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Internet Encyclopedia of and fitch, Philosophy. Artistic medium is an art critical concept that first arose in 18 th century European discourse about art. Karamazov Summary. Medium analysis has historically attempted to identify that out of which works of art and, more generally, art forms are created, in order to abacrombie better articulate norms or standards by which works of art and art forms can be evaluated. Since the 19 th century, medium analysis has emerged in two different forms of critical and theoretical discourse about Mahandas, art.Within traditional art forms, such as painting and sculpture, modernist artists and critics began to abacrombie and fitch interrogate art forms and the history of their possibilities in order to discover the necessary conditions for instances of those forms. This modernist interest in medium aimed to strip away unnecessary traditional artistic conventions in order to identify that which is essential to the form. Within newly emergent forms of popular art, such as movies, comics, and Mahandas Essay video games, artists and critics have attempted to articulate both the ways the norms of these forms of popular art arise from new material and technological modes of creating and interacting with reproducible images. The possibilities for an art form, whether traditional or newly emergent, can only be discovered by artists in abacrombie, acts of as, artistic creation. For this reason, the relation between art forms and their media develops and changes as the art forms continue to be discovered and and fitch reimagined by of manifest, artists. Artistic medium is a term that is used by and fitch, artists and art critics to refer to that out of which a work of art or, more generally, a particular art form, is made. There are, generally speaking, two related ways of using artistic medium in depersonalization is defined as, critical or artistic discourse.
On the one hand, we often talk about an artistic medium by reference to the material out of which a work of art is made. Works of art in museums or galleries will often have the medium listed along with the title and the artist’s name on the display card. A painting might have “oil on and fitch canvas” or “watercolor” listed along with the artist’s name and the work’s title; a sculpture might have “marble,” “steel,” or “papier-mache” listed in the same way. On the other hand, we also talk about medium to refer to the way a work of art organizes its audience’s experience in space and time. An actor might talk about the Active Histroy Cancellation examples, differences in performing on television and on film as performing in two different artistic media.
Or a critic might describe television as a “writer’s medium” and movies as a “director’s medium.” Sometimes there may be no interesting differences regarding the material out of which the work was made; for this way of abacrombie and fitch, using medium, the crucial differences have to do with the spatiotemporal organization of the where place, audience’s experience of the work of art. Much of the critical and theoretical interest in the concept of artistic medium stems from a belief that analyzing the abacrombie, material conditions that underlie a particular art form allows us to articulate its norms and standards. Often critics and the louisiana an important study of manifest destiny? theorists who make use of the and fitch, concept of artistic medium do so in order to connect an analysis of an art form’s material basis and conditions with some claim about what artistic norms or standards are proper to the art form. Because the connection between a description of a medium, an art form’s material basis, and karamazov summary the artistic experiences appropriate to that medium is and fitch a matter of some controversy, clarification of the philosophical insights and confusions associated with the concept of artistic medium must start not by arriving at its comprehensive definition, but rather by noting the characteristic forms of reasoning in which the concept is used. There have been two relatively distinct forms of discourse involving artistic medium : a modernist discourse, and one associated with newly emergent popular art forms such as movies and comics. The uses of artistic medium in purchase in the study of manifest, these discursive traditions have shared important similarities, especially a reliance on the concept to identify what is distinctive about abacrombie and fitch, a particular art form and is defined an interest in grounding the norms governing a particular art form in the form’s material basis. Abacrombie And Fitch. But there are important differences as well. Active Noise Control: Of Noise Cancellation Essay. Modernist uses of the concept appeal to artistic medium as a way of abacrombie and fitch, justifying avant-garde approaches to traditional art forms by making clear how contemporary experimental instances of a form are genuine instances of that form because they inherit the tradition in question by purifying it of Noise Control: The of Noise Cancellation Essay, all that is and fitch inessential and accidental. Proponents of newly emergent popular art forms, on the other hand, are interested in did the witch trials, articulating what is unique about the new forms in order to locate their possibilities in distinction from traditional or older forms and to demonstrate how its best instances are works of art.
In recent years, some analytic philosophers of art have suggested that the concept of and fitch, artistic medium is why is treaty an important document in the destiny? necessarily a confused one and should be abandoned in abacrombie and fitch, favor of did the salem, other art-critical concepts such as style or genre. For example, Noel Carroll, in his theorization of film in the 1980s and 90s, suggested abandoning medium as a critically inert and confused category. More recently, Carroll has found critical uses for the concept of artistic medium, especially in the analysis of and fitch, exemplary instances of Active Noise Control:, avant-garde film. Though Carroll does now recognize legitimate applications of the concept of artistic medium in film criticism and theory, it is nonetheless worthwhile to take seriously his initial radical skeptical challenge to critical and and fitch theoretical uses of the purchase document in the study of manifest, concept of abacrombie and fitch, artistic medium. Doing so allows one to articulate certain characteristic confusions that some theorists and critics have historically exhibited in their medium analyses. But, equally, it allows for the opportunity to clarify what, historically, has characterized the richest and most insightful critical and theoretical uses of artistic medium . As we shall see, these kinds of confusions are apt to arise when the theorist or critic does not remember that artistic medium is an art critical concept. As an art critical concept, what a medium for an art form is can only be known through artists discovering its possibilities in why is purchase treaty an important document in the of manifest destiny?, the creation of works within the form. In general, confusions arise in using artistic medium when theorists and critics do not treat the concept as a critical one, but instead picture a medium as something that could be identified prior to and independently of any particular artistic uses to which it is put. In Art as Experience (1934), John Dewey attempts to combat this possibility for confusion by distinguishing between an artistic medium and raw material. When we identify some collection of matter prior to and independent of any particular artistic context, then we have identified some raw material, which may, it is true, be put to use for various artistic ends.
But we cannot specify what artistic possibilities are available to artists by abacrombie and fitch, identifying and analyzing that material. Rather, when a given vehicle is taken up and explored within a particular artistic problematic or tradition, artists discover it as an artistic medium. It is thus through the work of artists that the artistic possibilities of an artistic medium can be discovered, and not by analyzing the material in isolation. In this sense artistic medium essentially is a critical concept. What is possible within a particular medium is discovered by Mahandas Gandhi Essay, artists as they attempt to explore a particular artistic problematic or inherit a particular artistic tradition. For this reason, what the medium of an art form is, as Theodor Adorno insists in Philosophy of New Music (1948), is a historical question.
There is no fixed, ahistorical answer to the question, “What are the material conditions for painting, or music, or any particular art form?” In order to clarify the nature of the concept artistic medium , this article takes two different, although closely related, lines of abacrombie, approach. This article will first clarify the roles artistic medium can rightfully play within critical and theoretical discourses by responding to wilfred owen the challenge of medium skepticism, which takes the concept to be necessarily confused. Then, it will outline the abacrombie and fitch, history of artistic medium ’s emergence by describing the brothers, forms of critical reasoning in which the concept has been characteristically used. In so doing, the article will articulate why the and fitch, concept has been so important for the development of new forms of popular art and for avant-garde and modernist experimentation, and why the concept has been vulnerable to characteristic confusions. The first section of trials take, this article will engage with the challenge of medium skepticism. Medium skepticism, a position recently prominent in the philosophy of art, holds that artistic medium gives rise to abacrombie a set of characteristic confusions because the concept is both essentializing and one that grounds its reasoning in a priori reflection upon the nature of the material basis of an art form. As we shall see, those two theoretical temptations are not inherent in the concept but are dangers only given a certain picture of how we determine what the medium is.
Then, employing Adorno’s thought that our understanding of what a medium is must be located in the history of the development of brothers, its art form, the article describes the emergence of the concept of artistic medium and the history of its critical and theoretical uses in the development of and fitch, modern arts. First, there is a brief account of how philosophers and critics in the ancient world and the European tradition theorized artistic possibilities relative to a given art form prior to the emergence of artistic medium as a critical and theoretical category: namely, by identifying an art form and its norms and standards by specifying its proper experience. Then, the two sites of emergence for the concept of artistic medium are described: first, in the 18 th century, in the critical work of Gotthold Lessing and, most importantly, his reflections on where did the salem the differences between painting and poetry; second, most decisively, in the 19 th century, in response to the invention of photography, its potential as a new art form, and abacrombie its relation to painting. This complex historical field within which the concept of artistic medium emerged allows us to locate the the louisiana purchase document in the study, centrality of the concept in 20 th -century artistic discourses and also the philosophical confusions associated with it. 2. The Challenge of Medium Skepticism. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Noel Carroll issued what we may call the challenge of medium skepticism; he argued that medium analysis of film is necessarily confused and that film’s medium can be identified, but that it has no artistically normative implications. Carroll’s interest in the concept of artistic medium originated from within film theory, but his claims about abacrombie, medium analysis being an essentializing discourse, and his recommendations that theorists and critics abandon the concept of artistic medium in favor of other art theoretic concepts like genre and style, apply to the use of medium as an art theoretic concept in general.
More recently, Carroll has moved away from his medium skepticism and has acknowledged uses for artistic medium , especially in describing and evaluating avant-garde or structural film. Nonetheless, evaluating the challenge of medium skepticism is valuable in order to clarify how critics and depersonalization theorists use artistic medium in characteristically confused ways and how the concept can be used in ways that avoid those confusions. In responding to the challenge of medium skepticism, we articulate the and fitch, value of artistic medium . At the root of Carroll’s concern is his contention that medium analysis ultimately depends, either implicitly or explicitly, on an illicit judgment from the nature of material conditions underlying the work of art to a set of norms and prescriptions meant to govern an art form. Carroll contends that medium analysis must slip into Active Noise Histroy Cancellation, a theory of medium specificity in which each art form has a single medium and each medium has a distinctive feature that does and should characterize artistic creation within the form: the medium’s distinctive feature or power provides the and fitch, aim the art form and its practitioners should pursue. Carroll’s rejection of brothers, medium specificity, which he sees as the inescapable heart of medium analysis, consists of two related objections: first, that medium analysis necessarily essentializes by identifying an art form with a single medium and a medium with a unique characteristic; and second, that medium analysis is structured around a priori reflection on and fitch the nature of the Mahandas Essay, medium, yielding normative prescriptions about which artistic experiences are appropriate that in fact merely reflect one’s theoretical biases or idiosyncratic tastes. b. The Need for the Concept of Artistic Medium. It is true that much medium analysis essentializes, but critical or theoretical discourse involving medium is abacrombie not necessarily essentializing. Why Is An Important Study Destiny?. It may seem that the modernist tradition, for and fitch, example, supports Carroll’s contention that use of artistic medium is necessarily essentializing, since exploration of an art form by means of its media often meant stripping away all that could be in order to Noise The of Noise examples discover what was essential to the art form.
However, the modernist question of what is essential to and fitch the art form is itself a particular, historically-located question about artistic medium, and whatever answers modernist artists generated need not be taken as definitive of the timeless and unchanging essence of some particular art form. In fact, rejection of essentializing claims is revealed as necessary for sound medium analysis, since there is no independent grasp on what counts as an Gandhi, artistic medium outside of the context provided by a particular artistic problem or concern. This can be somewhat obscured for abacrombie, us because of the importance of modernism for owen analysis, our understanding of artistic medium as a concept; it is abacrombie characteristic of Active Control: The of Noise, modernist artists to take an art form itself as a question or problem to abacrombie be explored. The modernist question of Noise The Histroy Cancellation examples, what, for example, constitutes the conditions of painting is part of an artistic project that takes as its starting point the history of painting and looks to abacrombie and fitch inherit that tradition by stripping away all that is inessential to painting. But modernist artists and critics identify and Active Noise The Cancellation Essay examples explore shape or surface or color as they arise as problems or conditions for painting at a particular historical moment, not because of some timeless understanding they have of the nature of the media as such. There are also essentialist tendencies in the discourses surrounding photography, film, and other new artistic forms. These essentialist claims often arise because the abacrombie, medium analysis starts from the problem of the new technological bases for these art forms. In this tradition of medium analysis, theorists and critics start with reflection on Active The Histroy of Noise Cancellation Essay examples the nature of, say, photography as a new technological, productive process and draw aesthetic prescriptions or standards from the ontological structure of photographic experiences.
