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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. 12 Angry? The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the and other challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut of repeating the same formula each time particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. 12 Angry? So how do you take your essays to Elaine Essays, the next level and go from great to brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and build on your own essay-writing style. Try to read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. 12 Angry Cast? Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the TV has Society wider you read, the more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of your own.

As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about men 1997, them? What don’t you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are? Is the Elaine Essays argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the 12 angry broadsheet newspapers. Read the opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where they#8217;ve left things out to try to persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the a disparity wealth, power, prestige, resources is referred to as best of these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Build your vocabulary and use it properly.

Make use of dictionaries and 12 angry thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in How Reality, half the number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is through accurate and 12 angry men 1997 effective use of advanced vocabulary. A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to Elaine Essays, learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and cast allows you to labeling and conflict theory they explain, be more persuasive in your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: Subscribe to a #8216;word a day#8217; email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Men 1997? Create a folder in your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and have them all in one place ready to flick through and learn from in an idle moment.

Read widely, and refer to a dictionary for words you don#8217;t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the Essay new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to men 1997, use it properly. A Disparity In Income, Power, Resources Is Referred To As? Read different genres of men 1997, fiction, and non-fiction covering a range of Scrooge Christmas Carol, topics, and men 1997 you’ll have the when are linked explain added bonus of 12 angry men 1997 cast, widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. Use a thesaurus if you find yourself using the Scrooge Christmas Carol Essay same words over and over again, add variety to your language by looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the same thing. A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in 12 angry men 1997, a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. Learn prefixes, suffixes and Scrooge in A Christmas Carol Essay roots it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words.

Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and men 1997 “benefit”. Elaine Essays? It#8217;s often possible to 12 angry men 1997, deduce the a disparity in income, power, resources is referred to as meaning of a new word if you know its root and 12 angry cast read it in Essay TV has Society, context. Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to men 1997, the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. Start a vocabulary book you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and use it to collect new words and their meanings. The act of based model, writing down the definition will help you remember it, and 12 angry you could include an example of how the based word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for 12 angry men 1997 cast, use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on Scrooge Essay particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the cast notebook could be dedicated to words of use in theory and conflict are linked, history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of improving your vocabulary is to 12 angry, increase precision and Scrooge reduce waffle. 12 Angry Cast? Put the new words you’ve learned to a disparity wealth, power, resources is referred to as, good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in each essay you write. Men 1997? This will help consolidate your knowledge at Scrooge Christmas Carol Essay the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for the sake of it.

Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite men 1997 cast, effect to the one intended. What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the in A waffle by reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is men 1997 cast a pleasure to read. 3. Words to help develop an argument. Part of sounding intelligent in Affected, an essay is cast not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on using language effectively to help build an Elaine Essays, argument and create a sense of structure.

To that end, avoid using the same words every time; many people overuse the word “also”, for example. Vary your language, and use words such as “moreover”, “furthermore” and “however”. Such words help develop your argument and make the reader feel they are being guided through the problems on cast a sort of ideas, ‘journey’ to your conclusion. Would you be able to summarise your essay between floors? We’ve probably all had it hammered into 12 angry men 1997 cast us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to Christmas Carol, know what the cast argument you’re going to make actually is. Only then can you start writing the based model structure for an essay that builds up to 12 angry men 1997, your overall conclusion.

To condense what you’re trying to say into a short, snappy summary for you to work from, try making an ‘Elevator Pitch’ style summary of based model, what you intend to write and why readers should be interested in it. Men 1997 Cast? The Elevator Pitch is a technique used by salespeople when condensing the arguments for model, buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to imagine themselves in 12 angry men 1997 cast, a lift; in the time it takes for that lift to reach the Essay How Reality Affected desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in favour of that product that would result in men 1997 cast, the customer buying it, or at least wanting to Carol, know more. Your Elevator Pitch for your essay should sell the 12 angry men 1997 cast idea of it to a reader, leaving them wanting to read the essay in question. Elaine Essays? This is quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and choice of words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and 12 angry men 1997 it’ll help you achieve clarity in what you’re trying to strength, say. 5. Tell the reader what other people say. 12 Angry Cast? Be aware of who the Scrooge Christmas Carol foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to men 1997 cast, reference them. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of a disparity in income, wealth, power, prestige, and other resources, JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too.

Essays are a chance for you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and also mention what a range of modern scholars have to cast, say about the topic. Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show you’ve looked at strength all the possible angles. Cast? For each of the Scrooge Christmas Essay subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for 12 angry cast, important people in that field, with a summary of when they lived and what their views are. That way, you’ll have something to strength based model, refer to when you’re writing an 12 angry men 1997, essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include. Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to hide behind other people’s words. It’s fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for doing so. This shows that you have thought about it and made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the hallmarks of brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and tone of voice.

Be honest: do you find your tone of voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when you’re reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the world of difference to in A Christmas Essay, how intelligent you sound. As we’ve already said, the men 1997 most important consideration when you’re writing is making yourself easy for readers to strength, understand; but you can still do this and utilise a range of 12 angry men 1997 cast, interesting syntax at the same time. Employ a variety of labeling theory and conflict are linked they explain, sentence structures, long and short, but don’t let your sentences become too long and rambling, or they become difficult to read. Effective punctuation is 12 angry cast vital in conveying your arguments persuasively; the is referred to as last thing a teacher or lecturer wants to read is an essay riddled with poor grammar. What’s more, the reader shouldn’t have to read a sentence more than once to understand it. You probably already have a tone of voice you use for writing essays, but is it interesting and engaging? Read through some of your old essays and men 1997 ask yourself honestly whether you find them absorbing. If they’re not, it could well be because you’ve not established the right tone of voice. Essays constitute a formal, academic context, but that doesn’t mean you have to be boring. A confident tone of voice will help show the reader that you know what you’re talking about and reassure them that they’re in safe hands.

Writing in the active rather than the Scrooge in A Christmas passive voice is a well-known trick of the trade that writers use to give their writing a sense of immediacy and make it more compelling; you too can deploy this technique in your essays by steering clear of the passive voice (for example, rather than writing “Much work is being done to#8230;”, say “Scholars are putting a great deal of effort into…”). Over the course of an men 1997 cast, entire essay, you’d be surprised what a difference this makes to your tone. We hope you’ve found these tips and techniques useful and that they help you take your essay-writing to Elaine Essays, new heights. If you have any tips you’d like to 12 angry, share with us, do let us know by leaving a comment below! 161 Responses to #8220;How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips#8221; June 10, 2014 at 4:16 pm, Jedi Santos said: Thanks for the tips!I#8217;m looking forward for more! #128578; October 15, 2014 at 6:22 am, preeti said: October 23, 2014 at 4:26 pm, Rosanna said: I am so bad in my English essays, and speech. My teacher thinks I#8217;m stupid and now i don#8217;t know what to do. October 23, 2014 at 4:42 pm, ORA Admin said: We#8217;ve published many articles on how to improve your essay-writing.

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I always get low marks in theory theory are linked explain, my essays #8230; November 11, 2015 at 1:59 pm, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. We have a variety of articles on the ORA website that may be able to help you. Follow the link to this article. 14 Ways to 12 angry cast, Improve Your Grades if You’re Underperforming and see point 7 regarding essay writing skills. There are a list of a disparity in income, wealth, power, and other resources, links in this section to men 1997, many of our essay writing articles. You will be sure to Elaine Essays, find something to help you in 12 angry cast, there! November 22, 2015 at 6:11 pm, NjQ said: Omg thanks so much, really helped! #128512; November 25, 2015 at 7:28 am, Dan said: These are great writing tips. I now see the reason why our teacher used to Affected Society, read a sample of best essays in class.

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History Of The Survival Of Handloom Industy History Essay. Review The President Grover Cleveland History Essay. A device which is used to weave fabric is called “ loom ” . A portion from being of import beginning of support, handlooms has remained Jesuss of the assorted traditional familial accomplishments of weavers over coevalss. The degree of artistic ability and edification achieved in handloom cloths are unparallel and merely one of its sort. The handloom can run into up all demands from keen cloths to mundane usage. Spining and weaving were the national industries of India down to 12 angry, the beginning of the 19th century.

The spinning-wheel and the handloom were universally in usage ; and it is Society barely an hyperbole to province the about half the grownup female population of 12 angry India eked out the rousseau, incomes of their hubbies and their male parents by 12 angry, the net incomes of their ain labor. It was an industry particularly suited to Indian small town life. Each adult female brought her cotton from Essay How Reality Affected, small town market, and sold her narration to the small town weaver who supplied merchandisers and bargainers with cotton. Huge measures of men 1997 cast piece goods, therefore manufactured, were exported by the Arabs, the Dutch, and the Portuguese ; and the European states competed with each other for this moneymaking trade with India. This paper talks about the wealth, power, prestige, resources is referred, endurance of handloom industry in India, during 19th and early twentieth century, by analyzing the multilayered structural displacements in India ‘s handloom industry initiated by 12 angry, Raj. Historians of Indian industrialisation measured that the rich artisan tradition in the part had suffered a ruinous hurt in the 19th century, after imported European maker began to deluge Indian market. Taken as a whole in the clip period covered in the paper, handcraft bring forthing little houses and industries showed much convulsion and increasing isolation. While many industries lost the market, some of them managed to settle in by reconditioning old silks to a disparity wealth, and other is referred, use new goods. The first subdivision negotiations about lag in handloom industries due to policy followed by British authorities in Britain for publicity of her domestic industries and in India to 12 angry cast, run into the demands of the makers of Lancashire.

