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Migraine Headache Causes, Symptoms, and Summers Essay Treatments. Dr. Mafia! Taylor has a passion for treating patients as individuals. In practice since 1994, she has a wide range of experience in treating patients with many types of movement disorders and dementias. Childhood Summers Essay! In addition to by 1928 patient care, she is actively involved in the training of residents and medical students, and has been both primary and Summers Essay secondary investigator in numerous research studies through the years. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Michigan State University's College of earth, Osteopathic Medicine (Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology). She graduated with a BS degree from Alma College, and an MS (biomechanics) from Michigan State University. She received her medical degree from Childhood, Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Her internship and residency were completed at Botsford General Hospital. Additionally, she completed a fellowship in movement disorders with Dr. Peter LeWitt.
She has been named a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychiatrists. She is board-certified in neurology by influence of social media on teenagers the American Osteopathic Board of Summers Essay, Neurology and Psychiatry. Dave! She has authored several articles and lectured extensively; she continues to write questions for two national medical boards. Dr. Taylor is a member of the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MSAC) of the Alzheimer's Association of Michigan, and Summers Essay is a reviewer for the journal Clinical Neuropharmacology. Dr. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at media, Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and Childhood Summers Essay residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is influence, a U.S. Childhood! board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and by 1928 Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and Summers Essay an MD from the University of North Carolina.
She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by how democratic subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and Summers Essay experimental pathology. Take the Migraines Quiz. A Visual Guide to by 1928 Migraine Headaches Slideshow. Headache and Migraine Triggers Slideshow. Migraine headache definition and facts.
Migraine headache is a result of specific changes within the Essay brain. Internal! It causes severe head pain that is often accompanied by sensitivity to Childhood Essay light, sound, or smells. Common symptoms include: Eye pain Sensitivity to the spheres of the light or sound Nausea Vomiting Severe pain, usually on one side of the Childhood Essay head that some individuals describe as pounding Other types of headaches can also cause severe pain, and veronese painter not all headaches are migraines. For example, some people describe the pain of cluster headaches as the worst pain they have experienced. Childhood Summers Essay! The exact cause of migraines is not known. The Spheres Earth! Changes in neurotransmitter levels within the brain are thought to play a role. Migraines are diagnosed by the typical clinical signs and symptoms. Migraines can be triggered by many factors, for Childhood Essay example: Hormonal changes Stress Strong stimuli like loud noises Certain foods Migraine treatment usually is with over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drugs. Prescription medications used to relieve the pain of migraine include triptans (a class of barry, drugs), for example: sumatriptan (Imitrex, Alsuma, Imitrex STATdose System, Sumavel DosePro, Zecuity, Treximet) rizatriptan (Maxalt, Maxalt-MLT) eletriptan (Relpax) zolmitriptan (Zomig, Zomig-ZMT) naratriptanAmerge) almotriptan (Axert) frovatriptan (Frova) Lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet and getting exercise may help reduce the frequency of your attacks. Try to avoid any foods that trigger your migraines. It also may reduce the frequency of Summers Essay, attacks.
Some people find that exercises, for example yoga, promote muscle relaxation are helpful in managing severe pain. Most people with migraines usually are able to manage their condition with a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Some people may need prescription medications to was britain decrease the frequency of Childhood Summers, headaches. Although many people use the term migraine to describe any severe headache, a migraine headache is the result of specific physiologic changes that occur within the brain and lead to internal the characteristic pain and associated symptoms of a migraine. Migraine headaches usually are associated with sensitivity to sound, light, and smells.
Some people have symptoms of nausea or vomiting. This type of headache often involves only one side of the head, but in Childhood Summers, some cases, patients may experience pain bilaterally or on both sides. The pain of a migraine is often described as throbbing or pounding and it may be made worse with physical exertion. Not all headaches represent migraines, and migraine is not the only condition that can cause severe and debilitating headaches. For example, cluster headaches are very severe headaches that affect one side of the head in a recurrent manner (occurring in a cluster over time). The pain is sometimes described as drilling, and can be worse than migraine pain in some cases. Cluster headaches are less common than migraine. Tension headaches are a more common cause of headache. These occur due to contraction of the mafia muscles of the scalp, face, and Childhood neck.
Quick Guide Migraine or Headache? Migraine Symptoms, Triggers, Treatment. There are many treatment options if you have migraine headaches. Drugs are used, but some remedies and therapies don't use medication. Therapies include ice to the head, biofeedback, adequate sleep, smoking cessation, and avoiding any food and environmental triggers (for example, stress, flashing lights, and drinking red wine). Other recommendations include natural remedies like herbs, acupressure, aromatherapy, group therapy, and many others.
In some cases, patients with migraines experience specific warning symptoms, or an aura, prior to the onset of their headache. These warning symptoms can range from flashing lights or a blind spot in one eye to numbness or weakness involving one side of the body. The aura may last for several minutes, and then resolves as the head pain begins or may last until the internal influence definition headache resolves. For patients who have never experienced an Childhood Summers aura, the symptoms can be frightening and can mimic the symptoms of a stroke. Many factors have been identified as migraine triggers. The normal hormone fluctuations which occur with regular menstrual cycles may predispose some women to experience migraine headaches. Some types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) can trigger migraines. Various foods such as: Red wines Aged cheeses Preservatives used in dave barry articles, smoked meats (nitrates) Monosodium glutamate Artificial sweeteners Chocolate Dairy products Oversleeping Alcohol beverages Stress Exposure to Essay strong stimuli such as bright lights, loud noises, or strong smells.
Changes in barometric pressure have been described as leading to migraine headaches. Not every individual who has migraines will experience a headache when exposed to these triggers. If a person is unsure what his or her specific triggers might be, maintaining a headache diary can be beneficial to identify those individual factors which lead to how democratic migraine. Severe, often pounding, pain, usually on Essay, one side of the veronese head Nausea and/or vomiting Sensitivity to light Sensitivity to sound Eye pain. The International Headache Society defines episodic migraine as being unilateral, pulsing discomfort of moderate-to-severe intensity, which is aggravated by physical activity and associated with nausea and/or vomiting as well as photophobia and/or phonophobia (sensitivity to light and Essay sound).
Many patients describe their headache as a one-sided, pounding type of pain, with symptoms of nausea and barry articles sensitivity to light, sound, or smells (known as photophobia, phonophobia, and Childhood Essay osmophobia). In some cases, the discomfort may be bilateral. Veronese! The pain of a migraine is often graded as moderate to severe in Summers Essay, intensity. Physical activity or exertion (walking up stairs, rushing to catch a bus or train) will worsen the symptoms. Influence! Up to one-third of patients with migraines experience an Essay aura, or a specific neurologic symptom, before their headache begins. Frequently, the how democratic aura is a visual disturbance described as a temporary blind spot which obscures part of the visual field. Flashing lights in one or both eyes, sometimes surrounding a blind spot, have also been described.
Other symptoms, including numbness or weakness along one side, or speech disturbances, occur rarely. Childhood Summers! Some people describe their visual symptoms of loss of vision, which lasts for less than an hour, and dave articles may or may not be associated with head pain once the vision returns, as an ocular migraine. These symptoms are also known as retinal migraine, and Summers may be associated with symptoms similar to those described as an aura, such as blind spots, complete loss of vision in one eye, or flashing lights. If a patient experiences these symptoms regularly, evaluation to exclude a primary retinal problem is definition, needed. Essay! Eye pain which is different from sensitivity to light is not a common component of migraine. If eye pain is a persistent symptom, or if eye pain is present and accompanied by dave barry articles blurred vision or loss of vision, then prompt evaluation is recommended. Migraine vs. Summers Essay! tension headache: What's the difference?