Rudolf Arnheim, a film theorist prominent in the 1930s and after, offers a perspicuous example of a commitment to medium specificity in his theorization of film. Arnheim identifies the characteristic differences between a black and white photographic moving image and reality, and prescribes their accentuation as the basis for film art. Arnheim’s theoretical commitments to the purity of abacrombie and fitch, film as a medium led him to reject the why is of manifest, development of and fitch, color film and where salem trials place sound film as detracting from the artistic possibilities of silent black and white movies. As an example of medium analysis gone wrong, Arnheim’s restrictive prescriptions exemplify the reasons for Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity theories, for Arnheim’s commitment to the purity of silent film and rejection of the possibilities of sound movies reflects his own theoretical views about the unique characteristics of film itself, but voiced as an essentialist understanding of abacrombie and fitch, film. Arnheim’s critical blindness to the possibilities created with sound and color stems from his a priori commitment to an understanding of the nature of the photographic image. But if Arnheim’s use of the concept artistic medium is subject to the confusions of medium specificity that Carroll warns of, other paradigmatic instances of medium analysis for emergent popular art forms do not fall prey to them. Active Noise Histroy Of Noise. The critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin, in his “Little History of Photography” (1931), for example, articulates unique characteristics of abacrombie and fitch, photography that make possible artistic expression. However, Benjamin does not assume in advance of Gandhi Essay, his critical investigation that he knows what art can be or everything that photography can do. Rather, Benjamin is committed to the view that photography’s invention changed what we could do, how we could see, and how we relate to our world and, at and fitch the same time, changed what can count as art and artistic experiences.
Benjamin starts not with an wilfred owen futility, essentializing, a priori analysis of the nature of photography in itself and for any possible use, but with a critically honed appreciation for the photographer Eugene Atget’s work and how that work discovers and explores certain characteristic possibilities for photography. Benjamin aims to identify the artistic possibilities within emergent artistic practices, what he identifies in and fitch, his essay “The Work of Art in witch, the Age of abacrombie, Its Technological Reproducibility” as art’s developmental tendencies. Depersonalization. He does not attempt to offer an analysis of the medium independent of its emerging artistic uses and prescribe what those uses should be. Instead, Benjamin identifies unique characteristics of the new medium; that is, he describes new things that we can do with the new technology, so that he can articulate terms by abacrombie and fitch, which future artistic expressions can be understood. This is a critical judgment, to be evaluated in light of past and future instances of photography and brothers summary photographic arts. Carroll, then, worries about certain forms of theoretical confusion and critical blindness that can arise around commitments to medium specificity. Sometimes critics and theorists concerned with emergent popular art forms, like Arnheim, do succumb to the temptation towards medium specificity and prescribe some range of appropriate artistic experiences based on a supposed a priori , essentialist understanding of the abacrombie, nature of the technological basis for the art form. But the best critics and theorists engaged in medium analysis are not attempting to prescribe to artists which experiences are proper to the medium; rather, they are critically evaluating works of art in order to offer an analysis of why the art works on its audience in the ways that it does, and to articulate new possibilities that change what art can be. Within the depersonalization, modernist tradition of medium analysis, most artists, critics, and theorists do not begin with an a priori , essentialist analysis of the abacrombie, medium in order to karamazov identify how it should be used in particular art forms. Instead, it is characteristic of the modernist tradition that the art form itself is taken up by artists as a problem or a question. Such artists, theorists, and abacrombie and fitch critics do not draw out artistic prescriptions based on an understanding of the medium in did the salem witch trials place, isolation from any particular use.
Rather, questions of shape and color are explored so as to find ways in which shape and color are conditions of possibility for painting. As we shall see, some postmodernist theorists and critics, such as Rosalind Krauss, share a version of Carroll’s worry that interest in exploring a medium demonstrates a commitment to some form of medium specificity: they object to the role of medium exploration in abacrombie, modernist arts, believing that modernist artists continually rediscover the Active Control: The Histroy of Noise Essay, same few automatisms or forms of repetition that they then explore as if they have, through the originality of abacrombie, their creation, taken on the art form itself. It is common in critical discussions of art to use art form and medium more or less interchangeably and to karamazov summary talk about, for example, “the medium of painting.” It is worth distinguishing between an and fitch, art form as a particular form of experience and a medium as the material conditions that underlie that form of experience and make it possible. But it is perhaps not surprising that many people do not rigorously maintain a clear distinction between these two levels in everyday discourse. More importantly, widespread talk about the medium of an art form need not indicate an implicit commitment to there being a specific material uniquely associated each particular art form. Instead, we may think about talking about the Active The of Noise Cancellation, medium of an abacrombie, art form as indicating a level of analysis. Furthermore, what is picked out by some claim about medium is a contextual question relative to the history of the art form and the particular artistic problematic the work in question explores. If talking about the medium of an owen futility, art form can indicate a level of analysis rather than a commitment to the medium specificity thesis, then we are open to thinking about the medium as a shifting collection of automatisms or forms of productive repetition that can evolve through the abacrombie and fitch, history of the art form. Though Carroll worries that confusions can arise in using the concept of wilfred owen futility analysis, artistic medium, he acknowledges in abacrombie, his later work that critics and theorists have found productive critical and theoretical uses of the concept. In general, medium analysis that is grounded in exploring how characteristic experiences constituting a work of art or an art form are structured and in the study achieved does not fall prey to the dangers of medium specificity that worried Carroll. For medium analysis pursued in abacrombie, this manner is critical, articulating the automatisms that underlie ongoing artistic practices.
It begins with an artistic problem or concern and identifies media by the role they play in the discovery and exploration of possibilities within that framework. It does not start with reflection on is defined as the nature of the abacrombie, medium itself in order to is defined as deduce what characteristic properties or features are appropriate to exploit for artistic ends. Theorists and critics are most likely to fall victim to medium specificity confusions when they picture the abacrombie, medium of an art form as some type of raw material that can be grasped independently of and prior to its uses within an art form. Instead, our grasp on what a medium is and can be only arises within the context established by an artistic problem or tradition, to be discovered by artists and articulated by the louisiana treaty document study of manifest, critics. Furthermore, Carroll warns against attempting to and fitch identify an art form with a single artistic medium. Witch. There is no reason to think that there is some single material condition that constitutes the possibilities within an entire art form.
Instead, within art forms, there are different media, different forms of repetition or automatisms, which have significance in and fitch, structuring characteristic instances of the form. This means that, for example, film itself, considered as a technological innovation, may not always provide the most productive level of unity for medium analysis. Rather, we can ask: What are the various media at work in popular movies, in documentaries, in cartoons, and in particular film arts? How do those automatisms allow for summary, the discovery of the artistic possibilities within particular forms of film art? Approaching medium analysis in this way allows one to locate the concept of artistic medium as a critical tool for understanding modern art experiences in which art is taken to have its distinct forms of abacrombie and fitch, experience that have their own norms and standards without necessarily committing to any essentialist assumptions. 3. Theorizing About Art Forms Before the Emergence of the Concept of Artistic Medium. Prior to the 18 th century, theorists of art articulated the norms and standards characteristic of a given art form without any reference to a medium or the material conditions that underlie the work of art. Instead, theorists in the ancient and medieval worlds identified particular art forms by articulating the artistic experiences characteristic to those art forms.
In so doing, they then could develop an account of what was and was not appropriate within an Gandhi, art form, given the experience at which the art form necessarily aimed. Aristotle’s account of tragedy in abacrombie and fitch, his Poetics is one of the earliest examples of this way of theorizing about an art form and is a paradigmatic instance of it. Aristotle develops his account of tragedy as an art form by identifying the characteristic experience—catharsis—instances of the art form provide for audiences. He is able to Noise Control: The of Noise Essay develop a number of claims about how a tragedy should be structured in order to achieve this characteristic experience. Aristotle opens his account of tragedy by discussing what could arguably be considered the material basis of the art form. He identifies rhythm, melody, and and fitch verse as the means by which the effects fundamental to tragedy are achieved. However, he immediately notes that other art forms also utilize those same means and Active of Noise argues that what is specific to tragedy as an art form cannot be identified by abacrombie and fitch, analysis of the means by which instances of the is defined, art form are achieved. Instead, he turns his attention to the features of tragedy that are specific to the art form by analyzing the experience that structures the abacrombie, form. For Aristotle, tragedy is able to generate an emotional experience in its audience involving pity and fear. Purchase Treaty Document In The Study. His name for this experience is catharsis . The precise nature of and fitch, this Aristotelian catharsis has been and continues to futility be a matter of great debate: it has been taken to be an experience of emotional discharge, of emotional purification, and of moral education, to name just a few interpretations.
Fortunately, we do not need to determine what exactly Aristotle took catharsis to be in order to note the general shape of his reasoning about tragedy as an art form. That tragedy aims for abacrombie, catharsis, a specific emotional experience for those who watch the drama, defines the nature of tragedy as an art form for Aristotle and organizes his analysis of how tragedies are structured. Most importantly, for Aristotle, tragedy can best achieve an experience of catharsis in its audience because it, unlike history or epic poetry, has a dramatic form. The Of Noise Essay. The events of a tragedy unfold as the audience watches; the audience apprehends events as they unfold, constituting the unity of the plot as a single action. The audience of a history or epic poem, on the other hand, learns of many actions and events, and their interrelation and history, by and fitch, means of a narrative rather than dramatic form. Because the audience members for a tragedy witness the events of the did the salem witch trials take, drama as they play out in front of them, they are able to and fitch understand how those events, on the one hand, have an inexorable logic and, on the other, arise from choices that the protagonist makes that could have been otherwise. It is tragedy’s dramatic form that allows the audience to experience the choices made by the protagonist as both highly contingent, in that other options or other paths are always available, and necessary, in that the protagonist is document in the of manifest destiny? such that the central action of the and fitch, tragedy is characteristic of Mahandas Essay, him.
This tension between the contingency and the inevitability of the events depicted in a tragedy arises because the audience witnesses the protagonist make a choice and come to live with, or be destroyed by, its consequences. There is, therefore, an intimate connection between the and fitch, dramatic structure of tragedy as an Active Noise of Noise examples, art form and the emotional cathartic experience available only to tragedy’s audiences. Tragedy’s characteristic experience of emotional catharsis for the audience accounts for a number of features of the art form. Take, for example, Aristotle’s claim that the protagonist of a tragedy is characteristically of a higher station or social status than its audience members are. Abacrombie. On his view, audience members who recognize the Gandhi Essay, protagonist as their social better are in position to achieve the appropriate emotional catharsis because the events that unfold are understood to and fitch be the result of the protagonist’s choices and not merely to be the result of intractable or unfortunate circumstances; the an important document in the study of manifest destiny?, heights from which the protagonist falls clarify the consequences of his action. Whether or not we agree with Aristotle about the reasons he offers for the fact that Greek tragedies characteristically centered on royal figures or even demigods, we can see that he is identifying the and fitch, art form’s characteristic experience in order to explain why the Active Histroy of Noise Cancellation examples, art form has the features it does. Other features of tragedy that Aristotle accounts for include the extent to which the central action is grounded within basic familial structures and tensions and the role of the protagonist’s ignorance in the completion of the action.
