of modelling; falsifiability and Judgment Good Main Essay predictive accuracy. * The three stages of modelling. (1) Model formulation, including the art of consultation and the use of empirical information. (2) Model fitting. (3) Model validation. * Deterministic modelling; Asymptotic behaviour including equilibria. Of Yellow Wallpaper? Dynamic behaviour. Optimum behaviour for a system.

* The interpretation of probability. Symmetry, relative frequency, and degree of belief. * Stochastic modelling. Probalistic models for complex systems. Judgment Awaits In A Main Is Hard To Find? Modelling mean response and variability. The effects of which describes the columbian exchange model uncertainty on statistical interference. The dangers of multiple testing and data dredging. Aims: This course develops the basic theory of rings and fields and expounds the fundamental theory of Galois on solvability of polynomials. Objectives: At the end of the course, students will be conversant with the algebraic structures associated to rings and fields. Moreover, they will be able to state and prove the main theorems of Galois Theory as well as compute the Galois group of simple polynomials. Rings, integral domains and fields.

Field of Awaits Main Is Hard to Find Essay quotients of an integral domain. Ideals and quotient rings. Rings of polynomials. Division algorithm and unique factorisation of polynomials over a field. Essay About Obesity Among African Americans? Extension fields. Algebraic closure. Splitting fields. Normal field extensions. Judgment Good Is Hard Essay? Galois groups. The Galois correspondence. THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN EVEN YEAR.

Aims: This course provides a solid introduction to modern group theory covering both the basic tools of the subject and more recent developments. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be able to the columbian, state and prove the main theorems of classical group theory and know how to apply these. In addition, they will have some appreciation of the relations between group theory and other areas of mathematics. Topics will be chosen from the following: Review of elementary group theory: homomorphisms, isomorphisms and Lagrange's theorem. Normalisers, centralisers and conjugacy classes. Group actions. p-groups and the Sylow theorems. Cayley graphs and geometric group theory. Free groups.

Presentations of groups. Von Dyck's theorem. Tietze transformations. THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN ODD YEAR. MA30039: Differential geometry of curves surfaces. Aims: This will be a self-contained course which uses little more than elementary vector calculus to develop the local differential geometry of curves and surfaces in IR #179 . In this way, an accessible introduction is given to an area of in A Main Essay mathematics which has been the subject of active research for over 200 years. Objectives: At the end of the course, the students will be able to apply the Essay about History methods of calculus with confidence to geometrical problems. They will be able to compute the curvatures of curves and surfaces and understand the geometric significance of these quantities. Topics will be chosen from the following: Tangent spaces and tangent maps.

Curvature and torsion of curves: Frenet-Serret formulae. The Euclidean group and congruences. Judgment In A Good Is Hard To Find? Curvature and which the columbian torsion determine a curve up to congruence. Global geometry of curves: isoperimetric inequality; four-vertex theorem. Local geometry of surfaces: parametrisations of surfaces; normals, shape operator, mean and Awaits in A to Find Gauss curvature.

Geodesics, integration and the local Gauss-Bonnet theorem. Aims: This core course is intended to be an elementary and accessible introduction to the theory of metric spaces and the topology of IRn for students with both pure and applied interests. Objectives: While the foundations will be laid for further studies in Analysis and Topology, topics useful in applied areas such as the Contraction Mapping Principle will also be covered. Students will know the fundamental results listed in the syllabus and have an instinct for their utility in analysis and numerical analysis. Definition and examples of metric spaces. Convergence of sequences. Icarus Poems? Continuous maps and isometries. Sequential definition of continuity. Subspaces and product spaces. Complete metric spaces and Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard to Find the Contraction Mapping Principle.

Sequential compactness, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem and applications. Open and icarus poems closed sets (with emphasis on IRn). Closure and interior of Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay sets. Topological approach to continuity and compactness (with statement of Heine-Borel theorem). Connectedness and path-connectedness. Metric spaces of functions: C[0,1] is a complete metric space. Aims: To furnish the student with a range of analytic techniques for the solution of ODEs and PDEs. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain the solution of about NCO Military History certain ODEs and PDEs. They should also be aware of certain analytic properties associated with the Judgment Awaits Good solution e.g. uniqueness. Sturm-Liouville theory: Reality of eigenvalues.

Orthogonality of corporate eigenfunctions. Expansion in eigenfunctions. Approximation in mean square. Statement of completeness. Fourier Transform: As a limit of Fourier series. Properties and applications to solution of differential equations. Frequency response of linear systems. Characteristic functions.

Linear and quasi-linear first-order PDEs in two and three independent variables: Characteristics. Integral surfaces. Uniqueness (without proof). Linear and quasi-linear second-order PDEs in two independent variables: Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem (without proof). To Find? Characteristic data. Lack of continuous dependence on initial data for NCO Military Cauchy problem. Classification as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Different standard forms. Constant and nonconstant coefficients. One-dimensional wave equation: d'Alembert's solution. Uniqueness theorem for corresponding Cauchy problem (with data on a spacelike curve).

Aims: The course is intended to provide an elementary and assessible introduction to the state-space theory of linear control systems. Main emphasis is on continuous-time autonomous systems, although discrete-time systems will receive some attention through sampling of continuous-time systems. Contact with classical (Laplace-transform based) control theory is made in the context of realization theory. Objectives: To instill basic concepts and results from control theory in a rigorous manner making use of elementary linear algebra and linear ordinary differential equations. Conversance with controllability, observability, stabilizabilty and realization theory in a linear, finite-dimensional context.

Topics will be chosen from the following: Controlled and observed dynamical systems: definitions and classifications. Controllability and observability: Gramians, rank conditions, Hautus criteria, controllable and Judgment Awaits in A Good Main to Find unobservable subspaces. Input-output maps. Transfer functions and state-space realizations. State feedback: stabilizability and pole placement. Observers and output feedback: detectability, asymptotic state estimation, stabilization by dynamic feedback.

Discrete-time systems: z-transform, deadbeat control and observation. Sampling of continuous-time systems: controllability and observability under sampling. Aims: The purpose of this course is to introduce students to problems which arise in biology which can be tackled using applied mathematics. Emphasis will be laid upon wal mart corporate deriving the equations describing the biological problem and at all times the interplay between the mathematics and the underlying biology will be brought to Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard, the fore. Objectives: Students should be able to derive a mathematical model of a given problem in biology using ODEs and give a qualitative account of the type of responsibility solution expected. They should be able to Judgment in A Main to Find, interpret the wal mart responsibility results in terms of the original biological problem. Topics will be chosen from the following: Difference equations: Steady states and fixed points. Stability. Good Main To Find? Period doubling bifurcations. Chaos. Application to population growth.

Systems of difference equations: Host-parasitoid systems. Model? Systems of ODEs: Stability of solutions. Critical points. Phase plane analysis. Poincare-Bendixson theorem.

Bendixson and Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find Dulac negative criteria. Conservative systems. Structural stability and instability. Lyapunov functions. Prey-predator models Epidemic models Travelling wave fronts: Waves of advance of an corporate responsibility advantageous gene. Waves of excitation in nerves. Waves of Is Hard Essay advance of an epidemic. Aims: To provide an introduction to the mathematical modelling of the behaviour of solid elastic materials. Objectives: Students should be able to icarus poems, derive the governing equations of the theory of linear elasticity and be able to solve simple problems.

Topics will be chosen from the Awaits Main Essay following: Revision: Kinematics of deformation, stress analysis, global balance laws, boundary conditions. Constitutive law: Properties of real materials; constitutive law for linear isotropic elasticity, Lame moduli; field equations of linear elasticity; Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio. Some simple problems of elastostatics: Expansion of a spherical shell, bulk modulus; deformation of a block under gravity; elementary bending solution. Linear elastostatics: Strain energy function; uniqueness theorem; Betti's reciprocal theorem, mean value theorems; variational principles, application to composite materials; torsion of cylinders, Prandtl's stress function. Linear elastodynamics: Basic equations and general solutions; plane waves in unbounded media, simple reflection problems; surface waves. Aims: To teach an understanding of iterative methods for standard problems of linear algebra. Objectives: Students should know a range of modern iterative methods for History solving linear systems and for solving the algebraic eigenvalue problem. They should be able to analyse their algorithms and should have an Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find understanding of corporate social responsibility relevant practical issues. Topics will be chosen from the following: The algebraic eigenvalue problem: Gerschgorin's theorems.

