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Bar charts – an interactive lesson. This is a complete IELTS writing task 1 lesson. You will find here a quiz on the exam, a sample task 1 question, an interactive quiz guiding you through a possible approach to this part of the paper and then an online timed exercise and finally a sample answer. The concept here is to get you doing and Evolution, most importantly thinking. For me, this is the most academic part of the whole IELTS exam: indeed, perhaps the one truly academic part of the exam.

If I have one major tip here it is to think (and plan) as much as you can before you start writing. Indonesian Defense! If you do that, the writing part tends to be easier with practice! Find the main ideas: look for the obvious points. Often these are missed because they look too simple. An example of a main idea is that the trend is Evolution of Social Psychology, upwards. Each main idea is the The Evil of Mankind in Golding's Flies Essay topic of a separate paragraph (just like an essay really). Find the key supporting details: looking for the extremes is a good place to start- these details are the support for your main ideas.

Please note that this was created a long, long time ago and the quiz will take you off site. This chart shows the relative popularity of broadband and Essay, dial up internet access in 10 countries from Europe, Asia and North America. It is evident that broadband tends to be more common than dial up. H&r Block Pricing! In Japan approximately four times as many houses have broadband (40%) rather than dial up (10%). A similar pattern can be seen in the USA, Malaysia and Italy. In contrast, in France and Psychology Essay, Germany broadband is only 3-4% more popular, while in Australia they are equally used at 20 %. The major exceptions are the United Kingdom and India where more houses have dial up access. The other major point to note is that in the USA over 65% of on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic, households have internet access, while in India only 20% do. In Australia, most of the European countries and Psychology, Japan just over on Difficulties Electronic Record System, half of the of Social Psychology Essay people have internet at home. Of The Flies Essay! Only about 40% of Psychology Essay, Italians, however, can use the internet at home. The country with the lowest figure is India at reasons for conscription, less than 20%. (168 words) There are clearly more ways of organising this report. Another possibility would be to write one main paragraph about broadband and another about dial up.

The main point to note about this task is the Psychology organisation of the answer, Each paragraph focusses on one main point. This point is then developed and explained with supporting details. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the orange free updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 27 Responses to Bar charts – an interactive lesson. A sample answer. Evolution Essay! This chart shows the relative popularity of a clockwork orange, broadband and dial up internet access in 10 countries from Europe, Asia and North America. It is Evolution Psychology Essay, evident that broadband tends to be more common than dial up. In Japan approximately four times as many houses have broadband (40%) rather than dial up (10%).

A similar pattern can be seen in the USA, Malaysia and military, Italy. In contrast, in France and Germany broadband is only 3-4% more popular, while in of Social Australia they are equally used at 20 %. The major exceptions are the United Kingdom and India where more houses have dial up access. Indonesian! The other major point to note is that in the USA over 65% of households have internet access, while in Evolution of Social Psychology Essay India only 20% do. In Australia, most of the European countries and Japan just over half of the people have internet at home. Only about 40% of Italians, however, can use the reasons in australia ww1 internet at home. The country with the lowest figure is India at less than 20%. (168 words) There are clearly more ways of Psychology, organising this report. Another possibility would be to write one main paragraph about defense, broadband and Evolution, another about dial up. The main point to note about this task is the organisation of the answer, Each paragraph focusses on h&r block one main point. This point is then developed and explained with supporting details.

Today I happen to find out about this excellent site of yours and I want to of Social Psychology Essay, thank you for all the lessons and tips you wrote for practising for the ielts exam. I am very bad at grammar, and indonesian defense, am not confident with my writing skills. I will be taking the exam in Feb and am now educating myself. I wrote the report for this bar chart, but I have no one to correct it for me. Psychology Essay! I would be grateful if you could correct it for me, and perhaps mark the band score as well? Thank you very much again for your wonderful classes. My answer is attached below. A Clockwork Orange Free! This graph shows the comparition proportion between houses using broadband and dial up to connect to the internet in nine different countries in 2009. Of Social! It is obvious that the USA has the most percentage at 50 percent for broadband while only Flies approximately 20 percent of people used dial up. Japan and Malaysia have the same pattern where broadband users take up significantly high rates than that of the dial up users.

However, in France, Germany and Evolution Essay, Italy, only a slight difference is noted in the users of broadband and dial up respectively. In contrast, the UK and India have people using dial up more than that of broadband for surfing the internet. There is an exception in the whole chart where Australians share the same proportion at about 22 percent for both dial up and broadband. Overall, this chart shows the figures for each way for surfing the net varies on geographical bases. Hello Dominic. Thanks for your amazing blog. Just a quick note about your answer: the number of countries being displayed in the chart is actually 9 (cf. paragraph 1, line 1 of your answer). Whoops. Thank you.

The graph shows the differences of broadband and The Evil of Mankind Illustrated in Golding's Lord of the Essay, dial up internet users in Evolution of Social Essay 9 different countries globally. It is obviously shown that broadband internet usage is more common in most countries than dial up. This can be shown in the United States, Japan and orange free, Malaysia wherein dial up users is just a third of broadband users. The proportion of broadband users is in between the range of 5% to 50%. The United States easily spearheads#8217; the list with 50% of the people uses broadband followed by Japan with nearly 45%. On the contrary, India has the lowest proportion with approximately 5% Broadband users.

While for France, Germany, Italy, Australia and Evolution Psychology, Malaysia have almost the same in value close to cause and effect, the average of Evolution Essay, 28%. Dial up usage being less popular, ne exception to the rule is in the UK wherein Dial up users is greater than broadband with just under 45%, against broadband users with 20%. In addition to Essay of the Electronic Health System, this it also leads the list for dial up users in contrary with Malaysia and of Social, Japan with the lowest proportion of 5%. For India, Italy and the USA have a share of around 15%, but for France and Germany it is just close to the average of dial up users which is 25%. Furthermore another peculiar proportion in the chart is in a clockwork orange online Australia where broadband and dial up users is equal. In conclusion, the way people uses internet varies in different countries but it is exceptionally known that broadband users is much more higher than dial up in the globe. Hi hopefully you can check and comment on Evolution Psychology this=) I wrote my answer in #8220;quiz#8221; yesterday, but I had a lot of mistakes. I #8216;ve tried to correct them, so here is my second version ( probably there are also mistakes). Could you check it and comment? Also, I have a question about the definite article before #8220;internet#8221; . Which is Essay of the Record System, correct : I wrote somewhere with article, and somewhere without..

The chart shows how people access the Internet in nine countries. We can see that approximately three times more people access internet through broadband connection than through dial-up connection in Evolution the United States, in Japan and in Malaysia. In contrast, in India and in indonesian the United Kingdom the percentage of dial-up connection usage is almost double. Of Social! We can notice a slight difference between broadband and dial-up connection in Germany and in France, but the number of households which prefer broadband connection doubled in Italy. Australia is an exception where the same proportion of households access internet through both ways of connection. Reasons For Conscription Ww1! The rate of internet usage differs among countries.

The smallest fraction of Evolution of Social, usage is in India, with under 10%. In most of the European countries around one third of the population has internet in of Mankind in Golding's Lord Flies their households. Australia and Italy have about the same proportion of internet usage,but significantly different from them are the United States, Japan and Malaysia, where the large majority of the Evolution of Social Essay population uses internet from their home. In conclusion, it can be seen the the Internet usage through broadband connection is more common in all countries than the usage through dial-up connection. Definitely #8220;the#8221; internet that#8217;s one of the The Evil of Mankind Illustrated Lord of the most common mistakes there is. I should do another post on articles soon. The one language problem I see (looking at this v quickly) is articles. #8220;internet usage#8221; #8220;a large majority#8221;. Other than that, your language is commendably correct. Don#8217;t worry about this being your second version. That#8217;s how you learn. Don#8217;t worry too much about Evolution Psychology Essay, timing until just before the exam.

One significant problem here is that you don#8217;t specify enough detail. Anyone reading this would want to h&r block, know the facts and figures. Where are the figures? Otherwise it#8217;s nicely organised and you are certainly using the right range of language. Thank you for of Social Essay your comment. Oh, that articles. I learned them theoretically, although I need time to gain the feeling of accurate application. Electronic System! Lastly, I realized that I missed the particular details. I was scared that the report will be boring with too many numbers so I reduced the usage of them.

Unfortunately, I overdid it. I am going to practice the articles ! #128578; Could you post some materials on Writing for General Training? Expect something in the next couple of days. I have completely ignored general training until and that#8217;s wrong! plz give me some new tips to write task 1 and task 2. The graph shows the differences of broadband and of Social Psychology, dial – up internet users in cause and effect 9 different countries globally. It is obviously shown that broadband internet usage is more common in most countries than dial up. This can be shown in the United States, Japan and Malaysia wherein dial up users is just a third of broadband users. The proportion of broadband users is in between the Evolution of Social Psychology range of 5% to 50%. The United States easily spearheads’ the list with 50% of the people uses broadband followed by Japan with nearly 45%. On the contrary, India has the lowest proportion with approximately 5% Broadband users.

While for France, Germany, Italy, Australia and Malaysia have almost the same in value close to the average of 28%. Dial up usage being less popular, ne exception to the rule is in the UK wherein Dial up users is greater than broadband with just under 45%, against broadband users with 20%. In addition to this it also leads the list for dial up users in contrary with Malaysia and Japan with the and effect lowest proportion of 5%. For India, Italy and the USA have a share of around 15%, but for France and Germany it is of Social Essay, just close to the average of dial up users which is 25%. Furthermore another peculiar proportion in the chart is in a clockwork orange online Australia where broadband and Evolution Psychology, dial up users is equal. In conclusion, the way people uses internet varies in different countries but it is exceptionally known that broadband users is military defense, much more higher than dial up in the globe. Evolution Of Social Essay! thanks for the good example. I need your help for small difficulties. I want to know, for writing task 1, when the past tens and present tense is used.

I understood it in this way. I am planning to write exam in 2011, so if the chart presents data of 2011, one should answer in present tense, if it is from 2010 or 2009 one should answer in past tense. is The Evil Illustrated in Golding's Lord of the Essay, it wright? That#8217;s about right. Though it is unlikely that you will get data for 2011. You are more likely to need to Psychology Essay, use the present when there is no date at all on the data as in a pie chart.

The key is to read the h&r block question itself. I did a post on this a week or so ago. Essay! tenses in The Evil Illustrated Flies part 1. If it isn#8217;t clear. let me know and I shall revise it. i agree with u neelima. Do you have an active link to the bar chart for Evolution the exercise on broadband and dial-up in nine countries. Keep up the great work. Is there any other way to say #8220;four times as many houses#8221; and convey the a clockwork orange free online exact meaning?

I have problem with this phrase. I#8217;ve read #8220;describing numbers#8221; but I still cannot use it correctly! Any advice? The only Evolution of Social Psychology Essay other way I can think of is to turn the numbers around and use #8220;one quarter#8221;. Great stuff, Freelancer. Essay On Difficulties Of The Health Record! Huge 10x. in your sample answer and in of Social Psychology Essay the second paragraph, why do you repeat a similar sentence twice?

I mean, you write #8220;while in India only 20% do#8221; in examples the second line and again you repeat a sentence with the same meaning in the last line of your report.(#8220;The country with the lowest figure is India at less than 20%.#8221; ) Sorry I come from hong kong. I want to Evolution of Social Essay, ask is it appropriate to provide reasons to justify the results? I am confused with this as I will have the exam in this month. heartfelt thanks to a clockwork, your useful sites it will be of Evolution Psychology Essay, great use of value especially for those who cannot afford to attend tutorial classes like me. A Clockwork! thank you so much for this great website. Keep up with your fantastic work. Evolution Of Social! hello sir#8230;your site is great.do you offer essay checking ? thank you so much this is free, a wonderful site. I am vgoing to share this with my fellow test takers now and in the future! thanx alot and God bless.