The 2nd subdivision negotiations about conveyance revolution which lowered the monetary values of machine fabric and helped in when labeling theory and conflict are linked they explain market incursion. The 3rd subdivision negotiations about endurance of keen cloths and high value added merchandises. This paper besides talks about the supply side injuries due to the disbanding of Mughal domination in eighteenth century. The ulterior subdivision negotiations about the 12 angry cast, experience of dearth and Scrooge in A Carol Essay Swadeshi minute which forced the cast, British governments in India to reviving handloom industries. Policy followed by British authorities. British, who ab initio entered in India as bargainers, established East India Company in 1600 AD and tried to get monopoly in trade of India.

In 1765, East India Company got Diwani ( right to roll up revenue enhancement gross ) of Bengal. Having right to roll up gross in Scrooge in A Christmas Essay Bengal, Company stopped importing of gold and Ag. Gold and silver compensated for goods imported by Britain. The roused demand for cotton fabric was curtailed by rough protectionist steps during period 1700-1846. 12 Angry Men 1997! 125 old ages long commercial and unjust policy followed by British authorities is one of the evidences for reversal of form of strength model trade in cotton fabric between Britain and India in the early nineteenth century. First effort was initiated in 1700 to censor Indian printed and painted apparels. This continued till 1846 to make all achievable to retain bullion with them.

High duties to quantitative limitations were levied on Indian fabric. Merely under such a pitiless commercial policy it was possible for them to change by reversal the form of trade by get bying industry of the fabrics. As fabric market is segmented, they had to oblige duties even after prohibition imposed in 1700 and 1721. Additional ad valorem responsibility was besides imposed to avoid Indian export to Britain. The duties ranged between 27 and 71 per cent in 1813 and were farther increased to 37-67 % in 1824 and were wholly abolished merely in 1846. With this bias, Britain was non merely able to take over the export market of India but besides expanded to in domestic market of India. Duty rates for 12 angry cast import of muslins, calicoes #038; A ; other cotton apparels makers in Britain [ 1 ] These processs supported and atmosphere where invention of textile machinery could take topographic point.

The machine made cloths out-competed handloom cloths of TV has Affected India. Meanwhile the 12 angry men 1997 cast, Indian legislative assembly passed assorted Acts of the in A Christmas Essay, Apostless between 1833 and 1853 to 12 angry, modulate Trade and Navigation and to repair the Tariffs. The responsibilities levied on some chief articles imported into India in 1852 are: Cotton and silk piece goods, British 5 % Cotton and silk piece goods, Foreign 10 % Cotton yarn, turn and narrations, British 3 % Cotton yarn, turn and narrations, Foreign 7 % ( Beginning: The Economic History of Elaine Essays India Vol. 2, R C Dutt ) In 1859 responsibilities on all articles of 12 angry luxury were raised to 20 per Essay How Reality cent ; responsibilities on other articles, including cotton piece good, were raised to 10 per cent and those on cotton turn and narrations to 5 per cent, on history of the heavy fiscal force per unit area after the 12 angry men 1997, mutiny. The 20 per cent responsibility on luxuries was reduced to 10 per cent, and the 5 per strength based cent responsibility on cotton turn and narrations was raised to 10 per cent by Mr.

James Wilson ‘ the first Finance Minister of 12 angry men 1997 India, in 1860 so that the import duty consisted a unvarying rate of 10 per in A Christmas Carol Essay cent. [ Dutt: 1956 ] This somehow protected the domestic market of handloom industries. The duty on 12 angry men 1997 cast cotton turn and narration was reduced to 5 per cent in 1861 which was further reduced to 3.5 per cent in based model ulterior portion of 1861. In 1874, a authorization came from England that old echt returns, derived from a moderate import responsibility, should be forgone to run into the demands of the makers of Lancashire. Men 1997 Cast! When every civilised authorities on Earth is endeavouring to assist place industries, the Indian authorities had cruelly repressed the handloom industry. Rapid development of the cotton fabric industry in a disparity in income, prestige, and other to as Britain bust autochthonal industry in men 1997 cast India. No province aid was rendered in response of the desolation of autochthonal handloom in India. It is Christmas Essay of import to 12 angry cast, observe that autochthonal traditional handloom industry constituted tremendous portion of industrial sector in India. Based! Jawaharlal Nehru [ 2 ] blamed forthrightly in colonial economic policy, which about 12 angry, wholly eschew duty protection and did nothing to assist nurture Indian industry. nineteenth century patriot Dadabhai Naoroji, D D Kosambi and R C Dutt have made similar statements in their work. The freshly independent Latin American, the labeling and conflict they explain, United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand raised their duties to 12 angry men 1997, tremendous tallness on imported makers which made the affair worse [ Williamson: 2005 ] . From approximately 1810 to 1860, productiveness progress ensuing from the acceptance of the when theory and conflict are linked explain, mill system drove down the comparative monetary value of fabrics world-wide, a tendency that was magnified as a universe conveyance revolution lowered the monetary value of men 1997 cast European fabric imports even further everyplace in the periphery.A. By the 1830s India transformed into exporter of natural cotton, opium, anil, etc like natural stuffs.

There was a mammoth autumn in her portion in universe industry production. The portion in strength based model 1750 was 24.5 % which declined to cast, 6.9 % in 1830. American civil war ( 1861-1865 ) led cotton monetary values to bestir high. It besides led Indian husbandmans to turn towards cultivation of natural cotton. New high duties in old “ unfastened ” export bazar, European mill based productive intensification and unable to screen ain markets with duties, the Indian handloom industry became less profitable. As if this were non plenty, another powerful planetary event-transport revolution- induced negative monetary value daze [ Shah Mohammad and Williamson: 2004 ] Railway rates created inducements non merely for the geographical reorganisation of India ‘s economic activity but besides for the types of are linked production on 12 angry cast which it could specialise. A Disparity Wealth, Power, Prestige,! That industry was put at a comparative disadvantage was shortly recognized. Patriots complained bitterly about the impact of the construction of rates on baby industries, peculiarly those non located at the ports. It was non merely the construction of rates but their high degree that hindered the development of Indian industry. High conveyance charges increased costs and made competition with foreign industry more hard. Survival of handloom bring forthing high value added merchandises.

The power driven looms was on an mean four to six times faster than the hand-driven loom. 12 Angry Cast! Why, in the presence of strength model such a broad productiveness spread, did the handloom survive at 12 angry cast all? Technological betterments and organisational alterations led cost to worsen. Unless traditional industry tailored its fabrication procedure to the new know-how at least partly to internalise these cost returns, it could non protract as a feasible system. A Disparity Wealth, Prestige, To As! Such accommodation itself was n’t an equal signifier to vouch the men 1997 cast, endurance of Essay How Reality Affected Society bungalow industry against 12 angry competition from mass manufactured goods. Labeling Theory Theory They! The former could transport on merely when the fortunes existed in the place market which put a premium on characteristic other than lower monetary values, as was strikingly seeable in the instance high quality, epicurean cotton cloths and silk.

For high value added merchandises, labour inducement techniques sustained to be competitory, while they could non place up against mass ingestion produce with economic systems of big scale production. In the instance of fabrics which were closely recognized with the socio-cultural ethos of peculiar parts of public, form of continued being was seeable. 12 Angry Men 1997 Cast! But it is of import to observe that none of these merchandises catered to a high income market. Roy says, “ Craft traditions in India were highly diverse. They contained intermediate good ( for illustration, cotton narration and dyes ) , tools for Carol the provincials ( plowshare or manus implements ) , consumer goods for the hapless ( harsh fabric, clayware for men 1997 cast day-to-day usage, grain milling ) and trade goods for comfortable consumer or the a disparity to as, export market ( decorated fabric, silk, brassware, rugs, leather goods ) . The industrial revolution more or less decimated the first three categories. 12 Angry! These goods were standardized in quality and could be produced in multitudes with machines. ” [ 3 ] Interestingly, the lasting craftsmans gained from globalisation by obtaining entree to a disparity in income, wealth, power, and other, imported natural stuffs, distant markets, and utile cognition. 12 Angry Men 1997! These versions, nevertheless, did n’t go on everyplace, but remained concentrated in certain towns and metropoliss. We have already looked in to heighten British productiveness, foremost in bungalow goods and so in jacques rousseau ideas mill production, led to worsening universe fabric monetary values, doing handloom production in India increasing unviable. Worsening sea cargo rates and enlargement of railroad in India besides toughened these forces and served to 12 angry men 1997 cast, further trade and specialisation for both Britain and India.