The power method and its extensions. Backward Error Analysis (Bauer-Fike). The (Givens) QR factorization and the QR method for symmetric tridiagonal matrices. (Statement of convergence only). Awaits In A Good Is Hard To Find Essay? The Lanczos Procedure for reduction of a real symmetric matrix to tridiagonal form. Orthogonality properties of Lanczos iterates. Iterative Methods for Linear Systems: Convergence of stationary iteration methods. Special cases of symmetric positive definite and diagonally dominant matrices. Variational principles for linear systems with real symmetric matrices. The conjugate gradient method. Krylov subspaces. Icarus Poems? Convergence.

Connection with the Judgment Good Main Is Hard to Find Lanczos method. Iterative Methods for Nonlinear Systems: Newton's Method. Convergence in model, 1D. Statement of algorithm for Judgment Good Is Hard Essay systems. MA30054: Representation theory of finite groups. Aims: The course explains some fundamental applications of linear algebra to the study of finite groups. In so doing, it will show by example how one area of mathematics can enhance and enrich the study of model another. Objectives: At the end of the course, the students will be able to Judgment in A Good, state and prove the of yellow wallpaper main theorems of Maschke and Schur and be conversant with their many applications in Judgment in A to Find Essay, representation theory and character theory.

Moreover, they will be able to apply these results to problems in group theory. Topics will be chosen from the following: Group algebras, their modules and associated representations. Maschke's theorem and icarus poems complete reducibility. Irreducible representations and Schur's lemma. Decomposition of the regular representation. Character theory and orthogonality theorems. Burnside's p #097 q #098 theorem.

THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN ODD YEAR. Aims: To provide an introduction to the ideas of point-set topology culminating with a sketch of the classification of compact surfaces. As such it provides a self-contained account of one of the in A Good Is Hard to Find triumphs of 20th century mathematics as well as providing the necessary background for the Year 4 unit in Algebraic Topology. Objectives: To acquaint students with the important notion of a topology and to familiarise them with the basic theorems of analysis in their most general setting. Students will be able to distinguish between metric and topological space theory and to understand refinements, such as Hausdorff or compact spaces, and their applications. Topics will be chosen from the following: Topologies and Essay about Among African topological spaces.

Subspaces. Judgment In A Main Is Hard To Find Essay? Bases and sub-bases: product spaces; compact-open topology. Continuous maps and homeomorphisms. Separation axioms. Which Exchange? Connectedness. Compactness and its equivalent characterisations in a metric space. Axiom of Judgment Awaits Good Main Is Hard to Find Choice and Zorn's Lemma.

Tychonoff's theorem. Best The Columbian? Quotient spaces. Compact surfaces and their representation as quotient spaces. Sketch of the classification of Judgment in A Is Hard to Find Essay compact surfaces. Aims: The aim of this course is to cover the standard introductory material in the theory of functions of a complex variable and to cover complex function theory up to Cauchy's Residue Theorem and its applications. Objectives: Students should end up familiar with the theory of functions of a complex variable and be capable of wal mart social calculating and Judgment Awaits in A Good Main Essay justifying power series, Laurent series, contour integrals and applying them. Topics will be chosen from the following: Functions of a complex variable. Continuity.

Complex series and wallpaper power series. Circle of convergence. In A Good Essay? The complex plane. Regions, paths, simple and closed paths. Path-connectedness. Analyticity and the Cauchy-Riemann equations. Harmonic functions. Wal Mart? Cauchy's theorem. Cauchy's Integral Formulae and its application to power series. Isolated zeros.

Differentiability of an analytic function. Liouville's Theorem. Zeros, poles and essential singularities. Laurent expansions. Cauchy's Residue Theorem and contour integration. Applications to real definite integrals.

Aims: To introduce students to Awaits Main Essay, the applications of advanced analysis to Obesity, the solution of PDEs. Objectives: Students should be able to Judgment Awaits to Find Essay, obtain solutions to certain important PDEs using a variety of techniques e.g. Green's functions, separation of variables. They should also be familiar with important analytic properties of the solution. Topics will be chosen from the following: Elliptic equations in two independent variables: Harmonic functions. Mean value property. Maximum principle (several proofs). Dirichlet and Neumann problems. Representation of solutions in terms of Green's functions.

Continuous dependence of data for Dirichlet problem. Uniqueness. Parabolic equations in two independent variables: Representation theorems. Green's functions. Self-adjoint second-order operators: Eigenvalue problems (mainly by example). Separation of variables for inhomogeneous systems.

Green's function methods in general: Method of icarus poems images. Use of integral transforms. Conformal mapping. Calculus of variations: Maxima and minima. Lagrange multipliers. Extrema for integral functions. Euler's equation and its special first integrals. Integral and non-integral constraints. Aims: The course is intended to be an elementary and accessible introduction to dynamical systems with examples of applications. Main emphasis will be on discrete-time systems which permits the concepts and results to be presented in a rigorous manner, within the Judgment in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay framework of the second year core material.

Discrete-time systems will be followed by an introductory treatment of themes of yellow continuous-time systems and differential equations. Numerical approximation of differential equations will link with the Good Essay earlier material on discrete-time systems. Objectives: An appreciation of the Essay Obesity behaviour, and its potential complexity, of general dynamical systems through a study of discrete-time systems (which require relatively modest analytical prerequisites) and computer experimentation. Topics will be chosen from the following: Discrete-time systems. Judgment Good Is Hard? Maps from IRn to themes, IRn . Fixed points. Periodic orbits. #097 and #119 limit sets. Local bifurcations and stability. Judgment Good Essay? The logistic map and chaos. Global properties. About? Continuous-time systems. Periodic orbits and Poincareacute maps.

Numerical approximation of differential equations. Newton iteration as a dynamical system. Aims: The aim of the course is to introduce students to applications of Awaits Good Is Hard partial differential equations to model problems arising in biology. The course will complement Mathematical Biology I where the icarus poems emphasis was on ODEs and Difference Equations. Objectives: Students should be able to derive and Main Is Hard to Find Essay interpret mathematical models of problems arising in biology using PDEs. They should be able to perform a linearised stability analysis of a reaction-diffusion system and determine criteria for diffusion-driven instability.

They should be able to interpret the results in terms of the original biological problem. Topics will be chosen from the following: Partial Differential Equation Models: Simple random walk derivation of the diffusion equation. Solutions of the diffusion equation. Density-dependent diffusion. Conservation equation.

Reaction-diffusion equations. Chemotaxis. Examples for insect dispersal and cell aggregation. Spatial Pattern Formation: Turing mechanisms. Linear stability analysis. Conditions for diffusion-driven instability. Essay About NCO Military History? Dispersion relation and Turing space. Scale and geometry effects.

Mode selection and dispersion relation. Applications: Animal coat markings. How the leopard got its spots. Butterfly wing patterns. Aims: To introduce the general theory of continuum mechanics and, through this, the study of viscous fluid flow.

Objectives: Students should be able to explain the basic concepts of continuum mechanics such as stress, deformation and constitutive relations, be able to in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay, formulate balance laws and be able to apply these to the solution of simple problems involving the flow of a viscous fluid. Topics will be chosen from the following: Vectors: Linear transformation of vectors. Proper orthogonal transformations. Rotation of axes. Transformation of components under rotation. Cartesian Tensors: Transformations of components, symmetry and skew symmetry. Isotropic tensors. Kinematics: Transformation of line elements, deformation gradient, Green strain.

Linear strain measure. Displacement, velocity, strain-rate. Stress: Cauchy stress; relation between traction vector and stress tensor. Global Balance Laws: Equations of motion, boundary conditions. Wal Mart Corporate Social Responsibility? Newtonian Fluids: The constitutive law, uniform flow, Poiseuille flow, flow between rotating cylinders. Aims: To present the Judgment in A Main to Find Essay theory and application of normal linear models and generalised linear models, including estimation, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals. To describe methods of model choice and the use of residuals in diagnostic checking. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to (a) choose an appropriate generalised linear model for a given set of data; (b) fit this model using the GLIM program, select terms for inclusion in the model and assess the adequacy of a selected model; (c) make inferences on the basis of a fitted model and themes recognise the assumptions underlying these inferences and possible limitations to their accuracy.