Further, Aristotle’s account of and fitch, tragedy has normative implications arising from his understanding of the brothers summary, form as aiming for and fitch, a characteristic experience. In articulating the characteristic experience for the audience at which the art form aims, Aristotle identifies and explains why certain features, such as the Gandhi, high social status of abacrombie, its protagonist and the protagonist’s ignorance, aid in producing catharsis. Thus, his account of tragedy and how it is structured outlines a set of norms and standards that arise from the aim of achieving the purchase treaty an important, art form’s characteristic experience. b. Abacrombie. Aristotle and Horace as Models for Theorizing Art. Aristotle’s analysis of tragedy as structured by did the witch, the aim of achieving a characteristic experience in its audience is paradigmatic of abacrombie, artistic analysis and theory in wilfred futility, the ancient Greek and Roman world and then again in Europe up through the 18 th century. Horace’s Ars Poetica , for example, identifies poetry by its characteristic experience, namely, an experience of and fitch, apprehending unity of action. Brothers Karamazov. Beginning in the Renaissance, Europeans began more extensive theorizing about art and art forms and they relied on abacrombie and fitch Horace and, to a lesser extent, Aristotle, in order to justify a variety of accounts of Mahandas Gandhi, art forms and the characteristic experiences that establish their norms and standards. And Fitch. For example, literary theorists such as Lodovico Castelvetro and Julius Caesar Scaliger, writing in 16 th century Italy, both defended poetry as an imitative art (following Horatian principles) and argued for the legitimacy of literature produced in popular, vernacular languages. Such arguments were soon adopted across Europe by theorists such as Joachim du Bellay and Philip Sidney, who developed largely Horatian-style defenses of vernacular poetry as an imitative art.
In the 17 th century, Aristotle’s Poetics achieved a kind of prominence as a model for theorizing the depersonalization is defined as, norms of art forms; especially in abacrombie and fitch, France, dramatists such as Pierre Corneille and literary figures associated with the Academie francaise, took Aristotle to argue for the unity of summary, action, of place, and of time as fundamental to abacrombie and fitch dramatic structure. Although it is certainly possible to identify appeals to medium within this tradition of literary criticism inspired by futility, Aristotle and Horace, most obviously in the arguments made in favor of works written in vernacular language as a legitimate means of abacrombie and fitch, artistic expression, by Mahandas, and large this Horatian tradition of poetics centers around analysis of the art form’s norms and standards by reference to an artistic aim, characteristically imitation, which structures the abacrombie and fitch, particular type of artistic experience. By contrast, theorizing about music, both in the ancient world and in the European tradition prior to the 18 th century, did make appeal to what we might think of as the medium of did the salem witch take place, music in articulating the norms underlying musical practices. However, what was identified as music’s medium itself changed over time. Abacrombie. This is summary not a weakness of these theoretical accounts but rather an abacrombie, illustration of Adorno’s contention, noted above, that our understanding of the nature of the medium of some art form is itself a product of the history of that form: there is Active Control: Histroy of Noise no fixed, ahistorical characterization of music’s medium because what musical experiences are is not fixed but continually discovered in composing and playing music. The earliest theories about the nature of music within the Western tradition held that music is the expression of a set of abacrombie, natural ratios that are equally expressed macroscopically in the movement of the celestial spheres and microscopically with the harmonies of the human soul. Pythagoras and his followers placed mathematical and owen analysis musical knowledge at the center of their studies and influenced Plato and other ancient philosophers.
One prominent example of abacrombie, this ancient tradition of theorizing music as an expression of natural harmonies is brothers summary Boethius, a Roman statesman and Neoplatonist philosopher from the 6 th century C.E. In his De institutione musica , Boethius distinguishes between three types of music: music of the spheres, music of the human spirit, and instrumental music. Boethius’ account of music as the expression of the natural macro and microscopic harmonies of the universe was important through the European Middle Ages. As the musical possibilities within the European tradition developed from monophony to polyphony in and fitch, the late Middle Ages and Active Noise Control: Histroy Essay Renaissance and then, during the Baroque era, to more complex contrapuntal forms of composition, theorizing about the nature of and fitch, music also changed. Much medieval theorizing was directly inspired by Boethius and oriented around practical instructional concerns for composers and musicians. Indeed, much of the history of Western musical theory is Noise Control: The Histroy bound up with theories of tuning.
By the 16 th century, there emerged in abacrombie, the work of theorists such as Gioseffo Zarlino, a new theoretical category—temperament—which made possible accounts better suited to describe the innovations in polyphony and counterpoint composition. Another strand of European music theory that emerged during and after the Renaissance drew on concepts from ancient rhetorical theories in order to why is the louisiana document study of manifest destiny? describe the space of musical possibilities. By the end of the 18 th century, such rhetorical analysis had largely been supplanted by a new type of analysis of musical forms, such as the sonata, in abacrombie and fitch, the work of Heinrich Koch and brothers karamazov summary others. These theoretical developments around the nature of musical experience were responsive to the evolving nature and increasing complexity of abacrombie and fitch, music composition and performance in the 18 th and 19 th century. The preceding is karamazov summary not meant to be a comprehensive overview of theorizing about art and abacrombie and fitch art forms in the ancient and European traditions prior to the 18 th century.
Importantly, theorizing about artistic medium did not have the central place in wilfred owen futility, theorizing about art forms more generally that it came to occupy beginning in the 18 th and abacrombie and fitch 19 th centuries. As art established itself as a relatively autonomous region of experience, the concept of medium emerged as a critical means of depersonalization, understanding distinct types of artistic experience. Thus while we can, in retrospect, identify candidates for music’s medium, there is something anachronistic about thinking of them as examples of theorizing about abacrombie and fitch, artistic medium , since theorists like Boethius, for example, did not categorize music as one type of artistic experience among others. As Europeans began to conceive of depersonalization is defined as, art as a distinct region of experience, the Aristotelian and Horatian model for articulating the norms of an abacrombie and fitch, art form by reflection on its overall aim was fundamentally modified with the brothers karamazov, introduction of sustained consideration of the medium as the means for and fitch, achieving a particular type of artistic experience. 4. Gotthold Lessing and the Problem of Art in the 18th Century. With his Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry , published in 1766, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is often identified as the first theorist or critic to engage in analysis, medium analysis. In that essay, he articulates the standards by which painting and poetry should depict bodies in action through an analysis of the spatiotemporal conditions under which the art forms are experienced. Many later theorists and critics identify Lessing’s essay on painting and poetry as an inspiration for their own attempts at medium analysis. Before examining the abacrombie, particulars of Lessing’s own analysis of painting and poetry, it will be helpful to note something of the Active Histroy of Noise Cancellation Essay examples, wider context of art and art criticism in abacrombie, 18 th century Europe. By the mid-18 th century in why is the louisiana treaty an important study, Europe, art had become its own distinct realm of experience, the abacrombie, culmination of a long and is defined complex process in which artistic creation gradually decoupled from religious expression.
It is a reflection of art’s new status as a distinct form of experience that the 18 th century in Europe saw the emergence of art history and art criticism as intellectual practices and aesthetic experience became an important topic for philosophers. Johann Winckelmann, for abacrombie and fitch, instance, developed the first comprehensive account of ancient art, distinguishing between Greek, Greco-Roman, and Roman art, and explicitly took up the treaty an important document study, Greeks in particular as a model for contemporary artists. And Fitch. Denis Diderot, among his many other accomplishments, began, in 1759, writing critical reports on Histroy Cancellation examples the biennial Paris Salons for a German newsletter, offering evaluations of particular artists and paintings and, equally, developing a critical account of the experiences at abacrombie and fitch which painting should aim. It is in owen analysis, this context that we should locate Lessing’s contributions to medium analysis. In writing his Laocoon essay, Lessing shared with Winckelmann and Diderot (all three writing more or less concurrently in the 1750s and 1760s) an awareness of art as a distinct form of experience and thus as posing its own particular questions and distinct problems. Lessing, like Winckelmann, held that art, inasmuch as it was distinct from religious experience, should take beauty as its ultimate aim. Further, the ancient Greek, Hellenic, and Roman artists provide the best model for contemporary artists in large part because, being pre-Christian, their work reflects an unadulterated focus on abacrombie and fitch artistic beauty for beauty’s sake.
Later Christian artists were, on this view, required to maintain a sort of double allegiance to an important document in the destiny? the demands of beauty and the teachings of the Church, to the detriment of their work artistically. Like Diderot, Lessing was interested in art’s ability to generate an and fitch, experience of Active Noise Control: The Cancellation, a kind of moral or spiritual beauty in its audience. Both Diderot and and fitch Lessing believed that painting, for example, can show moments of beauty that are not exclusively visual in nature by encouraging audiences to Active Noise Histroy imagine moral and spiritual possibilities that we do not ordinarily encounter or recognize in our everyday lives. The aesthetic aim means that painters should choose a revelatory moment within the action depicted that offers the chance to think through the nature of that action. Lessing’s work of medium analysis in the Laocoon essay begins with an art historical question: did the Laocoon Group , a statue excavated in Rome in 1506 and currently on display at the Vatican, precede or come after Virgil’s account of Laocoon and his death in the Aeneid ? In the Aeneid , Virgil recounts the story of abacrombie, Laocoon, a Trojan priest, who warns against bringing the Greek offering of a giant horse statue into Troy. Snakes sent by salem trials take place, the gods kill Laocoon and his sons; the Trojans interpret this a sign from the gods that Laocoon should not be heeded and bring the offering into the city, ensuring their ultimate doom. The question Lessing sets out to abacrombie and fitch answer, whether the sculptors inspired the poet or vice versa, serves as a jumping-off point for Lessing’s broader interest in establishing the different norms and standards that govern painting and why is purchase treaty an important document in the destiny? poetry. Lessing characterizes painting and abacrombie and fitch poetry in quite abstract and capacious terms. He defines poetry as any art form that unfolds in time and painting as inclusive of all art forms that are visual in nature.
Distinctions between the different materials out of which works of art (between marble and oil paint on canvas, say) are not relevant for Lessing’s analysis: he abstracts away from what will later be thought of by some critics and theorists as distinct artistic mediums in order to characterize painting and Active Cancellation Essay examples poetry in terms of the spatiotemporal experience of the audience in apprehending the work. This stands in and fitch, contrast with later analysis of artistic medium, which often centers on the particular matter out of which works of art are made. In fact, though often (rightly) credited as the brothers karamazov, first critic to offer an analysis of artistic medium, Lessing himself does not describe painting and poetry as artistic mediums. It is and fitch worth noting that there was no widespread appeal to a concept of artistic medium until the middle of the 19 th century, when a term that had its home in scientific contexts was extended into artistic contexts. So, although Lessing is correctly credited with the first developed medium analysis, he describes painting and poetry as different methods for achieving a particular artistic experience. Lessing’s account of painting and poetry as distinct methods for achieving a particular artistic experience modifies the mode of analysis within which theorists about art since Aristotle had worked. That Aristotle-inspired mode of analysis developed an account of the norms and standards governing an art form by identifying the experience characteristic of the art form and generating an account of the features of the forms in light of Active Noise Control: The of Noise Cancellation Essay, their contribution to the overall experience aimed at. Similarly, Lessing’s analysis of painting and poetry takes as its starting point a particular artistic aim; namely the audience’s imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, and distinguishes between two different methods for achieving that experience. Abacrombie. Unlike Aristotle, Lessing has in Gandhi, mind a general type of experience, the imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, achieved by two different methods.
Lessing is able to offer an account of the different artistic norms governing painting and poetry because he takes them up as different means by which a kind of artistic experience can be achieved, where each means is constituted by a distinct spatiotemporal structure. According to Lessing, because signs contiguous to other signs best represent objects contiguous to other objects, painting’s appropriate subject matter is bodies at a single moment of time. Similarly, because signs that succeed one another best represent objects that succeed one another in time, poetry’s appropriate subject matter is actions unfolding in time. Lessing argues that the material conditions of the method determine what is appropriate to that art form: If it is abacrombie true that in its imitations painting uses completely different means or signs than does poetry, namely figures and colors in space rather than articulated sounds in time, and futility if these signs must indisputably bear a suitable relation to the thing signified, then signs existing in space can express only objects whose wholes or parts coexist, while signs that follow one another can express only objects whose wholes or parts are consecutive. Objects or parts of and fitch, objects which exist in space are called bodies.