A tension headache is history, described as being bilateral and the pain is not pulsating, but feels like pressure or tightness. Summers Essay! While severity can be mild-to-moderate, the headache is not disabling and there is no worsening of the pain with routine physical activity; additionally, there is no associated nausea, vomiting, photophobia, or phonophobia. A migraine headache typically lasts for several hours up to several days. The specific cause of migraines is not known, but there may be fluctuations in certain neurotransmitters, chemicals that send messages between brain cells. These changes may predispose some people to develop migraine headaches. Up to 25% of people experience a migraine headache at some point in their life. Influence Media! Most migraine sufferers are female. It is Childhood, estimated that after adolescence, the ratio of female to male patients who experience migraines is about 3:1. There seems to be a genetic predisposition to migraine, as there is often a strong family history of migraine in patients with this disorder.
How can I tell if it's a migraine or a different type of headache? No specific physical findings are found when patients are experiencing a routine migraine headache. If an abnormality is of social, identified on physical examination, there should be suspicion of another cause for the headache. According to Childhood Essay the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 (ICHD) criteria for migraine without aura, a patient must have had at of the mafia, least five headache attacks fulfilling the Childhood Essay following criteria: Headache attacks lasting 4 to 72 hours (untreated or unsuccessfully treated) The headache has at least two of the following characteristics: Unilateral location Pulsating quality Moderate or severe pain intensity Aggravation by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity (for example, walking or climbing stairs) During the headache, at least one of the following characteristics: Nausea and/or vomiting Photophobia and/or phonophobia The headache cannot be attributed to of the another disorder. Imaging the brain with an MRI and CT scans or performing a brain wave test (electroencephalogram [EEG]) is not necessary if the patient's physical examination is normal. What are the treatments for migraine headaches? The treatment for migraines depends upon on Childhood Summers, how frequently the headaches occur and how long the headaches last.
The treatment of an acute migraine headache may vary from over-the-counter medicines (OTC), like acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, etc.), naproxen sodium (Aleve) to influence definition prescription medications. Triptans (sumatriptan, rizatriptan, eletriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan, and frovatriptan), may be extremely effective in treating migraines and Childhood Summers Essay may be prescribed to help the patient treat their migraine at home. A combination of naproxen and internal influence definition sumatriptan is now available. Additionally, sumatriptan is now available as a patch which delivers the medication though the skin. Not every patient can take these medications, and there are specific limitations regarding how often these medications can be used.
Other medication regimens may also be used to control migraine headache. Some medications are appropriate for Summers Essay home use and others require a visit to how democratic was britain the health-care professional's office or emergency department. Dihydroergotamine (DHE 45) can be administered intravenously or by nasal spray; this medication cannot be used if a triptan has been used within the preceding 24 hours. Diclofenac potassium for oral solution (Cambia) is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication approved for treatment of migraine. Antiemetic medications, including intravenous (IV) metoclopramide, and IV or intramuscular (IM) chlorpromazine and prochlorperazine can be used both to relieve nausea and vomiting and migraine pain. Narcotic pain medications are not necessarily appropriate for the treatment of migraine headaches and are associated with the Summers Essay phenomenon of rebound headache, where the headache returns -- sometimes more intensely -- when the dave barry narcotics wear off. In all cases of migraine, the use of acute pain therapies must be watched closely so that a patient does not develop medication overuse headache. Overuse of many of the medications used to treat migraine headache can lead to increased headache frequency, or even daily headaches. This type of headache phenomenon is known as medication overuse headache.
If an individual experiences frequent headaches, or if the headaches routinely last for several days, then preventive medications may be indicated. These may be prescribed on a daily basis in Childhood, an effort to decrease the how democratic was britain by 1928 frequency, severity, and duration of migraine headaches. Childhood Summers Essay! There are many different medications which have been shown to be effective in influence definition, this role, including: The specific medication which is Childhood, selected for a patient is dependent on many other factors, including age, sex, blood pressure, and other pre-existing medical conditions. Some patients who experience more than 15 headache days every month might benefit from dave barry, Botox injections. Quick Guide Migraine or Headache? Migraine Symptoms, Triggers, Treatment. What remedies and lifestyle changes help manage and decrease the frequency of Childhood, migraines? Individuals who experience migraines can play a significant role in managing their headache frequency and severity. Keep track of when migraines occur by using a paper or digital headache diary or log to history mafia track pain levels, triggers, and symptoms.
This can help identify patterns which precede a migraine, as well as help identify factors which contribute to the development of the headache. Childhood Summers! Once these contributing factors are known, lifestyle modifications can lessen their impact. These modifications may include: Maintain a regular schedule for eating and sleeping Avoid certain foods that might trigger a migraine Keep well hydrated since dehydration has been identified as a migraine trigger for some people Exercise regularly. Relaxation strategies and meditation also have been recognized as effective strategies to how democratic prevent migraines and decrease headache severity. Some people find that exercises that promote muscle relaxation can help manage the pain of migraines. Childhood Essay! Examples of types of was britain, mind-body exercises that can help encourage relaxation are: There is Summers Essay, no specific diet for people with migraine that helps with symptom relief. However, as mentioned previously, certain foods can be triggers for migraines in susceptible people. These foods include: red wines, aged cheeses, preservatives used in how democratic by 1928, smoked meats (nitrates), monosodium glutamate, artificial sweeteners, chocolate, and dairy products.
Alcoholic beverages can also trigger migraine in Childhood, some people. Understanding the particular triggers of of the earth, your migraines and Childhood Essay avoiding these dietary triggers may help some sufferers decrease the frequency of how democratic, attacks. How are migraines managed during pregnancy? Many women find that their headaches stabilize or even resolve during pregnancy. This may be related to more consistent hormone levels that occur during pregnancy. Childhood Summers! To decrease the risk of birth defects, certain medications used to prevent migraines may need to be discontinued prior to history mafia a pregnancy. There are limited studies of Childhood Summers Essay, drugs that are used to treat migraines during pregnancy. Acetaminophen is relatively safe when used in recommended doses. If a you are pregnant and are experiencing frequent headaches, there are some treatment alternatives that may be provided by your doctor or other health care professional. Many migraine medications, including the triptans, are not well studied in pregnancy so the potential benefits to the patient need to be weighed against the risks to the fetus before these medications are prescribed. How are migraines managed in children?
Migraine headaches may occur in earth, children. Childhood Summers! Treatment is history of the mafia, similar to the treatment of migraines in Childhood Summers, adults, but drug dosages may need to be adjusted because of the by 1928 smaller size of the patients. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are often quite effect in controlling acute headaches. For more severe or refractory headaches, some of the triptans have been identified as being beneficial. If headaches occur frequently, daily medication may be warranted for prevention.
Diet, regular sleep patterns, routine exercise, and biofeedback, are all potentially beneficial in decreasing the frequency and severity of migraines in children. Identification and avoidance of triggers through the use of a headache diary is Essay, a helpful tool. What is the prognosis for a person with migraines? Most people who have migraines find that their headaches may be controlled with the preventive medications and lifestyle changes. Those with a diagnosis of migraine need to veronese painter be aware of how their lifestyle may directly impact the frequency and severity of their headache. Controlling migraine triggers may provide substantial benefit. Summers! It has been identified that as patients get older, there may be a decrease in veronese painter, the frequency of this type of headache and they may disappear after a number of years.
Migraine Symptoms, Triggers, Treatment. What are your migraine headache triggers? What migraine headache symptoms do you experience? What kind of treatment do you get for your migraines? Does it help? Do self-care measures give you relief from your migraine headaches? What do you do? Discuss the triggers for your migraine headaches. Protect Your Eyesight Warning Signs of Common Eye Conditions.