I have just found this website,, and many thanks for Dominic ,, it#8217;s reall useful ,, I had ielts two time and in both my weakness in writing part ,, I attached my answer below please if you have time give me your feed back about my answer .. Thanks allot. The following bar chart illustrates the proportion of Internet usage over nine different countries in 2009.and compare the different proportion between the kinds of Internet connection . It#8217;s clearly seen that broadband was the most popular kind of connection in most of the countries . It is immediately apparent that, the USA had the Evolution Psychology highest Internet usage among All the remaining countries ,Around 53% of examples, household had Internet connection there. Essay! While , the lowest percentage of using Internet was in India at h&r block, just below the quarter of population .furthermore, European countries and Malaysia showed moderate Internet usage varied between 40%_25% . Moreover , there are major variation in the kind of connection used in these metropolitan areas .in some countries like USA , Japan and Malaysia had the highest differences between broadband and dial up usage , in around 35%, 30% and 27% as much as broadband as dial up respectively . While the rest of the countries had the same pattern in less significant proportion, only uk had different pattern in which dial up more popular than broad band in about 15% . In overall , United States had the highest Internet usage and Evolution Psychology, India the in australia lowest . Broad band were more popular than dial up in all the countries ,except the United Kingdom where household prefer using dial up approximately twice Times than broadband . Evolution Of Social Psychology Essay! This is the most helpful site and your guidance is invaluable. I feel very confident after doing.

Evolutionary Theory and Psychology

Evolution of Social Psychology Essay

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______________________________ An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the College of Arts and Evolution Psychology Sciences Bataan Peninsula State University . ______________________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of for conscription in australia, Science in Tourism Management ______________________________ by Aldrin Gerald R. Galiste October 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Above all I would like to thank God for making me strong as I make this thesis , for making me alive and Evolution Essay stable during midnight. ASEAN , Bachelor's degree , Balanga City 1096 Words | 7 Pages. Acknowledgement sample for The Evil of Mankind Illustrated Lord of the Flies Essay, school project. 05/07/2015 Acknowledgement sample for school project Acknowledgement letter sample » . Evolution Psychology? Acknowledgement sample for assignment Acknowledgement sample for project Thesis acknowledgement sample Acknowledgement sample for school project March 24, 2013 Acknowledgement letter sample , Acknowledgement sample for project Acknowledgement sample for and effect, school project Sample No.1 I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher (Name of the teacher) as well as our principal (Name of Evolution, the. Cloud computing 379 Words | 4 Pages. 11/12/2010 MBA Lectures » Blog Archive » SWOT Analysis of in Golding's Flies Essay, Coca-Col… http:// mba -lectures.com Home | About | Contact | . Sitemap MBA LecturesEducating People For Tomorrow Type and of Social Psychology hit enter to search. SWOT Analysis of Coca-Cola Company Posted by mbalectures | Posted in Principles of Marketing | 165 views | Posted on 30-10-2010 Tagged Under : Coca-Cola swot analysis Coca-Cola Company SWOT Analysis, Coke SWOT, SWOT Analysis of in australia ww1, Coca-Cola, SWOT Analysis of Coca-Cola Company, SWOT Analysis. Carbonation , Coca-Cola , Coca-Cola C2 1180 Words | 6 Pages.

INTERIOR DESIGN THESIS FORMAT A. PRELIMINARY PAGES i. Psychology? TITLE PAGE – Includes the thesis title and the standard . thesis format. ii. APPROVAL SHEET – Includes the signature of the Thesis Adviser and the College Dean specifying that the student has partially fulfilled the requirements leading to the course. iii. JURORS’ APPROVAL SHEET – Includes the signatures of the panel of jurors denoting their approval of the thesis work. iv. DEDICATION Contains the student’s. Design , Design management , Research 618 Words | 5 Pages. Sample Certificate for Mba Project. 014 [pic] SYNOPSIS REPORT ON: A STUDY OF WORK ENVIRONMENT AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN . RELIANCE COMMUNICATIONS. Submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements for the IV semester, MBA (HRM) POST GRADUATION DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BY Harish Kumar.M.D(4PSO9MBA21) Under The Guidance of Prof: Mahesh.A.S [pic] POST GRADUATION DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES P.E.S. For Conscription Ww1? COLLEGE. Business school , Energy , Harish Kumar 668 Words | 5 Pages.

he main objective of this thesis is to see whether value premium is present in the Indian stock market since the liberalization of Evolution of Social Essay, it in the . A Clockwork Free Online? early 1990s. Additionally, I look into the reasons for the value premium – whether it can be explained by higher levels of fundamental risk and Evolution of Social classical (also called modern) financial theory or can the reasons for market inefficiencies be based on irrationality of market participants and the groundwork of behavioral finance theorists. The concept of and effect, rationality. Contrarian investing , Economics , Finance 1835 Words | 6 Pages. sddffffffffojsdfg sd fgsdfg sdfg sdfg asdfWhen you need to see the quality of papers from a custom writing company, sample papers can be a good . proof for being confident that you can get your desired grades after submitting the paper. Evolution Psychology Essay? Positive impression developed by teachers is a long term benefit for you and you can secure yourself by providing your own writings or submitting quality custom written papers. Sample papers provided on the writing websites are for your review only. It is mostly likely that they have. Creative writing , English-language films , Essay 1203 Words | 3 Pages.

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Psychiatry Question Bank 65 Multiple Choice Questions on Psychopharmacology 65 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers on “Psychopharmacology” for Psychiatry Post Graduate Students: image source: 435729.medialib.glogster.com. 1. Tricyclic antidepressants are contraindicated in: C. Bronchial asthma. D. Essential hypertension. 2. Which of the antipsychotic drugs has a prolonged action? 3. The congenital anomaly produced by lithium therapy is: A. Limb shortening. D. Renal agenesis.

About 10 percent of newborns exposed in 1st tri­mester of pregnancy had major congenital malforma­tions. The most common is Epstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valves. Lithium is not indicated in a lactating woman. Signs of is Evolution of Social Psychology Essay toxicity in infants include lethargy, cyanosis, abnormal reflexes, rarely hepatomegaly. 4. All the of Mankind Illustrated in Golding's Essay following are side-effects of Fluoxetine, except: C. Urinary retention. 5. Psychology. Akathisia is treated by h&r block pricing, all the of Social Essay following, except:

6. Prophylactic maintenance of serum level of lithium is: 7. The treatment of choice in depression with suicidal ten­dencies is: A. Tricyclic antidepressants. B. MAO inhibitors. D. Electroconvulsive therapy. The first and most important indication for ECT is depression with suicidal tendencies. 8. The drug not used for prophylaxis of MDP is:

B. Sodium valproate. Antipsychotics are used as adjuvant in the treatment of mood disorders. 9. All the following are true about clozapine, except: A. Used in schizophrenia. B. Precipitates seizures. D. Extra pyramidal side-effects. The only FDA approved indication for clozapine is as a therapy for The Evil of Mankind in Golding's Lord Essay treatment resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine suppresses the Evolution Psychology Essay abnormal movements of Essay on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Health System, TD (Tardive dyskinesia) as does treatment with conventional antipsychotics. Other indication: Clozapine may treat the movement disorder.

Clozapine is of Social more potent on Dl, D3, D4, and 5HT2 receptors in comparison to other typical antipsychotic which are more potent over D2 receptors. Animal models show that clozapine is more active over meso-limbic pathway than nigro- striatal pathway because of which we notice less EPS. 10. Which of the following is not an antidepressant? 11. Carbamazepine is used in all the following except:

B. A Clockwork Orange Free. Alcohol withdrawal. D. Trigeminal neuralgia. But recent data indicates that CB2 can be used in schizophrenia and Schizo-affective disorders. Other indications are: Recurrent depressive disorder. Impulse control disorder v.

PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) Alcohol /benzodiazepine withdrawal. Severe blood dyscrasias occur in about 1 in Evolution of Social, 125,000 pts treated with Carbamazepine. 12. A patient of schizophrenia treated for 5 years, developed abnormal movement. The patient has: A. Tardive dyskinesia. B. Muscular dystonia. D. Malignant neuroleptic syndrome.

TD delayed effects of antipsychotic caused by dopamine receptor super sensitivity in basal ganglia. Serotonin – dopamine antagonists may be used in pts with TD. 13. The mechanism of action of Fluoxetine is: A. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor. B. MAO-B inhibitor. C. Nor adrenaline reuptake inhibitor. D. Benzodiazepine antagonist Other SSRI are:

Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake. Atypical antipsychotics: (serotonin dopamine antagonists) Central presynaptic 2 – adrenergic receptor antagonist – clonidine. Mirtazapine (tetracyclic antidepressant) 14. An irritable urge to move about with inner restlessness is called: 15. The drug of choice for rapid cycle MDP is: C. Sodium Valproate.

16. A 35-year-old female on chlorpromazine for 10 years schizophrenia complains of hearing voices. The loud­ness of the voices of taking chlorpromazine but not stop completely. The best treatment is: Clozapine, the only FDA approved drug for treatment resistant schizophrenia.

17. Tianeptine is a: A. Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer » B. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. C. Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. D. Norepinephrine agonist. Tianeptine – Norepinephrine serotonin selective reuptake enhancers. Venlafaxine – Norepinephrine serotonin reuptake inhibitor. MAOI-Hydroxide – a. Phenelezine b. The Evil Of Mankind Illustrated Lord Of The Flies Essay. isocarboxazide Norhydroxide – a. tranylcypromine Reversible selective. Broforamine Irreversible selective MAOI: clorgyline. 3. Evolution Psychology. Sodium valproate. 18.

A 50-year-old man has presented with pain in back, lack of defense, interest in recreational activities, low mood, lethargy, decreased sleep, and appetite for 2 months. Of Social Essay. There is no history suggestive of delusions or hallucinations. He did not suffer from any chronic medical illness. There was no family history of cause examples, psychiatric illness. Routine investi­gations including hierogram, renal function tests, elec­trocardiogram, did not reveal any abnormality. This pa­tient should be treated with: (The only antidepressant in this group)

Clinical history suggests that the Evolution of Social Psychology patient is depressed. 19. Carbamazepine was first used in: D. And Effect. All of the above. Carbamazepine is an antimonies and mood stabilizing agent.

It is a tricyclic compound synthesized in 1953 by Schindler. 20. The treatment of choice for acute or abrupt onset de­pression includes: B. Tricyclic antidepressants. C. MAO inhibitors. D. Electroconvulsive therapy.

21. Evolution Of Social Psychology. In acute mania, the therapeutic serum level of free online, lithium includes: 22. Antipsychotic drug to be avoided especially in Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, first tri­mester of pregnancy: i. Neurological – Tremor, muscle weakness, cogwheel rigidity, seizures, neurotoxicity. ii. Renal – Polyuria, polydipsia, tubular changes nephrogenic diabetes insipid nephritic syndrome.

iii. H&r Block Pricing. CVS – Hypokalemia, T wave depression. iv. Evolution Psychology Essay. Endocrine – Goiter, hypothyroidism, abnormal thyroid function, weight gain. v. GIT – Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, metallic taste. vi. Dermatological-Acne form eruptions, popular eruptions, exacerbation of psoriasis.

vii. During pregnancy of free, lactation-teratogenic, increased incidence of Evolution of Social Psychology, Ebstein’s anomaly also created in milk with 30 to and effect, 100 percent of maternal blood hi level. Psychology. Cause toxicity in infant. Contraindications of lithium we are cardio renal, thyroid, neurological dys­function blood dyscrasias, during first traumata of pregnancy and lactation, concomitant administration of theorize diuretics, tetracycline, or anesthetics. 23. Lithium is used in psychiatry to treat:

C. Mood disorders. D. Acute organic brain syndrome Indications of lithium in and effect examples, psychiatry: Prophylaxis of bipolar mood disorders. A. Atypical antipsychotic. B. Anti-anxiety drug. C. Used in dementia. D. Also known as disulfiram. Other atypical antipsychotics – Risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone. Also remember – Clozapine is the drug of choice in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

A. Antipsychotic drug. B. Used in opiate poisoning. C. Tricyclic antidepressant. D. Evolution Of Social Essay. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Paroxetine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram. SSRI with longest half-life-fluoxetine. SSRI with shortest half-life-fluvoxamine.

26. Imipramine is mainly used as a: D. All of the above. Remember – imipramine is the first antidepressant to be introduced. 27. Defense. Nausea is a troublesome side effect of the following an­tidepressant: Other side effects: Insomnia, akathisia, loss of appetite, sexual dysfunction. 28. Which antidepressant found to be associated with tar­dive dyskinesia and narcoleptic malignant syndrome? This is because of blockade of dopamine receptors in the striatum.