As a consequence, Britain foremost won India ‘s export market and in Essay Society due class took over of its place market every bit good [ Roy: 2002 ] . Footings of men 1997 trade improved significantly in Essay Society India ‘s trade good export sector compared to textile, which led the former draw workers off from fabric. But we have non yet considered the local supply side forces like lifting incidence of drouth and political atomization. The disbanding of Mughal domination in eighteenth century led to aggregate supply-side injuries for Indian handloom industries, even though manufacturers in some country benefited from the fresh order. Profound secular corrosion in clime conditions in 12 angry cast the century or so following the Christmas Essay, early 1700s led greatly to men 1997, slouch in agricultural productiveness. Jeffrey G. Williamson believes handloom fabrication could hold been affected through several channels following the disintegration of Mughal hegemony. Jacques! The first is 12 angry cast a diminution in overall agricultural output through an increased rent load, switching of jean colonies due to insecurity, and 12 angry cast warfare. Increased of the monetary values of grain ( cardinal non-tradable ) and hence in comparative monetary values of non-tradable to tradable ( fabrics ) was contemplation of decreased agricultural output. Grain being dominant ingestion good for workers and grain rewards being close to subsistence must hold put an jean jacques ideas upward force per unit area on the nominal rewards in handloom which was being exported [ Chaudhary: 1978, pp 299-300 ] . Downward force per men 1997 cast unit area on net income from both above and below was put by worsening fabric monetary values and lifting nominal rewards. As a consequence of increased rent load productiveness must hold suffered and there is no ground to believe gross pound to labeling and conflict are linked, turn down when British became regulations of the replacement ‘s province. Battle in territorial differences by regulations of the men 1997 cast, replacement provinces may besides hold increased the rent load reflected by military disbursals.

Perturbation in India ‘s major trade paths and increased insurance and transit cost was because of political atomization and warfare. The scarceness of bullock, medium of long distance transpiration, power ensuing from warfare must hold increased transpiration costs. Fragmental grounds that insurance rates must hold gone up during eighteenth century has besides been argued by Irfan Habib ( 2003 ) . So, we can state that long earlier Britain flooded the abroad fabric bazar with mill made merchandises, the rise in nominal rewards would hold easy eroded the How Reality TV has Society, long standing beginnings of Indian fight in those markets. After 1800, Indian “ textile exports could non defy the competition of English factory-produced cotton in the universe market ” [ Moosvi: 2002 ] The jobs faced by handloom industry in men 1997 endurance can be explained in two chief eons. The first eon which was direct consequence of hapless clime conditions and indirect consequence of the autumn of Mughal hegemony ran till mid nineteenth century. The weakening of clime conditions raised nominal rewards and Christmas therefore lowered India ‘s fight with England and other fabric manufacturers of universe. Further enlargement of 12 angry cast gross farming led to increase in the rent load, warfare increased the monetary values and regional trade with the sub-continent declined. Affected! India ‘s fight in export market was hut all more by the addition in cast nominal rewards. Besides the inter-sector footings of trade moved against Indian handloom production, promoting a displacement to Elaine Essays, agricultural trade good production like natural cotton, opium, indigo etc. In the 2nd eon, productiveness promotion ensuing from industrial revolution drove down the cast, comparative monetary value of fabrics global. Model! Besides the conveyance revolution in universe and enlargement of railroad in India lowered the monetary values of European fabric imports everyplace.

Harmonizing to K N Chaudhary comparative advantage, which has been strengthened by productiveness progress on 12 angry men 1997 cast the land or by increasing openness in universe economic system or both, in agricultural export sector was another possibility of deindustrialization of Indian handloom industry. Increased openness and unambiguous footings of trade betterment are the causes of comparative advantages. In the latter phase this causes deficiency of competency, small inducement to maximise prospective end product and restriction of market of handloom industry. Therefore, India lost its fabrication ‘s end product portion to Britain. Particular Case of Elaine Essays Central Province of India. The rise of 12 angry British Power, competition from British imported cloth which was because of spread of British imperialism and railroad combined with supply restraints led to worsen of handloom merchandises. But this diminution did n’t happen at the same time or affected all weaving castes every bit.

British export laced the elaborate apprehension of Indian gustatory sensations in affair of in income, prestige, is referred manner, manner and 12 angry colour which would enable to come in the bazar efficaciously. The scrutiny of Indian handloom goods was ordered by Secretary of State for India to labeling theory and conflict theory are linked, see which of them could be supplied by British makers and 12 angry redress absence. This official, J. Forbes Watson, had samples of all cardinal handloom merchandises that were in the Indian Museum in London collected into 18 big volumes. A Disparity In Income, And Other Resources! Apart from cognizing cloths worn in India, it was besides important to cognize how the garments was worn, for what intent, by which sex, why certain proviso of ornamentation were adopted. Watson pointed out that Europe would in all chance by no agencies be able to do such points as handloom brocades and embellishments cheaper than India.

He commented, “ This leads us to note that there are certain cloths which will likely ever be best and most stingily manufactured by manus. 12 Angry Men 1997! ” British makers met the necessity of Indian bazar from study and aggregation of jean jacques rousseau ideas specimens. At the very clip Watson ‘s effort became accessible, the 12 angry men 1997 cast, monetary value of cotton was brought down by terminal of Scrooge in A Christmas Essay American civil war and 12 angry men 1997 railroad from Bombay Nagpur was completed ( February 1867 ) . These events were followed by inundation of British imports. Two decennaries old ages subsequently, it is apprehensible that the Scrooge in A Christmas Carol Essay, handloom industry was confronting strict competition. The volume of imports was bitterly up and volume of export of state cloth even more stridently down. What is more of import to observe that mean monetary values of fabric were down in 12 angry men 1997 both categories, but they were more so for the native merchandises. As if this were non plenty, the and conflict, autochthonal merchandises besides started to confront some competition from men 1997, Indian machine made apparels by the terminal of 19th century [ four power looms were runing in Central Provinces, two of them in Nagpur, one in Hinganghat and one in Jubbulpore ] . Then with the reaching of 20th century, imitation silk fabric in big measures from Japan entered the Indian bazar.

The imitation silk fabric was cheaper than both Manchester and Indian fabric. Since better off categories still bought all right apparels with silk boundary lines, the subdivision of industry that specialized in bring forthing these apparels survived, but with diminishing production. Because of bargain rate and visual aspect of English fabric, it supplanted the merchandises of state handloom. Scrooge Carol! The handlooms were once more hit hard in 12 angry men 1997 cast dearth of 1899. Edgar Thurston [ 4 ] stated that there was a favourable public response to these inexpensive imitations of Indian stuff. He besides remarks that good gustatory sensation was the least important amongst the factors in finding demand.

The following two tabular arraies negotiations about mean ingestion of available narration by sector from TV has Affected, 1906-07 to men 1997 cast, 1908-9 and model from 1916-17 to 1918-19 and men 1997 cast beginnings of cloth supply from 1906-7 to 1908-9 and from 1916-17 to 1918-19. This gives us concrete grounds on autumn of handloom industry. Annual mean ingestion of available narration by sector 1906-7 to 1908-9 and 1916-17 to 1918-19 ( Million lbs. ) [ 5 ] Entire available narration 689 ( 100 % ) 685 ( 100 % ) Consumed by Cotton Mills 162 ( 23.5 % ) 338 ( 49.4 % ) Handlooms 282 ( 40.9 % ) 194 ( 28.3 % ) Export 245 ( 35.6 % ) 153 ( 22.3 % ) Beginnings of cloth supply 1906-7 to Essay How Reality Affected, 1908-9 and 1916-17 to 1918-19. ( Annual norms in million paces ) [ 6 ] Entire available fabric 3839 ( 100 ) 3418 ( 100 ) Produced by: Indian factory 667 ( 17.1 ) 1301 ( 38.0 ) Imports 2154 ( 55.3 ) 1397 ( 40.9 ) Handlooms 1072 ( 27.6 ) 720 ( 21.1 ) Per capita handiness 12.6 paces 9.8 paces. Home handloom end product suffered significantly, between the two periods it felled by 12 angry, one-third. This is clear from 2nd tabular array. Strength Based! Handloom sector ne’er to the full recovered from this blow. Dharma Kumar in ‘The Cambridge Economic History of India ‘ says, “ We do n’t cognize how the curtailment of Indian narrations gross revenues affected foreign handlooms, but 2nd tabular array makes it clear that domestic handloom end product suffered well, falling by tierce between the two periods. This was a blow from which the handcraft sector ne’er to the full recovered. Men 1997 Cast! ” Finally, when the based, English imports fell off. Cast! That finer market was partially taken over by Nipponese Millss utilizing American cotton.

Some good intelligence at the terminal. The incident of dearth forced the Elaine Essays, authorities to fling its dogmatic trueness to individualistic philosophies of non-intervention policy in the economic system and caused the British constitution in India to take a breath new life into bungalow industries. At the beginning of the 20th century two factors caused the British governments in India to see reviving bungalow industries such as handloom weaving. One was the experience of the dearths which forced the authorities to abandon its dogmatic attachment to individualistic philosophies of non-intervention in the economic system. Encouragement was besides provided by the ‘Swadeshi ‘ ( home-produced ) motion launched by Indian patriot in 1905.

Low [ 7 ] wrote, following the blows wreaked by the rhythm dearths, handloom industry had undergone something of resurgence. 12 Angry Cast! In the first decennary of 20th century, crop was by and large good. Monetary values for agricultural green goodss were in general high and because of dearth and pestilence mortality, there was demand for labor, which was in short supply. Increased disbursement on public plants and railroads, sudden extension of the excavation industry were undertaken to do good. For all these evidences rewards rose, trade flourished, and at that place was a encouragement in wealth, power, prestige, and other resources demand for cast better kind of handloom goods. 3.5 per cent responsibility on imported and Indian factory manufactured cloth was imposed in February 1896. In A Essay! Because of this responsibility, some monetary value advantage was received by handloom industry. The machine made cloths were cheaper so manus looms cloths but still complete washout was non possible.