Normal linear model: Vector and matrix representation, constraints on parameters, least squares estimation, distributions of parameter and variance estimates, t-tests and confidence intervals, the Analysis of Variance, F-tests for unbalanced designs. Model building: Subset selection and in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay stepwise regression methods with applications in Among African Americans, polynomial regression and multiple regression. Effects of collinearity in regression variables. Uses of residuals: Probability plots, plots for additional variables, plotting residuals against fitted values to Awaits in A Main Is Hard to Find, detect a mean-variance relationship, standardised residuals for outlier detection, masking. Generalised linear models: Exponential families, standard form, statement of asymptotic theory for i.i.d. samples, Fisher information. Linear predictors and link functions, statement of asymptotic theory for the generalised linear model, applications to z-tests and confidence intervals, #099 #178 -tests and the analysis of deviance. Residuals from generalised linear models and their uses. Essay About Among African? Applications to dose response relationships, and logistic regression.

Aims: To introduce a variety of statistical models for time series and cover the main methods for analysing these models. Objectives: At the end of the Main to Find course, the student should be able to. * Compute and interpret a correlogram and a sample spectrum. * derive the properties of ARIMA and state-space models. * choose an appropriate ARIMA model for a given set of data and fit the model using an appropriate package. * compute forecasts for a variety of linear methods and models. Introduction: Examples, simple descriptive techniques, trend, seasonality, the westminster correlogram. Probability models for time series: Stationarity; moving average (MA), autoregressive (AR), ARMA and ARIMA models. Estimating the autocorrelation function and fitting ARIMA models. Forecasting: Exponential smoothing, Forecasting from ARIMA models.

Stationary processes in the frequency domain: The spectral density function, the periodogram, spectral analysis. State-space models: Dynamic linear models and Judgment Awaits in A Good Essay the Kalman filter. Aims: To introduce students to the use of statistical methods in medical research, the pharmaceutical industry and the National Health Service. Objectives: Students should be able to. (a) recognize the key statistical features of a medical research problem, and, where appropriate, suggest an appropriate study design, (b) understand the ethical considerations and practical problems that govern medical experimentation, (c) summarize medical data and spot possible sources of bias, (d) analyse data collected from some types of clinical trial, as well as simple survival data and longitudinal data.

Ethical considerations in clinical trials and other types of epidemiological study design. Phases I to IV of drug development and testing. Design of clinical trials: Defining the icarus poems patient population, the trial protocol, possible sources of bias, randomisation, blinding, use of placebo treatment, sample size calculations. Analysis of clinical trials: patient withdrawals, intent to treat criterion for inclusion of patients in analysis. Survival data: Life tables, censoring.

Kaplan-Meier estimate. Selected topics from: Crossover trials; Case-control and cohort studies; Binary data; Measurement of clinical agreement; Mendelian inheritance; More on survival data: Parametric models for censored survival data, Greenwood's formula, The proportional hazards model, logrank test, Cox's proportional hazards model. Throughout the course, there will be emphasis on drawing sound conclusions and on the ability to explain and interpret numerical data to non-statistical clients. MA30087: Optimisation methods of operational research. Aims: To present methods of optimisation commonly used in OR, to explain their theoretical basis and give an appreciation of the variety of areas in which they are applicable. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. * Recognise practical problems where optimisation methods can be used effectively.

* Implement appropriate algorithms, and Awaits Main to Find Essay understand their procedures. * Understand the underlying theory of linear programming problems, especially duality. The Nature of OR: Brief introduction. Linear Programming: Basic solutions and the fundamental theorem. The simplex algorithm, two phase method for an initial solution. Interpretation of the optimal tableau. Applications of of yellow LP. Duality. Topics selected from: Sensitivity analysis and the dual simplex algorithm. Brief discussion of Karmarkar's method.

The transportation problem and in A Is Hard Essay its applications, solution by Dantzig's method. Network flow problems, the Ford-Fulkerson theorem. Non-linear Programming: Revision of classical Lagrangian methods. Kuhn-Tucker conditions, necessity and sufficiency. Illustration by application to quadratic programming. MA30089: Applied probability finance.

Aims: To develop and apply the theory of probability and about NCO Military stochastic processes to examples from finance and Judgment Awaits Is Hard Essay economics. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be able to. * formulate mathematically, and then solve, dynamic programming problems. * price an option on a stock modelled by a log of a random walk. * perform simple calculations involving properties of Brownian motion. Dynamic programming: Markov decision processes, Bellman equation; examples including consumption/investment, bid acceptance, optimal stopping. Infinite horizon problems; discounted programming, the Howard Improvement Lemma, negative and positive programming, simple examples and counter-examples. Wal Mart Corporate Responsibility? Option pricing for random walks: Arbitrage pricing theory, prices and Judgment in A Good discounted prices as Martingales, hedging.

Brownian motion: Introduction to Brownian motion, definition and simple properties. Exponential Brownian motion as the model for a stock price, the Black-Scholes formula. Aims: To develop skills in the analysis of multivariate data and study the related theory. Objectives: Be able to carry out a preliminary analysis of multivariate data and select and apply an appropriate technique to look for structure in best describes the columbian, such data or achieve dimensionality reduction. Be able to carry out classical multivariate inferential techniques based on the multivariate normal distribution. Introduction, Preliminary analysis of multivariate data. Revision of relevant matrix algebra. Principal components analysis: Derivation and interpretation; approximate reduction of Judgment Good Main Essay dimensionality; scaling problems. Multidimensional distributions: The multivariate normal distribution - properties and parameter estimation. One and two-sample tests on means, Hotelling's T-squared.

Canonical correlations and canonical variables; discriminant analysis. Topics selected from: Factor analysis. The multivariate linear model. Metrics and the columbian exchange similarity coefficients; multidimensional scaling. Cluster analysis. Awaits To Find Essay? Correspondence analysis.

Classification and regression trees. Aims: To give students experience in tackling a variety of real-life statistical problems. Objectives: During the course, students should become proficient in. * formulating a problem and carrying out an exploratory data analysis. * tackling non-standard, messy data. * presenting the Essay about Obesity African results of an analysis in a clear report. Formulating statistical problems: Objectives, the importance of the initial examination of data. Analysis: Model-building. Choosing an appropriate method of analysis, verification of assumptions. Presentation of results: Report writing, communication with non-statisticians. Using resources: The computer, the library.

Project topics may include: Exploratory data analysis. Judgment In A Good Main Essay? Practical aspects of sample surveys. Fitting general and generalised linear models. The analysis of standard and non-standard data arising from theoretical work in other blocks. MA30092: Classical statistical inference. Aims: To develop a formal basis for methods of statistical inference including criteria for themes the comparison of procedures. To give an in depth description of the asymptotic theory of maximum likelihood methods and Awaits Good Main Is Hard hypothesis testing. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to: * calculate properties of estimates and hypothesis tests. * derive efficient estimates and tests for a broad range of Essay about problems, including applications to a variety of standard distributions.

Revision of standard distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, exponential, gamma and normal, and their interrelationships. Sufficiency and Exponential families. Point estimation: Bias and variance considerations, mean squared error. Rao-Blackwell theorem. Cramer-Rao lower bound and efficiency. Unbiased minimum variance estimators and a direct appreciation of efficiency through some examples. Bias reduction. Asymptotic theory for maximum likelihood estimators.

Hypothesis testing: Hypothesis testing, review of the Neyman-Pearson lemma and maximisation of power. Maximum likelihood ratio tests, asymptotic theory. Compound alternative hypotheses, uniformly most powerful tests. Compound null hypotheses, monotone likelihood ratio property, uniformly most powerful unbiased tests. Nuisance parameters, generalised likelihood ratio tests. MMath study year abroad. This unit is designed primarily for DBA Final Year students who have taken the First and Second Year management statistics units but is also available for Final Year Statistics students from the Department of Mathematical Sciences. Well qualified students from the IMML course would also be considered.

It introduces three statistical topics which are particularly relevant to Management Science, namely quality control, forecasting and decision theory. Aims: To introduce some statistical topics which are particularly relevant to Good Is Hard Essay, Management Science. Objectives: On completing the wallpaper unit, students should be able to implement some quality control procedures, and some univariate forecasting procedures. They should also understand the ideas of decision theory. Quality Control: Acceptance sampling, single and Awaits Good Main Is Hard Essay double schemes, SPRT applied to sequential scheme. Process control, Shewhart charts for mean and range, operating characteristics, ideas of cusum charts.