29. Of Social. Blood levels of neuroleptics are useful to indonesian defense, check the fol­lowing: B. Evolution Psychology Essay. Therapeutic levels. D. The Evil Of Mankind Illustrated Essay. All of the above. Clozapine and haloperidol levels are important to monitor toxicities. 30. The drug of Evolution Psychology, first choice in weight reduction programme is: D. Diethyl propion. 31.

Therapeutic range of lithium is: A. 0.5 to 1 mmol/1. B. 0.8 to 1.4 mmol/1. C. 1.4 to and effect, 2.5 mmol/1. Remember toxicity – if level 2.0 mEq/1. Life threatening intoxication – 3.5 mEq/1. A. Neurotic disease. B. Evolution Of Social Essay. Seen in schizophrenia. C. Side effect of lithium.

D. H&r Block. Side effect of antipsychotic drugs. Akathisia manifests as motor restlessness. It is due to blockade of dopamine type-2 receptors in striatum. 33. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is Psychology Essay characterized: B. Labile hypertension. Feature of NMS – fever, elevated, EPS, catatonic symptoms, autonomic dysfunction.

34. Akathisia is treated by: Drug of choice – Propranolol. Benzodiazepines are useful. 35. Feature of akathisia is: A. Cogwheel rigidity. B. Oculogyric crisis. D. Periodic movements. Motor restlessness is the key feature of akathesia Cogwheel rigidity occurs in parkinsonism Oculogyric crises is an acute dystonia Perioral movements could be rabbit syndrome or Tardier dyskinesia.

36. Malignant neuroleptic syndrome is treated by: D. Chlorpromazine Bromocriptine can also be used. 37. Side effect of clozapine is: A. Within one week – neutropenia. Clozapine must be stopped immediately. 38. The drug of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder is: Dose of Clomipramine – 75 to cause and effect examples, 300 mg 1 day. 39.

Lithium is used in Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, all except: A. A Clockwork Free. Endogenous depression. B. Recurrent attacks of mania. C. Schizoaffective psychosis. D. Paranoid psychosis. 40.

Side effect of chlorpromazine for which anti cholinergic is used: A. Blurred vision. B. Oculogyric crises. 41. Newer nonsedative, nonhypnotic anxiolytic is: Buspirone acts as a partial against at 5HTIA receptor. It doesn’t have anticonvulsant and Evolution muscle relaxant properties.

42. The drug of choice for panic disorders is: Small doses of antidepressants are used (imipramine and fluoxetine). 136 Psychiatry Question Bank for PG Entrance Exams. 43. In drug induced parkinsonism, benzhexol has got no role in: Akathisia is treated with P blockers and benzodiazepines (propranolol). 44.

In fluoxetine and imipramine, the main difference is in: – A. Less side effects. B. Onset of examples, action. C. Effect of OCD. D. Of Social. Duration of action. 45. Which of the following drug has the minimum extra py­ramidal side effect? 46. Which of the following drugs produce rapid induction of sleep with least influence of sleep architecture? Dosage of zaleplon 5 to 10 mg. As it has a half-life of reasons for conscription, one hour it is useful in of Social Psychology, initial insomnia.

47. All of the a clockwork free online following are antidepressants, except: Imipramine and amitryptilline are tricyclic anti­depressants; citalopram is a SSRI risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic. 48. Which of the following side effects of chlorpromazine are ameliorated by anticholinergic antiparkinson medi­cation? C. Blurred vision. D. Evolution Essay. Oculogyric crisis. 49. Lithium is used to treat:

C. Mood disorders. D. Acute organic brain syndrome. C. Hyperkinetic disorder. D. All of the above. 51. The least affected organ in lithium toxicity is: There is no hepatic metabolism for lithium in body. 52. Treatment of Panic attack includes the use of: Both imipramine and fluoxetine in free, small doses are useful in treating panic disorder.

53. All the following are anxiolytic except: Fluoxetine is an antidepressant. It acts by selecting serotonin reuptake inhibition. 54. Lithium is treatment of choice for: A. Unipolar MDP prophylaxis.

Lithium is indicated in prophylaxis of bipolar MAP and acute mania. 55. The most useful drug in enuresis is: Imipramine is the drug of choice in nonorganic enuresis usual dose range is 25 to 75 mg 1 day. 56. The least extra pyramidal effect is seen with: Drugs with minimal EPS are clozapine, quetipin sulpiride and ziprasidone. Drugs useful in Heroin withdrawal are clonidine, methadone, buprenorphin, LAAM, and dextropropoxyphene. 57. Long-term therapy of lithium causes: D. Bone narrow depression.

Long-term lithium use causes renal side-effects also. 58. All of the following are selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors, except: SSRI’s are fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram. 59. Of Social Psychology. A psychiatric patient on tricyclic antidepressants presents with bradycardia, hypotension, decreased sweating, and military defense retention of urine. Evolution Psychology. The most likely drug used is: Decreased sweating, retention of indonesian military defense, urine, bradycardia are anticholinergic side effects of amitryptilline, hypotension is due to Ll-adrenergic blockade. 60. A 63-year-old man who is taking amitryptilline suddenly develops confusion, urinary retention and blurring of vi­sion. The cause is:

A. Anticholinergic side-effects. B. Of Social Psychology Essay. Reactive depression. C. Emergence of negative symptoms. 61. A patient was found stuporous and he did not eat or sleep the whole day. On examination, he was found to be con­scious.

The treatment should be: (AIIMS-2000) 62. 30-year-old Bano Begum was brought to the casualty is a state of altered sensorium. Military Defense. She was on lithium treat­ment for the affective disorder and suffered an attack of epileptic fits. Evolution Psychology Essay. On examination she has tremors, increased deep tension reflexives, and on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Health System insentience of urine. She also had undergone an episode of severe gash enteritis 2 days ago. Lithium level in the serum is 1.95 mEq/l. The most likely cause is: A. lithium toxicity. B. severe dehydration.

D. Epileptic fits. 63. The most common cardiac abnormality associated with use of lithium in 1st trimester of pregnancy: A. Deacon’s syndrome. B. Epstein’s anomaly of tricuspid valve. D. Coarctation of Evolution of Social, aorta.

In Epstein’s anomaly there is a distortion and down ward displacement of tricuspid valve. Use of lithium is contraindicated in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. 64. And Effect Examples. Vasanti, 45-year-old, was brought to casualty with ab­normal movements which included persistent deviation of the meek to the right side. One day earlier, she had been prescribed haloperidol 5mg three times daily by the psychiatrist. She also had an altercation with her bush and recently. Which of the following is the most likely cause for her symptoms?

A. Acute drug dystonia. B. Conversion reaction. C. Acute psychosis. D. Cerebrovascular accident. Acute dystonia is an acute extra pyramidal symptom caused by antipsychotic medication. In this case, the neck muscles are affected by dystonia. 65. Contraindications to lithium administration include:

A. An administration in combination with chlorpromazine. B. The presence of of Social, renal disease. C. Any occurrence of the symptoms of h&r block, schizophrenia. D. The presence of depression. E. An administration in combination with imipramine.

1.A 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.C 6.B 7.D 8.C 9.D 10.D 11.C 12.A 13.A 14.A 15.A 16.A 17.A 18.B 19.B 20.A 21.B 22.D 23.C 24.A 25.D 26.C 27.B 28.A 29.A 30.D 31.B 32.D 33.B 34.C 35.C 36.A 37.C 38.B 39.D 40.B 41.B 42.A 43.C 44.A 45.A 46.A 47.C 48.D 49.C 50.A 51.A 52.E 53.A 54.D 55.C 56.C 57.B 58.D 59.A 60.A 61.C 62.A 63.B 64.A 65.B. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Evolution Essay Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and for conscription ww1 other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the Essay following pages:

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agnostic essay J. Huxley, Diary of H. M. S. Rattlesnake. Collected Essays V. [209]#9;Within the last few months, the public has received much and varied information on the subject of agnostics, their tenets, and Evolution of Social Essay, even their future. Agnosticism exercised the orators of the reasons for conscription in australia ww1 Church Congress at Manchester. 1 It has been furnished with a set of articles fewer, but not less rigid, and certainly not less consistent than the thirty-nine; its nature has been analysed, and its future severely predicted by of Social Psychology Essay, the most eloquent of that prophetical school whose Samuel is Auguste Comte. It may still be a question, however, whether the public is as much the wiser as might be expected, considering all the trouble that has been taken to enlighten it. Not only are the three accounts of the defense agnostic position sadly out of harmony with one another, but I [210] propose to show cause for my belief that all three must be seriously questioned by any one who employs the term agnostic in the sense in which it was originally used. Of Social Psychology! The learned Principal of King's College, who brought the a clockwork orange free topic of Psychology Agnosticism before the Church Congress, took a short and easy way of settling the business:#150; #9;But if this be so, for a man to h&r block pricing, urge, as an escape from Evolution of Social Essay, this article of belief, that he has no means of h&r block a scientific knowledge of the unseen world, or of the future, is irrelevant. Evolution Of Social Essay! His difference from Christians lies not in military defense, the fact that he has no knowledge of these things, but that he does not believe the authority on which they are stated. He may prefer to call himself an Agnostic; but his real name is an older one#150;he is an infidel; that is to say, an unbeliever. The word infidel, perhaps, carries an unpleasant significance.

Perhaps it is right that it should. It is, and it ought to be, an unpleasant thing for a man to have to say plainly that he does not believe in Jesus Christ. 2. #9;So much of Dr. Wace's address either explicitly or implicitly concerns me, that I take upon myself to deal with it; but, in so doing, it must be understood that I speak for myself alone. I am not aware that there is any sect of Agnostics; [211] and Evolution Psychology Essay, if there be, I am not its acknowledged prophet or pope.

I desire to leave to the Comtists the entire monopoly of the manufacture of imitation ecclesiasticism. #9;Let us calmly and dispassionately consider Dr. Reasons In Australia Ww1! Wace's appreciation of agnosticism. Of Social Psychology Essay! The agnostic, according to his view, is a person who says he has no means of attaining a scientific knowledge of the unseen world or of the future; by cause and effect examples, which somewhat loose phraseology Dr. Wace presumably means the theological unseen world and future. I cannot think this description happy, either in form or substance, but for the present it may pass. Dr.

Wace continues, that is not his difference from Christians. Are there then any Christians who say that they know nothing about the unseen world and the future? I was ignorant of the fact, but I am ready to accept it on the authority of Evolution of Social a professional theologian, and I proceed to online, Dr. Wace's next proposition. Evolution Psychology Essay! #9;The real state of the case, then, is that the orange free agnostic does not believe the Evolution Psychology Essay authority on which these things are stated, which authority is Jesus Christ. He is cause and effect examples simply an old-fashioned infidel who is afraid to Evolution Psychology, own to his right name. As Presbyter is pricing priest writ large, so is agnostic the mere Greek equivalent for Evolution of Social Essay the Latin infidel.

There is an attractive simplicity about this solution of the problem; and it has that advantage of being somewhat offensive to the [212] persons attacked, which is so dear to the less refined sort of of Mankind Illustrated Lord Flies controversialist. The agnostic says, I cannot find good evidence that so and so is Evolution of Social Psychology true. Ah, says his adversary, seizing his opportunity, then you declare that Jesus Christ was untruthful, for he said so and so; a very telling method of rousing prejudice. But suppose that the value of the evidence as to what Jesus may have said and done, and as to the exact nature and scope of his authority, is just that which the agnostic finds it most difficult to determine. If I venture to doubt that the a clockwork free online Duke of Wellington gave the Evolution of Social Psychology Essay command Up, Guards, and at pricing, 'em! at Waterloo, I do not think that even Dr. Wace would accuse me of Evolution of Social Psychology disbelieving the Duke.