Migraine or Headache What's the Difference? Psoriasis See What It Looks Like and barry How to Childhood Summers Treat It. Health Solutions From Our Sponsors. 1996-2017 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The Ultimate List of Childhood Essay AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to test your ability to the spheres think critically and Childhood Essay analyze literary excerpts. The test is history of the, three hours long and Childhood consists of a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to veronese painter making a 5 on the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for Essay the AP Literature exam at the end of the year, you need some tips on how to survive the course itself.
Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to be more difficult than the standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of studying to make good grades throughout the year. The assignments you are graded on throughout the year help you prepare for the AP exam at the end of the year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the barry, AP English Literature course. 1. Summers Essay. Complete Any and All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of reading. Influence Definition. Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and Childhood Summers expect the dave, required titles to Childhood Summers Essay be read when you walk into your first day of class. In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to be completed before you begin the class. This is more for the teacher to view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to be taught to you. However, this doesn’t mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to learn. This attitude will make the school year a lot more bearable for both you and your instructor.
2. Go to Class: Missing class leads to missing material. Earth. Missing material leads to lower scores on assignments. Lower scores on assignments lead to lower scores on the exam at the end of the Childhood Essay, year. Veronese Painter. The bottom line is: don’t miss class if you can help it. 3. Teach Yourself the Material: AP English Literature instructors don’t have time to teach you everything. Since you are probably only in their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to teach. Because of this, you won’t get as in-depth of explanations on some concepts as others. You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to really make the Childhood Summers Essay, most out of this course. You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by conducting good old fashioned research, or just by reading the assigned texts.
Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more. You can look up videos on YouTube concerning the articles, topics you need help understanding. You can also use Albert.io to Childhood Summers test yourself on was britain by 1928, different areas covered in a typical AP English Literature class. 4. Learn How to Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. It’s important that you learn how to examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, it’s important that you analyze the setting, characters, and Childhood Summers plot of the piece. Internal. However, it’s also imperative that you understand how to look deeper within the words. Deconstruct the text and Summers Essay examine its theme, look for literary devices, and motives. 5. Read: This is painter, literature! Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to Childhood Summers read an outrageous number of influence of social books or anything.
You just need to at least make an attempt to read every day. As you read, try to dissect the depth of the text. Summers Essay. After a few days of this, you’ll be surprised at how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to question everything. 6. Ask Questions: Your teacher is there to help; it’s their job. If there’s anything you don’t understand, be sure to ask your instructor. There’s nothing wrong with asking for of the help, and in the end, you’ll be thankful you did. Childhood Essay. Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to be a huge weight off of your shoulders. 7. Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to help test scores. It provides an internal influence definition, opportunity to approach subject matter from different angles. Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and vice versa.
One of the best ways to make sure you know the material is to Childhood Summers teach it to others. 8. Of The. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe you’re a visual learner. Childhood Summers. Perhaps you like to listen to material to history really understand it. Childhood. The best way to find out what form of studying helps you best is to experiment. Try different methods to history of the mafia see what works best for you. Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay. Now that you have a grasp on how to Childhood Essay get through the actual coursework of your AP English Literature and Composition class, it’s time to learn how to study for the exam at the end of the year. First, we’ll take a look at some tips that are sure to help you ace the first portion of the AP Literature exam: the multiple-choice section.
This portion is influence of social on teenagers, worth 45% of your total score and it consists of Childhood Summers several passages to read and 55 questions to answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete. Let’s get started. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. It’s a common misconception that you should read the barry articles, questions before reading the passage, so you can work quickly and scan the text for the correct answer.
One vital thing to remember is this: quicker isn’t always better. On a timed exam, it is Childhood Summers Essay, important to work at dave barry a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes. It’s best to read the passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error. By merely scanning the passage for the answers, you’re missing out on a plethora of content that could be vital to answering questions correctly later on in the test. 2. Look Deep Within the Text: It’s extremely important that you analyze the passages within the exam very carefully. Essay. Chances are, there will be questions on the tone of the passage, or the author’s purpose for writing it. Was it to inform or persuade the audience? Perhaps the articles, author used some literary devices like allusions or irony. Closely read the passages and Summers you will have no problem identifying the answers to questions that are specific to the literature side of AP English. 3. Carefully Read the Questions: If you don’t understand what the question is asking, you can’t possibly expect to know the answer.
Take a deep breath and calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely. This will be easier to do for some questions than for others. Once you understand what it is exactly the painter, question is asking, try to recall where in the passage the answer could be located. Also be sure to read the Childhood Essay, question in its entirety. Sometimes, the writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the question in a different direction.
For example, the words “EXCEPT” and “NOT” are often used at the end of questions, and this can confuse you. Internal. If you hadn’t read that one tiny word, all of the answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on Essay, a question. 4. Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others. Influence Of Social Media. Some questions are even designed to trip you up. Be sure to read every single word in every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the difference as to whether or not an answer is correct. 5. Childhood Summers Essay. Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the of the mafia, parts of the Childhood Summers, text in which answers are located. Be sure the information matches one of the answer choices. You may even want to put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the text that contain answers. That way, if you have extra time at the end of the test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly.
6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is a timed exam. 60 minutes to the spheres complete 55 questions. This allows for an average of a minute per question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. You have absolutely no time to sit at your desk staring blankly at questions you don’t quite understand. Luckily, there is no penalty for answers marked wrong—or answers not marked at all—on the AP English Literature exam. This means you should definitely skip the questions you’re unsure of. Mark them in some sort of Summers Essay way so that it is painter, noticeable that you haven’t answered them yet. Then, if you have some time at the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer.
Alternatively, if you can’t seem to find an answer: guess! Remember, you’re only Childhood Summers, graded on the number of questions you get right; there’s absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong. 7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you. A few of the barry articles, multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the passages you read. In the margins of the Childhood Essay, page beside the passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression.
This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to study specific terms or brief concepts. Since you will be tested on your understanding of certain terms, it is important that you know them like the back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and review them periodically throughout the semester. 9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps. Take the flashcards you’ve made with you wherever you go. Keep them in your wallet, in your purse, or even in your car. Whenever you have a moment of free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of your terms. It’ll stick better in your memory and help your AP Literature exam score in the long run. 10. Barry. Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the Childhood Summers Essay, AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself.
Prepare early in the semester for the exam. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on veronese painter, the content you’ve learned so far. There are several websites out there dedicated to Childhood helping you quiz yourself for the AP Literature exam. Was Britain By 1928. One of these is Childhood, Albert.io , which allows you to veronese painter test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in the AP English Literature course. 11. Don’t Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is one big test.
Sure, it affects the amount of college credit you receive coming out of high school. But at the end of the day, it’s just a test. Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to function correctly. Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on your mind and Summers Essay body. Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Of The Mafia. Just remember, your mental health is Childhood Summers, more important than your grades.
Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test. It’ll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better. Now that you have some tips on influence of social media, how to tackle the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam, it’s time to focus on the most challenging part: the free response portion. In this portion, you have two hours to complete three essays. This section tests your ability to analyze passages and Childhood Summers Essay dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in history your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today.
Here are some tips for Childhood Summers nailing the free response portion of the AP English Literature and Composition exam: AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Read the Question: The first step towards writing an awesome essay on the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the question. What are the articles, authors of the test asking for specifically? The answer to this question is the key to writing a well-rounded essay. The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and Childhood straight to the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in a huge deduction of points. Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in your ability to dissect passages. This is an extremely bad impression to give, since the interpretation of text is the basis of the entire course. 2. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the basis of all successful essays.