Accordingly, bodies with their visible properties are the true subjects of painting. Objects or parts of Essay, objects which follow one another are called actions. Accordingly, actions are the true subject of poetry. (78) Some subsequent critics and theorists have read Lessing here as offering two distinct tasks for painting and abacrombie poetry, depicting bodies and depicting action. But Lessing considers these to Mahandas be two different methods for achieving a single effect; namely, getting the audience to imagine bodies in abacrombie, action.
For he completes the thought by where did the trials take, noting “painting too can imitate actions, but only by suggestion through bodies…. And Fitch. Poetry also depicts bodies, but only by suggestion through action.” (78) Because Lessing is interested in karamazov, painting and poetry inasmuch as they are different methods for encouraging audiences to and fitch experience beauty through imagining bodies in action, he immediately goes on to outline the norms that govern these different methods. Mahandas. Poets should construct their descriptions of actions by referencing each body participating in and fitch, the overall action in is defined as, terms of a single characteristic as it makes its contributions to abacrombie and fitch the action. That allows the audience to imagine each body’s role in the overall action and so not be distracted by unnecessary detail or description. Painters should, according to Lessing, choose to depict the single moment of an overall action that encourages the audience to best imagine the action and one that offers the audience particular insight into what is at stake in the action. Homer and the sculptors who created the Laocoon Group are exemplary artists in Lessing’s view because they grasp the norms at work in their respective art forms. Homer’s mastery in part stems from his ability to offer descriptions of scenes that are centered around and grow out of an action, as when he describes Agamemnon’s armor and regalia as he is in the act of donning it. According to Lessing, Homer’s usual practice is not to Gandhi linger on description for its own sake but only to describe objects in the midst of action and and fitch only in terms of a single distinct characteristic, so as to encourage the audience’s imagination: for example, he evokes black-prowed ships skimming over a wine-dark sea. Likewise, the owen, sculptors of the Laocoon Group are exemplary inasmuch as they have chosen a moment before the snakes have crushed and broken Laocoon and he has started to scream. Instead, they show his resistance to his suffering, the way in abacrombie and fitch, which he is enduring the pain and suffering that will inevitably overwhelm him. Treaty An Important In The Study Destiny?. In this way, the audience is able to abacrombie imagine both the enormity of his suffering and the spiritual beauty of his resistance in the face of immense suffering.
Lessing’s analysis of painting and poetry, therefore, identifies them as distinct methods for wilfred owen futility analysis, exploring a shared artistic problematic and considers them insofar as they constitute the aimed-for artistic experience. And Fitch. He is Mahandas Gandhi Essay able to articulate a set of critical norms and standards for the art forms by reflecting on their different underlying spatiotemporal conditions. Lessing’s analysis establishes the dependence of the norms of painting and poetry on abacrombie the spatiotemporal conditions of the experiences of those works of where salem place, art. This dependence is the result of his choice to begin not with the material conditions of the art forms, but by locating those art forms as participating in abacrombie, a particular artistic aim, that is, the demand that painting and poetry encourage their audiences’ imaginative apprehension of the salem, beauty possible for abacrombie, bodies in action. In turn this aim determines painting and why is document study of manifest destiny? poetry as methods and gives Lessing’s normative recommendations the force they have. Lessing’s theorization of artistic medium proved influential as questions of art and aesthetic experience moved to and fitch the center of philosophical thought at the end of the 18 th and the beginning of the 19 th century. Johann Herder, for example, in his Sculpture: Some Observations on Form and Shape from Pygmalion’s Creative Dream (1778) extends and complicates Lessing’s approach to wilfred owen futility analysis artistic medium by denying that painting and sculpture could, as Lessing held, be understood in the same terms because they both offer a single moment of an action up to the audience for contemplation. Instead, Herder holds that painting and sculpture are not subject to the same norms and standards because they constitute different artistic media. Most decisively, the concept of abacrombie, artistic medium plays a central role in the thought of where salem trials take place, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, arguably the most influential philosopher of the abacrombie, early 19 th century. On Hegel’s view, the norms and wilfred owen analysis ideals that structure human interactions develop out abacrombie of and purchase an important document study so are made explicit in the history of human political development, intellectual development, and abacrombie and fitch artistic development.
Artistic production in its various forms is humanity’s attempt to express the Gandhi Essay, ideals structuring human life, especially those ideals particularly associated with beauty. But if this is case, then the question arises: Why are there different art forms, given that they all are structured around a shared, if at times inchoate, desire? Hegel’s answer to and fitch this question, most developed in his Lectures on Aesthetics (published posthumously in 1835), is that different artistic media serve as the basis for and so give rise to the possible forms of purchase treaty an important document in the study of manifest, expression within particular art forms. In Hegel’s work, we have perhaps the clearest example of the consequences of conceiving of art as a distinct form of human experience, separate from religion and politics for example. And Fitch. In thinking of art as a general field of experience within which we can distinguish distinct art forms, the where salem witch trials place, concept of artistic medium is critical in allowing Hegel to maintain the and fitch, unity of art in general while still distinguishing clearly between particular art forms and the norms and standards that govern them. 5. The Invention of Photography and karamazov the Discovery of abacrombie and fitch, Its Artistic Possibilities.
a. The Etymology of the Term “Artistic Medium” As noted above, Lessing does not describe his analysis of painting and poetry as an analysis of did the salem witch trials, artistic medium. He talks about painting and poetry as different methods for achieving an and fitch, experience. Brothers Summary. Indeed, it was not until the middle of the 19 th century, almost 90 years after Lessing’s Laocoon essay, that medium began to be used in artistic contexts, referring to the material conditions out of which works of art are made. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the earliest use of abacrombie, medium in an artistic context, signifying the raw material out of why is purchase treaty an important in the study of manifest, which a work of art is made, is from 1861. This new use of medium in an artistic context grew out of an earlier use that describes the substance (such as oil or water) that painters mix with pigment to create paint. We still speak of oil paint as a distinct medium that differs from abacrombie, watercolor; this use is an extension from an earlier one that identifies oil and water as media in Mahandas, which pigments are mixed.
While the abacrombie and fitch, first uses of medium in artistic contexts often referenced the material out of which paint and then paintings were made, the why is the louisiana purchase an important document in the study destiny?, timing of this development is likely connected to a radical problem that gripped the art world of the 19 th century; namely, the abacrombie and fitch, emergence of technologies that reproduced images: first lithography, and Mahandas then photography, which reproduces images of our world now past. In the 1820s, Nicephore Niepce developed the first photoetching process; in the 1830s, a number of inventors, most prominently Niepce’s partner Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot, worked independently on developing photographic processes that were capable of abacrombie, capturing images mechanically with much shorter exposures. By the end of the 1830s, both Talbot and Mahandas Gandhi Essay Daguerre had publicly debuted their technology for mechanically capturing and reproducing images from the world. The invention of photography was widely felt as a challenge to the received understanding of what could be art and what artistic experiences were proper to painting specifically. But the debates surrounding photography and painting in the 19 th century largely centered on whether or in what ways photography could serve as the means of and fitch, artistic expression.
The new photographic technology was, in many cases, quickly distinguished from processes by which works of art were produced and dismissed as being incapable of producing art. The most prominent argument made against the possibility that photography could be art was based on depersonalization the mechanical nature of the photographic process. William Fox Talbot, for example, claims in the introduction to his Pencil of Nature (1844) that photographs are drawn by nature using light. Talbot’s view that photography was the production of natural images by mechanical means alone, without the intervention of abacrombie and fitch, any human artistry, was widely shared in the 19 th century and taken to be grounds that photography could not ultimately be an artistic medium. If the where did the witch trials, photograph is made by the interaction of natural processes of light and chemicals, then it cannot be a work of abacrombie and fitch, art, any more than a tree or a sunset could be. The 19 th century debates about the possibility of photographic art seem, from our 21 st century vantage point, hopelessly misguided. But this is largely because we are the recipients of an understanding of what can count as art that has been altered by the development of reproductive technologies like photography and film. As. Throughout most of the 19 th century, it seemed obvious to a large number of abacrombie and fitch, critics that the mechanical nature of photography excluded it straightforwardly from consideration as art. Charles Baudelaire for example, in his Salon of 1859, worries that the wilfred owen futility, public is starting to confuse photography for art by mistakenly taking a mechanical means for image reproduction as capable of inspiring imagination. Photographers, on this view, were mere technicians, only capable of reproducing natural images by exploiting the laws of nature.
Because there was no human creativity at work in producing the abacrombie and fitch, photographic images, those images could not be art and the photographers were not artists. Those who argued that photography could be art generally took two lines of response. On the one hand, many held that, while photography was ultimately a mechanical process, it could be artistic inasmuch as it is where did the witch trials able to mimic painting and the artistic experiences of abacrombie and fitch, which painting is capable. Noise Control: Histroy. On the other hand, some took the opposite tack and argued that photography’s artistic possibilities lay in exploiting photography’s unique features. On the first line of response, photography was artistic by the extent to which it was able to look like painting or otherwise reproduce it.
On the second, photography was seen as artistic by the extent to which it distinguished itself from painting’s artistic possibilities by taking advantage of the features that only it possessed. Photographers attempted to imitate painting in several ways. And Fitch. One of the earliest uses to which photography was put was the reproduction of paintings in order to disseminate widely what would otherwise require a pilgrimage to see. Further, some early photographers took photographs that were essentially reproducing the subject matter of earlier paintings by staging scenes reminiscent of those paintings. These genre photographs are the wilfred analysis, primary objects of Baudelaire’s denunciation of photography as essentially lacking in human creativity. Finally, some photographers began to produce photographic experiences that mimicked experiences recognizable from painting, utilizing soft focus, for example. Julia Margaret Cameron’s photographic work exemplifies many of these quasi-painterly techniques and is deeply influenced by pre-Raphaelite painting. On the abacrombie and fitch, other hand, many photographers and critics, beginning with the earliest instances of photography, emphasized aspects of Essay, photographic production that were taken to be unique to abacrombie it and therefore unlike painting.
In announcing Daguerre’s invention to the French Academy of Sciences in 1839, Francois Arago emphasized the salem witch, precision of the photographic image and its ability to allow its audience to see aspects of their world that they would otherwise be unable to abacrombie and fitch see. During the 19 th century, photographic practices evolved to capture moments and aspects of the world that are fleeting. Eugene Atget, for example, developed his photographic productive practice around capturing aspects of why is the louisiana purchase in the of manifest destiny?, Parisian life that were disappearing as the city continually modernized, memorializing scenes from a form of life that was fading away. Walter Benjamin, looking back at the development of 19 th and early 20 th century photography from the vantage point of the 1930s, articulates photography’s unique features in terms of its ability to allow us to become conscious of what otherwise passes before our eyes unrecognized. On Benjamin’s view, photography’s ability to reveal what he terms the optical unconscious constitutes its distinctive power and its value as an artistic medium. c. Accounting for Photography’s Artistic Possibilities. The problem posed by abacrombie and fitch, photography and its relation to futility art generally and painting specifically led to an approach towards questions of artistic medium distinct from the approach pioneered by Lessing. Lessing’s approach starts with an artistic aim and then identifies the distinct norms arising from different methods for achieving it. Photography instead presented itself as a problem: the question is not how best to and fitch achieve a particular artistic experience with a mode of expression or set of material conditions, but instead, to is defined what extent, if any, can this new mode of expression be artistic?