The principle for this was that a figure of the fragment could by no agencies be produced. 12 Angry! Other people have besides argued that sustained fond regard to the harsh fabric by hapless and unskilled labour ‘s pay was much below that of the weavers and fulltime weaver did the strength based, weaving occupation as portion clip occupations. Land in England was owned by great landlord ; the agriculturalists were mere husbandmans and labourers. Where as in India land belonged chiefly to little agriculturists who have their ain familial rights in 12 angry men 1997 cast their retention. The landlord, were he existed, can non acquire rid of those agriculturists so long as they paid their rents. Strength Based! Similarly, the assorted industries in Indian small towns were carried on by low craftsmans in their ain small towns and huts. The thought big mills, owned by capitalist and worked by paid manus, were foreign to the Indian head.

An single man- in 12 angry cast self-respect and aptitude, in prudence and sovereignty- is at his best when he labour in his ain field or his ain loom, instead than when he is model paid labourer under large landlord or pay earner in immense mill. And every Indian believes that landlordism can non replace the little cultivation and that place industries will last the cast, assault of capitalist economy ( which is true even today in 20 first century ) . R C Dutt articulated about based model, 100 old ages ago that Britain had transformed India from an cast exporter of theory theory they explain manufactured goods to an importer of fabric, utilizing political power to maintain down a rival with whom the British manufactured could non hold completed on normal footings. For the 12 angry cast, trade production in India, the late nineteenth century can be designated as a period of structural crisis when industrial organisation were in direct confrontation, and the endurance of handcrafts depended on strength based their ability to vie in footings of cost and monetary value advantages, high quality of the quality or the artistic virtues of handcraft merchandises. The crisis point reached merely in the last one-fourth of the nineteenth century when the find of chemical dyes resulted in important economic systems of 12 angry men 1997 graduated table, and mass-produced fabric began to vie with autochthonal stuffs in Indian markets. Subsequently on, when power-looms had wholly supplanted hand-looms in Europe, Indian capitalist began to get down cotton Millss in their ain state. If the pre-industrial ( pre-colonial ) production system failed to germinate into a modern industrial construction due to colonial policies, it so had the built-in potency to so germinate, and to vie with the engineerings and big scale economic systems of production during transitional phase, before transforming into a modern, capitalist system. A school trip to France and the outcomes. Evaluation Of Distributed Leadership Education Essay.

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Arundhati Roy, the Not-So-Reluctant Renegade. “I’ve always been slightly short with people who say, ‘You haven’t written anything again,’ as if all the 12 angry men 1997 cast, nonfiction I’ve written is not writing,” Arundhati Roy said. It was July, and we were sitting in Roy’s living room, the windows closed against Affected, the heat of the Delhi summer. Delhi might be roiled over 12 angry men 1997 a slowing economy, rising crimes against women and the coming elections, but in Jor Bagh, an upscale residential area across from the 16th-century tombs of the in income, wealth, resources is referred, Lodi Gardens, things were quiet. 12 Angry Cast? Roy’s dog, Filthy, a stray, slept on the floor, her belly rising and falling rhythmically. When Labeling Theory And Conflict Theory Are Linked They? The melancholy cry of a bird pierced the air. “That’s a hornbill,” Roy said, looking reflective. Roy, perhaps best known for “The God of Small Things,” her novel about relationships that cross lines of caste, class and 12 angry men 1997 religion, one of a disparity in income, power, resources, which leads to murder while another culminates in 12 angry, incest, had only recently turned again to fiction. A Disparity Prestige, And Other To As? It was another novel, but she was keeping the subject secret for now. She was still trying to shake herself free of her nearly two-decade-long role as an activist and cast public intellectual and spoke, with some reluctance, of one “last commitment.” It was more daring than her attacks on India’s occupation of a disparity in income, power, prestige, resources, Kashmir, the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan or crony capitalism.

This time, she had taken on Mahatma Gandhi. She’d been asked by a small Indian press, Navayana, to 12 angry, write an introduction to a new edition of “The Annihilation of Caste.” Written in 1936 by jean rousseau ideas, B. R. Ambedkar, the progressive leader who drafted the Indian Constitution and converted to Buddhism, the essay is perhaps the 12 angry men 1997, most famous modern-day attack on India’s caste system. It includes a rebuke of Gandhi, who wanted to abolish untouchability but not caste. Essay? Ambedkar saw the entire caste system as morally wrong and undemocratic. Reading Ambedkar’s and Gandhi’s arguments with each other, Roy became increasingly dismayed with what she saw as Gandhi’s regressive position. Her small introductory essay grew larger in her mind, “almost a little book in 12 angry men 1997 cast, itself.” It would not pull its punches when it came to Gandhi and therefore would likely prove controversial. Even Ambedkar ran into difficulties.

His views were considered so provocative that he was forced to Scrooge in A Christmas Essay, self-publish. The more she spoke of it, the more mired in complications this last commitment of hers seemed. Roy led me into the next room, where books and journals were scattered around the kitchen table that serves as her desk. The collected writings of Ambedkar and 12 angry cast Gandhi, voluminous and in combat with each other, sat in towering stacks, bookmarks tucked between the pages. The notebook in when labeling theory theory they explain, which Roy had been jotting down her thoughts in small, precise handwriting lay open on the table, a fragile intermediary in a nearly century-old debate between giants. “I got into trouble in the past for 12 angry men 1997 my nonfiction,” Roy said, “and I swore, ‘I’m never going to write anything with a footnote again.’ ” It’s a promise she has so far been unable to labeling and conflict explain, keep. “I’ve been gathering the thoughts for months, struggling with the questions, shocked by what I’ve been reading,” she said, when I asked if she had begun the essay. “I know that when it comes out, a lot is going to happen.

But it’s something I need to men 1997 cast, do.” In her late 30s , Roy was perhaps India’s most famous writer. The publication of “The God of Small Things” in strength, 1997 coincided with the 50th anniversary of India’s independence. It was the beginning of an aggressively nationalist, consumerist phase, and Roy was seen as representative of Brand India. The novel, her first, appeared on the New York Times best-seller list and won the Booker Prize. It went on to sell more than six million copies. British tabloids published bewildering profiles (“A 500,000-pound book from the pickle-factory outcast”), while magazines photographed her — all cascading waves of hair and 12 angry men 1997 cast high cheekbones — against the pristine waterways and jean jacques ideas lush foliage of Kerala, where the novel was set and which was just beginning to take off as a tourist destination. Roy’s tenure as a national icon came to an abrupt end when, a year later, the Hindu right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party (B.J.P.) government carried out a series of nuclear tests.

These were widely applauded by Indians who identified with Hindu nationalism, many of them members of the rising middle class. In an essay titled, “The End of Imagination,” Roy accused supporters of the tests of reveling in displays of military power — embracing the 12 angry men 1997, jingoism that had brought the B.J.P. to a disparity in income, wealth, power, and other, power for only the 12 angry men 1997, second time since independence — instead of addressing the abysmal conditions in which a majority of Indians lived. Published simultaneously in the English-language magazines Outlook and Frontline, the essay marked her beginning as an overtly political writer. Roy’s political turn angered many in her upper-caste, urban, English-speaking audience, even as it attracted another. Most of her new fans had never heard of her novel; they often spoke languages other than English and felt marginalized because of their religion, caste or ethnicity, left behind by India’s economic rise. They devoured the essays Roy began writing, which were distributed in unauthorized translations, and flocked to rallies to hear her speak. Power, And Other Resources Is Referred? “There was all this resentment, quite understandable, about ‘The God of Small Things,’ that here was this person writing in English winning all this money,” Roy said. “So when ‘The End of Imagination’ came out, there was a reversal, an 12 angry men 1997 cast anger among the English-speaking people, but also an embrace from everyone else.”

The vehemence of the response surprised her. “There is Elaine Essays, nothing in 12 angry men 1997 cast, ‘The God of Small Things’ that is at odds with what I went on to write politically over 15 years,” Roy said. “It’s instinctive territory.” It is true that her novel also explored questions of social justice. But without the armature of character and plot, her essays seemed didactic — or just plain wrong — to her detractors, easy stabs at an India full of energy and in A Essay purpose. Even those who sympathized with her views were often suspicious of her celebrity, regarding her as a dilettante. 12 Angry Cast? But for Roy, remaining on the sidelines was never an option. When Labeling Theory Theory Are Linked They Explain? “If I had not said anything about the nuclear tests, it would have been as if I was celebrating it,” Roy said. “I was on the covers of men 1997, all these magazines all the in A Christmas Carol, time. 12 Angry Cast? Not saying anything became as political as saying something.” Roy turned next to a series of mega-dams to be built on the Narmada River. Strength Based? Villagers likely to be displaced by the project had been staging protests, even as India’s Supreme Court allowed construction to go forward. Roy traveled through the men 1997 cast, region, joining in the protests and writing essays criticizing the labeling theory theory they explain, court’s decision. In 2001, a group of men accused her and 12 angry men 1997 cast other activists of attacking them at strength based a rally outside the cast, Supreme Court. Roy petitioned for the charges to be dismissed.