As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the question. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the question. Make it brief and to the point. You have the rest of the essay to elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body. 3. Stay Organized: Organization is key to writing a great essay. Prepare an outline within the first few minutes of writing your essay. Perhaps even use a diagram, if you’re a visual learner. A clear and precise outline can help prevent rambling when answering the question in how democratic was britain by 1928 your essay.
4. Use a High-Level Vocabulary: Since this is an exam for an Advanced Placement English course, it is imperative that you use a vocabulary that reflects a higher level of education. However, be sure that you use your impressive vocabulary in context. Childhood Summers Essay. Nothing looks worse than using a word incorrectly in influence your essay. Childhood Essay. Be careful: only use words in which you know the definition. 5. Use Your Resources: On the first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and articles analyze it according to the instructions given in the question.
Use the Childhood, passage to influence definition your advantage. Frequently refer back to specific parts of the text. This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to Summers Essay detail when reading the passage. The specific references display the ability to close read, which is a skill covered frequently in an AP English Literature course. 6. Prepare Early: The third free response question on the AP Literature exam is more open ended than the first two. You will be asked a question and you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to veronese painter a work of literature that you have read in class. It’s important that you keep this particular essay question in mind as you work throughout the Childhood Summers Essay, semester. Influence Definition. If a particular work of literature stands out to you, prepare early to choose this as the Childhood Summers, piece to write about in your third essay. 7. Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect. A good option for practicing free response questions involves searching the Internet for old exam rubrics. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for in an essay.
The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by the College Board to help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of this and practice writing essays using different prompts from mafia, previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is worse than getting halfway through an Childhood, essay and having your pen run out of ink, or your pencil getting smudged. Often, readers prefer the look and clarity of black ink to colored ink or the graphite of pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the internal influence, exam. 9. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to spend on each question. It may even be helpful to bring a watch to time yourself on Essay, each essay. You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the articles, questions and leaving vital information out of your essays.
10. Write Neatly: The clarity of your writing is necessary for a good score on your essay. If the reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11. Don’t Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for the multiple-choice portion of the exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for Childhood Summers Essay your essays.
You only get three chances to prove your competency in the free response portion. Take advantage of of social media this opportunity to show the readers how much you’ve learned from taking this AP course. 12. Understand What the Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored. It’s vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. Childhood Summers. This includes: a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to how democratic was britain by 1928 you to read. Pay close attention to the plot and how it develops as the story progresses.
b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the passage. The theme is the dominating central idea in a work. It’s vital that you recognize the theme very early on in your essay. c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in your essay, the Childhood Essay, better. However, this does not mean restate the the spheres earth, entire storyline. This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the question. Childhood. Scorers like for you to be very clear and to the point in your essays. d) Mature Voice: The voice of your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring. If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the exam.
However, if your voice is too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed. A happy median should be found right away to provide your essay with clarity and barry maturity. 13. Listen to Your Teacher: This is perhaps the most important of all the free response tips. Childhood. Over the course of the semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for barry articles the exam.
Pay close attention to your teacher’s guidance. If the information your teacher gives you wasn’t relevant, they wouldn’t waste their time giving it to you. Your instructor knows the exam; it’s only logical to follow their advice. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is all about analysis of different literary works. Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease.
Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers. 1. Always remember the author’s purpose. Retelling what happened in Essay the story is mafia, not an analysis. You must understand and relay why the author wrote it the Summers, way he/she did and what he/she is trying to tell readers! That’s crucial! Thanks for the tip from Kim F. from Tavares High. 2. Be original. Think about the fact that the AP Test readers have been looking at essays on the same topics for three days. What will you do to be original and stand out that will surprise the reader at 4:30 pm on day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing.
Then, don’t write on those topics. Thanks for the tip from Mike G. from MPS. 3. “Box the but because shift happens.” That way they remember to always look for any kind of veronese painter shift because that will usually lead to Summers Essay complexity in meaning. History Mafia. Thanks for the tip from Amber B. at Madison County Schools. 4. Answer the question as it is actually asked. It’s easy to see a title or an author and jump to conclusions, and sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the question is asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the Childhood, pressure to complete three essays in 120 minutes, it’s an easy mistake to make … and a good one to avoid! Thanks for the tip from Heather I. from Niles North. 5. Answer the question in the introduction.
Thanks for the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for is analysis. Thanks for the tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 7. Always answer the question: “So What?” Yes, the writer used an extended metaphor, so what? Why did they chose that metaphor? How does that choice reflect the dave barry, author’s intent? What effect does it create within the text and within the reader?
Provide the reader with the “so what” to help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 8. Brush up on your vocabulary – if you don’t understand the vocabulary used in the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to find the Childhood Summers Essay, correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of meaning that will bring you to the wrong conclusion. Pay attention to the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for the tip from veronese painter, Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to Summers Essay write and communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read. Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and comprehension and enables students to make connections within and between content areas which real world applications. Thanks for the tip from Elizabeth B. from influence of social media, Harrison High. 10. Don’t worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and conclusion.
Instead, use your time to focus on meaning. Childhood. What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary. Begin with a clear thesis and end with one strong concluding statement. Thanks for the tip from history mafia, Julie H. from Greenville High. 11. Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of a Salesman works) for your big guns for question 3. Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the prompt.
It’d be Peggy C. from Cherokee County Schools. 12. Each essay is Childhood Essay, worth the same amount of points, but one is set for you to shine — know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. On the test – do it first while your mind is still fresh. Thanks for the tip from Diane S. from Frederick High School. 13. Go online to the AP test page and how democratic check out the Childhood Summers, various student essays from prior years. What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at media on teenagers the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays. Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and serves as exemplar models for Essay best writing. Learning how to write well from those who have done well is a practice students appreciate.
Thanks for the tip from Pam W. from history of the mafia, Sandpoint High. 14. Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period. These can provide insight into the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for the tip from Childhood Summers Essay, Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15. Have four novels of literary quality and one play that the student is comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for the tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 16. For all poetry: a. analyze the central purpose, b. explain the speaker’s attitude toward the subject, c. History Mafia. Analyze any figurative language. Childhood Summers. Thanks for the second tip from Bill O. from El Molino High.
17. Veronese. Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the selections is difficult there’ll be something in Childhood Summers Essay it all students can analyze. Analyze that and then keep writing! Thanks for the third tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 18. Learn and practice using the history mafia, language and function of literature, poetry, and rhetoric. Plan and execute their usage in your style, syntax, and art, and use the language when critiquing in workshops and discussing classics. Thanks for the tip from Jon A. from Arts and Communication Magnet Academy.
19. Do not merely skim to Childhood Summers Essay point out literary devices. Of Social Media On Teenagers. (I used to say — Don’t Where’s Waldo the device” but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into the text to identify the device, explain in detail how the Summers Essay, device is functioning and then zoom out to explain how it works to influence definition support the passage as a whole and how it connects to the universal human condition. This means the difference between writing a college level paper and writing a high school level paper. Thanks for the tip from Jodi G. from Saugus High. Childhood. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 20.
Deconstruct the prompt – make sure you understand exactly what it is veronese painter, asking you to do – then use it as a focus for Childhood your annotation of the influence of social on teenagers, text on Q1 and Q2 and as a launching point for your notes and thesis for Q3. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of composition, etc…) for each essay in order to go deeper in analysis of each. Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about Summers Essay one or two somethings! Thanks for veronese painter the tip from Summers Essay, Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High.
22. Of The Earth. Take 10-12 minutes to Essay read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and develop a thesis before you begin writing the essay. Influence Media On Teenagers. That thinking and Childhood Summers Essay planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is clear and cohesive. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to painter write every essay – a blank essay score is very difficult to overcome! Thanks for Childhood Summers the tip from veronese, Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 24. Use something you’ve read in AP Lit for Q3 – you will have spent more time and analytical energy on Summers, those books and was britain by 1928 plays than you did in any other English class. Prepare for Q3 before the exam by reviewing everything you’ve read in AP Lit.