The emergence of this new technology raised a pressing question: Can it serve as the basis for artistic creation and, if so, what aspects or features of it are most appropriate for creating art? This approach to medium analysis begins by identifying a particular medium and its unique features or characteristics and determining what artistic experiences artists using the medium should pursue. Both the and fitch, early defenders and objectors to photography’s artistic value follow the wilfred owen, same basic template for analyzing medium. First, the abacrombie, critic identifies the medium (the photographic technology that constitutes a new mode of expression) and determines its unique features. Then, the theorist or critic evaluates the ways in which those unique features can generate artistic experiences. Control: Of Noise Cancellation Examples. There are two ways this evaluation can happen.
One can reflect on the nature of the medium and the unique features of its productive process and try to abacrombie deduce an absolute a priori claim about its artistic possibilities independently of critical examination of the works produced; this approach generates confusions or, at best, tendentious critical prescriptions. Brothers Summary. Alternately, one can engage in a critical investigation of work that utilizes the unique features of the medium in and fitch, order to articulate how new artistic possibilities are being generated. Baudelaire’s dismissal of photography’s potential for depersonalization as, artistic value exemplifies the first possibility. Benjamin’s critical examination of Atget’s work exemplifies the abacrombie, latter. 6. Modernism as the Discovery of wilfred futility, Medium. As modernism transformed almost all traditional art forms more or less simultaneously during the first half of the 20 th century, artistic medium became one of the crucial art critical concepts not just for theorists and critics but for artists as well. For modernist artists, inheriting traditional art forms meant querying the conditions of possibility underlying the art form in order to determine, through discovery and exploration, the abacrombie and fitch, necessary conditions for contemporary instances of the Noise The Histroy examples, art form.
For this reason, modernist arts often seemed to critics and some artists to be exercises in shedding, as some things taken to be essential to the form earlier in the tradition are discovered to be mere conventions and thus no longer conditions for and fitch, contemporary instances of the art form. There are too many important modernist artists across a wide variety of traditional art forms to take give a comprehensive survey of them here. However, it is worth identifying a few of them in order to emphasize the abacrombie, modernist concerns that were deeply shared by artists across a broad swath of different art forms. In dance, for example, Isadora Duncan, the American dancer, rejected the inherited tradition of ballet techniques and thought of her own practice as the exploration of dance’s medium, the human body in its freedom of movement and Control: Histroy Cancellation gesture. In his “Ornament and Crime” (1913), Adolf Loos, an and fitch, Austrian architect, critic, and theorist, argued against unnecessary architectural ornamentation in ways that heralded the modernist emphasis on Active Noise Histroy Cancellation examples purity of form and design.
The modernist architectural commitment to form following function in design and the general dictum that buildings should be “machines for living” culminated in the work of architects such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In literature, the work of Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Franz Kafka, to name only a few, all differently exemplify modernist commitments. In Joyce’s work, for example, we can see a broad modernist development from an exploration of the history of forms of abacrombie and fitch, literary expression in Ulysses (1922) to an obsessive examination of the expressive possibilities of language itself in why is the louisiana an important study destiny?, his final book, Finnegans Wake (1939). b. Modernism and 20th Century Music. The history of composed music during the first half of the 20 th century illustrates this same modernist problematic. By the 1920s, a number of composers began to explore new and unconventional forms of abacrombie and fitch, composition, including serial and atonal composition. Among the most prominent of these modernist composers was Arnold Schoenberg, who developed twelve-tone technique or row composition.
Other notable modernist serial composers included Anton Webern and Karlheinz Stockhausen. Active Control: The Cancellation Essay Examples. These new forms of composition were theoretical accomplishments and also new ways of organizing musical elements such as melody and harmony. Not only abacrombie, did these developments in composition provide new systems of musical organization, but they readjusted audience’s understanding of older forms of composition now thought of as, for example, limited to tonal relations in contrast with modernist atonality. As Theodor Adorno observes, Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, for example, stands in contrast with 19 th century composers who manipulate and transform the repetition of certain basic musical relations. Brothers Karamazov. In Schoenberg’s compositions, however, there is no room for repetition. Rather, the abacrombie, composer moves through a series of distinct relations between pitches. Usually these rows of related pitches do not get repeated but explored once, and then a new row is generated.
No longer are composers straightforwardly exploring relations between melody and harmony by the repetition and manipulation of a few themes or motifs. Instead, serial composers such as Schoenberg are generating new relations between pitch intervals without recourse to the repeated exploration of some theme. Thus, in the modernist exploration of music’s possibilities, the medium of music itself undergoes radical developments. In other words, modernist composers no longer took for granted compositional techniques or assumptions that had for prior generations seemed obvious or unproblematic. Instead, modernist composers aimed to generate an entire system of composition and so too a theoretical articulation of the constraints and rules by which their particular system of composition operates. As these modernist questions gripped more composers, the possible compositional systems and their accompanying theoretical justifications proliferated.
c. Fried on the Value of Modernism. Why modernism should have taken hold in a number of traditional art forms more or less simultaneously in the early part of the 20 th century remains an important question, one that cannot be answered directly in this article. Essay. We will simply note that it did happen and that although many artists and critics embraced the modernist moment with traditional art forms as the promise of clarifying what was truly necessary for those arts, the modernist moment also clearly marked a kind of crisis for those traditional art forms, in which that which had previously been accepted as the and fitch, possible basis for serious work within the form no longer satisfied artists or audiences. The logic of modernism is important for understanding the concept of artistic medium because the exploration of the art form’s medium in its purity was central to why is document in the study it. This article will focus on one clarifying example, the critical discourse analyzing and justifying modernist painting in the 1950s and 1960s, in order to bring out the characteristic structure of reasoning about medium in artistic modernism.
Three critics in particular, Clement Greenberg, writing in the 1940s and and fitch 1950s, and Stanley Cavell and Michael Fried, writing in the 1960s, championed the modernist project in American painting and sculpture; their work offers a perspicuous example of the logic of modernism as an exploration of artistic medium. Greenberg’s “Modernist Painting,” in particular, is an early statement of critical purpose, justifying the modernist project of medium exploration for its own sake. Greenberg saw the modernist project as akin to the Kantian commitment to treaty an important document in the study of manifest critical philosophy: like Kant, modernist artists, on Greenberg’s view, engage in a project of criticism, reflecting on the nature of the form in abacrombie and fitch, its purity by discovering and articulating its limits. Cavell, in his “A Matter of Meaning It” (1969), identifies modernism as the realization of an art form’s artistic media through the discovery of its contemporary conditions of possibility. The work of the modernist artist, according to Cavell, is to find the criteria for an instance of an art form in the act of inheriting that form. The dominance of this modernist problematic was challenged in the 1960s as minimalist or conceptual art on the one hand and pop art on the other developed alternative artistic possibilities to be explored.
These alternative artistic programs competed with modernist painting by rejecting painting and sculpture altogether as forms for artistic expression. Instead, the aim was to cultivate forms of experience in ways not bound by painting’s forms, its problematics, and its media. For example, pop art was interested in the louisiana purchase treaty an important study, exploring the image and and fitch contemporary experiences of Noise Control: Histroy Cancellation Essay examples, images as such, rather than posing the abacrombie and fitch, image as a problem situated merely within the history of painting. This confrontation between modernism on the one hand and pop art, minimalism, or conceptual art on the other was felt as a crisis involving the very existence of painting and sculpture as art forms by a number of artists and critics. Michael Fried, in “Art and Active Control: Cancellation Essay examples Objecthood” (1967), offers perhaps the strongest critical polemic on behalf of abacrombie and fitch, modernist painting and sculpture. Karamazov. Fried identifies recent developments in abacrombie and fitch, painting as responding to a conflict between minimalists and modernists about how shape should function as an artistic medium: What is at stake in this conflict is whether the paintings or objects in depersonalization, question are experienced as paintings or objects, and what decides their identity as painting is their confronting of the demand that they hold as shapes. And Fitch. Otherwise they are experienced as nothing more than objects. The Louisiana Treaty An Important Document. This can be summed up by saying that modernist painting has come to find it imperative that it defeat or suspend its own objecthood, and that the crucial factor in this undertaking is shape, but shape that must belong to painting—it must be pictorial, not, or not merely, literal. And Fitch. (151)
Fried here identifies the minimalist project as taking what he terms a literal approach to shape, for example, in which shape on its own is apparently explored for its artistic possibilities. By contrast, for Fried the modernist project takes the brothers karamazov summary, art form itself as an artistic problematic or a contemporary question and the medium exploration is in service of the abacrombie, exploration of that problematic: What now are the conditions of painting? Fried’s objection in condemning conceptual artists and minimalists as literalists is that exploration of the medium as such loses connection with what is possible within traditional art forms like painting and sculpture; namely, an aesthetic experience. Painting and sculpture aim at the production in their audiences of a shared moment of analysis, judgment, a moment of judgment that audiences together take pleasure in extending and contemplating. The literalists, on the other hand, construct for their audiences experiences that cannot be shared in a single moment of judgment but are necessarily individual explorations of objects within a space over some duration. Abacrombie And Fitch. Fried thinks conceptual and Essay minimal artists offer audiences theatricalized experiences, unfolding for each individual in time without the possibility of a shared moment of aesthetic judgment. For Fried, it is not possible to arrive at the unity of an aesthetic experience simply by the exploration of material conditions in themselves, cut loose from any artistic problematic or aim. In contrast, modernist artists committed to the traditional art forms are interested in discovering the material conditions for and fitch, experiences that demand aesthetic judgment. The modernist worry, articulated by Fried and Cavell, is that the possibility for authentic experiences of art are lost when the questions of artistic medium no longer arise in relation to an existing art form and its traditions. Substituting theatricalized experiences for serious artistic experiences will mean that people no longer have experiences that are both aesthetic and ascetic.
Grounding one’s explorations within the history of an art form in order to offer a contemporary instance of the art form calls for an appropriately serious response on the part of the purchase treaty an important document in the study destiny?, beholder, a response that demands self-work on the part of the abacrombie and fitch, beholder in ways that enrich both the experience and the beholder. In contrast to aesthetic literalism, the modernist project thus involves the cultivation of aesthetic judgment; through contemplation, better understanding of the brothers karamazov summary, relation between the present instance of the form and abacrombie and fitch the history of the Gandhi, form is achieved. For those artists and critics committed to modernist art, the task at and fitch hand was the survival of traditional art forms through a radical exploration of what is most essential to brothers a particular form. In so doing, the modernist artist aims to continue the art form by an original contribution to the tradition and creating work that discovers artistic possibilities on behalf of the abacrombie, art form. But to those artists and critics that emerged in the wake of the modernist moment, this stance of the heroic artist revealing possibilities for an art form through creating new instances of the form came to seem inappropriate and a bit self-aggrandizing. Postmodern critics and artists in the 1970s and after developed new approaches to the history of why is purchase treaty an important in the study of manifest destiny?, traditional art forms.
Rosalind Krauss in “The Originality of the abacrombie, Avant-Garde” (1981) argues that modernists and avant-garde artists imagine that they make themselves the new origin of the art form as they continuously discover its essential conditions. Such modernist artists continually rediscover a few prominent automatisms, forms of repetition, as if they were the essence of painting and as their discovery were an act of artistic originality. Krauss argues that rather than discover the essential material conditions of the art, modernist artists returned again and again to a fundamental form of repetition activated throughout the history of painting; namely, the grid. Avant-garde and modernist artists from this point of view do nothing but treat the various forms of repetition and automatisms that constitute the history of the art form as original individual discoveries of the grid and its possibilities for painting. Postmodern art is characterized by a change in relation to an art form’s tradition. Rather than attempt to investigate the necessary material conditions for contemporary expression within the art form, the postmodernist attempts to otherwise activate a tradition’s discarded conventions through exaggeration, juxtaposition, and unabashed repetition. Modernism’s approach to tradition is to strip away everything conventional and inessential in order to discover the fundamental conditions of the art form.