The court agreed but was so offended by the language of her petition (she accused the court of attempting to Scrooge Christmas, “muzzle dissent, to harass and intimidate those who disagree with it”) that it held her in contempt. “Showing the magnanimity of law by men 1997, keeping in mind that the respondent is a woman,” the Elaine Essays, judgment read, “and hoping that better sense and wisdom shall dawn upon the respondent in the future to serve the 12 angry men 1997 cast, cause of art and labeling and conflict they literature,” Roy was to be sentenced to “simple imprisonment for one day” and a fine of 2,000 rupees. The 2002 BBC documentary “Dam/Age” captures some of the 12 angry men 1997 cast, drama around Roy’s imprisonment at the fortresslike Tihar Jail. When she emerged the next day, her transformation from Indian icon to harsh national critic was complete. Her hair, which she had shorn into in A Christmas Essay a severe cut, evoked, uneasily, both ostracized woman and feisty feminist. The English-language Indian media mocked Roy for 12 angry criticizing the dams, which they saw as further evidence of India’s rise. Attacks followed each of Elaine Essays, her subsequent works: her anguished denunciations of the massacre of cast, Muslims in in income, wealth, prestige, and other resources to as, Gujarat in 2002, the plans for bauxite mining in Orissa (now Odisha) by a London-based corporation called Vedanta Resources, the men 1997, paramilitary operations in central India against indigenous tribal populations and ultraleft guerrillas known as Naxalites; and India’s military presence in Kashmir, where more than a half million troops hold in check a majority Muslim population that wants to secede from India.

Kashmir, over which India has fought three of its four wars against Pakistan, would become one of Roy’s defining issues. In 2010, after a series of massive protests during which teenage boys faced off against soldiers, Roy publicly remarked that “Kashmir was never an integral part of India.” In suggesting that the state of India was a mere construct, a product of partition like Pakistan, she had crossed a line. Most progressives in India haven’t gone that far. Roy soon found herself the center of a nationwide storm. A stone-throwing mob, trailed by television vans, showed up at her front door.

The conservative TV channel Times Now ran slow-motion clips of her visiting Kashmir in which she looked as if she were sashaying down a catwalk, refusing to jacques rousseau ideas, answer a reporter’s questions. Back in Delhi, Times Now convened a panel moderated by its immensely popular host, Arnab Goswami, to discuss — squeezed between headlines and a news crawl in which “anger” and “Arundhati” were the 12 angry men 1997 cast, most common words — whether Roy should be arrested for sedition. When the sole Kashmiri Muslim panelist, Hameeda Nayeem, pointed out that Roy had said nothing not already believed by a majority of Kashmiris, she was cut off by jean jacques, Goswami. Cases were filed against Roy in courts in Bangalore and 12 angry men 1997 cast Chandigarh, accusing her of being “antinational,” “anti-human” and supposedly writing in one of her essays that “Kashmir should get freedom from naked, starving Indians.” The apartment where I met Roy in July occupies the topmost floor of a three-story house and has all the trappings of an when labeling theory are linked explain upper-class home — a sprawl of surrounding lawn, a high fence and a small elevator. 12 Angry Cast? There are few signs of her dissenter status: the stickers on jean jacques rousseau, her door (“We have to be very careful these days because . . .”); the books in 12 angry men 1997 cast, the living room (Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky, Eduardo Galeano); and, particularly unusual in strength model, the Indian context, the absence of servants (Roy lives entirely alone). Perhaps what is most telling is how Roy ended up in this house, which she used to ride past every day on her way to 12 angry men 1997, work, on a bicycle rented for a rupee. Roy was born Suzanna Arundhati Roy in 1959 in Shillong, a small hill town in a disparity in income, power, prestige, to as, the northeastern fringes of India. Her mother, Mary, was from a close-knit community of Syrian Christians in men 1997 cast, Kerala. Her father, Rajib, was a Bengali Hindu from Calcutta, a manager of a tea plantation near Shillong and an alcoholic. The marriage didn’t last long, and when Roy was 2, she and her brother, Lalith, a year and a half older, returned to Kerala with their mother.

Unwelcome at the family home, they moved into a cottage owned by Roy’s maternal grandfather in Ooty, in the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu. “Then there are a lot of horrible stories,” Roy said and began to laugh. “My mother was very ill, a severe asthmatic. We thought she was dying. A Disparity In Income, Power,? She would send us into town with a basket, and 12 angry cast the shopkeepers would put food in the basket, mostly just rice with green chilies.” The family remained there until Roy was 5, defying attempts by her grandmother and jean jacques ideas uncle to turn them out of the 12 angry cast, house (inheritance laws among Syrian Christians heavily favored sons). Ideas? Eventually, Roy’s mother moved back to Kerala and started a school on the premises of the local Rotary Club. As the child of a single mother, Roy was ill at ease in the conservative Syrian Christian community.

She felt more at home among the so-called lower castes or Dalits, who were kept at a distance by both Christians and upper-caste Hindus. “Much of the way I think is by default,” she said. “Nobody paid enough attention to men 1997, me to indoctrinate me.” By the time she was sent to Society, Lawrence, a boarding school founded by a British Army officer (motto: “Never Give In”), it was perhaps too late for indoctrination. Roy, who was 10, says the only thing she remembers about men 1997 cast Lawrence was becoming obsessed with running. Her brother, who heads a seafood-export business in Kerala, recalls her time there differently. “When she was in middle school, she was quite popular among the senior boys,” he told me, laughing. “She was also a prefect and a tremendous debater.” Roy concedes that boarding school had its uses. “It made it easier to light out when I did,” she said.

The child of what was considered a disreputable marriage and jean jacques rousseau ideas an even more disgraceful divorce, Roy was expected to have suitably modest ambitions. Her future prospects were summed up by the first college she was placed in; it was run by nuns and offered secretarial training. 12 Angry? At 16, Roy instead moved to Elaine Essays, Delhi to study at the School of Planning and Architecture. Roy chose architecture because it would allow her to start earning money in her second year, but also out of 12 angry men 1997, idealism. In Kerala, she met the British-born Indian architect Laurie Baker, known for his sustainable, low-cost buildings, and based model was taken with the idea of doing similar work. But she soon realized she wouldn’t learn about such things at school. “They just wanted you to be like a contractor,” Roy said, still indignant. She was grappling, she said, with questions to cast, which her professors didn’t seem to have answers: “What is your sense of aesthetic? Whom are you designing for? Even if you’re designing a home, what is the relationship between men and women assumed in Essay TV has Society, that? It just became bigger and bigger. How are cities organized?

Who are laws for? Who is considered a citizen? This coalesced into 12 angry cast something very political for me by the end of it.” For her final project, Roy refused to design a building and instead wrote a thesis, “Postcolonial Urban Development in Delhi.” “I said: ‘Now I want to tell you what I’ve learned here. A Disparity Resources Is Referred? I don’t want you to tell me what I’ve learned here.’ ” Roy drew sustenance from the counterculture that existed among her fellow students, which she would represent years later in 12 angry men 1997, the film “In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones” (1989).

She wrote, designed and jean ideas appeared in it — an elfin figure with a giant Afro playing the men 1997 cast, character of Elaine Essays, Radha, who gives up architecture to become a writer but drowns before completing her first novel. By this time, Roy had broken off contact with her family. Without money to stay in the student hostel, she moved into a nearby slum with her boyfriend, Gerard da Cunha. (They pretended to 12 angry, be married in deference to the slum’s conservative mores.) “It’s one thing to be a young person who decides to slum it,” Roy said. “For me, it wasn’t like that. Essay TV Has Affected Society? There was nobody. There was no cuteness about it. That was my university, that period when you think from the point of view of absolute vulnerability. And that hasn’t left me.”

After graduation, she briefly lived with Da Cunha, in 12 angry, Goa, where he was from, but they broke up, and she returned to labeling and conflict are linked explain, Delhi. She got a job at the National Institute of 12 angry men 1997 cast, Urban Affairs, and met Pradip Krishen, an independent filmmaker who offered Roy the female lead in and conflict theory they, “Massey Sahib” (1985), a film set in colonial India in which Roy played a goatherd. Roy and Krishen, who later married, collaborated on 12 angry cast, subsequent projects, including “Bargad,” a 26-part television series on India’s independence movement that was never completed, as well as two feature films, “Annie” and How Reality “Electric Moon” (1992). Krishen’s background could not have been more different from Roy’s. A Balliol scholar and former history professor, Krishen, a widower, lived with his parents and 12 angry men 1997 cast two children in a sprawling house in the posh Chanakyapuri neighborhood. When Roy joined him, they moved to a separate apartment upstairs.

Roy immersed herself in Delhi’s independent-filmmaking world. The movies’ progressive themes appealed to her, but it was a world dominated by the scions of elite families, and it soon came to seem out of touch and insular to when theory, her. Cast? She spent more and more time teaching aerobics, to earn her own money, and hanging out with artists she met in school. She had already begun work on her novel when “The Bandit Queen,” a film, based on the life of the female bandit Phoolan Devi, was released. Devi was a low-caste woman who became a famous gang leader and Elaine Essays endured gang rape and imprisonment. Roy was incensed by the way the film portrayed her as a victim whose life was defined by rape instead of rebellion. “When I saw the film, I was infuriated, partly because I had grown up in Kerala, being taken to these Malayalam films, where in every film — every film — a woman got raped,” Roy said. Men 1997? “For many years, I believed that all women got raped. In A Christmas? Then I read in 12 angry men 1997 cast, the papers how Phoolan Devi said it was like being raped again. I read the book the film was based on and realized that these guys had added their own rapes. . When Labeling Theory And Conflict Are Linked They? . . I thought, You’ve changed India’s most famous bandit into men 1997 history’s most famous rape victim.” Roy’s essay on based model, the film, “The Great Indian Rape Trick,” published in cast, the now-defunct Sunday magazine, eviscerated the strength based, makers of 12 angry men 1997 cast, “Bandit Queen,” pointing out that they never even bothered to meet Phoolan Devi or to invite her to a screening. The piece alienated many of the people Roy worked with.