Practical forecasting. Time plot. Trend-and-seasonal models. Exponential smoothing. Holt's linear trend model and Holt-Winters seasonal forecasting. Autoregressive models.

Box-Jenkins ARIMA forecasting. Introduction to decision analysis for discrete events: Revision of Bayes' Theorem, admissability, Bayes' decisions, minimax. Decision trees, expected value of perfect information. Utility, subjective probability and its measurement. MA30125: Markov processes applications. Aims: To study further Markov processes in both discrete and continuous time. To apply results in areas such genetics, biological processes, networks of queues, telecommunication networks, electrical networks, resource management, random walks and elsewhere. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to. * Formulate appropriate Markovian models for a variety of real life problems and westminster model apply suitable theoretical results to Judgment Awaits in A Is Hard to Find, obtain solutions.

* Classify a variety of birth-death processes as explosive or non-explosive. * Find the Q-matrix of a time-reversed chain and make effective use of time reversal. Topics covering both discrete and continuous time Markov chains will be chosen from: Genetics, the Wright-Fisher and Moran models. Epidemics. Telecommunication models, blocking probabilities of Erlang and Engset. Models of interference in Essay, communication networks, the ALOHA model. Judgment In A Good Main Is Hard? Series of M/M/s queues. Open and closed migration processes. Explosions.

Birth-death processes. Branching processes. Resource management. Electrical networks. Which Describes Exchange? Random walks, reflecting random walks as queuing models in one or more dimensions. The strong Markov property. The Poisson process in time and in A Good Main space. Other applications. Aims: To satisfy as many of the best the columbian exchange objectives as possible as set out in the individual project proposal.

Objectives: To produce the deliverables identified in the individual project proposal. Defined in the individual project proposal. MA30170: Numerical solution of PDEs I. Aims: To teach numerical methods for Awaits Essay elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations via the finite element method based on variational principles. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to derive and implement the finite element method for a range of standard elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations in one and themes wallpaper several space dimensions. They should also be able to derive and use elementary error estimates for to Find Essay these methods.

* Variational and weak form of elliptic PDEs. Natural, essential and mixed boundary conditions. Linear and quadratic finite element approximation in one and several space dimensions. An introduction to convergence theory. * System assembly and solution, isoparametric mapping, quadrature, adaptivity.

* Applications to PDEs arising in applications. * Brief introduction to time dependent problems. Aims: The aim is to explore pure mathematics from a problem-solving point of view. In addition to which describes the columbian exchange, conventional lectures, we aim to encourage students to work on solving problems in small groups, and to Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay, give presentations of solutions in workshops. Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be proficient in formulating and testing conjectures, and will have a wide experience of different proof techniques. The topics will be drawn from cardinality, combinatorial questions, the foundations of measure, proof techniques in algebra, analysis, geometry and topology. Aims: This is an advanced pure mathematics course providing an introduction to classical algebraic geometry via plane curves. It will show some of the links with other branches of mathematics. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to use homogeneous coordinates in projective space and to Essay History, distinguish singular points of plane curves.

They should be able to demonstrate an Judgment Awaits Good Main understanding of the wal mart social difference between rational and nonrational curves, know examples of both, and be able to describe some special features of plane cubic curves. To be chosen from: Affine and projective space. Polynomial rings and in A Good Essay homogeneous polynomials. Ideals in the context of polynomial rings,the Nullstellensatz. Best Describes The Columbian Exchange? Plane curves; degree; Bezout's theorem. Singular points of plane curves. Rational maps and morphisms; isomorphism and birationality. Curves of low degree (up to 3). Genus. Elliptic curves; the group law, nonrationality, the j invariant. Weierstrass p function.

Quadric surfaces; curves of quadrics. Judgment In A Main Is Hard To Find Essay? Duals. THIS UNIT IS ONLY AVAILABLE IN ACADEMIC YEARS STARTING IN AN EVEN YEAR. Aims: The course will provide a solid introduction to one of the Big Machines of modern mathematics which is also a major topic of current research. In particular, this course provides the necessary prerequisites for post-graduate study of Algebraic Topology.

Objectives: At the end of the History course, the students will be conversant with the basic ideas of homotopy theory and, in particular, will be able to Awaits Good Main to Find Essay, compute the fundamental group of several topological spaces. Topics will be chosen from the following: Paths, homotopy and the fundamental group. Homotopy of maps; homotopy equivalence and deformation retracts. Computation of the fundamental group and applications: Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem. Covering spaces. Path-lifting and homotopy lifting properties. Deck translations and the fundamental group. Universal covers. Loop spaces and Essay NCO Military History their topology. Inductive definition of higher homotopy groups.

Long exact sequence in homotopy for fibrations. MA40042: Measure theory integration. Aims: The purpose of this course is to lay the Judgment Awaits in A Main Essay basic technical foundations and establish the main principles which underpin the classical notions of area, volume and the related idea of an integral. Objectives: The objective is to familiarise students with measure as a tool in analysis, functional analysis and about probability theory. Awaits Good To Find Essay? Students will be able to westminster, quote and apply the main inequalities in the subject, and to Judgment Awaits in A Main, understand their significance in a wide range of contexts. Students will obtain a full understanding of the Lebesgue Integral. Topics will be chosen from the following: Measurability for sets: algebras, #115 -algebras, #112 -systems, d-systems; Dynkin's Lemma; Borel #115 -algebras. Measure in the abstract: additive and #115 -additive set functions; monotone-convergence properties; Uniqueness Lemma; statement of wal mart corporate responsibility Caratheodory's Theorem and discussion of the #108 -set concept used in its proof; full proof on handout. Lebesgue measure on IRn: existence; inner and outer regularity. Measurable functions.

Sums, products, composition, lim sups, etc; The Monotone-Class Theorem. Probability. Sample space, events, random variables. Independence; rigorous statement of the Strong Law for coin tossing. Integration.

Integral of Judgment in A Good Main Is Hard to Find a non-negative functions as sup of the integrals of simple non-negative functions dominated by it. Monotone-Convergence Theorem; 'Additivity'; Fatou's Lemma; integral of 'signed' function; definition of Lp and of L p; linearity; Dominated-Convergence Theorem - with mention that it is not the `right' result. Product measures: definition; uniqueness; existence; Fubini's Theorem. Absolutely continuous measures: the idea; effect on integrals. Statement of the Radon-Nikodm Theorem. Inequalities: Jensen, Holder, Minkowski.

Completeness of Lp. Aims: To introduce and study abstract spaces and general ideas in analysis, to apply them to examples, to Essay Obesity African, lay the foundations for the Year 4 unit in Functional analysis and to in A Good Is Hard Essay, motivate the Lebesgue integral. Objectives: By the end of the Essay about Among Americans unit, students should be able to state and prove the principal theorems relating to uniform continuity and uniform convergence for real functions on metric spaces, compactness in spaces of continuous functions, and elementary Hilbert space theory, and to apply these notions and the theorems to simple examples. Topics will be chosen from:Uniform continuity and uniform limits of continuous functions on [0,1]. Abstract Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. Judgment Good Main Is Hard To Find? Uniform approximation of best describes the columbian exchange continuous functions. Polynomial and trigonometric polynomial approximation, separability of C[0,1]. Total Boundedness. Diagonalisation. Ascoli-Arzelagrave Theorem.

Complete metric spaces. Baire Category Theorem. Nowhere differentiable function. Picard's theorem for x = f(x,t). Metric completion M of a metric space M. Real inner product spaces. Hilbert spaces.

Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, parallelogram identity. In A Good Is Hard To Find Essay? Examples: l #178 , L #178 [0,1] := C[0,1]. Separability of L #178 . Orthogonality, Gram-Schmidt process. Bessel's inequality, Pythagoras' Theorem. Projections and subspaces. Orthogonal complements. Riesz Representation Theorem. Complete orthonormal sets in separable Hilbert spaces. Completeness of trigonometric polynomials in L #178 [0,1].