Thanks for Childhood the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 25. Pick two texts, one classic and influence one modern, get to know them backward and forward as well as the historical context around them. Thanks for the tip from Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Essay. Address all aspects of the prompt! Look for complexity!
Thanks for influence the tip from Childhood Summers Essay, Lori Mill Creek High School. 27. Audience, Occasion Purpose — Whether you’re speaking, reading or writing, you’re thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose. Thanks for the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28.
Turn your words into pictures and your pictures into words. Meaning: If you have an definition, idea, anchor it to something concrete. If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Summers, Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School. 29. When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)! Always linking your points back to of the the text forces you to use evidence for each claim you make. 30. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for the tip from Lynne B. at Childhood Summers Buchholz High School. 31.
Debate the on teenagers, questions. Get students to debate the answers to AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they “quiz” on Essay, a passage and of the the questions for it, ask them how they think they did. The answer is always mixed, so give them an Childhood Essay, option: Keep the of the, score they currently have OR discuss the Essay, answers in a large group without teacher’s help and take that community grade. Media. They always pick the latter. Participating in Summers the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of insight into students’ thinking process, they will learn from the of the earth, ways their classmates explain their choices, and their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for the tip from Childhood Summers Essay, Wendy R from Weslaco East High School. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Start your AP English Literature Prep today.
Looking for AP English Literature practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations.
NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. Ahhh….grammatical error in your text–you need a period or exclamation point after literature. (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that. Internal Influence. We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for Childhood Summers Essay me during this year of AP Lit. I found tip 23 most important because I always take to much time on things like the intro that I don’t realize I’m wasting much of my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP® and Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the earth, College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and Essay does not endorse, this product. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and painter does not endorse this product.
ACT® is a registered trademark of Childhood Summers ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE® is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and history mafia does not endorse, this product.
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Homework: An Unnecessary Evil? … Surprising Findings From New Research (##) Share this article. An unnecessary evil? … Surprising Findings From New Research. A brand-new study on the academic effects of homework offers not only some intriguing results but also a lesson on how to read a study — and a reminder of the importance of doing just that: reading studies (carefully) rather than relying on summaries by journalists or even by the researchers themselves. Let’s start by reviewing what we know from earlier investigations. First, no research has ever found a benefit to assigning homework (of any kind or in Essay any amount) in elementary school. Internal Influence. In fact, there isn’t even a positive correlation between, on the one hand, having younger children do some homework (vs. Summers Essay. none), or more (vs. less), and, on the other hand, any measure of achievement. If we’re making 12-year-olds, much less five-year-olds, do homework, it’s either because we’re misinformed about influence media on teenagers what the evidence says or because we think kids ought to have to do homework despite what the evidence says. Second, even at the high school level, the Essay, research supporting homework hasn’t been particularly persuasive. On Teenagers. There does seem to be a correlation between homework and standardized test scores, but (a) it isn’t strong, meaning that homework doesn’t explain much of the variance in scores, (b) one prominent researcher, Timothy Keith, who did find a solid correlation, returned to the topic a decade later to enter more variables into the equation simultaneously, only to discover that the improved study showed that homework had no effect after all, and (c) at Summers Essay best we’re only talking about was britain by 1928 a correlation — things that go together — without having proved that doing more homework causes test scores to go up. (Take 10 seconds to Childhood, see if you can come up with other variables that might be driving both of of the these things.) Third, when homework is related to test scores, the connection tends to be strongest — or, actually, least tenuous — with math. If homework turns out to be unnecessary for students to succeed in Childhood that subject, it’s probably unnecessary everywhere. Along comes a new study, then, that focuses on the neighborhood where you’d be most likely to find a positive effect if one was there to be found: math and science homework in history high school. Like most recent studies, this one by Adam Maltese and Essay, his colleagues doesn’t provide rich descriptive analyses of what students and history mafia, teachers are doing.
Rather, it offers an aerial view, the kind preferred by Summers Essay economists, relying on two large datasets (from the National Education Longitudinal Study [NELS] and the Education Longitudinal Study [ELS]). Painter. Thousands of students are asked one question — How much time do you spend on homework? — and statistical tests are then performed to Summers, discover if there’s a relationship between that number and internal definition, how they fared in Childhood Essay their classes and on standardized tests. It’s easy to miss one interesting result in this study that appears in a one-sentence aside. When kids in these two similar datasets were asked how much time they spent on math homework each day, those in the NELS study said 37 minutes, whereas those in the ELS study said 60 minutes. There’s no good reason for such a striking discrepancy, nor do the authors offer any explanation. They just move right along — even though those estimates raise troubling questions about the whole project, and about all homework studies that are based on self-report. Internal Influence Definition. Which number is more accurate? Or are both of them way off? There’s no way of knowing.
And because all the conclusions are tied to that number, all the conclusions may be completely invalid. But let’s pretend that we really do know how much homework students do. Did doing it make any difference? The Maltese et al. study looked at the effect on Summers Essay, test scores and on earth, grades. Childhood Summers. They emphasized the of the, latter, but let’s get the former out of the way first. Was there a correlation between the amount of Essay homework that high school students reported doing and their scores on media, standardized math and science tests? Yes, and it was statistically significant but “very modest”: Even assuming the existence of a causal relationship, which is by Childhood Summers no means clear, one or two hours’ worth of homework every day buys you two or three points on a test. Is that really worth the frustration, exhaustion, family conflict, loss of veronese time for other activities, and potential diminution of interest in learning? And how meaningful a measure were those tests in the first place, since, as the Childhood Summers Essay, authors concede, they’re timed measures of mostly mechanical skills? (Thus, a headline that reads “Study finds homework boosts achievement” can be translated as “A relentless regimen of internal influence after-school drill-and-skill can raise scores a wee bit on tests of rote learning.”) But it was grades, not tests, that Maltese and his colleagues really cared about. They were proud of Childhood Summers Essay having looked at internal transcript data in order to figure out “the exact grade a student received in Childhood Essay each class [that he or she] completed” so they could compare that to how much homework the student did.
Previous research has looked only at students’ overall grade-point averages. And the media, result of this fine-tuned investigation? There was no relationship whatsoever between time spent on Childhood Essay, homework and course grade, and “no substantive difference in grades between students who complete homework and of social media, those who do not.” This result clearly caught the Summers, researchers off-guard. Frankly, it surprised me, too. When you measure “achievement” in how democratic was britain by 1928 terms of grades, you expect to see a positive result — not because homework is academically beneficial but because the same teacher who gives the assignments evaluates the students who complete them, and the final grade is often based at least partly on whether, and to what extent, students did the homework.
Even if homework were a complete waste of time, how could it not be positively related to course grades? And yet it wasn’t. Again. Even in high school. Even in math. The study zeroed in on specific course grades, which represents a methodological improvement, and the moral may be: The better the research, the less likely one is to find any benefits from homework. (That’s not a surprising proposition for a careful reader of reports in this field. We got a hint of Childhood Essay that from Timothy Keith’s reanalysis and also from the fact that longer homework studies tend to find less of an effect.) Maltese and his colleagues did their best to was britain by 1928, reframe these results to minimize the stunning implications. Like others in Childhood Summers this field, they seem to have approached the topic already convinced that homework is earth, necessary and potentially beneficial, so the Childhood Summers, only question we should ask is How — not whether — to internal influence definition, assign it. But if you read the results rather than just the authors’ spin on them — which you really need to do with the work of others working in Summers this field as well — you’ll find that there’s not much to prop up the internal influence, belief that students must be made to work a second shift after they get home from school. The assumption that teachers are just assigning homework badly, that we’d start to see meaningful results if only it were improved, is Summers Essay, harder and harder to justify with each study that’s published. If experience is any guide, however, many people will respond to these results by repeating platitudes about the importance of practice, or by complaining that anyone who doesn’t think kids need homework is coddling them and failing to prepare them for history of the, the “real world” (read: the pointless tasks they’ll be forced to do after they leave school). Those open to Childhood Summers, evidence, however, have been presented this fall with yet another finding that fails to find any meaningful benefit even when the study is set up to give homework every benefit of the doubt.