Yet it would be just as reasonable to do this as to accuse any one of denying what Jesus said, before the indonesian defense preliminary question as to what he did say is settled. #9;Now, the question as to what Jesus really said and did is strictly a scientific problem, which is capable of solution by no other methods than those practised by the historian and the literary critic. It is a problem of immense difficulty, which has occupied some of the of Social Psychology Essay best heads in military defense, Europe for the last century; and Evolution of Social Psychology, it is only of late years that their investigations have begun to converge towards one conclusion. 3. #9;[213] That kind of Essay on Difficulties Health faith which Dr. Wace describes and lauds is of no use here. Essay! Indeed, he himself takes pains to reasons for conscription in australia, destroy its evidential value. #9;What made the Mahommedan world?

Trust and faith in the declarations and assurances of Mahommed. And what made the Evolution of Social Psychology Christian world? Trust and faith in pricing, the declarations and assurances of Jesus Christ and His Apostles ( l.c. p. 253). The triumphant tone of this imaginary catechism leads me to suspect that its author has hardly appreciated its full import. Presumably, Dr. Wace regards Mahommed as an unbeliever, or, to use the term which he prefers, infidel; and considers that his assurances have given rise to a vast delusion which has led, and is leading, millions of men straight to everlasting punishment. And this being so, the Trust and faith which have made the of Social Psychology Mahommedan world, in just the same sense as they have [214] made the Christian world, must be trust and faith in falsehood.

No man who has studied history, or even attended to the occurrences of everyday life, can doubt the enormous practical value of trust and faith; but as little will he be inclined to deny that this practical value has not the least relation to the reality of the objects of that trust and faith. In examples of patient constancy of faith and of unswerving trust, the Acta Martyrum do not excel the annals of Babism. 4. #9;The discussion upon The Evil of Mankind Illustrated in Golding's which we have now entered goes so thoroughly to Psychology, the root of the whole matter; the question of the day is so completely, as the author of Robert Elsmere says, the value of testimony, that I shall offer no apology for following it out somewhat in detail; and, by a clockwork orange free, way of giving substance to the argument, I shall base what I have to say upon a case, the of Social consideration of which lies strictly within the province of natural science, and of that particular part of it known as the free physiology and pathology of the nervous system. #9;I find, in the second Gospel (chap. v.), a statement, to all appearance intended to have the same evidential value as any other contained in [215] that history. It is the well-known story of the devils who were cast out of a man, and ordered, or permitted, to enter into a herd of swine, to the great loss and damage of the innocent Gerasene, or Gadarene, pig owners. There can be no doubt that the narrator intends to convey to his readers his own conviction that this casting out and entering in were effected by the agency of Jesus of Nazareth; that, by speech and action, Jesus enforced this conviction; nor does any inkling of the legal and moral difficulties of the case manifest itself. #9;On the other hand, everything that I know of physiological and pathological science leads me to entertain a very strong conviction that the phenomena ascribed to possession are as purely natural as those which constitute small-pox; everything that I know of anthropology leads me to think that the belief in demons and demoniacal possession is a mere survival of a once universal superstition, and that its persistence, at the present time, is pretty much in the inverse ratio of the general instruction, intelligence, and sound judgment of the population among whom it prevails. Everything that I know of law and justice convinces me that the wanton destruction of other people's property is a misdemeanour of evil example. Again, the study of history, and especially of that of the Evolution fifteenth, sixteenth, and of Mankind Illustrated Lord of the Essay, seventeenth centuries, leaves no shadow of doubt [216] on my mind that the belief in the reality of possession and of witchcraft, justly based, alike by Catholics and Protestants, upon this and innumerable other passages in both the Old and New Testaments, gave rise, through the Essay special influence of Christian ecclesiastics, to the most horrible persecutions and judicial murders of thousands upon thousands of defense innocent men, women, and of Social Psychology, children. And when I reflect that the record of military a plain and simple declaration upon such an occasion as this, that the belief in witchcraft and possession is wicked nonsense, would have rendered the long agony of Evolution Psychology Essay mediæval humanity impossible, I am prompted to orange free, reject, as dishonouring, the Essay supposition that such declaration was withheld out of condescension to popular error. #9;Come forth, thou unclean spirit, out Essay Upcoming Record, of the Evolution Psychology man (Mark v. 8), 5 are the words attributed to Jesus. If I declare, as I have no hesitation in h&r block, doing, that I utterly disbelieve in the existence of unclean spirits, and, consequently, in the possibility of their coming forth out of Essay a man, I suppose that Dr. Wace will tell me I am disregarding the testimony of our Lord. For, if these words were really used, the most resourceful of reconcilers can hardly venture to affirm that they are compatible with a disbelief in these things.

As the learned and [217] fair-minded, as well as orthodox, Dr. Alexander remarks, in an editorial note to the article Demoniacs, in cause and effect examples, the Biblical Cyclopædia (vol. Of Social Essay! i. p. 664, note):#150; #9;. . .On the lowest grounds on which our Lord and His Apostles can be placed they must, at least, be regarded as honest men. Now, though honest speech does not require that words should be used always and only in their etymological sense, it does require that they should not be used so as to affirm what the speaker knows to be false. Whilst, therefore, our Lord and His Apostles might use the word [to be possessed by a demon], or the phrase, [to have a demon], as a popular description of certain diseases, without giving in to on Difficulties Upcoming Health Record, the belief which lay at the source of such a mode of expression, they could not speak of demons entering into a man, or being cast out of him, without pledging themselves to the belief of an Evolution of Social, actual possession of the man by the demons. (Campbell, Prel.

Diss. vi. 1, 10). If, consequently, these did not hold this belief, they spoke not as honest men. #9;The story which we are considering does not rest on the authority of the second Gospel alone. The third confirms the pricing second, especially in the matter of commanding the unclean spirit to come out Evolution Essay, of the man (Luke viii. 29); and, although the first Gospel either gives a different version of the same story, or tells another of like kind, the essential point remains: If thou cast us out, send us away into reasons in australia, the herd of swine. Of Social! And He said unto them: Go! (Matt. viii. 31, 32). #9;If the concurrent testimony of the three synoptics, then, is really sufficient to do away with all rational doubt as to a matter of fact of the utmost practical and speculative importance#150;[218] belief or disbelief in which may affect, and has affected, men's lives and pricing, their conduct towards other men, in the most serious way#150;then I am bound to believe that Jesus implicitly affirmed himself to possess a knowledge of the Evolution Psychology unseen world, which afforded full confirmation of the examples belief in demons and possession current among his contemporaries. Evolution Of Social Essay! If the story is reasons in australia ww1 true, the mediæval theory of the invisible world may be and probably is, quite correct; and the witchfinders, from Evolution, Sprenger to Hopkins and h&r block pricing, Mather, are much-maligned men. #9;On the other hand, humanity, noting the frightful consequences of this belief; common sense, observing the futility of the evidence on Evolution Psychology, which it is based, in all cases that have been properly investigated; science, more and more seeing its way to inclose all the phenomena of so-called possession within the domain of pathology, so far as they are not to be relegated to that of the reasons ww1 police#150;all these powerful influences concur in warning us, at our peril, against accepting the belief without the most careful scrutiny of the authority on which it rests. #9;I can discern no escape from this dilemma: either Jesus said what he is reported to have said, or he did not.

In the former case, it is inevitable that his authority on matters connected with the unseen world should be roughly shaken; in Evolution of Social Essay, the latter, the examples blow falls upon the [219] authority of the synoptic Gospels. If their report on a matter of such stupendous and far-reaching practical import as this is untrustworthy, how can we be sure of its trustworthiness in other cases? The favourite earth, in of Social, which the hard-pressed reconciler takes refuge, that the Bible does not profess to teach science, 6 is on Difficulties of the Upcoming Health System stopped in this instance. Evolution Psychology! For the question of the existence of demons and of possession by them, though it lies strictly within the province of science, is also of the deepest moral and religious significance. If physical and mental disorders are caused by demons, Gregory of Tours and his contemporaries rightly considered that relics and free, exorcists were more useful than doctors; the gravest questions arise as to the legal and moral responsibilities of persons inspired by demoniacal impulses; and our whole conception of the universe and of our [220] relations to it becomes totally different from what it would be on the contrary hypothesis. #9;The theory of life of an average mediæval Christian was as different from that of an average nineteenth-century Englishman as that of of Social Psychology a West African negro is now, in these respects.

The modern world is slowly, but surely, shaking off these and other monstrous survivals of savage delusions; and, whatever happens, it will not return to that wallowing in the mire. Until the contrary is proved, I venture to doubt whether, at this present moment, any Protestant theologian, who has a reputation to lose, will say that he believes the military Gadarene story. #9;The choice then lies between discrediting those who compiled the Gospel biographies and disbelieving the Evolution Master, whom they, simple souls, thought to honour by a clockwork orange online, preserving such traditions of the exercise of his authority over Satan's invisible world. This is the dilemma. Evolution Of Social! No deep scholarship, nothing but a knowledge of the revised version (on which it is to be supposed all that mere scholarship can do has been done), with the application thereto of the commonest canons of common sense, is needful to enable us to make a choice between its alternatives. It is hardly doubtful that the story, as told in the first Gospel, is merely a version of that told in the second and third. Reasons For Conscription In Australia Ww1! Nevertheless, the discrepancies are serious and of Social Psychology Essay, irreconcilable; and, on this ground [221] alone, a suspension of judgment, at the least, is h&r block called for.

But there is a great deal more to be said. Psychology Essay! From the Illustrated Lord Flies Essay dawn of scientific biblical criticism until the present day, the evidence against the long-cherished notion that the three synoptic Gospels are the of Social works of three independent authors, each prompted by Divine inspiration, has steadily accumulated, until, at the present time, there is no visible escape from the conclusion that each of the three is a compilation consisting of a groundwork common to all three#150;the threefold tradition; and of a superstructure, consisting, firstly, of indonesian defense matter common to it with one of the of Social Essay others, and, secondly, of Essay of the Upcoming Electronic Record matter special to each. The use of the terms groundwork and superstructure by no means implies that the Evolution Psychology latter must be of later date than the indonesian defense former. On the contrary, some parts of Evolution of Social Psychology it may be, and probably are, older than some parts of the groundwork. 7. #9;The story of the Gadarene swine belongs to the groundwork; at least, the essential part of it, in which the belief in demoniac possession is expressed, does; and therefore the compilers of the first, second, and third Gospels, whoever they [222] were, certainly accepted that belief (which, indeed, was universal among both Jews and pagans at that time), and attributed it to Jesus. #9;What, then, do we know about the originator, or originators, of this groundwork#150;of that threefold tradition which all three witnesses (in Paley's phrase) agree upon#150;that we should allow their mere statements to military, outweigh the counter arguments of humanity, of common sense, of exact science, and to imperil the respect which all would be glad to be able to render to their Master? #9;Absolutely nothing. 8 There is Psychology Essay no proof, nothing more than a fair presumption, that any one of the Gospels existed, in and effect examples, the state in which we find it in the authorised version of the Bible, before the second century, or, in other words, sixty or seventy years after the events recorded. And, between that time and Psychology Essay, the date of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Gospels, there is Illustrated of the Flies Essay no telling what additions and alterations and interpolations may have been made. It may be said that this is all mere speculation, but it is Evolution Psychology Essay a good deal more. As competent scholars and honest men, our revisers have felt compelled to point out that such things have happened even [223] since the date of the oldest known manuscripts.

The oldest two copies of the second Gospel end with the 8th verse of the 16th chapter; the remaining twelve verses are spurious, and it is noteworthy that the maker of the addition has not hesitated to introduce a speech in which Jesus promises his disciples that in My name shall they cast out devils. #9;The other passage rejected to the margin is still more instructive. It is that touching apologue, with its profound ethical sense, of the woman taken in adultery#150;which, if internal evidence were an infallible guide, might well be affirmed to be a typical example of the teachings of Jesus. Yet, say the revisers, pitilessly, Most of the ancient authorities emit John vii. A Clockwork! 53-viii. 11. Now let any reasonable man ask himself this question. If, after an approximate settlement of the canon of the New Testament, and even later than the fourth and fifth centuries, literary fabricators had the skill and the audacity to make such additions and interpolations as these, what may they have done when no one had thought of a canon; when oral tradition, still unfixed, was regarded as more valuable than such written records as may have existed in the latter portion of the first century? Or, to take the other alternative, if those who gradually settled the of Social canon did not know of the existence of the oldest codices which have come down to us; or if, [224] knowing them, they rejected their authority, what is to be thought of their competency as critics of the text? #9;People who object to free criticism of the Christian Scriptures forget that they are what they are in pricing, virtue of very free criticism; unless the advocates of inspiration are prepared to affirm that the majority of influential ecclesiastics during several centuries were safeguarded against error. Evolution Psychology Essay! For, even granting that some books of the period were inspired, they were certainly few amongst many; and those who selected the canonical books, unless they themselves were also inspired, must be regarded in the light of mere critics, and, from the evidence they have left of their intellectual habits, very uncritical critics. When one thinks that such delicate questions as those involved fell into indonesian military, the hands of men like Papias (who believed in Evolution, the famous millenarian grape story); of Irenæus with his reasons for the existence of only four Gospels; and of such calm and dispassionate judges as Tertullian, with his Credo quia impossibile : the marvel is that the selection which constitutes our New Testament is as free as it is from obviously objectionable matter.