Fourier Series. Aims: A treatment of the qualitative/geometric theory of dynamical systems to a level that will make accessible an area of westminster model mathematics (and allied disciplines) that is highly active and rapidly expanding. Objectives: Conversance with concepts, results and techniques fundamental to in A to Find Essay, the study of qualitative behaviour of dynamical systems. An ability to investigate stability of Obesity Among African equilibria and periodic orbits. A basic understanding and appreciation of bifurcation and chaotic behaviour.

Topics will be chosen from the following: Stability of equilibria. Lyapunov functions. Invariance principle. Periodic orbits. Poincareacute maps. Hyperbolic equilibria and orbits. Judgment Awaits In A Good Main Is Hard? Stable and unstable manifolds. Nonhyperbolic equilibria and model orbits. Centre manifolds. Bifurcation from a simple eigenvalue. Awaits In A Good To Find? Introductory treatment of icarus poems chaotic behaviour.

Horseshoe maps. Symbolic dynamics. MA40048: Analytical geometric theory of Awaits Is Hard to Find differential equations. Aims: To give a unified presention of systems of ordinary differential equations that have a Hamiltonian or Lagrangian structure. Geomtrical and analytical insights will be used to prove qualitative properties of solutions. These ideas have generated many developments in modern pure mathematics, such as sympletic geometry and icarus poems ergodic theory, besides being applicable to the equations of classical mechanics, and Awaits in A Main Is Hard to Find motivating much of Essay Among modern physics. Objectives: Students will be able to state and prove general theorems for Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems.

Based on these theoretical results and key motivating examples they will identify general qualitative properties of solutions of these systems. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems, phase space, phase flow, variational principles and Euler-Lagrange equations, Hamilton's Principle of least action, Legendre transform, Liouville's Theorem, Poincare recurrence theorem, Noether's Theorem. MA40050: Nonlinear equations bifurcations. Aims: To extend the real analysis of implicitly defined functions into the numerical analysis of iterative methods for computing such functions and to teach an awareness of practical issues involved in applying such methods. Objectives: The students should be able to solve a variety of nonlinear equations in many variables and should be able to assess the performance of their solution methods using appropriate mathematical analysis. Topics will be chosen from the following: Solution methods for nonlinear equations: Newtons method for systems. Quasi-Newton Methods.

Eigenvalue problems. Theoretical Tools: Local Convergence of Newton's Method. Implicit Function Theorem. Bifcurcation from the trivial solution. Applications: Exothermic reaction and buckling problems. Continuous and discrete models. Analysis of parameter-dependent two-point boundary value problems using the shooting method.

Practical use of the Judgment in A Good to Find Essay shooting method. Obesity Among African? The Lyapunov-Schmidt Reduction. Application to analysis of discretised boundary value problems. Computation of solution paths for in A Is Hard to Find Essay systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. Wal Mart Corporate? Pseudo-arclength continuation. Is Hard To Find Essay? Homotopy methods. Computation of turning points. Bordered systems and themes of yellow wallpaper their solution.

Exploitation of symmetry. Hopf bifurcation. Numerical Methods for Optimization: Newton's method for unconstrained minimisation, Quasi-Newton methods. Aims: To introduce the theory of infinite-dimensional normed vector spaces, the linear mappings between them, and Awaits Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay spectral theory. Objectives: By the end of the unit, the students should be able to state and prove the principal theorems relating to Banach spaces, bounded linear operators, compact linear operators, and spectral theory of compact self-adjoint linear operators, and icarus poems apply these notions and theorems to simple examples.

Topics will be chosen from the following: Normed vector spaces and their metric structure. Banach spaces. Young, Minkowski and Holder inequalities. Examples - IRn, C[0,1], l p, Hilbert spaces. Riesz Lemma and finite-dimensional subspaces. The space B(X,Y) of bounded linear operators is Judgment in A Is Hard to Find Essay a Banach space when Y is complete. Dual spaces and second duals.

Uniform Boundedness Theorem. Open Mapping Theorem. Closed Graph Theorem. Projections onto closed subspaces. Invertible operators form an open set. Power series expansion for (I-T)- #185 . Compact operators on Banach spaces. Spectrum of an themes operator - compactness of spectrum. Operators on Hilbert space and their adjoints. To Find? Spectral theory of self-adjoint compact operators.

Zorn's Lemma. Hahn-Banach Theorem. Canonical embedding of X in X* * is icarus poems isometric, reflexivity. Judgment Awaits Good Main To Find? Simple applications to weak topologies. Aims: To stimulate through theory and especially examples, an interest and appreciation of the power of this elegant method in analysis and probability. Applications of the Essay History theory are at the heart of this course. Objectives: By the end of the Awaits Good Main Essay course, students should be familiar with the main results and techniques of discrete time martingale theory. They will have seen applications of martingales in proving some important results from classical probability theory, and they should be able to recognise and apply martingales in solving a variety of more elementary problems. Topics will be chosen from the wal mart following: Review of fundamental concepts. Judgment Good To Find Essay? Conditional expectation. Martingales, stopping times, Optional-Stopping Theorem.

The Convergence Theorem. L #178 -bounded martingales, the random-signs problem. Essay? Angle-brackets process, Leacutevy's Borel-Cantelli Lemma. Uniform integrability. UI martingales, the Downward Theorem, the Strong Law, the Submartingale Inequality. Likelihood ratio, Kakutani's theorem. MA40061: Nonlinear optimal control theory. Aims: Four concepts underpin control theory: controllability, observability, stabilizability and optimality. Of these, the first two essentially form the focus of the Year 3/4 course on linear control theory. In this course, the Judgment in A Main to Find Essay latter notions of stabilizability and optimality are developed. Together, the courses on linear control theory and nonlinear optimal control provide a firm foundation for participating in theoretical and practical developments in an active and expanding discipline.

Objectives: To present concepts and results pertaining to robustness, stabilization and westminster optimization of (nonlinear) finite-dimensional control systems in a rigorous manner. Emphasis is placed on optimization, leading to conversance with both the Bellman-Hamilton-Jacobi approach and the maximum principle of Judgment Main to Find Pontryagin, together with their application. Topics will be chosen from the following: Controlled dynamical systems: nonlinear systems and linearization. Stability and exchange robustness. Awaits Main To Find Essay? Stabilization by feedback. Lyapunov-based design methods. Stability radii. Small-gain theorem. Optimal control.

Value function. The Bellman-Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Verification theorem. Quadratic-cost control problem for linear systems. Riccati equations. The Pontryagin maximum principle and transversality conditions (a dynamic programming derivation of a restricted version and statement of the general result with applications). Proof of the maximum principle for the linear time-optimal control problem.

MA40062: Ordinary differential equations. Aims: To provide an accessible but rigorous treatment of initial-value problems for nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. Foundations will be laid for advanced studies in dynamical systems and control. The material is also useful in mathematical biology and numerical analysis. Objectives: Conversance with existence theory for the initial-value problem, locally Lipschitz righthand sides and uniqueness, flow, continuous dependence on initial conditions and parameters, limit sets. Topics will be chosen from the following: Motivating examples from diverse areas. Of Yellow Wallpaper? Existence of solutions for the initial-value problem. Uniqueness.

Maximal intervals of existence. Dependence on initial conditions and parameters. Flow. Judgment In A Is Hard? Global existence and dynamical systems. Limit sets and attractors. Aims: To satisfy as many of the objectives as possible as set out in westminster, the individual project proposal.

Objectives: To produce the deliverables identified in the individual project proposal. Defined in the individual project proposal. MA40171: Numerical solution of Main Is Hard to Find PDEs II. Aims: To teach an understanding of linear stability theory and its application to ODEs and evolutionary PDEs. Objectives: The students should be able to analyse the stability and convergence of a range of numerical methods and assess the practical performance of these methods through computer experiments. Solution of Essay about Among African Americans initial value problems for ODEs by Linear Multistep methods: local accuracy, order conditions; formulation as a one-step method; stability and convergence. Introduction to physically relevant PDEs. Well-posed problems.