1. It’s important to dave barry articles, remember that some people object to Childhood, homework for reasons that aren’t related to the dispute about whether research might show that homework provides academic benefits. They argue that (a) six hours a day of academics are enough, and kids should have the chance after school to explore other interests and develop in of the other ways — or be able simply to relax in the same way that most adults like to Childhood Summers, relax after work; and (b) the decision about what kids do during family time should be made by families, not schools. Influence Definition. Let’s put these arguments aside for now, even though they ought to be (but rarely are) included in any discussion of the topic. 2. Valerie A. Cool and Summers Essay, Timothy Z. Keith, “Testing a Model of School Learning: Direct and Indirect Effects on Academic Achievement,” Contemporary Educational Psychology 16 (1991): 28-44. 3. Adam V. Maltese, Robert H. Tai, and Xitao Fan, “When Is Homework Worth the Time? Evaluating the Association Between Homework and of the earth, Achievement in High School Science and Math,” The High School Journal , October/November 2012: 52-72. Abstract at http://ow.ly/fxhOV. 4. Other research has found little or no correlation between how much homework students report doing and Summers Essay, how much homework their parents say they do. When you use the of social on teenagers, parents’ estimates, the correlation between homework and achievement disappears. See Harris Cooper, Jorgianne Civey Robinson, and Erika A. Patall, “Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement?: A Synthesis of Research, 1987-2003,” Review of Educational Research 76 (2006): 1-62.
5. To put it the Essay, other way around, studies finding the biggest effect are those that capture less of what goes on in the real world by virtue of being so brief. View a small, unrepresentative slice of a child’s life and by 1928, it may appear that homework makes a contribution to achievement; keep watching, and that contribution is Childhood Essay, eventually revealed to be illusory. See data provided — but not interpreted this way — by Cooper, The Battle Over Homework, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2001). 6. Even the title of their article reflects this: They ask “When Is Homework Worth the Time?” rather than “ Is Homework Worth the how democratic was britain, Time?” This bias might seem a bit surprising in the case of the study’s second author, Robert H. Tai. Childhood Essay. He had contributed earlier to another study whose results similarly ended up raising questions about the value of homework. Students enrolled in history of the mafia college physics courses were surveyed to determine whether any features of Summers Essay their high school physics courses were now of use to them. At first a very small relationship was found between the amount of homework that students had had in high school and how well they were currently faring.
But once the dave articles, researchers controlled for Childhood Essay, other variables, such as the type of classes they had taken, that relationship disappeared, just as it had for Keith (see note 2). The researchers then studied a much larger population of students in college science classes – and found the same thing: Homework simply didn’t help. See Philip M. Of The Mafia. Sadler and Childhood Summers Essay, Robert H. Tai, “Success in Introductory College Physics: The Role of High School Preparation,” Science Education 85 : 111-36.
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European Union (Withdrawal) Bill: Paving the way towards a very uncertain future. Professor of EU law, University of Bristol. (This post was first published on the University of Bristol Law School Blog. It is reproduced here with kind permission of the author.) The stated aim of the, then Great, Repeal Bill was to provide clarity and certainty for citizens and businesses, and to ensure a functioning statute book on exit from the EU. The key statement of principle in the White Paper was as follows: ‘In order to achieve a stable and Childhood smooth transition, the Government’s overall approach is to convert the body of existing EU law into history, domestic law, after which Parliament (and, where appropriate, the devolved legislatures) will be able to decide which elements of that law to keep, amend or repeal once we have left the EU. This ensures that, as a general rule, the same rules and laws will apply after we leave the Summers EU as they did before’ (for analysis, see here ). However, the continuity provided by internal definition what is Summers Essay now the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill , published last week, must be seen in the context of the reality that leaving the EU will also require major constitutional and policy changes in a relatively short, and currently uncertain, time frame (see here ). After all, the Government’s aim is that, as a result of veronese painter, Brexit, the UK will be able to Childhood Summers decide which parts of EU-derived law to keep, and which to internal influence amend or repeal.
A number of Brexit Bills, which will change the law in relation to, among others, immigration, trade, customs, agriculture and fisheries, were promised in the Queen’s speech . The clarity and certainty promised in the White Paper, which at first glance appear to provide comfort to citizens and Childhood businesses concerned over internal influence definition the effects of Brexit, are more elusive than ever. Continue reading → Brexit Negotiating Terms of Reference. At their first meeting in Brussels today, Michel Barnier and David Davis agreed overall Terms of Reference for the forthcoming Brexit negotiations. The Terms of reference set out a general structure and schedule for negotiations between now and October 2017. After today’s formal opening, actual talks will begin in July. Round 1 will take place in the week commencing July 17 th followed by Round 2 in the week of August 28th, Round 3 in the week of Childhood Essay, September 18 and Round 4 in the week of internal definition, October 9 th . We do not yet know what happens beyond that date.
Setting the Childhood Summers pattern for future negotiations, the articles joint post-meeting press conference was held in English and French, with interpretation provided by the European Commission. All negotiations and working documents will be produced in these two languages. The negotiations themselves will take place on two levels – general plenary sessions and Essay smaller group meetings. The document states that each round of negotiations ‘should’ comprise public officials of both sides only however this leaves scope for others, such as business leaders and on teenagers bankers, to also take part. Names are not given, but Politico has helpfully produced a list of the key players on Childhood Essay each side. Plenary negotiating sessions will be co-chaired by so-called ‘Principals’ and/ or ‘Co-ordinators’ – presumably from the central team on each side. Of Social! These persons will have overall responsibility both for Summers Essay keeping the process on track and providing advice.
They will also have responsibility for a specific dialogue on Ireland/ Northern Ireland, launched today. It is not clear who will lead/co-ordinate the smaller group meetings or how many there will be – the ‘Principals’ have discretion to create additional working groups, sub- groups or indeed organise ‘breakout sessions’ as required. In total, just 3 negotiating groups were created today. Two are very specific: Citizens’ Rights and Financial Settlement. The latter will clearly deal with the Brexit Bill and the former will focus on the situation of EU citizens in the UK and UK citizens in other parts of the EU. It is how democratic was britain by 1928 also to be hoped that it will deal with the situation of Zambrano carers whose rights to remain in Childhood the UK to look after their British citizens children also derive from EU law. The final negotiating group created today has a general remit and will focus on other Separation Issues. The basis of the veronese negotiations will be texts created by either side. There is no specific timeframe for sharing these materials – the document simply rather limply states that ‘Negotiation texts that are intended for discussion at Childhood Summers Essay, any negotiating round should be shared at least one week in advance wherever possible.’ This is surprising – given the ever-decreasing timeframe, tighter rules on the exchange of documents might have been better. The timeframe is also loose – the above-mentioned ‘Negotiation rounds’ will ‘in principle’ take place during one week in every month. History Mafia! However, this is a loose arrangement which can be departed from by mutual consent.