Postmodernism instead approaches an art form’s tradition as a collection of automatisms to be explored and abacrombie and fitch activated again through conscious repetition. Why Is The Louisiana Purchase Treaty An Important Study Of Manifest Destiny?. Rather than discarding all that is unnecessary, the postmodern artist juxtaposes or exaggerates disparate conventions and so hopes to rediscover possibilities within forgotten automatisms that modernism would have discarded. From the abacrombie, point of view of postmodernism, Fried’s attachment to the experience of working on oneself in order to better behold modernist works of art looks like a self-aggrandizing response analogous to the modernist artist’s “genius” in laying bare the conditions of painting as such. On the other hand, if Benjamin is correct that the invention of lithography and subsequent technologies that produce and depersonalization as reproduce images irrevocably accelerated European art’s transition from forms of experience centered around cult value to forms of experience centered around exhibition value, then modernist commitments to the possibilities of aesthetic-ascetic experience in inheriting traditional art forms may be seen as late attempts to sustain the possibilities of abacrombie and fitch, art with cult value. Modernism coheres around the concept of artistic medium, for the aims of modernism are to discover the possibilities and thus the limits, the why is the louisiana purchase treaty destiny?, strengths, the tensions, the contradictions within an art form and its history by and fitch, discovering how the form’s material conditions can be transformed into new and newly definitive instances of the form. Because postmodern artists return to the history of the form to discover its discarded conventions and automatisms rather than discarding them, they no longer think of trials take, media in terms of the essence of an art form. But although medium is not central to postmodern art, it is nonetheless still useful in critically evaluating works of art. Postmodernism emerged in the wake of modernism; the break with the history of traditional art forms that constituted the and fitch, modernist moment was a break from conventions that no longer provided conviction for artistic expression.
Medium remains a productive concept for artists and the louisiana purchase treaty study destiny? critics, even if there is now little interest in exploring an art form’s possibilities through discovery of and fitch, its most essential media. 7. New Forms of Popular Art in the 20th Century. The 20 th century saw the emergence of a succession of new forms of popular art, including movies, comics, and video games. These new popular arts inspired discussion about medium between artists and critics as the forms developed. Especially early in the lives of new popular art forms, questions of Essay, medium and medium analysis seem pressing to abacrombie and fitch both artists and critics. This is because new art forms grow by witch trials place, borrowing artistic problems and aims from related earlier forms and by exploring a different material basis that makes new forms of abacrombie and fitch, artistic expression possible and in which artistic questions and interests can be pursued, critiqued, or otherwise engaged. Movies and film criticism are an exemplary instance of a new form of why is the louisiana an important study of manifest, popular art generating elaborate and and fitch often productive discourses about medium.
Much of the Essay, early history of film criticism and film theory is abacrombie and fitch marked out by exploration of a number of questions related to wilfred analysis film as a medium. As film theory began to establish itself as an academic field of interest in the early 1970s, interest shifted away from questions of medium. But early in the development of the movies as an art form, film’s potential for artistic expression was a prominent critical conversation between theorists and abacrombie artists. In the 1920s, Soviet filmmakers and critics such as Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Dziga Vertov were engaged in a critical discourse about film’s potential for futility, popular art in writing and abacrombie with their movies. Eisenstein, for example, argued that film’s unique and characteristic feature was montage, the juxtaposition of images through editing into a sequence.
His own movies, such as Battleship Potemkin (1925) and Ivan the Terrible (1945), have elaborate montage sequences and editing choices that encourage political recognition. Likewise, Pudovkin claims that montage and juxtaposition of images through editing can change the meaning of images. For both, the emphasis on brothers karamazov summary montage as a unique and characteristic feature of film being central to its possible artistic experiences stems from their interest in the ways in and fitch, which juxtaposing images can generate both abstract judgments and strong emotional responses. Dziga Vertov’s exploration of the photographic and mechanical basis of the film image was central to his artistic and political project of discovering new ways of allowing his audiences to understand the world around them. He emphasized film’s ability to reveal minute features and wilfred futility gestures, otherwise unseen or unnoticed, so that the audience is able to recognize them as characteristic of the overall environment. One exemplary instance of Vertov’s exploration of the nature of film as a medium of expression is his experimental movie, Man with a Movie Camera (1928). A number of early film critics developed an analysis of film’s artistic and political promise around its photographic basis. In “The Work of Art in abacrombie and fitch, the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility,” (1939) Walter Benjamin emphasized photography’s ability to make visible minute aspects and gestures so as to display the character of people and environments.
Similarly, popular movies offer the opportunity to develop new habits of perception that allow audiences to recognize fraught meaningful gestures. Walter Benjamin’s medium analysis is exemplary, for Benjamin explicitly asks of all reproductive technologies that have developed after lithography not, “What features of these material conditions are unique and thus capable of artistic experiences that take advantage of those features?” but rather, “How does the existence of these new reproductive technologies change what art can be?” Benjamin’s form of medium analysis is wilfred historically and critically grounded in successful instances of emergent forms of popular art. Rudolf Arnheim, also writing film criticism in the 1920s and 1930s, offered an analysis of abacrombie, film’s potential as an artistic medium. Unlike Benjamin, who emphasizes film’s ability to reveal the optical unconscious, Arnheim identifies the ways in which the film image differs from everyday images and derives from those features the norms that should serve as the basis for film art. Arnheim’s critical blinders and Gandhi commitment to an idea about purity of medium led him to argue against the possibility of film art that includes sound because film and abacrombie and fitch sound are distinct media and should not be mixed. Another early theorist committed to a medium analysis of film and photography is Gandhi Siegfried Kracauer. Kracauer’s critical articulation of film’s artistic possibilities stems, like Benjamin’s, from the unique capabilities of photography and film, and so he identifies and encourages film’s documentary and democratizing impulses. Andre Bazin, a midcentury French film critic who championed the abacrombie and fitch, Italian neorealists and brothers summary cultivated a generation of French film critics and filmmakers, developed an analysis of film’s photographic basis. Bazin emphasizes photography’s ability to satisfy absolutely the desire to preserve the world as the basis for a critical understanding of film and its possibilities. In so doing, he locates film’s ontological basis in photography and photography’s ability to place us in relation to our world, now past. This tradition of exploring the meaning of film’s ontological status as photographic includes Stanley Cavell’s work, especially his The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film (1971).
Cavell critiques and extends Bazin’s account of the ontology of film and photography in part by focusing his own medium analysis upon a specific artistic problematic. The World Viewed offers a medium analysis not of abacrombie and fitch, film as such, but of popular Hollywood movies. In analyzing the medium of movies, according to Cavell, prior to the 1960s popular movies explored the possibilities and tensions within a problematic of modern action that emerged in the 19 th century concerning the possibilities for Gandhi Essay, urbane, stylish, and productive action, but by the late 1960s, a new problematic concerning the and fitch, contemporary possibilities for action simpliciter was emerging. The World Viewed was written in observance of this transition within popular movies and draws on the conceptual tools of medium analysis in order to register the depersonalization as, fact of this transformation. If the beginning of the 1970s saw the emergence of a new problematic for abacrombie and fitch, popular movies to discover and explore, it also saw the establishment of film theory as an academic discipline. In academic film studies, medium analysis had a few early prominent practitioners. Leo Braudy’s The World in a Frame: What We See in Films (1976), for example, offers an analysis of film’s artistic possibilities by distinguishing between the ways in which movie worlds are both closed off from and open to and interpenetrate with our world.
This tradition of medium analysis of film’s photographic basis within film theory and criticism is well represented by Victor Perkins, who identifies minute, meaningful, characteristic gestures as fundamental to the movies’ artistic possibilities. Perkins’ commitment to the fundamental role that artistic medium has within his critical practice points to an intimate nexus of considerations of medium and brothers artistic experience within the creation of movies and artistic practices more generally. However, soon after film theory and criticism found an academic home within film studies in the 1970s, theorists and critics moved away from sustained medium analysis of film or the film arts. Instead, academics developed alternative interpretative frameworks, prominently Lacanian, feminist, and Marxist ones, that displaced the prominence of medium analysis within film theory. In analytic philosophy, as philosophy and film established itself as a domain of inquiry, instances of medium analysis gave way primarily to cognitive science approaches to theorizing film and film experiences. Medium analysis depends on the unity of the aesthetic experience to which the medium in question is able to contribute. A cognitive science approach to the effects possible in certain modes of filmmaking need not concern itself with the unity of aesthetic experience. In the 1990s, Noel Carroll, a leading advocate of the cognitive-science approach in abacrombie and fitch, analytic philosophy and film, argued that medium was necessarily a confused category and should be eschewed by philosophers interested in theorizing movies and other film arts. In the mid-2000s, Carroll adjusted his view and acknowledged uses for the concept of medium, especially in describing the practices of certain experimental or avant-garde film artists. Regardless, for many years since its inception, indeed until the mid-1970s, one prominent form film theory has taken is medium analysis.
Comics, as they have developed as an art form, have also developed critical and why is treaty an important document study of manifest destiny? theoretic discourses that participate in some form of medium analysis. Much of the most prominent medium analysis has been by artists adopting a critical and abacrombie theoretic stance with respect to their own artistic practices. Prominent instances of this medium analysis of comics by Control: The of Noise Essay examples, comics artists include Will Eisner’s Comics and Sequential Art (1985) and abacrombie Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics (1993). Both Eisner and McCloud offer paradigmatic instances of medium analysis, in that both are theorizing the particular ways in which comics, as an art form, are able to achieve forms of aesthetic unity in relating image and action. Video games and 21 st century gaming offer another instance of an emergent popular art form that has inspired early practitioners, critics, and theorists to engage in Active Noise Control:, medium analysis. Much of the academic discourse analyzing gaming grows out of film studies and necessitates some medium consideration as terms and interpretative frameworks are applied in new contexts or, alternatively, theorists attempt to abacrombie and fitch distinguish clearly between experiences that are proper to movies and other narrative visual forms and experiences that are proper to games and gaming. Medium analysis has been an important aspect of developing theoretic and critical discourses about gaming in which game creators and Mahandas Essay theorists are in conversation. Currently within academia, medium analysis is and fitch largely pursued in media studies and disciplines exploring the emergence of new media.
In philosophy, medium analysis has recently been utilized in numerous ways within the philosophy of gaming and video games. Given the ways in which screens and screen technology continue to interpenetrate contemporary reality, we can anticipate further recourse to medium analysis in theorizing these new forms of experience. Even if the collapse of interest in modernist projects in the arts has moved contemporary theorizing about art away from medium as a central concept, academic theorists of new media and new popular arts still participate in a discourse of medium analysis. Artistic medium continues to be a productive critical concept as well for working artists and critics interested in articulating the means by which an artistic experience is structured and organized. That theorists and critics attempting to theorize medium should run into characteristic confusions in defining and theorizing medium stems from the picture they share of medium as an object. They take their task to be identifying the object that is the medium in order to deduce and prescribe its appropriate artistic experiences.
But working critics and artists are less likely to think of artistic medium as an object to be studied for its own sake. For such critics and artists, thinking about medium is thinking about how something functions in creating a particular effect or in structuring a particular form of experience. What photography, for example, can be is to be discovered by artists as they pursue particular projects or lines of exploration. In this sense, artistic medium is a critical concept; we can only is defined as, say what media are constitutive of an abacrombie and fitch, art form by critically examining instances of the depersonalization as, form. This way of approaching medium analysis, as necessarily a critical pursuit, conceives of artistic media as the capacities for abacrombie, organizing and structuring the audience’s experience as the means of exploring and discovering the possibilities and tensions within an artistic problematic. These capacities for Mahandas Essay, organizing artistic experience are forms of repetition or automatisms that have significance as the means by which a form of and fitch, artistic experience is structured. Medium analysis emerged with, and has developed in response to, modern art. As critics and theorists began to argue for art and the aesthetic as a distinct form of depersonalization is defined, experience in the 18 th century, independent of its former subservience to religion and able to dedicate itself to aiming only at beauty, medium analysis developed. First developed in Lessing’s work, medium analysis is a critical tool for understanding the norms constituting a capacity for and fitch, structuring an artistic experience. The value of artistic medium in theoretical and critical discourse is realized when medium is approached not as some raw material to Control: The Cancellation Essay be investigated in advance of its possible artistic uses but as a means by abacrombie, which artists discover and where witch trials explore possibilities within a particular artistic problematic.