The apocryphal Gospels certainly deserve to be apocryphal; but one may suspect that a little more critical discrimination would have enlarged the Apocrypha not inconsiderably, #9;At this point a very obvious objection arises [225] and deserves full and candid consideration. It may be said that critical scepticism carried to in australia ww1, the length suggested is of Social Psychology Essay historical pyrrhonism; that if we are altogether to reasons for conscription ww1, discredit an Evolution Psychology Essay, ancient or a modern historian, because he has assumed fabulous matter to be true, it will be as well to give up paying any attention to history. It may be said, and with great justice, that Eginhard's Life of Charlemagne is none the less trustworthy because of the astounding revelation of credulity, of lack of judgment, and even of respect for the eighth commandment, which he has unconsciously made in the History of the Translation of the Blessed Martyrs Marcellinus and Paul. Or, to go no further back than the last number of the Nineteenth Century, surely that excellent lady, Miss Strickland, is examples not to be refused all credence, because of the myth about the second James's remains, which she seems to Evolution Psychology Essay, have unconsciously invented. Online! #9;Of course this is Evolution of Social Essay perfectly true. I am afraid there is no man alive whose witness could be accepted, if the condition precedent were proof that he had never invented and promulgated a myth. In the minds of all of us there are little places here and pricing, there, like the indistinguishable spots on a rock which give foothold to moss or stonecrop; on which, if the germ of a myth fall, it is certain to grow, without in the least degree affecting our accuracy or truthfulness elsewhere. Sir Walter Scott knew that he could not repeat a [226] story without, as he said, giving it a new hat and stick. Most of us differ from Sir Walter only in not knowing about this tendency of the mythop#156;ic faculty to break out unnoticed. But it is also perfectly true that the mythop#156;ic faculty is not equally active in all minds, nor in all regions and under all conditions of the same mind. David Hume was certainly not so liable to temptation as the Venerable Bede, or even as some recent historians who could be mentioned; and the most imaginative of debtors, if he owes five pounds, never makes an obligation to pay a hundred out of Evolution of Social Essay it.

The rule of common sense is prima facie to trust a witness in all matters, in which neither his self-interest, his passions, his prejudices, nor that love of the marvellous, which is inherent to a greater or less degree in all mankind, are strongly concerned; and, when they are involved, to require corroborative evidence in exact proportion to the contravention of probability by the thing testified. #9;Now, in the Gadarene affair, I do not think I am unreasonably sceptical, if I say that the Essay on Difficulties Electronic existence of demons who can be transferred from of Social Psychology Essay, a man to a pig, does thus contravene probability. Let me be perfectly candid. Reasons For Conscription Ww1! I admit I have no a priori objection to offer. There are physical things, such as tæniæ and trichinæ, which can be transferred from men to pigs, and vice versa, and which do undoubtedly produce most diabolical [227] and of Social Psychology, deadly effects on both. H&r Block! For anything I can absolutely prove to Evolution of Social, the contrary, there may be spiritual things capable of the same transmigration, with like effects.

Moreover I am bound to h&r block pricing, add that perfectly truthful persons, for whom I have the greatest respect, believe in stories about spirits of the present day, quite as improbable as that we are considering. #9;So I declare, as plainly as I can, that I am unable to show cause why these transferable devils should not exist; nor can I deny that, not merely the of Social whole Roman Church, but many Wacean infidels of no mean repute, do honestly and firmly believe that the The Evil in Golding's of the Flies activity of such like demonic beings is in full swing in this year of grace 1889. #9;Nevertheless, as good Bishop Butler says, probability is the guide of life; and it seems to me that this is just one of the cases in which the canon of credibility and testimony, which I have ventured to lay down, has full force. So that, with the most entire respect for many (by no means for all) of our witnesses for the truth of demonology, ancient and Evolution of Social Essay, modern, I conceive their evidence on this particular matter to be ridiculously insufficient to warrant their conclusion. 9. #9;[228] After what has been said, I do not think that any sensible man, unless he happen to be angry, will accuse me of contradicting the Lord and His Apostles if I reiterate my total disbelief in the whole Gadarene story. But, if that story is indonesian defense discredited, all the other stories of demoniac possession fall under suspicion. And if the belief in Evolution of Social, demons and demoniac possession, which forms the sombre background of the whole picture of primitive Christianity, presented to us in the New Testament, is shaken, what is to military defense, be said, in any case, of the Evolution of Social Psychology uncorroborated testimony of the Gospels with respect to the unseen world? #9;I am not aware that I have been influenced by any more bias in regard to the Gadarene story than I have been in dealing with other cases of a clockwork orange free online like kind the Psychology Essay investigation of in australia which has interested me.

I was brought up in the strictest school of evangelical orthodoxy; and Evolution Psychology Essay, when I was old enough to think for The Evil of Mankind Illustrated in Golding's Lord of the Flies myself, I started upon Evolution of Social Essay my journey of inquiry with little doubt about the general truth of what I had been taught; and with that feeling [229] of the of the Upcoming Record System unpleasantness of being called an infidel which, we are told, is so right and proper. Near my journey's end, I find myself in a condition of something more than mere doubt about these matters. Of Social! #9;In the for conscription in australia course of Evolution of Social Psychology Essay other inquiries, I have had to do with fossil remains which looked quite plain at a distance, and became more and more indistinct as I tried to define their outline by cause and effect, close inspection. There was something there#150;something which, if I could win assurance about it, might mark a new epoch in the history of the earth; but, study as long as I might, certainty eluded my grasp. So has it been with me in Evolution of Social Essay, my efforts to define the grand figure of Jesus as it lies in the primary strata of Christian literature. Is he the kindly, peaceful Christ depicted in the Catacombs? Or is Essay on Difficulties of the Upcoming Electronic Record System he the stern Judge who frowns above the altar of SS. Cosmas and Damianus? Or can he be rightly represented by the bleeding ascetic, broken down by Evolution Psychology, physical pain, of too many mediæval pictures?

Are we to of the Upcoming Electronic Health Record System, accept the Jesus of the second, or the Jesus of the fourth Gospel, as the true Jesus? What did he really say and do; and of Social Psychology Essay, how much that is attributed to h&r block pricing, him, in Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, speech and action, is the of Mankind Lord of the embroidery of the various parties into which his followers tended to split themselves within twenty years of his death, when even the threefold tradition was only nascent? #9;[230] If any one will answer these questions for me with something more to of Social, the point than feeble talk about the cowardice of agnosticism, I shall be deeply his debtor. Unless and until they are satisfactorily answered, I say of agnosticism in this matter, J'y suis, et j'y reste. #9;But, as we have seen, it is asserted that I have no business to call myself an agnostic; that, if I am not a Christian I am an infidel; and that I ought to call myself by that name of unpleasant significance. Indonesian Defense! Well, I do not care much what I am called by other people, and if I had at my side all those who, since the Christian era, have been called infidels by other folks, I could not desire better company. If these are my ancestors, I prefer, with the old Frank, to be with them wherever they are. But there are several points in Dr.

Wace's contention which must be elucidated before I can even think of of Social undertaking to carry out The Evil of Mankind in Golding's Lord, his wishes. I must, for instance, know what a Christian is. Now what is a Christian? By whose authority is the signification of Psychology that term defined? Is there any doubt that the immediate followers of Jesus, the sect of the Nazarenes, were strictly orthodox Jews differing from other Jews not more than the The Evil of Mankind Illustrated Lord Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Essenes differed from Evolution of Social Essay, one another; in fact, only in the belief that the Messiah, for whom the rest of and effect examples their nation waited, had come? Was not their chief, James, the brother of the Psychology Lord, [231] reverenced alike by h&r block, Sadducee, Pharisee, and Nazarene? At the famous conference which, according to of Social Psychology Essay, the Acts, took place at reasons in australia ww1, Jerusalem, does not James declare that myriads of Jews, who, by that time, had become Nazarenes, were all zealous for the Law? Was not the name of Christian first used to denote the converts to of Social Psychology Essay, the doctrine promulgated by Paul and Barnabas at Antioch? Does the subsequent history of Christianity leave any doubt that, from pricing, this time forth, the of Social little rift within the lute caused by reasons in australia, the new teaching, developed, if not inaugurated, at Antioch, grew wider and wider, until the Evolution of Social Psychology two types of doctrine irreconcilably diverged? Did not the The Evil of Mankind Lord of the Flies primitive Nazarenism, or Ebionism, develop into the Nazarenism, and Essay, Ebionism, and Elkasaitism of later ages, and finally die out in obscurity and condemnation, as damnable heresy; while the younger doctrine throve and pushed out Essay on Difficulties Electronic, its shoots into that endless variety of sects, of which the three strongest survivors are the Roman and Greek Churches and modern Protestantism? #9;Singular state of things!

If I were to profess the doctrine which was held by James, the brother of the Lord, and by every one of the myriads of Psychology his followers and co-religionists in Jerusalem up to Essay Upcoming Electronic Record, twenty or thirty years after the Crucifixion (and one knows not how much later at Pella), I should be condemned, with unanimity, as an ebionising heretic by the Roman, Greek, and [232] Protestant Churches! And, probably, this hearty and unanimous condemnation of the creed, held by Evolution of Social Essay, those who were in the closest personal relation with their Lord, is almost the only point upon which they would be cordially of one mind. On the other hand, though I hardly dare imagine such a thing, I very much fear that the pillars of the primitive Hierosolymitan Church would have considered Dr. Wace an infidel. No one can read the famous second chapter of Galatians and Essay on Difficulties Health System, the book of Revelation without seeing how narrow was even Paul's escape from a similar fate.

And, if ecclesiastical history is to be trusted, the thirty-nine articles, be they right or wrong, diverge from the primitive doctrine of the Evolution Essay Nazarenes vastly more than even Pauline Christianity did. #9;But, further than this, I have great difficulty in assuring myself that even James, the brother of the Lord, and his myriads of Nazarenes, properly represented the doctrines of their Master. Defense! For it is constantly asserted by our modern pillars that one of the chief features of the work of Jesus was the instauration of Religion by the abolition of what our sticklers for articles and liturgies, with unconscious humour, call the narrow restrictions of the Law. Yet, if James knew this, how could the bitter controversy with Paul have arisen; and why did not one or the other side quote any of the of Social Psychology various sayings of [233] Jesus, recorded in the Gospels, which directly bear on the question#150;sometimes, apparently, in opposite directions? #9;So, if I am asked to call myself an indonesian defense, infidel, I reply: To what doctrine do you ask me to be faithful? Is it that contained in the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds? My firm belief is Psychology Essay that the Nazarenes, say of the year 40, headed by James, would have stopped their ears and thought worthy of stoning the cause and effect audacious man who propounded it to them. Is it contained in the so-called Apostles' Creed? I am pretty sure that even that would have created a recalcitrant commotion at Pella in the year 70, among the Nazarenes of Jerusalem, who had fled from the Essay soldiers of Titus.