Truncation error; consistency, stability, convergence and the Lax Equivalence Theorem; techniques for finding the stability properties of particular numerical methods. Numerical methods for Awaits in A Is Hard to Find parabolic and Essay about Obesity Among African hyperbolic PDEs. MA40189: Topics in Bayesian statistics. Aims: To introduce students to the ideas and techniques that underpin the theory and practice of the Bayesian approach to statistics. Objectives: Students should be able to formulate the Bayesian treatment and analysis of many familiar statistical problems. Bayesian methods provide an alternative approach to data analysis, which has the ability to incorporate prior knowledge about a parameter of interest into the statistical model. The prior knowledge takes the form of a prior (to sampling) distribution on the parameter space, which is updated to a posterior distribution via Bayes' Theorem, using the data. Summaries about the parameter are described using the posterior distribution.

The Bayesian Paradigm; decision theory; utility theory; exchangeability; Representation Theorem; prior, posterior and predictive distributions; conjugate priors. Tools to undertake a Bayesian statistical analysis will also be introduced. Simulation based methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo and importance sampling for use when analytical methods fail. Aims: The course is intended to provide an elementary and assessible introduction to the state-space theory of linear control systems. Main emphasis is on continuous-time autonomous systems, although discrete-time systems will receive some attention through sampling of continuous-time systems. Contact with classical (Laplace-transform based) control theory is Judgment in A Good Main to Find Essay made in the context of realization theory.

Objectives: To instill basic concepts and results from control theory in a rigorous manner making use of elementary linear algebra and linear ordinary differential equations. Conversance with controllability, observability, stabilizabilty and westminster model realization theory in a linear, finite-dimensional context. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Controlled and observed dynamical systems: definitions and classifications. Controllability and observability: Gramians, rank conditions, Hautus criteria, controllable and unobservable subspaces. Judgment Good To Find Essay? Input-output maps. Transfer functions and state-space realizations. State feedback: stabilizability and pole placement. Observers and output feedback: detectability, asymptotic state estimation, stabilization by dynamic feedback.

Discrete-time systems: z-transform, deadbeat control and observation. Sampling of continuous-time systems: controllability and observability under sampling. Aims: To introduce students to the applications of advanced analysis to the solution of PDEs. Objectives: Students should be able to obtain solutions to certain important PDEs using a variety of techniques e.g. Green's functions, separation of variables. They should also be familiar with important analytic properties of the solution.

Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Elliptic equations in two independent variables: Harmonic functions. Mean value property. Essay About African Americans? Maximum principle (several proofs). Dirichlet and Neumann problems. Representation of solutions in terms of Green's functions. Continuous dependence of data for Dirichlet problem. Uniqueness. Parabolic equations in two independent variables: Representation theorems. Green's functions. Self-adjoint second-order operators: Eigenvalue problems (mainly by example).

Separation of variables for inhomogeneous systems. Green's function methods in general: Method of images. Use of integral transforms. Conformal mapping. Calculus of variations: Maxima and in A Good Is Hard to Find minima. Lagrange multipliers. Extrema for integral functions. Euler's equation and its special first integrals. Integral and non-integral constraints.

Aims: The aim of the course is to introduce students to wal mart corporate, applications of partial differential equations to model problems arising in in A Main Is Hard Essay, biology. The course will complement Mathematical Biology I where the emphasis was on ODEs and Difference Equations. Objectives: Students should be able to derive and interpret mathematical models of Essay about problems arising in biology using PDEs. They should be able to perform a linearised stability analysis of Awaits in A Good Essay a reaction-diffusion system and determine criteria for diffusion-driven instability. They should be able to interpret the results in terms of the wallpaper original biological problem. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Partial Differential Equation Models: Simple random walk derivation of the diffusion equation. Solutions of the Judgment Good Is Hard to Find Essay diffusion equation.

Density-dependent diffusion. Conservation equation. Reaction-diffusion equations. Chemotaxis. Examples for insect dispersal and icarus poems cell aggregation. Spatial Pattern Formation: Turing mechanisms. Linear stability analysis.

Conditions for diffusion-driven instability. Essay? Dispersion relation and Turing space. Scale and geometry effects. Mode selection and model dispersion relation. Applications: Animal coat markings.

How the leopard got its spots. Butterfly wing patterns. Aims: To introduce the general theory of Judgment Awaits continuum mechanics and, through this, the study of viscous fluid flow. Objectives: Students should be able to icarus poems, explain the basic concepts of continuum mechanics such as stress, deformation and constitutive relations, be able to Judgment Good Main Is Hard, formulate balance laws and westminster be able to apply these to the solution of simple problems involving the flow of a viscous fluid. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Vectors: Linear transformation of vectors. Proper orthogonal transformations. Rotation of axes. Transformation of components under rotation. Cartesian Tensors: Transformations of components, symmetry and skew symmetry.

Isotropic tensors. Kinematics: Transformation of line elements, deformation gradient, Green strain. Linear strain measure. Displacement, velocity, strain-rate. Stress: Cauchy stress; relation between traction vector and stress tensor. Global Balance Laws: Equations of motion, boundary conditions. Newtonian Fluids: The constitutive law, uniform flow, Poiseuille flow, flow between rotating cylinders. Aims: To present the theory and application of normal linear models and generalised linear models, including estimation, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals.

To describe methods of model choice and the use of residuals in diagnostic checking. To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: On completing the Judgment Main course, students should be able to. (a) choose an appropriate generalised linear model for a given set of data; (b) fit this model using the GLIM program, select terms for inclusion in the model and assess the adequacy of a selected model; (c) make inferences on icarus poems the basis of a fitted model and recognise the assumptions underlying these inferences and possible limitations to their accuracy; (d) demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Normal linear model: Vector and to Find Essay matrix representation, constraints on parameters, least squares estimation, distributions of of yellow parameter and variance estimates, t-tests and confidence intervals, the Analysis of Variance, F-tests for unbalanced designs.

Model building: Subset selection and stepwise regression methods with applications in polynomial regression and multiple regression. Effects of collinearity in regression variables. To Find? Uses of residuals: Probability plots, plots for additional variables, plotting residuals against best the columbian exchange, fitted values to detect a mean-variance relationship, standardised residuals for outlier detection, masking. Generalised linear models: Exponential families, standard form, statement of asymptotic theory for i.i.d. samples, Fisher information. Linear predictors and link functions, statement of asymptotic theory for the generalised linear model, applications to Judgment Good Main to Find, z-tests and confidence intervals, #099 #178 -tests and the analysis of deviance. Residuals from westminster model generalised linear models and Awaits Is Hard their uses. Applications to dose response relationships, and logistic regression. Aims: To introduce a variety of statistical models for time series and cover the main methods for analysing these models.

To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: At the end of the course, the student should be able to: * Compute and interpret a correlogram and a sample spectrum; * derive the properties of ARIMA and state-space models; * choose an appropriate ARIMA model for a given set of data and fit the model using an appropriate package; * compute forecasts for a variety of linear methods and models; * demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Introduction: Examples, simple descriptive techniques, trend, seasonality, the correlogram. Probability models for which the columbian time series: Stationarity; moving average (MA), autoregressive (AR), ARMA and ARIMA models. Estimating the autocorrelation function and fitting ARIMA models. Forecasting: Exponential smoothing, Forecasting from ARIMA models. Stationary processes in the frequency domain: The spectral density function, the periodogram, spectral analysis. State-space models: Dynamic linear models and the Kalman filter. MA50089: Applied probability finance. Aims: To develop and apply the theory of probability and stochastic processes to examples from finance and Judgment Awaits Is Hard economics.

To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: At the which describes the columbian end of the course, students should be able to: * formulate mathematically, and then solve, dynamic programming problems; * price an option on a stock modelled by a log of a random walk; * perform simple calculations involving properties of Judgment Awaits in A Is Hard Essay Brownian motion; * demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the westminster topic. Content: Dynamic programming: Markov decision processes, Bellman equation; examples including consumption/investment, bid acceptance, optimal stopping. Infinite horizon problems; discounted programming, the Howard Improvement Lemma, negative and Awaits in A Main Essay positive programming, simple examples and counter-examples. Option pricing for random walks: Arbitrage pricing theory, prices and Essay Obesity Among discounted prices as Martingales, hedging. Brownian motion: Introduction to Brownian motion, definition and simple properties.Exponential Brownian motion as the Judgment Awaits in A Good model for a stock price, the icarus poems Black-Scholes formula. Aims: To develop skills in the analysis of Judgment Awaits Good multivariate data and study the related theory.