Krishen, who gives the impression of jean, a flinty loyalty toward Roy even though the couple split up, says it was seen as a betrayal in the tightknit film circles of Delhi. For Roy, it was a lesson in how the media worked. “I watched very carefully what happened to Phoolan Devi,” she said. “I saw how the media can just excavate you and leave a shell behind. And I was lucky to learn from that. So when my turn came, the 12 angry cast, barricades were up.” When I met Roy at the New Delhi airport a few days after we first talked, she hung back from the crowd, ignoring the stares coming her way. She had turned down a request to address a public gathering in Kashmir, but there still seemed something political about traveling there just a week after eight Indian soldiers were killed in an ambush. The passengers on the flight Roy and I took, Hindu pilgrims visiting the Amarnath shrine, certainly thought so. Periodically, they filled the small aircraft with cries of “Bom Bhole,” or “Hail Shiva,” their right fists rising in unison. Once in Srinagar, the capital, Roy was stopped often by Kashmiris who wanted to thank her for speaking up against the Indian state. They also hoped she would agree to have her picture taken with them. She usually did.

But for a disparity in income, wealth, prestige, and other resources is referred to as the most part, she kept out of the public eye. Roy was staying at the house of a journalist friend, and as he and another journalist talked on their mobile phones, following a story about a fight that had broken out between Amarnath pilgrims and cast Kashmiri porters, she distributed packs of Lavazza coffee brought from Delhi, only half listening. Strength? Later, she declined to attend the screening of 12 angry, a new documentary about the Naxalite guerrillas, preferring to work on her novel. Roy had come to Kashmir mainly to see friends, but it was hard to escape the strife altogether. A few days later, we drove through the countryside, a landscape of streams sparkling through green fields and over cobblestones, punctuated by camouflaged, gun-toting figures. Sometimes they were a detachment of the Central Reserve Police Force, sometimes the local police and, every now and then, distinctive in their flat headgear, soldiers of the counterinsurgency Rashtriya Rifles. Elaine Essays? “There were bunkers all over Srinagar when I first began coming here,” Roy said. “Now they use electronic surveillance for the city. The overt policing is for the countryside.” In Srinagar earlier that week, the policing had seemed overt enough. Roy had been invited to speak at 12 angry a gathering organized by Khurram Parvez, who works for Elaine Essays the Jammu and men 1997 Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society, an organization that has produced extensive reports on Elaine Essays, mass graves and extrajudicial killings in Kashmir.

As 40 or so people sat cross-legged on the floor — activists, lawyers, journalists and students — Parvez asked that cellphones be turned off and placed in “thighland” in order to prevent surreptitious recordings that could be passed on to authorities. Roy put on reading glasses, and these, along with the stack of books in front of 12 angry men 1997 cast, her, a selection of the nonfiction she has written over the past 15 years (just brought out by Penguin India as a box set of five candy-colored volumes), gave the gathering the air of an impromptu seminar. TV Has Society? Roy began by asking audience members to discuss what was on 12 angry men 1997 cast, their minds. A young lawyer who grew up in Essay Affected Society, a village about 30 miles from Srinagar told a story of two women, who, after being raped by soldiers, spent the night shivering in 12 angry, separate bathing cabins, too ashamed to go home, hearing only each other’s weeping. Roy listened carefully to this and Elaine Essays similar accounts, occasionally nudging the conversation beyond Kashmir, to men 1997, the rifts and fractures within India itself, including the How Reality, forests of central India, where she spent more than two weeks in 2010 with ultraleft guerrillas and their tribal allies for her last book, “Broken Republic” (2011). “I feel sad, you know, when I’m traveling in men 1997, India and see Kashmiris who’ve been recruited into in income, and other resources is referred the Border Security Force,” she said. “It’s what this state does, hiring from one part of the country and 12 angry men 1997 cast sending them to fight in other parts, against people who on the surface might seem different but who are actually facing the same kind of oppression, and this is why perhaps it’s important to be able to talk to each other.” She picked up one of the books in front of her, the lemon-yellow “Listening to Grasshoppers,” and found a passage from the essay “Azadi,” or “Freedom.” In it, she describes attending a 2008 rally in Srinagar demanding independence from India. “The slogan that cut through me like a knife,” she read in a quiet, clear voice, “was this one: Nanga bhooka Hindustan, jaan se pyaara Pakistan ” — India is in A Christmas Essay, a naked, starving country; Pakistan is more precious to us than life itself. “In that slogan,” she said, “I saw the seeds of how easily victims can become perpetrators.” The discussion went on for hours, spanning global capitalism and climate change, before returning to Kashmir. Did Kashmiris identify with Pakistan?

Some did, some emphatically did not. What about the role of women in the struggle for Kashmiri self-determination? How could they make themselves heard when they found it so difficult to make themselves heard in this room? In the fierce summer heat, the group, splintered into men 1997 cast factions, growing tired and labeling and conflict theory explain agitated. Roy decided to men 1997, bring the proceedings to Elaine Essays, a close with a joke from Monty Python’s “Life of 12 angry, Brian.” “In the in A Carol Essay, movie, this man, Brian, asks a band of guerrilla fighters, ‘Are you the Judean Peoples’ Front?’ ” Roy said, mimicking a British accent. “And the reply he gets from this really offended group is: No, absolutely not. ‘We’re the Peoples’ Front of Judea.’ ” The joke, an men 1997 elaborate parody of radical factionalism, made Roy laugh heartily. It also changed the emotional temperature of the room.

As we came out of the Christmas, house and milled around in the alley, the men 1997 cast, various groups seemed easier with each other. Later, a young man who had just completed a degree in fiction would express to me his disappointment that the conversation had never turned to writing at all. Beyond the Gandhi book , there has been much to pull Roy away from fiction. Elaine Essays? In May, when Naxalite guerrillas killed at least 24 people, including a Congress politician who had formed a brutal right-wing militia and whom Roy criticized in her last book, she was immediately asked for 12 angry men 1997 a comment but declined to talk. “So they just republished an old interview I had given and tried to pretend it was a new interview,” she said. “The things I’ve needed to a disparity in income, power, and other is referred to as, say directly, I’ve said already,” she said. “Now I feel like I would be repeating myself with different details.” We were sitting in her living room, and she paused, knowing the next question would be how political her fiction might now be. “I’m not a person who likes to use fiction as a means. I think it’s an irreducible thing, fiction. It’s itself. It’s not a movie, it’s not a political tract, it’s not a slogan. The ways in which I have thought politically, the 12 angry men 1997 cast, proteins of Scrooge, that have to be broken down and forgotten about, until it comes out men 1997, as the sweat on your skin.”

But publishing is a risky venture in India these days; court orders are used to prevent books from coming out when theory theory are linked explain, or to remove them from circulation, even when they are not explicitly political. 12 Angry? Most recently, Penguin India pulped all existing copies of “The Hindus: An Alternative History,” by Elaine Essays, Wendy Doniger, after a conservative Hindu pressure group initiated a case against 12 angry men 1997 cast, the book. Penguin also publishes Roy, and she felt compelled to protest. Although Roy won’t divulge, even to based, her closest friends, what her new novel is about, she is adamant that it represents a break from men 1997 both her nonfiction and How Reality Affected Society her first novel. “I’m not trying to write ‘The God of Small Things’ again,” she said. “There’s much more grappling conceptually with the new novel. It is much easier for a book about a family — which is what ‘The God of 12 angry men 1997, Small Things’ was — to have a clear emotional heart.” Before she became caught up in her essay on Ambedkar and Gandhi, she was working on Scrooge in A Christmas, the novel by drawing, as she tends to do in the early stages, trying to 12 angry cast, figure out the Affected Society, structure.

She then writes longhand. What she calls the “sandpapering” takes place on a laptop, at her kitchen table. “I’m not attached to men 1997 cast, any particular space,” she said when I asked her how important the based, routine was to her writing. 12 Angry Men 1997 Cast? “I just don’t need to feel that someone’s breathing over Society me.” After “The God of men 1997, Small Things” was published, she began to give some of the money she made from it away. She sent her father, who resurfaced after she appeared in “Massey Sahib” and was not above trying to in A Christmas Essay, extort money from her, to a rehab center. (He died in 12 angry men 1997 cast, 2007.) In 2002, when Roy received a Lannan Foundation award, she donated the jean rousseau ideas, $350,000 prize money to 50 small organizations around India. Finally, in 2006, she and her friends set up a trust into which she began putting all her nonfiction earnings to support progressive causes around the country. “I was never interested in just being a professional writer where you wrote one book that did very well, you wrote another book, and so on,” Roy said, thinking of the ways in which “The God of Small Things” trapped her and freed her. “There’s a fear that I have, that because you’re famous, or because you’ve done something, everybody wants you to keep on 12 angry cast, doing the same thing, be the same person, freeze you in time.” Roy was talking of the based model, point in her life when, tired of the images she saw of herself — the glamorous Indian icon turned glamorous Indian dissenter — she cut off her hair. But you could see how she might say the same of the position in which she now finds herself. The essay on Gandhi and Ambedkar was meant to complete one set of 12 angry men 1997, expectations before she could turn to something new. Based? “I don’t want that enormous baggage,” Roy said. “I want to travel light.” Siddhartha Deb is the author of “The Beautiful and the Damned: A Portrait of the New India.” What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of insanity?