Discovery of a medium’s possibilities happens by artists in the creation of abacrombie, new instances of an Active Control: Cancellation examples, art form, and by audiences and critics in the experience of particular instances of the art form. Abacrombie And Fitch. Theorists can avoid confusion by remembering that medium is an essentially critical concept, in that what is where salem witch place possible within a medium is discovered by artists as they continue to abacrombie and fitch create and explore.
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Books Vs. Brothers! Movies Why are audiences so upset with the and fitch way the movie turned out after reading the book ? ” Ask any . reader who has seen the movie version of where place, a favorite book , and the answer will usually be, the book was better.” (Corliss, 2005, p. 1)They are frequently disappointed because the movie versions are not sticking to abacrombie and fitch their all-time favorite book . Growing up with books like Harry Potter, as readers or having someone reading to us our minds wonder off to this mystical land, picturing how our. Character , Film , Film director 1204 Words | 3 Pages. RUNNING HEAD: COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY Compare and Contrast Essay Amber Garoutte Intro to did the witch trials . College Writing Compare and Contrast Essay In the last decade, online learning has become an overwhelmingly popular choice for abacrombie students who want to continue with their higher education. Online schools, like traditional schools, offer students the opportunity to study various subjects and earn a degree, anywhere that there is a computer. Did The Salem! The convenience and independence of abacrombie, online learning. Distance education , Education , High school 836 Words | 3 Pages.
Compare -and- Contrast Essay Comparison/ Contrast Organizer Directions: Fill in is defined, the chart first. Then write your . title, introductory sentence, topic sentences, and and fitch, conclusion sentence. Title __________________________________________ Introductory Sentence __________________________ ______________________________________________ Topic Sentence ________________________________ ______________________________________________ Same Food: 1. Food: 1. 2. Active The Histroy Of Noise Cancellation! 2. Topic Sentence ________________________________. Love , Milk , Pudding 535 Words | 6 Pages. Of Mice and abacrombie and fitch, Men Compare and purchase treaty document, Contrast (Book V.S. Abacrombie And Fitch! Movie) Of Mice and Men Compare and Contrast The book , Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, is about two men named George . and Lennie who are living in the time of the Great Depression. Mahandas Gandhi Essay! They travel together and abacrombie and fitch, after they get themselves into trouble in the city of Weed, they moved to work on a ranch.
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1 5/8 in x 8 ft. 7 1/8 in. Oil on and fitch wood Museo del Prado, Madrid Viewed in A World of salem witch place, Art (6th Edition) by Henry. History of painting , Jan van Eyck , John the Baptist 999 Words | 5 Pages. Ever since I have been a little kid, I have always loved horror movies . And Fitch! This genre of movies interests me, because you are . constantly kept on the edge of your seat. I think when you take a look at various horror films and compare them; you will notice an array of different scare tactics/methods. You will also notice many cliche ideas that a lot horror flicks have in common. I will point these ideas out in detail, when I compare The Dawn of The Dead horror flick released in 1978, with the one released. Film , George A. As! Romero , Horror and abacrombie, terror 1242 Words | 3 Pages. ? Compare and salem witch take place, Contrast Lesson Plan: Part One and Two Introduction to Topic and abacrombie, Guided Practice.
Materials Needed- A granola bar . and a candy bar; and/or a one dollar bill and Active Control: The Histroy of Noise Cancellation Essay, a quarter, Venn Diagram worksheet Compare and Contrast lesson plan activity time: 30-120 minutes, depending on abacrombie and fitch use of optional reinforcement and trials, advanced exercises. If all sections are used, lesson can be divided into multiple, separate sessions if desired. Objective of Compare and Contrast lesson plan. Candy , Candy bar , Candy bars 1257 Words | 5 Pages. Looking at basic formal analysis of abacrombie and fitch, art work we can compare and depersonalization, contrast the abacrombie and fitch formal elements. Such things as form, subject matter . content brings art to life. Line, color and texture give us a mix of Gandhi, styles from abstract to representational, canvas to clay. Art will give us a new perceptive and apparition for the world we look at daily. One of the most interesting sculptures I have found is, by abacrombie and fitch Kara Walker, Insurrection (Our Tools were Rudimentary)1 (307). The first thing to stand out, this. Chartres Cathedral , Claude Monet , Color 927 Words | 3 Pages.
Writing A Compare And Contrast Paragraph. Writing A Comparison / Contrast Paragraph Comparison? shows similarities between persons, places, things, ideas, or situations. . Contrast ? points out the differences between persons, places, things, ideas, or situations. Two Basic Methods for Organizing Comparison / Contrast ? Paragraphs Block Method 1. If you let A and B stand for the two things (subjects) being compared, then you can use the did the trials take ? block method? in which you tell all about A, then tell all about B. Abacrombie And Fitch! Thus you discuss A in a block and B. Difference , Lecture , Paragraph 820 Words | 2 Pages. to prove the NYPD's '80s rallying cry in the war on drugs. There are clear differences in both of the movies . The family in The Godfather . belongs to a mafia ring, where on the other hand the family in We Own the Night is a cop family. The Godfather family is increasing the violence, where the We Own the Night is wilfred analysis, family is getting rid of the violence. Another huge difference in these two movies is the characters that play each role. Abacrombie And Fitch! In The Godfather, the main character is wilfred owen futility, Michael Corleone.
In We. Corleone family , Francis Ford Coppola , Illegal drug trade 1793 Words | 5 Pages. Compare amp; Contrast Essay Victoria Riley COMM/155 February 25, 2012 Dr. Jackie E. Smalls Compare amp; . Contrast Essay The zombie apocalypse is coming, The Walking Dead series and Resident Evil movies have played into the public’s fear of turning into the living dead. Over the past 20 years the horror genre of movies and television has exceptionally rose in popularity. Abacrombie And Fitch! Movies like; Zombieland, 28 Days Later and Resident Evil have quite a following. “Television has started. Chris Redfield , Claire Redfield , Nemesis 1147 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Compare and contrast these poems.
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Amazon Kindle , Amazon.com , Electronic commerce 1274 Words | 5 Pages. Writing and summary, Compare-and-contrast Essays. ? Compare and abacrombie and fitch, Contrast This type of writing assignment is common. On a standardized test, you may be asked to Essay analyze . literature, evaluate ideas, or make a judgment and explain your reasons. In responding to these types of prompts, you often will compare and abacrombie, contrast characters, concepts, or choices. You will be asked to where salem witch identify similarities and differences, which are the key to abacrombie and fitch compare -and- contrast essays.
There are ways to organize your thoughts about compare -and- contrast topics, which will. Comparison , Comparisons , Essay 1384 Words | 4 Pages. ? Compare and Contrast : six sigma, lean, and kaizen Donna Guillory Siena Heights University HCM301-OG, Summer 2015 May . 20, 2015 Abstract This paper will work to compare and contrast six sigma, lean process improvement, and Kaizen. Wilfred Owen! In so doing, it will serve to elaborate on abacrombie the different similarities in each of these process improvement methods and the ways in which they differ, detailing a clear understanding of each of the three different approaches. Brothers Karamazov Summary! Keywords: process improvement methods. 5 Whys , Business process , Lean manufacturing 1144 Words | 6 Pages. The compare and contrast between Ellen Foster by Kaye Gibbons And The adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark . Abacrombie And Fitch! Twain Gabriel A. Montenegro Bravery is why is the louisiana purchase treaty study of manifest, not inherent, it is rather acquired from the circumstances or situation faced in abacrombie, the life. People face lot of problems in their lives and to cope with those situations and move in with one's life is the sheer example of being brave. The same has been depicted by. Adventures of brothers karamazov, Huckleberry Finn , African American , Ellen Foster 2432 Words | 6 Pages.
?Professor Vogl Cognitive Psychology 17 April 2012 Compare and Contrast Cognitive development is the abacrombie development of . intelligence and problem-solving ability that begins when you are a child. Jean Piaget and where did the salem witch trials, Lev S. Abacrombie! Vygotsky were two psychologists who focused on cognitive development and brothers summary, had similar and different ideas with the subject. Abacrombie! We will found out how Piagets theory is compared and contrast to Vygotskys theory. Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist that focused on the education of wilfred futility, children. Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget , Kohlberg's stages of abacrombie and fitch, moral development 1122 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast Leadership and Mahandas, Management 1 Minnesota School of BusinessCompare and abacrombie, Contrast Leadership . and Management 2 Career Aspirations My goal is to obtain a position with my current company as a senior vice president of operations for Histroy Essay the Mortgage Division. This position is currently three positions up from abacrombie, my current management position. I will need to do a lot of planning and is defined, proving myself to abacrombie and fitch continue to rise up the corporate ladder as there are many managers all trying.
A Good Thing , Decision making , Ethics 1522 Words | 4 Pages. Libby Sacco Art History 320 Professor Bonnell 2/1/2010 Compare and Contrast Though overwhelmed while visiting the . contemporary wing at the Baltimore Museum of Art, I was able to narrow my interests to two particular artworks. The two works I have chosen to compare and contrast are Robert Indiana’s No. 7, and Frank Stella’s Abra Variation III. At first glance, one might make a far-fetched assumption as to how these two paintings are similar, but with further examination their similarities. Color , Difference , Dimension 1387 Words | 4 Pages.
Compare and Contrast of a Snowflake and a Raindrop Iva Gate . Eng 121 Umberto Umbertino 11/23/2012 I. The differences between a snowflake and depersonalization is defined, a raindrop II. And Fitch! Snowflake A. Formation B. Shape C. CLOUD , Evaporation , Liquid 633 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Life of Pi book and movie. LOP Compare and Contrast Essay Introduction: Was Life of Pi a true story of a boy stuck out in sea for 7 months with a Bengal . Wilfred Owen Analysis! tiger, or all a lie that constantly toyed with our brains? This was a question that always kept readers of the book and viewers of the movie perplexed about which story was the accurate one and abacrombie and fitch, is what made it such a success. In the movie, Ang Lee directs the story with his own take on a vast variety of visual details. The book however has many contrasting ideas and themes. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Difference 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast : Cal State LA amp; Cal Poly Pomona Cal State Universities are excellent choices because they are part of Essay, . the most affordable public education systems in the nation and promote access to higher education. When deciding to abacrombie and fitch go to karamazov a university like Cal Poly Pomona or Cal State Los Angeles, there can be many things that need to be considered in order to make the abacrombie right choice.
These include finances, level of independence, and whether or not a major has been determined. Students. Academic degree , California , California State Polytechnic University, Pomona 1171 Words | 3 Pages. Running Head: COMPARE AND CONTRAST Compare and Contrast Self Administered Test Mary Coleman May . The Louisiana Treaty In The Study Destiny?! 12, 2008 PSYU 565 Jeffrey A. Stone, PhD. Chapman University Compare and Contrast Self Administered Test The assignment for abacrombie this week is to compare and brothers summary, contrast the results from three self administered tests we took in abacrombie and fitch, class. The tests I will compare and contrast are the 16 Personality Factors (16PF), the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and the Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis (T-JTA). 16 Personality Factors , 16PF Questionnaire , Carl Jung 1566 Words | 5 Pages. ? Compare and Active Noise The of Noise examples, Contrast Many have heard the abacrombie and fitch saying, “Nobody's perfect” and truth is no one is. Everyone has something they want . to change or improve about themselves.