To facilitate an model in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: Be able to carry out a preliminary analysis of multivariate data and select and apply an appropriate technique to look for structure in such data or achieve dimensionality reduction. Be able to carry out classical multivariate inferential techniques based on Judgment Essay the multivariate normal distribution. Westminster Model? Be able to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Introduction, Preliminary analysis of multivariate data. Revision of relevant matrix algebra. Principal components analysis: Derivation and interpretation; approximate reduction of dimensionality; scaling problems. Multidimensional distributions: The multivariate normal distribution - properties and Judgment Good Main Is Hard to Find Essay parameter estimation.

One and two-sample tests on means, Hotelling's T-squared. Canonical correlations and canonical variables; discriminant analysis. Topics selected from: Factor analysis. Themes Of Yellow Wallpaper? The multivariate linear model. Metrics and similarity coefficients; multidimensional scaling. To Find Essay? Cluster analysis. Of Yellow? Correspondence analysis. Classification and regression trees.

MA50092: Classical statistical inference. Aims: To develop a formal basis for methods of statistical inference including criteria for the comparison of procedures. To give an in depth description of the asymptotic theory of maximum likelihood methods. To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to: * calculate properties of Judgment Awaits in A Main to Find estimates and hypothesis tests; * derive efficient estimates and tests for a broad range of which describes the columbian exchange problems, including applications to a variety of standard distributions; * demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Revision of Main standard distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, exponential, gamma and normal, and their interrelationships. Sufficiency and Exponential families. Point estimation: Bias and variance considerations, mean squared error. Rao-Blackwell theorem. Cramer-Rao lower bound and efficiency.

Unbiased minimum variance estimators and a direct appreciation of efficiency through some examples. Bias reduction. Asymptotic theory for maximum likelihood estimators. Hypothesis testing: Hypothesis testing, review of the Neyman-Pearson lemma and maximisation of power. Maximum likelihood ratio tests, asymptotic theory. Compound alternative hypotheses, uniformly most powerful tests. Themes Of Yellow Wallpaper? Compound null hypotheses, monotone likelihood ratio property, uniformly most powerful unbiased tests. Nuisance parameters, generalised likelihood ratio tests. MA50125: Markov processes applications. Aims: To study further Markov processes in both discrete and continuous time.

To apply results in Judgment in A Essay, areas such genetics, biological processes, networks of queues, telecommunication networks, electrical networks, resource management, random walks and elsewhere. To facilitate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Objectives: On completing the course, students should be able to: * Formulate appropriate Markovian models for a variety of real life problems and apply suitable theoretical results to obtain solutions; * Classify a variety of birth-death processes as explosive or non-explosive; * Find the Q-matrix of a time-reversed chain and corporate responsibility make effective use of time reversal; * Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the topic. Content: Topics covering both discrete and Judgment Awaits Good Main to Find Essay continuous time Markov chains will be chosen from: Genetics, the Wright-Fisher and Moran models. Westminster Model? Epidemics.

Telecommunication models, blocking probabilities of Erlang and Engset. Models of interference in Awaits in A Main Is Hard to Find Essay, communication networks, the ALOHA model. Wallpaper? Series of Awaits in A Is Hard to Find Essay M/M/s queues. Open and closed migration processes. Explosions. Birth-death processes. Branching processes.

Resource management. Electrical networks. Random walks, reflecting random walks as queuing models in one or more dimensions. Icarus Poems? The strong Markov property. The Poisson process in time and space. Other applications. MA50170: Numerical solution of PDEs I.

Aims: To teach numerical methods for elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations via the finite element method based on variational principles. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to derive and implement the finite element method for Awaits Good Essay a range of standard elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations in one and several space dimensions. They should also be able to derive and use elementary error estimates for these methods. Variational and weak form of elliptic PDEs. Natural, essential and mixed boundary conditions. Linear and quadratic finite element approximation in corporate social, one and several space dimensions. An introduction to convergence theory. System assembly and Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay solution, isoparametric mapping, quadrature, adaptivity. Applications to which exchange, PDEs arising in applications. Parabolic problems: methods of in A Good Main Is Hard lines, and simple timestepping procedures. Stability and convergence.

MA50174: Theory methods 1b-differential equations: computation and applications. Content: Introduction to which describes the columbian exchange, Maple and Matlab and their facilities: basic matrix manipulation, eigenvalue calculation, FFT analysis, special functions, solution of simultaneous linear and nonlinear equations, simple optimization. Basic graphics, data handling, use of toolboxes. Judgment Awaits In A Good Essay? Problem formulation and solution using Matlab. Numerical methods for wal mart solving ordinary differential equations: Matlab codes and student written codes.

Convergence and Stability. Shooting methods, finite difference methods and spectral methods (using FFT). Sample case studies chosen from: the two body problem, the three body problem, combustion, nonlinear control theory, the Lorenz equations, power electronics, Sturm-Liouville theory, eigenvalues, and orthogonal basis expansions. Finite Difference Methods for classical PDEs: the wave equation, the heat equation, Laplace's equation. MA50175: Theory methods 2 - topics in differential equations. Aims: To describe the theory and Awaits in A Essay phenomena associated with hyperbolic conservation laws, typical examples from applications areas, and their numerical approximation; and to about NCO Military History, introduce students to the literature on the subject.

Objectives: At the end of the course, students should be able to recognise the importance of conservation principles and be familiar with phenomena such as shocks and rarefaction waves; and they should be able to choose appropriate numerical methods for their approximation, analyse their behaviour, and implement them through Matlab programs. Content: Scalar conservation laws in 1D: examples, characteristics, shock formation, viscosity solutions, weak solutions, need for Judgment in A Main Is Hard Essay an entropy condition, total variation, existence and uniqueness of solutions.Design of conservative numerical methods for hyperbolic systems: interface fluxes, Roe's first order scheme, Lax-Wendroff methods, finite volume methods, TVD schemes and the Harten theorem, Engquist-Osher method. The Riemann problem: shocks and the Hugoniot locus, isothermal flow and the shallow water equations, the Godunov method, Euler equations of compressible fluid flow. System wave equation in 2D. R.J. LeVeque, Numerical Methods for NCO Military History Conservation Laws (2nd Edition), Birkhuser, 1992. K.W. Morton D.F. Awaits Good Is Hard To Find Essay? Mayers, Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations, CUP, 1994.R.J. LeVeque, Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems, CUP, 2002. MA50176: Methods applications 1: case studies in mathematical modelling and industrial mathematics.

Content: Applications of the icarus poems theory and techniques learnt in the prerequisites to solve real problems drawn from from the industrial collaborators and/or from the industrially related research work of the key staff involved. Instruction and practical experience of a set of problem solving methods and techniques, such as methods for simplifying a problem, scalings, perturbation methods, asymptotic methods, construction of similarity solutions. Comparison of mathematical models with experimental data. Development and Awaits Good Main Is Hard refinement of mathematical models. Case studies will be taken from micro-wave cooking, Stefan problems, moulding glass, contamination in best describes exchange, pipe networks, electrostatic filtering, DC-DC conversion, tests for elasticity. Judgment Awaits In A Is Hard To Find Essay? Students will work in teams under the pressure of project deadlines. They will attend lectures given by external industrialists describing the application of mathematics in of yellow wallpaper, an industrial context.

They will write reports and give presentations on the case studies making appropriate use of computer methods, graphics and communication skills. MA50177: Methods and applications 2: scientific computing. Content: Units, complexity, analysis of algorithms, benchmarks. Floating point arithmetic. Programming in Awaits Good Is Hard to Find, Fortran90: Makefiles, compiling, timing, profiling. Data structures, full and sparse matrices. Libraries: BLAS, LAPACK, NAG Library. Visualisation. Handling modules in other languages such as C, C++. Software on the Web: Netlib, GAMS.

Parallel Computation: Vectorisation, SIMD, MIMD, MPI. Describes The Columbian Exchange? Performance indicators. Case studies illustrating the lectures will be chosen from the topics:Finite element implementation, iterative methods, preconditioning; Adaptive refinement; The algebraic eigenvalue problem (ARPACK); Stiff systems and the NAG library; Nonlinear 2-point boundary value problems and bifurcation (AUTO); Optimisation; Wavelets and data compression. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: The algebraic eigenvalue problem: Gerschgorin's theorems. The power method and in A its extensions. Backward Error Analysis (Bauer-Fike). The (Givens) QR factorization and the QR method for symmetric tridiagonal matrices. (Statement of convergence only). The Lanczos Procedure for reduction of a real symmetric matrix to wal mart corporate responsibility, tridiagonal form.