Negotiators may also meet informally in between formal sessions to prepare negotiations. Continue reading → Brexit: a separate citizens’ rights agreement under Article 50 TEU. Why a separate citizens’ rights agreement under article 50 is required. The European Council Guidelines for Summers the Brexit negotiation adopted on 29 th April 2017 (further referred to as Negotiation Guidelines), as well as the Council Directives for the negotiation adopted on 22 nd May 2017 (further referred to as Negotiation Directives), show a clear EU commitment to defend the influence of social on teenagers rights of the nearly five million people whose lives are most directly affected by Brexit, namely the Childhood Summers EU citizens residing in the UK, and British citizens residing in the EU. The Negotiation Directives clearly state that the withdrawal negotiations should ensure ‘the necessary effective, enforceable, non-discriminatory and influence of social comprehensive guarantees’ and Childhood they favor a rather maximalist defense of the rights of these citizens (including judicial protection by the CJEU). The UK’s promises to protect the rights of these citizens are comparatively vague. Dave Barry Articles! However, both the EU and the UK have agreed that dealing with the rights of these citizens is the first priority of negotiations.
However, there is Summers Essay no procedural guarantee that these citizens would not end up as a bargaining chip. The Negotiation Guidelines and Directives provide for veronese painter a phased approach to the negotiations. However, this phased approach aims primarily at separating the negotiation of the withdrawal settlement under Article 50TEU (phase 1) from the negotiation of an agreement on the future relationship between the UK and the EU (phase 2). In addition to that, it provides for a second stage within the Essay first phase (Article 50 withdrawal settlement). In that second stage, the influence definition withdrawal negotiation can start to Summers reflect on the potential scenarios for the future UK-EU relationship. Article 50 requires ‘taking account of the of social media on teenagers framework for its [withdrawing Member State’s] future relationship with the Union’ when dealing with the withdrawal agreement. However, the Guidelines state clearly that this second stage of the Summers Essay first phase will only start when the was britain European Council has decided that there is ‘sufficient progress’ on Childhood Summers the issues identified as priorities of the first phase.
Citizens’ rights have been identified as the first item on the agenda of the first phase of the negotiation process. The proposed ‘phasing’ thus gives some level of separating citizens’ rights from other parts of the negotiation. Of Social On Teenagers! However, this is far from ring-fencing. The EU has taken the approach that as far as the Essay withdrawal issues (phase 1) are concerned ‘nothing is agreed until everything is agreed’. This at least means that citizens’ rights issues might be traded off against other topics of the dave first phase of negotiation, such as the Summers Essay financial settlement and the Ireland-Northern Ireland border issue. Moreover, they may even be influenced by the reflections about the history future UK-EU relationship which will appear on the negotiation table as issues ‘to be taken into account’ prior to the finalisation of the Article 50 withdrawal agreement. Hence, EU citizens in the UK and British in Summers Essay the EU remain fully at risk of becoming bargaining chips. The proposed negotiation procedure entails two additional dramatic consequences for the 4.5 million citizens directly affected.
The principle ‘nothing is agreed until everything is influence agreed’ unnecessarily prolongs the uncertainty these people are living in. Moreover, in the case that the withdrawal agreement fails, citizens will find themselves in Summers Essay a legal limbo with dramatic consequences. The only the spheres of the earth, solution to Essay solve the uncertainty of 4.5 million people is to adopt an agreement on citizen’s rights at the start of the Article 50 negotiation, independently from other withdrawal issues. So why has it not happened so far? One can understand the EU’s reluctance to negotiate on citizens’ rights PRIOR to the triggering of Article 50. The UK referendum was merely an internal affair as long as Article 50 had not been triggered. Moreover, if negotiating a citizens’ rights agreement prior to Article 50 had been attempted, it would not have profited from the decision-making procedure of Article 50 (which allows for the agreement to be adopted via Qualified Majority in was britain by 1928 Council and consent by the EP, and thus not requiring ratification by Childhood Summers national parliaments in the EU 27). Negotiation outside Article 50 would be more cumbersome since it may require ratification by all national parliaments. Hence the veronese painter ‘time advantage’ of starting negotiation prior to triggering Article 50 would immediately have been lost as the procedure itself would slow down the process. Finally, the EU feared that negotiation on partial issues prior to the triggering of Article 50 would undermine the unity of the Childhood Summers Essay EU 27. However, now that Article 50 has been triggered, there is of the no reason why a separate agreement on citizens’ rights cannot be negotiated prior to all other issues.
The moral argument in Childhood Summers favor of that remains as strong as ever before. The strategic argument of the EU that it would encourage ‘cherry-picking’ is also hardly convincing. The EU has by now set out its institutional framework, priorities and how democratic strategy for the negotiations. It is no longer unprepared, and has the institutional mechanism in place to ensure unity in response to the UK in negotiations. Moreover, arguments that a separate citizens’ rights agreement opens the way for cherry-picking are based on the wrong assumption. Accepting ring-fencing for citizens’ rights does not create any obligation to do the same for other issues.
There is Childhood Essay a strong moral argument to earth state: ‘a separate agreement will only be done on citizens’ rights given the human costs involved’. As will be shown below that does not create any legal precedent for the EU to accept separate agreements on Summers Essay other issues. The only remaining question then is was britain whether it is legally possible. More precisely, the Childhood Essay question is whether the the spheres of the rights of post-Brexit EU citizens can be legally ring-fenced from other negotiation topics and be safeguarded prior to Childhood Summers the end of the withdrawal negotiation, and in a way that it stands even in failure of the latter. To show whether ring-fencing is legally possible we need to address three questions: Is it possible to adopt a separate agreement on citizens rights signed under Article 50? How to ensure procedurally that the negotiation of these citizens’ rights, and of this separate agreement, is not mixed up with other Brexit negotiation issues (ring-fencing in influence of social media the strict sense).
How to ensure that the agreement comes into Essay, force even if other aspects of the Brexit negotiation fail (safeguarding) Is a separate agreement legally possible under Article 50 TEU? As confirmed in Article 5 of the Negotiation Guidelines, Article 50 TEU confers on the Union an ‘exceptional horizontal competence to cover in this agreement all matters necessary to influence definition arrange the withdrawal. This exceptional competence is of a one-off nature and strictly for the purposes of arranging the withdrawal from the Union.’ There is no doubt that addressing the Childhood rights of the 4.5 million is inherently an issue of withdrawal, and the spheres of the earth can thus be dealt with via Article 50. Childhood Summers! These are issues on which the EU has been able to act on veronese painter behalf on the Member States so far, and this competence extends (thanks to Summers Article 50) to dealing with all withdrawal aspects related to it.
However, Article 50 TEU talks about influence of social on teenagers a withdrawal agreement in the singular. The question is then whether a separate agreement on citizens’ right under Article 50 is possible. Childhood! I will argue that the use of the singular in relation to ‘agreement’ does not exclude legally that the withdrawal could be composed of several agreements, as long as the objectives and spirit of Article 50 TEU are respected. Continue reading → For the media on teenagers first time since sending the Article 50 Letter, the Prime Minister met with European Council President Tusk in what was described as a positive meeting where it was agreed to de-escalate the row over Gibraltar. Wider response to the activation of Summers Essay, Article 50 has been dismissive. In Germany, a Bundestag debate about Brexit was hardly reported. In the European Parliament, EP President Verhofstadt described Brexit as a “catfight in the Conservative party that got out of hand – a loss of barry articles, time, a waste of energy and a stupidity.” Unity and the future of the Summers 27 remaining member states was stressed as the EP endorsed the influence on teenagers European Council draft negotiation guidelines. The Commission launched its Brexit website – this lays out the organization of the Childhood Essay Taskforce that will conduct negotiations with the UK. General enquiries about the work of the taskforce can be sent to email@example.com. Head of the EU Taskforce, Michel Barnier, presented his three pre-conditions for a Withdrawal Agreement – unity of the 27, removal of uncertainty and finally ‘doing things in the right order and putting them into perspective’ ie. agreeing the of the mafia exit before the future relationship.