Society plays a big role in encouraging people to owen futility analysis look a specific way, a way that is described as its version of perfect. A way that helps portray this vision of what people should look like is abacrombie and fitch, through advertisement. Ads are what grasps the attention of society and fights to pull them into contributing, buying, etc. their products. Advertising , Dieting , Health 827 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and wilfred owen, Contrast Essay Boxing is a sport known worldwide in which two people engage in and fitch, a contest of strength, reflexes and . endurance by purchase treaty an important in the of manifest throwing punches with gloved hands. People have favorite boxers in different weight categories. Juan Manuel Marquez “Dinamita” and Emmanuel “Manny Pacquiao” are two favorite and very different boxers. They had different Amateur careers Marquez proceeds from abacrombie, a family of boxers, he began boxing in amateur tournaments at age 13. “Dynamita” marquez.
Boxing , Boxing weight classes , Citation 1033 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast of: The Family Crucible: The Intense Experience of Active Control: Histroy of Noise, Family Therapy Written by: Augustus Y. Napier, Ph. . D. with Carl Whitaker, M.D. By: Queenesha Herbert Argosy University Dr. Kaplan December 18, 2012 The Family Crucible is abacrombie and fitch, a book depicting the scenario and drama of the Brice family’s experience in family therapy with co-therapist Dr. Why Is Treaty An Important Document In The Of Manifest Destiny?! Carl Whitaker and Dr. Augustus Napier. Presenting Issue . Family , Family therapy , Father 1130 Words | 4 Pages. method according to abacrombie an Amy Chua, a Chinese-style mother, but Hanna Rosen, a Western mother, has written her own opposing perspective as a parent. Depersonalization Is Defined As! Amy Chua . is a prime example of one those stereotypically strict mothers. Abacrombie And Fitch! She has written an article and a book addressing the difference between Western and Chinese parents and she illustrates why she believes the strict Chinese method is what is best for children. In her article she has stated that there are “tons of studies” that prove that this Chinese method.
Childhood , China , Han Chinese 851 Words | 4 Pages. Farrah Hussain Ms. Depersonalization! Flaherty CUNY Start Reading and abacrombie, Writing 08 March 2013 Compare and Contrast Essay Frederick Douglass and Noise The Cancellation examples, . Malcolm X both were African Americans who struggled to be successful.Frederick was born a slave for life 1817 he didn’t go to school but wanted to have knowledge. Abacrombie And Fitch! He had a lot of wilfred futility, obstacles in and fitch, his path but the fact he wanted to learn to read and write keep him going though he wanted to purchase document in the give up sometimes. Frederick Douglass also wanted abolish slavery.Malcolm X was born in.
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Advertising , Aroma compound , Axe 1093 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast, Bartleby, The Scrivener; book and movie. adaptations really carry the same meaning and weight of the original written works or are the adaptions meant to open new perspectives for the audiences? . This paper will, through the examining the settings, character, tone and storylines, compare and contrast the book version and movie adaptation of the is defined classic short story Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street by Herman Melville. Herman Melville is regarded as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century; He authored great. Bartleby, the Scrivener , Dead letter office , Fiction 1520 Words | 5 Pages. Cowboys And Indians Compare Contrast. COWBOYS AND INDIANS: COMPARE / CONTRAST 1 . Cowboys and Indians: Compare / Contrast Hayley Leinstock Endeavor Charter School COWBOYS AND INDIANS: COMPARE / CONTRAST 2 The Wild West, otherwise known as the Old West, was a unique period in and fitch, American history. Pop culture has turned much of the true West into owen futility analysis, legend. Nowadays, many people perceive the Wild West as told through movies and television shows, but most of what Hollywood portrays is not quite accurate.
American Old West , Butch Cassidy , Cowboy 1311 Words | 6 Pages. Comparison and Contrast Essay Analyzing literature can be achieved in many different ways and it should help the read gather a better . understanding of the and fitch piece. The pieces of owen analysis, literature that I want to examine further are “The Swimmer” and “Prisoner on Hell Planet”. Both of these short stories contain similar and abacrombie and fitch, not so similar elements of literature. After reading these stories I gathered that it would be best to Control: of Noise Essay examples compare and contrast the following elements of literature; writing style, mood, and.
Character , Difference , Fiction 953 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Anorexia vs. Abacrombie! Bulimia Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are the two most common eating disorders in . the world. They are often confused with one another because they share many of the the louisiana purchase treaty in the study same qualities; however, it is imperative to understand each disorder has its own distinct behavior that makes it quite different from the other. Before I compare and contrast the similarities and differences of the two, lets first take a look at what Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa are. Bulimia. Anorexia nervosa , Binge eating , Bulimia nervosa 1204 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison and and fitch, Contrasts of Literary Work Matthew Barnes English 125 – Introduction of Literature Prof. David Makhanlall March 3, . 2012 In my paper I will be comparing and where salem trials place, contrasting two literary works of a short story and abacrombie, a poem.
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The dynastic patterns begun in classical Chinese history lasted until the early part of the abacrombie and fitch twentieth century. A family of kings, called a “dynasty,” began ruling China with great vigor, developing solid political institutions, and encouraging active economies. Each dynasty over time grew weaker, tax revenues. China , Confucianism , Han Chinese 1134 Words | 4 Pages. ?Rough Draft Compare and Mahandas, Contrast Essay 3/9/14 TV Shows: Dr. Phil Maury In today’s world of abacrombie, TV shows and . entertainment, talk shows have been shown to be one of the most watched and the most hyped type of television programming throughout the world.
No matter whose household it is, it’ll be likely that they are watching talk shows, such as Oprah Winfrey’s show or even Jerry Springer’s show. Basically we all know the norm for talk shows, and Mahandas, how they usually show negative scenarios or talk. American television personalities , American television talk show hosts , Oprah Winfrey 892 Words | 3 Pages. Jimmy Ji Mrs. Coleman ESL 33 Compare and Contrast Essay 27 Oct. 2010 Pursuit of abacrombie, Dream In . this competitive world, it almost seems indispensable for people to Mahandas at least pursue one thing to survive.
Does it mean that people all have to abacrombie strive to accomplish something? Or does pursuing actually bring any enhancements or happiness to people’s lives? The answer might be very debatable because pursuing something might not be always ended with a great triumph or satisfaction. 1985 albums , Denis Waitley , Dream 980 Words | 3 Pages. Compare / Contrast The fascination of Marilyn Monroe and wilfred futility analysis, Audrey Hepburn still stays strong to and fitch this day. We often find ourselves . Where Salem! loving the idea of these two flawless icons. Everyone wanted to be them then, and abacrombie, it is still true today. They were two major icons in the 1950’s. Is Defined! They were two beautiful, inspirational women. Abacrombie! Marilyn Monroe and Audrey Hepburn really did live the lifestyles of the rich and the famous.
Most people only see the similarities, but in The of Noise, fact, they are more different than some. Academy Award for Best Actress , All About Eve , Audrey Hepburn 828 Words | 3 Pages. How to abacrombie Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. Instructions of How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay 1 First look at the items you are supposed to . compare and contrast . Do you understand them? If you are writing an essay outside of class, look them up. Start with your text book but also look at your notes from class, and even go and check them out at Wikipedia. Karamazov Summary! If you are taking a test, and can't look things up, pause and think over what these things mean.
The next two steps will help you remember. 2 Make a list of ways the two. Article , Difference , Essay 654 Words | 3 Pages. Compare And Contrast Essay Cinemas can be a great time , but staying home and watching a movie can be just as great. . Americans last year on average spent 9.87 billion dollars on and fitch tickets alone. Americans who stayed home saved a lot of money, were more comfortable, and Noise Control: of Noise Essay examples, probably had just as good of abacrombie and fitch, a time. I feel that going out to purchase treaty document of manifest destiny? have a good time is essential in life, but money saved is and fitch, money earned. The financial aspects of where salem witch, going out to the movies is the most appalling factor when. Dolby Digital , DTS , Film 662 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay on Twilight. ( Book ) | (movie) | * Book explains more about bella and where she is from abacrombie, arizona, sunny vilie, attends high school, and . Depersonalization Is Defined! her mom just married a pro abacrombie and fitch, baseball player and how she is of Noise Cancellation, a new changed person after she remarried from bellas father then mentions how she is getting ready to go stay with her dad in arizona | * The movie start with her getting in the car leaving to organ with her dad and doesn’t explain anything about who she is | * The book says less about her and her dad’s.
Bella Swan , Edward Cullen , English-language films 1600 Words | 4 Pages. ? Compare and Contrast Ingrid I Caito CGD 218: Visual Literacy in Business Morgan Johnson August 18, 2014 . Compare and abacrombie, Contrast After reading how visual literacy is defined in Visual Literacy: learning to see, I also learned a different interpretation from Brian Kennedy. Like any type of why is treaty, mastery the importance and the use of it is always different and abacrombie, the route to achieve such mastery is is defined as, always different as well. However; how big is the difference and abacrombie and fitch, how does it impact. Communication , Definition , Learning 710 Words | 4 Pages. ? Compare and Contrast ENG 125 22 Sep 2013 Racial And Ethical Dilemma in “Country Lovers” and . “What it’s like to be a Black Girl” In the short story about the “Country Lovers” and did the witch take place, the Poem “What it’s like to be a Black Girl”, the actions of a racial background and ethical dilemmas are both represented and distinguished by the representation of abacrombie and fitch, a black female. Which is the main dynamic character seeded in both literary works. Both of these female static characters. African American , Black Canadians , Black people 2232 Words | 6 Pages. teachers give short time for Mahandas students to abacrombie write essays, usually finishing it during two class-only 80 minutes.
In fact, it is so short time for students to . come up with an interesting article so their essays are usually dull and Mahandas Essay, without creation. On the contrast , America is and fitch, another story. Teachers, in wilfred futility analysis, America, pay more attention to students’ creativity and abacrombie, ability of solving problems by themselves. Essay! These different standards let students have more space to abacrombie write different thoughts and write the articles belong. China , Chinese language , Essay 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Movie and Book of Fahrenheit 451. Jacquelyn B. David Professor V. P. ENG 214 Fahrenheit 451 “ Books can not be killed by fire. People die, but books never . Where! die. Abacrombie And Fitch! No man and no force can abolish memory.
In this war, we know, books are weapons. And it is a part of Active Noise of Noise Cancellation, your dedication always to make them weapons for abacrombie and fitch man's freedom.” -Franklin D. Roosevelt Exactly these are the words that fueled the story of Fahrenheit 451. Fahrenheit 451 is a story that was written through a novel by Ray Bradbury and produced into a movie shortly. Dystopia , Fahrenheit 451 , Francois Truffaut 1260 Words | 4 Pages. people can say they love horror movies ? Not many these day mostly because it’s lost its edge and originality. Why Is Purchase Treaty In The Study! Everything is a remake these days . just another classic that is chewed up and spit back out. Why on abacrombie and fitch earth would you want to remake classics for example Carrie? It sickens me so much that horror movies today are worse than they were ten years ago let me go into detail as to why that is . Essay! Let me first start with my favorite Old Horror Movies . The old horror movies are so much more realistic and.
Computer animation , Film , Halloween 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and contrast Iraq with any other country considering the following categories: 1) Economic System. 2) Political . System. Different political and economic systems are set to each country. A variety range of laws, institutions and organisations are associated with each state.
In this article, we will represent the differences between Iraq and Australia in terms of politics and business. To start with, The Politics of Australia are different from other organisations and abacrombie and fitch, states. Australia , Australian Securities Exchange , Economic system 796 Words | 3 Pages.