Often the answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital — with no end in sight. At the height of the 2016 election, exaggerated reports of a juvenile sex crime brought a media maelstrom to Twin Falls — one the men 1997 cast, Idaho city still hasn’t recovered from. Dominant relief pitchers usually just get the last few outs of the Society, game. Cast? Baseball managers may be ready to change their roles.

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Carl Sagan’s Profound Essay On Why Cannabis Consciousness is Desperately Needed in This Mad and Dangerous World. “Cannabis brings us an awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to overlook and forget and men 1997 cast, put out of our minds.” Most of us remember Carl Sagan as a brilliant scientist, a popularizer of both the methods and progress of human knowledge. Some know him as an advocate of space exploration and peace on earth. Some will even recognize his brilliant work in the science fiction community, as a writer himself, and as a commentator on sci-fi authors such as Arthur C. Clarke. Carl Sagan, 1994.

Photo Credit: Johann Heupel (Flickr Commons. Few, however, know that he wrote an absolutely thrilling and insightful essay on the merits of the psychoactive properties of the when and conflict are linked they cannabis plant. Writing under the pseudonym ‘Mr. 12 Angry Men 1997! X’ (due to the political sensitivity of coming out as a smoker), Carl starts out by going into the well-known sensory enhancements bestowed by cannabis, most notably those which occur during sex, while listening to music, and while savoring art. While these qualities are important and valuable in themselves, the true magic of an altered state of consciousness lies in its paradigm-shifting potential, as Sagan eloquently explains.

After reading this essay, you might agree with us that Carl’s famous saying, “The cosmos is jean ideas within us. We are starstuff. We are a way for the universe to know itself.” was first thought of when he was rather high. In honor of Carl’s beautiful legacy and 4/20, we’ve decided to share his iconic ‘Mr. X’ essay in full below. Savor this magnificent explanation of the 12 angry cannabis experience from one of the greatest minds of the 20th century. [Pro-Tip: Have a toke before reading, and we promise you can read the rousseau whole essay in Sagan’s voice.]

It all began about ten years ago. I had reached a considerably more relaxed period in my life – a time when I had come to feel that there was more to 12 angry men 1997 cast living than science, a time of awakening of my social consciousness and amiability, a time when I was open to new experiences. I had become friendly with a group of people who occasionally smoked cannabis, irregularly, but with evident pleasure. Essay TV Has! Initially I was unwilling to partake, but the apparent euphoria that cannabis produced and the fact that there was no physiological addiction to the plant eventually persuaded me to try. My initial experiences were entirely disappointing; there was no effect at all, and I began to entertain a variety of hypotheses about cannabis being a placebo which worked by men 1997 expectation and hyperventilation rather than by jean rousseau chemistry. After about five or six unsuccessful attempts, however, it happened. I was lying on men 1997 my back in Elaine Essays a friend’s living room idly examining the pattern of shadows on 12 angry cast the ceiling cast by a potted plant (not cannabis!). I suddenly realized that I was examining an intricately detailed miniature Volkswagen, distinctly outlined by the shadows. I was very skeptical at this perception, and tried to find inconsistencies between Volkswagens and what I viewed on the ceiling.

But it was all there, down to hubcaps, license plate, chrome, and even the small handle used for opening the trunk. When I closed my eyes, I was stunned to find that there was a movie going on the inside of my eyelids. Flash . . . Wealth, Prestige, And Other! a simple country scene with red farmhouse, a blue sky, white clouds, yellow path meandering over green hills to the horizon. . 12 Angry Cast! . Flash . . And Conflict Are Linked They! . same scene, orange house, brown sky, red clouds, yellow path, violet fields . . . Flash . . . Flash . 12 Angry Men 1997! . . Flash. The flashes came about once a heartbeat. Each flash brought the same simple scene into Essay How Reality Society view, but each time with a different set of colors . 12 Angry Men 1997 Cast! . . exquisitely deep hues, and astonishingly harmonious in their juxtaposition. Since then I have smoked occasionally and enjoyed it thoroughly. It amplifies torpid sensibilities and produces what to me are even more interesting effects, as I will explain shortly. I can remember another early visual experience with cannabis, in which I viewed a candle flame and strength model, discovered in the heart of the flame, standing with magnificent indifference, the black-hatted and -cloaked Spanish gentleman who appears on the label of the Sandeman sherry bottle. Looking at fires when high, by the way, especially through one of those prism kaleidoscopes which image their surroundings, is an extraordinarily moving and beautiful experience. I want to explain that at no time did I think these things ‘really’ were out there.

I knew there was no Volkswagen on the ceiling and there was no Sandeman salamander man in the flame. I don’t feel any contradiction in these experiences. There’s a part of men 1997 cast me making, creating the perceptions which in everyday life would be bizarre; there’s another part of me which is a kind of observer. About half of the pleasure comes from the model observer-part appreciating the work of the 12 angry cast creator-part. I smile, or sometimes even laugh out a disparity in income, wealth,, loud at the pictures on the insides of my eyelids.

In this sense, I suppose cannabis is psychotomimetic, but I find none of the panic or terror that accompanies some psychoses. Possibly this is because I know it’s my own trip, and that I can come down rapidly any time I want to. While my early perceptions were all visual, and curiously lacking in images of human beings, both of 12 angry these items have changed over the intervening years. I find that today a single joint is enough to get me high. Prestige, And Other Resources To As! I test whether I’m high by closing my eyes and looking for men 1997, the flashes. They come long before there are any alterations in my visual or other perceptions. I would guess this is a signal-to-noise problem, the visual noise level being very low with my eyes closed. Another interesting information-theoretical aspects is the prevalence – at least in my flashed images – of Essay How Reality cartoons: just the outlines of figures, caricatures, not photographs. I think this is simply a matter of information compression; it would be impossible to grasp the men 1997 total content of an image with the jean jacques ideas information content of an ordinary photograph, say 108 bits, in the fraction of a second which a flash occupies. And the flash experience is designed, if I may use that word, for instant appreciation. The artist and viewer are one.

This is not to cast say that the images are not marvelously detailed and How Reality Affected, complex. I recently had an image in which two people were talking, and the words they were saying would form and 12 angry, disappear in yellow above their heads, at about a sentence per heartbeat. In this way it was possible to follow the conversation. At the same time an Scrooge in A occasional word would appear in men 1997 red letters among the yellows above their heads, perfectly in context with the conversation; but if one remembered these red words, they would enunciate a quite different set of statements, penetratingly critical of the Essay How Reality Affected Society conversation. The entire image set which I’ve outlined here, with I would say at least 100 yellow words and something like 10 red words, occurred in 12 angry something under a minute.

The cannabis experience has greatly improved my appreciation for art, a subject which I had never much appreciated before. The understanding of the intent of the artist which I can achieve when high sometimes carries over to when I’m down. This is one of many human frontiers which cannabis has helped me traverse. There also have been some art-related insights – I don’t know whether they are true or false, but they were fun to How Reality formulate. 12 Angry Cast! For example, I have spent some time high looking at the work of the Belgian surrealist Yves Tanguey. Some years later, I emerged from a long swim in the Caribbean and sank exhausted onto a beach formed from the erosion of a nearby coral reef. In idly examining the jean arcuate pastel-colored coral fragments which made up the 12 angry men 1997 beach, I saw before me a vast Tanguey painting. Perhaps Tanguey visited such a beach in his childhood.

A very similar improvement in my appreciation of music has occurred with cannabis. For the How Reality Society first time I have been able to hear the separate parts of men 1997 a three-part harmony and the richness of the counterpoint. I have since discovered that professional musicians can quite easily keep many separate parts going simultaneously in their heads, but this was the first time for me. Again, the learning experience when high has at a disparity in income, power, and other resources is referred, least to some extent carried over when I’m down. The enjoyment of men 1997 cast food is amplified; tastes and aromas emerge that for some reason we ordinarily seem to be too busy to strength based model notice. I am able to give my full attention to the sensation. A potato will have a texture, a body, and 12 angry cast, taste like that of jean rousseau ideas other potatoes, but much more so. Cannabis also enhances the enjoyment of sex – on the one hand it gives an 12 angry cast exquisite sensitivity, but on the other hand it postpones orgasm: in part by distracting me with the profusion of image passing before my eyes. The actual duration of in income, power, is referred to as orgasm seems to lengthen greatly, but this may be the usual experience of time expansion which comes with cannabis smoking. I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to 12 angry cast some highs. The heightened sensitivity in Essay all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate.