In an Essay, interview during her trip to Jordan, Theresa May confirmed this, saying that a final trade deal between the UK and internal definition the EU will only take place after the UK has left and is a non-EU country. Thus within the first seven days of Brexit, the Childhood Essay UK retreated from key aspects of its negotiating position. All seem agreed however that negotiations must be completed by March 29 2019. May’s claim that “no deal is better than a bad deal” was also challenged by the Parliamentary Brexit Committee. It published a Report which asked for an impact assessment of what the economic fallout would be. It seems that the of social media Treasury has not carried out a detailed economic forecast of Summers Essay, Britain’s Brexit options since the referendum. Regardless, the Government has agreed to underwrite Erasmus+ programme contracts signed while the UK is still in veronese the EU. Childhood! Beyond 29 March 2019 is uncertain – UK participation in the programme may continue subject to how democratic was britain by 1928 negotiation between the Government and Childhood Summers the EU. Finally, don’t be surprised if there are delays at veronese, some borders: EU plans to start border checks on everybody entering and Childhood Summers leaving the EU came into force on April 7. Now EU and non-EU citizens will be checked in a bid to increase security. EU Commissioner for Security, Julian King, is also pushing for the spheres the introduction of a fingerprint identification service for inclusion in the increasingly used Schengen Information System – 4 billion queries were made to SIS in 2016, a 40% increase from 2015.
Competition Law : AG Opinion in Case C-671/15 President of the Autorite? de la concurrence v Association des producteurs vendeurs d’endives (APVE) and Others. Agricultural producer organisations and their associations may be held liable for agreements, decisions or concerted practices contrary to EU competition law. That is the case, in particular, where concertation on prices or on Childhood the quantities placed on the market and exchanges of information occur between several (associations of) producer organisations or between such bodies and other types of operators on the market. Area of veronese painter, Freedom, Security and Justice : Case C-544/15 Sahar Fahimian v Germany. National authorities may refuse, for reasons of public security, to grant a visa for study in a sensitive field – such as information technology security – to an Iranian national with a degree from a university subject to restrictive measures.
Although the national authorities enjoy a wide discretion determining the existence of a threat to public security, the decision to refuse a visa must state proper reasons. The phoney war is over. Theresa May has triggered Article 50. The clock is ticking. Summers Essay! But clarity and legal certainty remain elusive. Prof Phil Syrpis , Professor of EU Law (University of Bristol Law School) In her letter to Donald Tusk the Prime Minister outlined the UK’s starting position in negotiations with the EU. The EU Council of Ministers responded by producing draft negotiating guidelines (to be confirmed by the European Council at influence of social media on teenagers, the end of April). These guidelines create the Childhood Summers framework within which negotiations on influence on teenagers withdrawal, and those on the future relationship between the UK and the EU, will occur.
Meanwhile, a White Paper on the Great Repeal Bill was presented to Parliament, promising on the one hand to repeal the European Communities Act (ECA) and end the supremacy of Summers, EU law in dave the UK, and on the other to convert the acquis communautaire into Childhood Summers Essay, UK law, so that ‘EU-derived rights’ (as we will need to get used to calling them) will, as far as possible, be unaffected. The opening exchanges between the UK and EU have generated a lot of history mafia, comment. Much of it has focused on the unlikely subject of Gibraltar (Michael Howard’s crass evocation of the Falklands conflict will have done nothing to lower simmering tensions). In relation to the White Paper, most attention has been devoted to the role of Childhood Summers Essay, Parliament and the devolved assemblies. Rather less attention has been paid to many of the EU law aspects. In this short note, I focus on those. Media On Teenagers! I first consider what new light has been shed on the way in which the Childhood Summers Article 50 negotiations will proceed, drawing attention to of the earth the host of issues which remain unanswered.
I then consider the EU law questions raised by the repeal of the ECA, and the conversion of the acquis into UK law. Michael Ford has already commented on this blog on Childhood the applicability of judgments of the European Court of Justice in influence definition the post-Brexit era; so there is no more on that subject here. My overarching concern is that the Government, in particular in the White Paper, has failed to provide a clear sense of the size of the Childhood task which lies ahead. It is impossible to know whether this is because the Government itself does not appreciate the the spheres earth magnitude of the challenge, or because it is Childhood trying to of the mafia conceal the difficulties. The Government has, for months, struggled to articulate just what Brexit might mean, and has made a series of disparate promises which a range of different constituencies have, if so minded, been able to rely on, or cling to. It will now start making hard choices.
It has not prepared the ground well. Theresa May’s letter set a conciliatory tone, using much more constructive rhetoric than hitherto. She emphasised her desire to build a ‘new deep and special partnership’ with the EU. Childhood Summers Essay! She expressed the belief that ‘it is necessary to agree the terms of our future relationship alongside those of the spheres of the, our withdrawal from the EU’. And she made it clear that the Childhood Summers Essay ‘no deal’ scenario is ‘not the outcome which either side should seek’. This is not the how democratic was britain by 1928 tone avid Brexiteers had been expecting. The EU responded with a draft of the negotiating guidelines which are to ‘define the framework for negotiations under Article 50’ (though note that the European Council, a little ominously, reserves to itself the Summers power to ‘update these guidelines in the course of the negotiations as necessary’). Article 50 does not afford a role to of social media the withdrawing state in the drafting or scope of these guidelines; like them or not, the UK will have to abide by them. The Council repeated ‘its wish to have the UK as a close partner in the future’. But it is Summers immediately clear that the relationship will be very different to the one we have all become used to.
In the very first paragraph of the draft guidelines there are references to ‘the integrity of the Single Market’ and to the fact that there ‘can be no “cherry picking”’, and veronese painter a clear statement that a non-member of the Union ‘cannot have the same rights and enjoy the same benefits as a member’. Childhood Essay! The guidelines go on to say that withdrawal negotiations ‘will be conducted as a single package’; ‘individual items cannot be settled separately’; and ‘there will be no separate negotiations between individual Member States and the United Kingdom’ on matters pertaining to its withdrawal. The disagreement relating to the sequencing of the negotiations will be one to watch over the coming weeks and months. Article 50 provides some guidance here, with paragraph 2 providing that the withdrawal agreement with, in this instance, the UK, shall be negotiated and concluded ‘taking account of the framework of its future relationship with the Union’. On the basis of this wording, I have argued that the European Council should have agreed to commit to negotiations with the UK in relation not only about a narrow withdrawal agreement, but also about a broader agreement on the future relationship between the veronese painter UK and Summers Essay the EU (so that the substantive reality of Brexit is known by the end of the two year negotiating period). The EU has, however, opted for a phased approach to the negotiations, seeking first to influence ensure that there is an orderly withdrawal. In the light of the wording of Article 50, perhaps reluctantly it has conceded that ‘an overall understanding on the framework for the future relationship could be identified during a second phase of the negotiations’, adding that the EU and its Member States ‘stand ready to Childhood Summers Essay engage in internal influence preliminary and preparatory discussions to this end in the context of negotiations under Article 50 TEU, as soon as sufficient progress has been made in the first phase’ (see para.4). In this instance it appears as though the UK has the law on its side; but there is little it can do to Summers force the EU to broaden the scope of the negotiations before it is ready to do so. Continue reading → The Five Crises in Europe and the Future of the EU.
Annual Lecture by Jean Claude Piris. 28 October 2013, Strand Campus, King's College London.