And yet, if the unadulterated tradition of the a clockwork teachings of the Evolution Psychology Essay Nazarene were to Illustrated Lord, be found anywhere, it surely should have been amidst those not very aged disciples who may have heard them as they were delivered. #9;Therefore, however sorry I may be to be unable to demonstrate that, if necessary, I should not be afraid to call myself an infidel, I cannot do it. Infidel is a term of reproach, which Christians and Mahommedans, in their modesty, agree to apply to those who differ from them. If he had only Evolution of Social Psychology Essay thought of it, Dr. Wace might have used the term miscreant, which, with the same etymological signification, has the advantage of being still more unpleasant to Illustrated in Golding's Lord, the persons to Evolution Psychology Essay, whom [234] it is applied. But why should a man be expected to call himself a miscreant or an infidel? That St. Patrick had two birthdays because he was a twin is cause examples a reasonable and intelligible utterance beside that of the man who should declare himself to of Social, be an infidel, on the ground of denying his own belief. Essay On Difficulties Upcoming Health! It may be logically, if not ethically, defensible that a Christian should call a Mahommedan an infidel and vice versa; but, on Dr. Wace's principles, both ought to call themselves infidels, because each applies the term to the other. Essay! #9;Now I am afraid that all the Mahommedan world would agree in reciprocating that appellation to Dr. Wace himself.

I once visited the Hazar Mosque, the great University of Mahommedanism, in Cairo, in on Difficulties of the Upcoming Electronic, ignorance of the fact that I was unprovided with proper authority. A swarm of angry undergraduates, as I suppose I ought to call them, came buzzing about me and my guide; and if I had known Arabic, I suspect that dog of an infidel would have been by no means the Evolution Psychology Essay most unpleasant of the Essay Upcoming Health Record System epithets showered upon me, before I could explain and apologise for the mistake. If I had had the pleasure of Dr. Wace's company on that occasion, the undiscriminative followers of the Prophet would, I am afraid, have made no difference between us; not even if they had known that he was the head of an orthodox Christian seminary. And I have not the smallest [235] doubt that even one of the Evolution Essay learned mollahs, if his grave courtesy would have permitted him to indonesian military, say anything offensive to men of another mode of belief, would have told us that he wondered we did not find it very unpleasant to disbelieve in the Prophet of Islam. #9;From what precedes, I think it becomes sufficiently clear that Dr.

Wace's account of the origin of the of Social Essay name of Agnostic is indonesian quite wrong. Indeed, I am bound to add that very slight effort to of Social Psychology, discover the a clockwork online truth would have convinced him that, as a matter of fact, the term arose otherwise. Of Social! I am loath to go over an old story once more; but more than one object which I have in view will be served by telling it a little more fully than it has yet been told. #9;Looking back nearly fifty years, I see myself as a boy, whose education has been interrupted, and who, intellectually, was left, for indonesian military defense some years, altogether to his own devices. At that time, I was a voracious and Evolution Essay, omnivorous reader; a dreamer and speculator of the first water, well endowed with that splendid courage in attacking any and every subject, which is the blessed compensation of youth and cause examples, inexperience. Among the books and essays, on all sorts of topics from metaphysics to Evolution Psychology, heraldry, which I read at this time, two left indelible impressions on my mind.

One was Guizot's History of Civilisation, the other was Sir William Hamilton's essay On the Philosophy of Illustrated in Golding's Lord Essay [236] the Unconditioned, which I came upon, by chance, in an odd volume of the Edinburgh Review. The latter was certainly strange reading for a boy, and I could not possibly have understood a great deal of it; 10 nevertheless, I devoured it with avidity, and it stamped upon my mind the strong conviction that, on even the most solemn and important of questions, men are apt to take cunning phrases for answers; and that the limitation of of Social our faculties, in indonesian defense, a great number of Evolution of Social Psychology cases, renders real answers to such questions, not merely actually impossible, but theoretically inconceivable. #9;Philosophy and history having laid hold of me in this eccentric fashion, have never loosened their grip. I have no pretension to be an expert. in either subject; but the turn for philosophical and historical reading, which rendered Hamilton and Guizot attractive to me, has not only filled many lawful leisure hours, and still more sleepless ones, with the repose of changed mental occupation, but has not unfrequently disputed my proper work-time with my liege lady, Natural Science. A Clockwork Free! In this way I have found it possible to cover a good deal of ground in the territory of Psychology philosophy; and all the more easily that I have never cared much about A's [237] or B's opinion's, but have rather sought to know what answer he had to give to the questions I had to put to him#150;that of the limitation of possible knowledge being the chief. The ordinary examiner, with his State the views of So-and-so, would have floored me at any time. If he had said what do you think about any given problem, I might have got on indonesian military defense, fairly well. #9;The reader who has had the patience to Evolution of Social Psychology, follow the enforced, but unwilling, egotism of this veritable history (especially if his studies have led him in the same direction), will now see why my mind steadily gravitated towards the conclusions of on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Health Record Hume and Kant, so well stated by the latter in a sentence, which I have quoted elsewhere. #9;The greatest and perhaps the sole use of all philosophy of of Social Psychology pure reason is, after all, merely negative, since it serves not as an organon for the enlargement [of knowledge], but as a discipline for its delimitation; and, instead of discovering truth, has only the modest merit of preventing error. 11. #9;When I reached intellectual maturity and began to ask myself whether I was an atheist, a theist, or a pantheist; a materialist or an idealist; Christian or a freethinker; I found that the more I learned and reflected, the less ready was the answer; until, at defense, last, I came to the conclu[238]sion that I had neither art nor part with any of these denominations, except the last. The one thing in which most of these good people were agreed was the Evolution of Social one thing in which I differed from them.

They were quite sure they had attained a certain gnosis,#150;had, more or less successfully, solved the problem of existence; while I was quite sure I had not, and had a pretty strong conviction that the problem was insoluble. And, with Hume and Kant on my side, I could not think myself presumptuous in holding fast by that opinion. Like Dante, Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita. A Clockwork Free Online! Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, but, unlike Dante, I cannot add, Che la diritta via era smarrita. On the contrary, I had, and have, the firmest conviction that I never left the verace via#150;the straight road; and that this road led nowhere else but into the dark depths of a wild and tangled forest. And though I have found leopards and lions in the path; though I have made abundant acquaintance with the hungry wolf, that with privy paw devours apace and nothing said, as another great poet says of the Evolution of Social ravening beast; and of Mankind Lord of the Flies, though no friendly spectre has even yet offered his guidance, I was, and Psychology, am, minded to go straight on, until I either come out on the other side of the [239] wood, or find there is The Evil of Mankind Illustrated in Golding's Lord Essay no other side to it, at least, none attainable by me. #9;This was my situation when I had the good fortune to find a place among the Evolution of Social members of that remarkable confraternity of antagonists, long since deceased, but of green and pious memory, the Metaphysical Society. Every variety of philosophical and theological opinion was represented there, and expressed itself with entire openness; most of my colleagues were -ists of one sort or another; and, however kind and friendly they might be, I, the orange man without a rag of a label to cover himself with, could not fail to have some of the uneasy feelings which must have beset the historical fox when, after leaving the trap in Essay, which his tail remained, he presented himself to indonesian military defense, his normally elongated companions. So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of agnostic. Of Social Psychology Essay! It came into reasons for conscription in australia, my head as suggestively antithetic to Psychology, the gnostic of Church history, who professed to know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant; and I took the earliest opportunity of parading it at examples, our Society, to show that I, too, had a tail, like the other foxes. Of Social! To my great satisfaction, the term took; and h&r block, when the Spectator had stood godfather to Evolution Psychology, it, any suspicion in cause, the minds of respectable people, that a knowledge of its parentage might have awakened was, of course, completely lulled. #9;That is the history of the origin of the of Social Psychology terms [240] agnostic and pricing, agnosticism; and it will be observed that it does not quite agree with the Evolution Essay confident assertion of the reverend Principal of King's College, that the adoption of the term agnostic is only an attempt to shift the issue, and that it involves a mere evasion in relation to the Church and Upcoming Electronic Health, Christianity.

12. #9;The last objection (I rejoice as much as my readers must do, that it is the last) which I have to take to Dr. Wace's deliverance before the Evolution Essay Church Congress arises, I am sorry to say, on a question of morality. #9;It is, and it ought to be, authoritatively declares this official representative of Christian ethics, an unpleasant thing for a man to have to say plainly that he does not believe in Jesus Christ ( l.c. p. 254). #9;Whether it is so depends, I imagine, a good deal on whether the man was brought up in a Christian household or not. I do not see why it should be unpleasant for a Mahommedan or Buddhist to say so. Essay On Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Health Record! But that it ought to Evolution, be unpleasant for any man to say anything which he sincerely, and online, after due deliberation, believes, is, to my mind, a proposition of the most profoundly immoral character. I verily believe that the great good which has been effected in the world by Christianity has been largely counteracted by the pestilent [241] doctrine on which all the Evolution Psychology Essay Churches have insisted, that honest disbelief in their more or less astonishing creeds is a moral offence, indeed a sin of the deepest dye, deserving and involving the military same future retribution as murder and robbery. If we could only see, in one view, the torrents of Evolution of Social Psychology hypocrisy and cruelty, the lies, the slaughter, the violations of every obligation of humanity, which have flowed from this source along the reasons ww1 course of the Evolution history of Christian nations, our worst imaginations of The Evil of Mankind Lord of the Hell would pale beside the vision. #9;A thousand times, no! It ought not to be unpleasant to say that which one honestly believes or disbelieves. That it so constantly is painful to do so, is quite enough obstacle to the progress of mankind in that most valuable of all qualities, honesty of word or of deed, without erecting a sad concomitant of human weakness into something to be admired and cherished. The bravest of soldiers often, and very naturally, feel it unpleasant to go into action; but a court-martial which did its duty would make short work of the officer who promulgated the doctrine that his men ought to feel their duty unpleasant. #9;I am very well aware, as I suppose most thoughtful people are in of Social, these times, that the a clockwork orange free process of breaking away from old beliefs is extremely unpleasant; and Evolution Psychology Essay, I am much disposed to think that the encouragement, the consolation, and the peace afforded to earnest believers in even the reasons [242] worst forms of of Social Essay Christianity are of great practical advantage to h&r block pricing, them. What deductions must be made from this gain on the score of the harm done to Evolution of Social, the citizen by the ascetic other-worldliness of logical Christianity; to the ruler, by the hatred, malice, and all uncharitableness of sectarian bigotry; to the legislator, by the spirit of exclusiveness and domination of those that count themselves pillars of orthodoxy; to the philosopher, by the restraints on the freedom of learning and teaching which every Church exercises, when it is strong enough; to the conscientious soul, by the introspective hunting after sins of the mint and cummin type, the fear of theological error, and the overpowering terror of possible damnation, which have accompanied the h&r block Churches like their shadow, I need not now consider; but they are assuredly not small.

If agnostics lose heavily on the one side, they gain a good deal on Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, the other. People who talk about the in australia comforts of Evolution of Social Psychology belief appear to forget its discomforts; they ignore the fact that the Christianity of the Churches is something more than faith in Lord of the, the ideal personality of Jesus, which they create for themselves, plus so much as can be carried into Evolution Psychology, practice, without disorganising civil society, of the maxims of the Sermon on the Mount. Trip in cause examples, morals or in doctrine (especially in doctrine), without due repentance or retractation, or fail to get properly baptized before you die, and of Social Essay, a plébiscite of the Christians of cause and effect examples Europe, if they [243] were true to their creeds, would affirm your everlasting damnation by an immense majority. #9;Preachers, orthodox and heterodox, din into our ears that the world cannot get on without faith of of Social Psychology some sort. Examples! There is a sense in which that is as eminently as obviously true; there is another, in which, in my judgment, it is Essay as eminently as obviously false, and it seems to me that the hortatory, or pulpit, mind is apt to oscillate between the false and military defense, the true meanings, without being aware of the fact. #9;It is quite true that the ground of Evolution of Social every one of our actions, and the validity of all our reasonings, rest upon the great act of Flies faith, which leads us to take the experience of the past as a safe guide in our dealings with the present and the future. From the nature of ratiocination, it is obvious that the axioms, on Evolution, which it is based, cannot be demonstrated by ratiocination. It is also a trite observation that, in the business of life, we constantly take the most serious action upon evidence of an utterly insufficient character. But it is surely plain that faith is not necessarily entitled to dispense with ratiocination because ratiocination cannot dispense with faith as a starting-point; and that because we are often obliged, by the pressure of events, to act on very bad evidence, it does not follow that it is proper to act on such evidence when the pressure is Essay on Difficulties of the Electronic System absent. Of Social! #9;The writer of the epistle to the Hebrews tells [244] us that faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the proving of pricing things not seen. In the authorised version, substance stands for assurance, and evidence for Evolution of Social proving. The question of the exact meaning of the two words, [substance] and [examination], affords a fine field of discussion for the scholar and the metaphysician. But I fancy we shall be not far from the mark if we take the writer to have had in his mind the profound psychological truth, that men constantly feel certain about things for which they strongly hope, but have no evidence, in the legal or logical sense of the word; and he calls this feeling faith.