Orthogonality properties of Lanczos iterates. Iterative Methods for Linear Systems: Convergence of stationary iteration methods. Special cases of symmetric positive definite and diagonally dominant matrices. Variational principles for linear systems with real symmetric matrices. Judgment Awaits In A Is Hard To Find? The conjugate gradient method. Krylov subspaces. Convergence. Connection with the Lanczos method. Iterative Methods for Nonlinear Systems: Newton's Method. Convergence in 1D. Essay Obesity Among African Americans? Statement of algorithm for systems.

Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Difference equations: Steady states and fixed points. Good Main Is Hard To Find Essay? Stability. Period doubling bifurcations. Chaos. Application to population growth. Systems of difference equations: Host-parasitoid systems.Systems of ODEs: Stability of solutions. Critical points. Icarus Poems? Phase plane analysis. Poincari-Bendixson theorem. Bendixson and Dulac negative criteria. Conservative systems.

Structural stability and instability. Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard Essay? Lyapunov functions. Travelling wave fronts: Waves of advance of an advantageous gene. Waves of excitation in nerves. Waves of advance of an epidemic. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Revision: Kinematics of deformation, stress analysis, global balance laws, boundary conditions. Constitutive law: Properties of real materials; constitutive law for linear isotropic elasticity, Lami moduli; field equations of linear elasticity; Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio. Some simple problems of elastostatics: Expansion of a spherical shell, bulk modulus; deformation of a block under gravity; elementary bending solution. Linear elastostatics: Strain energy function; uniqueness theorem; Betti's reciprocal theorem, mean value theorems; variational principles, application to composite materials; torsion of cylinders, Prandtl's stress function. Linear elastodynamics: Basic equations and general solutions; plane waves in unbounded media, simple reflection problems; surface waves.

MA50181: Theory methods 1a - differential equations: theory methods. Content: Sturm-Liouville theory: Reality of best describes the columbian eigenvalues. Orthogonality of eigenfunctions. Expansion in eigenfunctions. Approximation in mean square. Statement of completeness. Fourier Transform: As a limit of Fourier series.

Properties and applications to solution of Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay differential equations. Frequency response of linear systems. Characteristic functions. Linear and westminster quasi-linear first-order PDEs in two and three independent variables: Characteristics. Integral surfaces. Uniqueness (without proof).

Linear and quasi-linear second-order PDEs in two independent variables: Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem (without proof). Awaits In A Main Is Hard To Find? Characteristic data. Lack of continuous dependence on initial data for Cauchy problem. Westminster? Classification as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Different standard forms. Constant and nonconstant coefficients. One-dimensional wave equation: d'Alembert's solution. Uniqueness theorem for corresponding Cauchy problem (with data on a spacelike curve). Content: Definition and Judgment Good Is Hard to Find examples of metric spaces.

Convergence of sequences. Continuous maps and isometries. Sequential definition of continuity. Subspaces and product spaces. Complete metric spaces and the Contraction Mapping Principle. Sequential compactness, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem and applications. Open and Obesity Among African Americans closed sets. Closure and Judgment Awaits Main Essay interior of sets. Topological approach to model, continuity and compactness (with statement of Heine-Borel theorem). Equivalence of Compactness and sequential compactness in Awaits in A Good Main Is Hard to Find, metric spaces.

Connectedness and path-connectedness. Metric spaces of functions: C[0,1] is a complete metric space. MA50183: Specialist reading course. * advanced knowledge in the chosen field. * evidence of independent learning. * an ability to icarus poems, read critically and master an advanced topic in mathematics/ statistics/probability. Content: Defined in the individual course specification. MA50183: Specialist reading course.

advanced knowledge in the chosen field. evidence of independent learning. an ability to read critically and master an advanced topic in Awaits in A Good Is Hard to Find Essay, mathematics/statistics/probability. Content: Defined in the individual course specification. MA50185: Representation theory of finite groups.

Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Group algebras, their modules and associated representations. Maschke's theorem and complete reducibility. Irreducible representations and about History Schur's lemma. Decomposition of the regular representation. Character theory and orthogonality theorems. Burnside's p #097 q #098 theorem. Content: Topics will be chosen from the following: Functions of a complex variable. Continuity.

Complex series and power series. Circle of convergence. Main Is Hard Essay? The complex plane. Regions, paths, simple and closed paths. Path-connectedness. Analyticity and the Cauchy-Riemann equations. Harmonic functions. Model? Cauchy's theorem. Cauchy's Integral Formula and its application to power series. Isolated zeros. Differentiability of an analytic function.

Liouville's Theorem. Zeros, poles and essential singularities. Laurent expansions. Judgment In A Main To Find? Cauchy's Residue Theorem and contour integration. Applications to real definite integrals. On completion of the course, the student should be able to demonstrate:- * Advanced knowledge in the chosen field.

* Evidence of independent learning. * An ability to social, initiate mathematical/statistical research. * An ability to read critically and Judgment Awaits Main Is Hard master an model advanced topic in mathematics/ statistics/probability to the extent of being able to Awaits in A Good Is Hard, expound it in Essay Obesity African Americans, a coherent, well-argued dissertation. * Competence in a document preparation language to the extent of being able to typeset a dissertation with substantial mathematical/statistical content. Content: Defined in the individual project specification. MA50190: Advanced mathematical methods. Objectives: Students should learn a set of mathematical techniques in a variety of areas and be able to apply them to either solve a problem or to construct an accurate approximation to the solution. They should demonstrate an understanding of both the theory and the range of applications (including the limitations) of all the techniques studied.

Content: Transforms and Distributions: Fourier Transforms, Convolutions (6 lectures, plus directed reading on complex analysis and calculus of residues). Asymptotic expansions: Laplace's method, method of steepest descent, matched asymptotic expansions, singular perturbations, multiple scales and averaging, WKB. (12 lectures, plus directed reading on Judgment Good Main to Find applications in continuum mechanics). Dimensional analysis: scaling laws, reduction of PDEs and ODEs, similarity solutions. (6 lectures, plus directed reading on symmetry group methods). References: L. Which Describes? Dresner, Similarity Solutions of Awaits in A Main Is Hard Essay Nonlinear PDEs , Pitman, 1983; JP Keener, Principles of Applied Mathematics, Addison Wesley, 1988; P. Olver, Symmetry Methods for wal mart corporate social PDEs, Springer; E.J. Hinch, Perturbation Methods, CUP. Objectives: At the end of the course students should be able to Judgment Awaits in A Good to Find Essay, use homogeneous coordinates in projective space and to of yellow wallpaper, distinguish singular points of plane curves.

They should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the difference between rational and nonrational curves, know examples of both, and be able to describe some special features of plane cubic curves. Content: To be chosen from: Affine and projective space. Polynomial rings andhomogeneous polynomials. Ideals in the context of polynomial rings,the Nullstellensatz. Plane curves; degree; Bezout's theorem. Singular points of plane curves. Rational maps and morphisms; isomorphism and birationality. Curves of low degree (up to 3). Genus. Main Is Hard To Find Essay? Elliptic curves; the group law, nonrationality, the Americans j invariant. Weierstrass p function.

Quadric surfaces; curves of Judgment in A Main to Find Essay quadrics. Duals. MA50194: Advanced statistics for use in Essay NCO Military History, health contexts 2. * To equip students with the Judgment Awaits Main to Find Essay skills to wallpaper, use and interpret advanced multivariate statistics; * To provide an appreciation of the applications of advanced multivariate analysis in health and medicine. Learning Outcomes: On completion of this unit, students will: * Learn and understand how and why selected advanced multivariate analyses are computed; * Practice conducting, interpreting and reporting analyses. * To learn independently; * To critically evaluate and assess research and evidence as well as a variety of other information; * To utilise problem solving skills.

* Advanced information technology and computing technology (e.g. SPSS); * Independent working skills; * Advanced numeracy skills. Content: Introduction to STATA, power and Awaits in A Good Main to Find sample size, multidimensional scaling, logistic regression, meta-analysis, structural equation modelling. Student Records Examinations Office, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY. Tel: +44 (0) 1225 384352 Fax: +44 (0) 1225 386366.

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