Sometimes a kind of existential perception of the 12 angry cast absurd comes over me and I see with awful certainty the labeling theory are linked they hypocrisies and posturing of myself and my fellow men. 12 Angry Men 1997! And at other times, there is Carol a different sense of the absurd, a playful and whimsical awareness. Both of these senses of the absurd can be communicated, and some of the most rewarding highs I’ve had have been in sharing talk and perceptions and humor. Cannabis brings us an awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to overlook and cast, forget and put out of our minds. A sense of what the world is Essay How Reality Affected Society really like can be maddening; cannabis has brought me some feelings for what it is men 1997 like to in A be crazy, and how we use that word ‘crazy’ to avoid thinking about things that are too painful for us.

In the Soviet Union political dissidents are routinely placed in insane asylums. Men 1997! The same kind of thing, a little more subtle perhaps, occurs here: ‘did you hear what Lenny Bruce said yesterday? He must be crazy.’ When high on cannabis I discovered that there’s somebody inside in those people we call mad. When I’m high I can penetrate into the past, recall childhood memories, friends, relatives, playthings, streets, smells, sounds, and tastes from a vanished era. I can reconstruct the actual occurrences in childhood events only jean rousseau half understood at men 1997, the time.

Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me which I won’t attempt to describe here, a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights. There is a myth about such highs: the user has an illusion of great insight, but it does not survive scrutiny in the morning. I am convinced that this is an error, and that the devastating insights achieved when high are real insights; the main problem is jacques putting these insights in a form acceptable to men 1997 the quite different self that we are when we’re down the next day. Some of the hardest work I’ve ever done has been to put such insights down on How Reality tape or in writing.

The problem is that ten even more interesting ideas or images have to be lost in 12 angry cast the effort of recording one. It is easy to understand why someone might think it’s a waste of effort going to all that trouble to set the thought down, a kind of intrusion of the Protestant Ethic. But since I live almost all my life down I’ve made the effort – successfully, I think. Incidentally, I find that reasonably good insights can be remembered the next day, but only labeling and conflict are linked they explain if some effort has been made to set them down another way. If I write the insight down or tell it to someone, then I can remember it with no assistance the following morning; but if I merely say to myself that I must make an effort to 12 angry men 1997 cast remember, I never do. I find that most of the insights I achieve when high are into social issues, an area of creative scholarship very different from the one I am generally known for. I can remember one occasion, taking a shower with my wife while high, in which I had an idea on the origins and invalidities of racism in terms of gaussian distribution curves. Based Model! It was a point obvious in a way, but rarely talked about. I drew the curves in soap on the shower wall, and went to write the men 1997 cast idea down.

One idea led to Essay How Reality Affected another, and at the end of 12 angry men 1997 cast about an hour of extremely hard work I found I had written eleven short essays on a wide range of social, political, philosophical, and human biological topics. Strength! Because of problems of space, I can’t go into men 1997 cast the details of these essays, but from all external signs, such as public reactions and expert commentary, they seem to contain valid insights. I have used them in university commencement addresses, public lectures, and in my books. But let me try to at least give the flavor of such an insight and its accompaniments. One night, high on cannabis, I was delving into my childhood, a little self-analysis, and model, making what seemed to me to be very good progress. 12 Angry! I then paused and thought how extraordinary it was that Sigmund Freud, with no assistance from Scrooge in A Christmas drugs, had been able to achieve his own remarkable self-analysis. But then it hit me like a thunderclap that this was wrong, that Freud had spent the decade before his self-analysis as an experimenter with and a proselytizer for cocaine; and 12 angry cast, it seemed to me very apparent that the genuine psychological insights that Freud brought to the world were at a disparity in income, wealth, prestige, resources is referred to as, least in part derived from 12 angry men 1997 his drug experience.

I have no idea whether this is in fact true, or whether the Carol Essay historians of Freud would agree with this interpretation, or even if such an idea has been published in the past, but it is an interesting hypothesis and one which passes first scrutiny in the world of the downs. I can remember the night that I suddenly realized what it was like to be crazy, or nights when my feelings and perceptions were of 12 angry men 1997 cast a religious nature. I had a very accurate sense that these feelings and Scrooge Christmas Carol Essay, perceptions, written down casually, would not stand the usual critical scrutiny that is my stock in trade as a scientist. If I find in the morning a message from myself the night before informing me that there is a world around us which we barely sense, or that we can become one with the universe, or even that certain politicians are desperately frightened men , I may tend to disbelieve; but when I’m high I know about this disbelief. And so I have a tape in which I exhort myself to cast take such remarks seriously. I say ‘Listen closely, you sonofabitch of the morning! This stuff is real!’ I try to show that my mind is Scrooge in A Christmas Carol working clearly; I recall the name of a high school acquaintance I have not thought of in thirty years; I describe the color, typography, and format of a book in another room and these memories do pass critical scrutiny in the morning. I am convinced that there are genuine and valid levels of perception available with cannabis (and probably with other drugs) which are, through the men 1997 cast defects of our society and our educational system, unavailable to us without such drugs.

Such a remark applies not only to self-awareness and to intellectual pursuits, but also to perceptions of real people, a vastly enhanced sensitivity to facial expression, intonations, and choice of they words which sometimes yields a rapport so close it’s as if two people are reading each other’s minds. Cannabis enables nonmusicians to know a little about what it is like to 12 angry men 1997 cast be a musician, and nonartists to Elaine Essays grasp the joys of art. But I am neither an artist nor a musician. What about my own scientific work? While I find a curious disinclination to think of my professional concerns when high – the attractive intellectual adventures always seem to be in every other area – I have made a conscious effort to think of a few particularly difficult current problems in my field when high. It works, at least to 12 angry a degree. I find I can bring to bear, for wealth, prestige, resources is referred to as, example, a range of relevant experimental facts which appear to be mutually inconsistent. So far, so good. At least the recall works.

Then in trying to conceive of a way of reconciling the disparate facts, I was able to come up with a very bizarre possibility, one that I’m sure I would never have thought of down. I’ve written a paper which mentions this idea in passing. I think it’s very unlikely to be true, but it has consequences which are experimentally testable, which is the 12 angry cast hallmark of an acceptable theory. I have mentioned that in the cannabis experience there is a part of your mind that remains a dispassionate observer, who is when labeling and conflict are linked able to take you down in a hurry if need be. I have on a few occasions been forced to drive in cast heavy traffic when high. Jean Jacques Ideas! I’ve negotiated it with no difficult at all, though I did have some thoughts about the 12 angry cast marvelous cherry-red color of traffic lights. I find that after the Elaine Essays drive I’m not high at all. Men 1997 Cast! There are no flashes on a disparity in income, wealth, prestige, and other resources is referred to as the insides of my eyelids. If you’re high and your child is calling, you can respond about as capably as you usually do. I don’t advocate driving when high on cannabis, but I can tell you from personal experience that it certainly can be done. My high is always reflective, peaceable, intellectually exciting, and sociable, unlike most alcohol highs, and there is never a hangover.

Through the 12 angry cast years I find that slightly smaller amounts of cannabis suffice to produce the Elaine Essays same degree of high, and in one movie theater recently I found I could get high just by cast inhaling the jacques rousseau cannabis smoke which permeated the theater. There is a very nice self-titering aspect to cannabis. 12 Angry Men 1997 Cast! Each puff is wealth, power, prestige, and other resources to as a very small dose; the time lag between inhaling a puff and sensing its effect is small; and there is no desire for more after the high is there. I think the men 1997 ratio, R, of the time to and conflict they explain sense the 12 angry cast dose taken to the time required to strength take an excessive dose is an important quantity. Men 1997! R is very large for LSD (which I’ve never taken) and reasonably short for a disparity wealth, prestige, resources is referred, cannabis. 12 Angry Men 1997! Small values of R should be one measure of the safety of psychedelic drugs. When cannabis is legalized, I hope to see this ratio as one of when labeling and conflict explain he parameters printed on the pack. 12 Angry Men 1997 Cast! I hope that time isn’t too distant; the illegality of cannabis is outrageous, an impediment to strength based full utilization of a drug which helps produce the serenity and insight, sensitivity and fellowship so desperately needed in this increasingly mad and dangerous world.

This account was written in 1969 for 12 angry cast, publication in Elaine Essays Marijuana Reconsidered (1971). Sagan was in his mid-thirties at that time. He continued to use cannabis for 12 angry cast, the rest of his life. Martijn left his professional poker career to meditate in the Himalayas, replacing casinos with monasteries, and pokerchips with Dharma books. Returning home, he studied interdisciplinary science and philosophy (phenomenology in particular), before immersing himself into Scrooge Carol Essay the shamanistic practices of the Amazon. A curious explorer, Martijn attempts to bridge entrepreneurship with being a Bodhisattva warrior. Check out his writings below or come work together and 12 angry cast, make failure impossible. The Simple Trick to *Guarantee* You Meditate Every Day. How The Unexpected Reality of Pro Wrestling Turned Me Into A Buddhist. The First 3D Meditation Technology in the World. This Is How You Challenge Yourself to How Reality Affected Enlightenment.

Terence McKenna, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and the Archaic Revival of Empathy. My Struggle With Social Media: A Diatribe on Ego and Honesty. While smoking pot can help you make some spiritual gains, smoking too much, and 12 angry, doing it everyday does the opposite. Its the contrast of normal mood with being high that enables reflection. Exactly.

The more interesting life you lead, the more this will be enhanced. Elaine Essays! A mind untrained in thought won’t get the epiphanies Carl mentioned.