I may have the most absolute faith that a friend has not committed the crime of which he is reasons for conscription in australia ww1 accused. In the early days of English history, if my friend could have obtained a few more compurgators of a like robust faith, he would have been acquitted. At the present day, if I tendered myself as a witness on that score, the judge would tell me to stand down, and Evolution Psychology, the youngest barrister would smile at my simplicity. Miserable indeed is the man who has not such faith in some of his fellow-men#150;only less miserable than the man who allows himself to forget that such faith is not, strictly speaking, evidence; and on Difficulties Upcoming Health, when his faith is disappointed, as will happen now and again, turns Timon and blames the universe for his own blunders. And so, if a man can find a friend, the hypostasis of all his hopes, the mirror of Evolution his [245] ethical ideal, in the Jesus of any, or all, of the Gospels, let him live by free, faith in that ideal. Who shall or can forbid him? But let him not delude himself with the notion that his faith is evidence of the objective reality of that in which he trusts. Such evidence is to be obtained only by of Social Psychology, the use of the methods of cause and effect science, as applied to history and to literature, and it amounts at of Social Psychology, present to very little. #9;It appears that Mr. Gladstone some time ago asked Mr.

Laing if he could draw up a short summary of the negative creed; a body of negative propositions, which have so far been adopted on the negative side as to be what the Apostles' and other accepted creeds are on The Evil of Mankind, the positive; and Mr. Laing at once kindly obliged Mr. Gladstone with the desired articles#150;eight of them. #9;If any one had preferred this request to Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, me, I should have replied that, if he referred to agnostics, they have no creed; and, by the nature of the case, cannot have any. Agnosticism, in fact, is not a creed, but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle. That principle is of great antiquity; it is as old as Socrates; as old as the writer who said, Try all things, hold fast by that which is good it is the foundation of the Reformation, which simply illustrated the axiom that every man should be able [246] to give a reason for the faith that is in him; it is the great principle of Descartes; it is the The Evil of the fundamental axiom of modern science. Positively the principle may be expressed: In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration. Evolution Psychology Essay! And negatively: In matters of the intellect do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.

That I take to be the agnostic faith, which if a man keep whole and undefiled, he shall not be ashamed to look the universe in the face, whatever the future may have in store for him. #9;The results of the working out of the agnostic principle will vary according to individual knowledge and capacity, and according to the general condition of h&r block pricing science. That which is unproven today may be proven by the help of new discoveries to-morrow. The only negative fixed points will be those negations which flow from the demonstrable limitation of our faculties. And the only obligation accepted is to have the mind always open to conviction. Agnostics who never fail in of Social Psychology Essay, carrying out cause, their principles are, I am afraid, as rare as other people of whom the same consistency can be truthfully predicated. But, if you were to meet with such a ph#156;nix and to tell him that you had discovered that two and two make five, he would patiently ask you to state your reasons for that conviction, and of Social Essay, express his readiness to [247] agree with you if he found them satisfactory.

The apostolic injunction to suffer fools gladly should be the rule of life of a true agnostic. I am deeply conscious how far I myself fall short of this ideal, but it is my personal conception of what agnostics ought to be. The Evil In Golding's Lord Flies Essay! #9;However, as I began by stating, I speak only for myself; and I do not dream of Evolution Psychology Essay anathematizing and excommunicating Mr. Laing. But, when I consider his creed and compare it with the Athanasian, I think I have on free, the whole a clearer conception of the meaning of the latter. Psychology Essay! Polarity, in Article VIII., for example, is Essay of the Health a word about which I heard a good deal in my youth, when Naturphilosophie was in fashion, and greatly did I suffer from it. For many years past, whenever I have met with polarity anywhere but in a discussion of some purely physical topic, such as magnetism, I have shut the book. Mr. Laing must excuse me if the force of habit was too much for me when I read his eighth article. Evolution Of Social Psychology Essay! #9;And now, what is to be said to Mr. In Golding's Lord Essay! Harrison's remarkable deliverance On the future of agnosticism? 13 I would that it were not my business to say anything, for I am afraid I can say nothing which shall manifest my great personal respect for this able writer, and for the zeal and Evolution of Social Psychology, energy with which he ever and anon galvanises the [248] weakly frame of Positivism until it looks, more than ever, like John Bunyan's Pope and on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Health Record, Pagan rolled into one.

There is a story often repeated, and I am afraid none the less mythical on that account, of a valiant and of Social Psychology Essay, loud-voiced corporal in Essay Upcoming Electronic Record System, command of two full privates who, falling in with a regiment of the enemy in the dark, orders it to surrender under pain of instant annihilation by his force; and the enemy surrenders accordingly. I am always reminded of this tale when I read the positivist commands to the forces of Christianity and of Science; only the enemy show no more signs of intending to obey now than they have done any time these forty years. #9;The allocution under consideration has a certain papal flavour. Evolution Of Social Essay! Mr. Harrison speaks with authority and not as one of the common scribes of the period. He knows not only what agnosticism is and how it has come about, but what will become of it.

The agnostic is to content himself with being the precursor of the The Evil of Mankind Lord Essay positivist. In his place, as a sort of navvy levelling the ground and cleansing it of such poor stuff as Christianity, he is a useful creature who deserves patting on the back, on condition that he does not venture beyond his last. But let not these scientific Sanballats presume that they are good enough to take part in the building of the Temple#150;they are mere Samaritans, doomed to die out in proportion as [249] the Religion of Humanity is accepted by mankind. Well, if that is of Social Psychology Essay their fate, they have time to be cheerful. Essay On Difficulties Upcoming Health Record System! But let us hear Mr.

Harrison's pronouncement of their doom. #9;Agnosticism is a stage in of Social Essay, the evolution of religion, an entirely negative stage, the point reached by physicists, a purely mental conclusion, with no relation to things social at all (p. 154). I am quite dazed by reasons for conscription in australia ww1, this declaration. Are there, then, any conclusions that are not purely mental? Is there no relation to things social in mental conclusions which affect men's whole conception of life? Was that prince of agnostics, David Hume, particularly imbued with physical science? Supposing physical science to be non-existent, would not the agnostic principle, applied by the philologist and the historian, lead to exactly the of Social Essay same results? Is the modern more or less complete suspension of judgment as to the facts of the history of regal Rome, or the real origin of the Homeric poems, anything but agnosticism in history and in Essay of the Upcoming Record, literature? And if so, how can agnosticism be the mere negation of the physicist? #9;Agnosticism is a stage in the evolution of religion. No two people agree as to what is Essay meant by The Evil Illustrated in Golding's Lord of the Flies, the term religion; but if it means, as I think it ought to mean, simply the reverence and love for the ethical ideal, and the desire to realise that ideal in life, which every man ought [250] to feel#150;then I say agnosticism has no more to do with it than it has to do with music or painting.

If, on the other hand, Mr. Harrison, like most people, means by religion theology, then, in my judgment, agnosticism can be said to be a stage in its evolution, only of Social as death may be said to be the final stage in the evolution of life. #9;When agnostic logic is simply one of the canons of thought, agnosticism, as a distinctive faith, will have spontaneously disappeared (p. 155). #9;I can but marvel that such sentences as this, and those already quoted, should have proceeded from Mr. A Clockwork Orange Online! Harrison's pen. Does he really mean to suggest that agnostics have a logic peculiar to themselves? Will he kindly help me out of my bewilderment when I try to think of logic being anything else than the Evolution Psychology canon (which, I believe, means rule) of cause and effect examples thought? As to agnosticism being a distinctive faith, I have already shown that it cannot possibly be anything of the kind, unless perfect faith in logic is distinctive of agnostics; which, after all, it may be. Evolution Of Social Psychology Essay! #9;Agnosticism as a religious philosophy per se rests on an almost total ignoring of history and social evolution (p. 152). #9;But neither per se nor per aliud has agnosticism (if I know anything about it) the least pretension to be a religious philosophy; so far from resting on ignorance of history, and that social evolution [251] of which history is the account, it is and has been the inevitable result of the strict adherence to scientific methods by historical investigators. Our forefathers were quite confident about the existence of Romulus and Remus, of King Arthur, and of Hengist and Horsa. Most of us have become agnostics in regard to pricing, the reality of these worthies.

It is a matter of notoriety of Evolution Psychology Essay which Mr. Harrison, who accuses us all so freely of ignoring history, should not be ignorant, that the critical process which has shattered the foundations of orthodox Christian doctrine owes its origin, not to the devotees of physical science, but, before all, to Richard Simon, the learned French Oratorian, just two hundred years ago. I cannot find evidence that either Simon, or any one of the great scholars and critics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries who have continued Simon's work, had any particular acquaintance with physical science. I have already pointed out that Hume was independent of pricing it. And certainly one of the most potent influences in the same direction, upon history in the present century, that of Grote, did not come from the physical side. Physical science, in fact, has had nothing directly to do with the Evolution Essay criticism of the a clockwork orange Gospels; it is wholly incompetent to furnish demonstrative evidence that any statement made in these histories is untrue. Indeed, modern physiology can find parallels in nature for events of apparently [252] the most eminently supernatural kind recounted in some of of Social Psychology Essay those histories. For Conscription In Australia Ww1! #9;It is a comfort to hear, upon Mr. Of Social Psychology Essay! Harrison's authority, that the laws of physical nature show no signs of becoming less definite, less consistent, or less popular as time goes on h&r block pricing, (p.

154). How a law of nature is to become indefinite, or inconsistent, passes my poor powers of imagination. But with universal suffrage and the coach-dog theory of premiership in full view; the theory, I mean, that the whole duty of a political chief is to look sharp for the way the social coach is driving, and then run in front and bark loud#150;as if being the leading noise-maker and guiding were the same things#150;it is truly satisfactory to of Social Psychology, me to know that the laws of Essay on Difficulties of the Record System nature are increasing in popularity. Looking at recent developments of the Evolution of Social Essay policy which is said to Essay on Difficulties Electronic Record, express the great heart of the of Social people, I have had my doubts of the fact; and my love for my fellow-countrymen has led me to reflect, with dread, on what will happen to them, if any of the laws of nature ever become so unpopular in their eyes, as to be voted down by the transcendent authority of cause universal suffrage. If the Evolution Psychology legion of demons, before they set out on their journey in the swine, had had time to hold a meeting and to in australia, resolve unanimously That the law of Evolution of Social Psychology Essay gravitation is oppressive and ought to free online, be repealed, I am afraid it would have made no sort of difference to the result, when their two [253] thousand unwilling porters were once launched down the Evolution Psychology Essay steep slopes of the fatal shore of Gennesaret. #9;The question of the place of religion as an element of human nature, as a force of human society, its origin, analysis, and indonesian military defense, functions, has never been considered at all from an agnostic point of view (p. 152). #9;I doubt not that Mr. Harrison knows vastly more about history than I do; in fact, he tells the public that some of my friends and I have had no opportunity of occupying ourselves with that subject. I do not like to contradict any statement which Mr.

Harrison makes on his own authority; only, if I may be true to my agnostic principles, I humbly ask how he has obtained assurance on of Social Psychology, this head. I do not profess to know anything about the range of Mr. Harrison's studies; but as he has thought it fitting to start the cause and effect subject, I may venture to point out that, on evidence adduced, it might be equally permissible to draw the conclusion that Mr. Harrison's other labours have not allowed him to acquire that acquaintance with the Psychology methods and results of physical science, or with the history of philosophy, or of philological and for conscription in australia ww1, historical criticism, which is essential to any one who desires to obtain a right understanding of agnosticism. Incompetence in philosophy, and in all branches of science except mathematics, is the well-known [254] mental characteristic of the founder of positivism. Faithfulness in disciples is an admirable quality in itself; the pity is that it not unfrequently leads to the imitation of the weaknesses as well as of the strength of the master.

It is only such over-faithfulness which can account for a strong mind really saturated with the historical sense (p. 153) exhibiting the extraordinary forgetfulness of the historical fact of the existence of David Hume implied by the assertion that. it would be difficult to name a single known agnostic who has given to history anything like the amount of thought and study which he brings to a knowledge of the Evolution of Social Psychology physical world (p. 153) #9;Whoso calls to mind what I may venture to term the bright side of examples Christianity#150;that ideal of manhood, with its strength and its patience, its justice and its pity for human frailty, its helpfulness to the extremity of self-sacrifice, its ethical purity and nobility, which apostles have pictured, in which armies of martyrs have placed their unshakable faith, and whence obscure men and women, like Catherine of Sienna and John Knox, have derived the courage to rebuke popes and kings#150;is not likely to underrate the importance of the Christian faith as a factor in Psychology, human history, or to doubt that if that faith should prove to a clockwork orange free, be incompatible with our knowledge, or necessary want of knowledge, some other hypostasis of men's hopes, genuine enough and worthy enough [255] to replace it, will arise. But that the incongruous mixture of bad science with eviscerated papistry, out of which Comte manufactured the positivist religion, will be the heir of the of Social Psychology Essay Christian ages, I have too much respect for a clockwork the humanity of the future to believe. Charles the Second told his brother, They will not kill me, James, to make you king. And if critical science is remorselessly destroying the historical foundations of the noblest ideal of humanity which mankind have yet worshipped, it is little likely to permit the pitiful reality to climb into the vacant shrine. #9;That a man should determine to devote himself to the service of humanity#150;including intellectual and moral self-culture under that name; that this should be, in the proper sense of the of Social Psychology word, his religion#150;is not only an intelligible, but, I think, a laudable resolution. And I am greatly disposed to believe that it is the only religion which will prove itself to be unassailably acceptable so long as the human race endures. But when the Comtist asks me to worship Humanity#150;that is to say, to adore the generalised conception of men as they ever have been and probably ever will be#150;I must reply that I could just as soon bow down and worship the generalised conception of a wilderness of apes. Surely we are not going back to the days of Paganism, when individual men were deified, and the hard good sense of a dying Vespasian [256] could prompt the bitter jest, Ut puto Deus fio.

No divinity doth hedge a modern man, be he even a sovereign ruler. Nor is there any one, except a municipal magistrate, who is officially declared worshipful. But if there is cause no spark of worship-worthy divinity in the individual twigs of humanity, whence comes that godlike splendour which the Moses of Evolution of Social Positivism fondly imagines to pervade the whole bush? #9;I know no study which is so unutterably saddening as that of the evolution of humanity, as it is set forth in the annals of history. Out of the darkness of prehistoric ages man emerges with the marks of his lowly origin strong upon him. Reasons Ww1! He is a brute, only more intelligent than the other brutes, a blind prey to impulses, which as often as not lead him to destruction; a victim to endless illusions, which make his mental existence a terror and a burden, and fill his physical life with barren toil and battle. He attains a certain degree of physical comfort, and develops a more or less workable theory of life, in Evolution Psychology Essay, such favourable situations as the and effect plains of Mesopotamia or of Egypt, and then, for Evolution of Social Psychology thousands and thousands of years, struggles, with varying fortunes, attended by infinite wickedness, bloodshed, and misery, to maintain himself at this point against the greed and the ambition of his fellow-men.

He makes a point of killing and otherwise persecuting all those who first try to get him to move on; and Lord Essay, [257] when he has moved on a step, foolishly confers post-mortem deification on his victims. He exactly repeats the process with all who want to move a step yet farther. And the best men of the best epochs are simply those who make the fewest blunders and Psychology Essay, commit the fewest sins. #9;That one should rejoice in the good man, forgive the bad man, and pity and help all men to the best of reasons one's ability, is surely indisputable. Evolution Of Social Essay! It is the glory of Illustrated in Golding's of the Essay Judaism and of Christianity to have proclaimed this truth, through all their aberrations. Evolution Of Social Psychology Essay! But the worship of a God who needs forgiveness and of the Upcoming Electronic Health System, help, and deserves pity every hour of his existence, is no better than that of any other voluntarily selected fetish. Evolution Of Social Psychology! The Emperor Julian's project was hopeful in comparison with the prospects of the cause and effect examples Comtist Anthropolatry. #9;When the historian of religion in the twentieth century is writing about the nineteenth, I foresee he will say something of this kind: #9;The most curious and instructive events in of Social, the religious history of the preceding century are the rise and progress of two new sects called Mormons and Positivists. To the student who has carefully considered these remarkable phenomena nothing in the records of religious self-delusion can appear improbable. #9;The Mormons arose in cause and effect examples, the midst of the great [258] Republic, which, though comparatively insignificant, at that time, in territory as in the number of its citizens, was (as we know from the fragments of the speeches of Psychology Essay its orators which have come down to us) no less remarkable for the native intelligence of its population than for the wide extent of their information, owing to the activity of in Golding's their publishers in diffusing all that they could invent, beg, borrow, or steal. Nor were they less noted for Evolution Psychology Essay their perfect freedom from free online, all restraints in thought, or speech, or deed; except, to be sure, the beneficent and wise influence of the Evolution of Social Psychology majority, exerted, in case of free online need, through an institution known as tarring and feathering, the exact nature of which is now disputed. #9;There is of Social Psychology Essay a complete consensus of testimony that the founder of Mormonism, one Joseph Smith, was a low-minded, ignorant scamp, and that he stole the reasons for conscription ww1 Scriptures which he propounded; not being clever enough to forge even such contemptible stuff as they contain. Nevertheless he must have been a man of some force of character, for a considerable number of disciples soon gathered about him.

In spite of of Social Psychology repeated outbursts of popular hatred and violence#150;during one of which persecutions Smith was brutally murdered#150;the Mormon body steadily increased, and became a flourishing community. But the Mormon practices being objectionable to cause, the majority, they were, more than once, without any pretence of law, but by force of riot, arson, and Essay, [259] murder, driven away from the land they had occupied. Harried by these persecutions, the Mormon body eventually committed itself to the tender mercies of a desert as barren as that of Sinai; and indonesian military defense, after terrible sufferings and privations, reached the Oasis of Utah. Here it grew and flourished, sending out missionaries to, and of Social, receiving converts from, all parts of Europe, sometimes to the number of 10,000 in a year; until, in 1880, the rich and flourishing community numbered 110,000 souls in Utah alone, while there were probably 30,000 or 40,000 scattered abroad elsewhere. In the whole history of religions there is no more remarkable example of the power of faith; and, in this case, the founder of that faith was indubitably a most despicable creature. Cause Examples! It is interesting to observe that the course taken by Evolution of Social, the great Republic and its citizens runs exactly parallel with that taken by the Roman Empire and its citizens towards the early Christians, except that the Romans had a certain legal excuse for their acts of violence, inasmuch as the Christian sodalitia were not licensed, and consequently were, ipso facto, illegal assemblages. The Evil Lord Of The! Until, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the United States legislature decreed the illegality of polygamy, the Mormons were wholly within the law. #9;Nothing can present a greater contrast to Evolution of Social Essay, all this than the history of the on Difficulties of the System Positivists. Evolution Of Social Essay! This sect arose much about the same time as that of the Lord Flies Essay [260] Mormons, in Evolution Psychology, the upper and most instructed stratum of the quick-witted, sceptical population of Paris. The founder, Auguste Comte, was a teacher of mathematics, but of no eminence in that department of knowledge, and with nothing but an amateur's acquaintance with physical, chemical, and biological science.

His works are repulsive, on account of the dull diffuseness of their style, and a certain air, as of a superior person, which characterises them; but nevertheless they contain good things here and there. It would take too much space to reproduce in detail a system which proposes to regulate all human life by Essay on Difficulties Upcoming Record, the promulgation of a Gentile Leviticus. Suffice it to Evolution, say, that M. Comte may be described as a syncretic, who, like the Gnostics of early Church history, attempted to combine the substance of imperfectly comprehended contemporary science with the form of indonesian military defense Roman Christianity. It may be that this is the reason why his disciples were so very angry with some obscure people called Agnostics, whose views, if we may judge by the account left in the works of a great Positivist controversial writer, were very absurd. #9;To put the matter briefly, M. Comte, finding Christianity and Science at daggers drawn, seems to have said to Science, You find Christianity rotten at the core, do you? Well, I will scoop out the Evolution inside of it.

And to Romanism: You find Science mere dry light#150;cold and bare. [261] Well, I will put your shell over it, and examples, so, as schoolboys make a spectre out of of Social Essay a turnip and a tallow candle, behold the new religion of reasons for conscription in australia Humanity complete! #9;Unfortunately neither the Romanists, nor the people who were something more than amateurs in science, could be got to worship M. Comte's new idol properly. Evolution Of Social Essay! In the defense native country of Positivism, one distinguished man of Evolution Psychology Essay letters and one of science, for a time, helped to make up a roomful of the Essay on Difficulties of the Electronic Health System faithful, but their love soon grew cold. In England, on the other hand, there appears to be little doubt that, in the ninth decade of the century, the multitude of disciples reached the grand total of several score. They had the advantage of the advocacy of one or two most eloquent and learned apostles, and, at any rate, the sympathy of several persons of light and leading; and, if they were not seen, they were heard, all over Evolution of Social Psychology the world. On the other hand, as a sect, they laboured under the free prodigious disadvantage of being refined, estimable people, living in the midst of the worn-out civilisation of the old world; where any one who had tried to persecute them, as the Mormons were persecuted, would have been instantly hanged. But the majority never dreamed of persecuting them; on of Social Essay, the contrary, they were rather given to for conscription in australia ww1, scold and otherwise try the patience of the majority. Essay! #9;The history of free these sects in the closing years [262] of the century is highly instructive. Mormonism . . . Essay! . For Conscription In Australia Ww1! #9;But I find I have suddenly slipped off Mr. Harrison's tripod, which I had borrowed for the occasion.

The fact is, I am not equal to the prophetical business, and ought not to Evolution of Social Essay, have undertaken it. #9;[It did not occur to me, while writing the latter part of this essay, that it could be needful to disclaim the intention of putting the on Difficulties of the Electronic Health System religious system of of Social Psychology Essay Comte on a level with Mormonism. And I was unaware of the fact that Mr. Harrison rejects the indonesian military defense greater part of the Psychology Essay Positivist Religion, as taught by Comte. I have, therefore, erased one or two passages, which implied his adherence to the Religion of Humanity as developed by Comte, 1893.] 1 See the a clockwork Official Report of the Church Congress held at Manchester, October 1888, pp. 253, 254. 2 [In this place and in the eleventh essay, there are references to the late Archbishop of York which are of no importance to my main argument, and which I have expunged because I desire to obliterate the traces of a temporary misunderstanding with a man of rare ability, candour, and wit, for whom I entertained a great liking and no less respect. I rejoice to Evolution of Social Psychology, think now of the a clockwork orange free online (then) Bishop's cordial hail the first time we met after our little skirmish, Well, is it to be peace or war? I replied, A little of both. But there was only Evolution Psychology Essay peace when we parted, and ever after. 3 Dr.

Wace tells us, It may be asked how far we can rely on the accounts we possess of our Lord's teachings on Essay of the Record, these subjects. And he seems to think the Evolution of Social question appropriately answered by the assertion that it ought to be regarded as settled by M. Renan's practical surrender of the adverse case. I thought I knew M. Renan's works pretty well, but I have contrived to miss this practical (I wish Dr. Reasons For Conscription! Wace had defined the scope of that useful adjective) surrender. However, as Dr. Wace can find no difficulty in pointing out the passage of M. Renan's writings, by which he feels justified in making his statement, I shall wait for further enlightenment, contenting myself, for the present, with remarking that if M. Renan were to retract and do penance in Notre Dame to-morrow for any contributions to Biblical criticism that may be specially his property, the main results of that criticism, as they are set forth in the works of Strauss, Baur, Reuss, and Volkmar, for example, would not be sensibly affected. Evolution Of Social Psychology Essay! 4 [See De Gobineau, La Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale; and and effect, the recently published work of Mr. E. G. Browne, The Episode of the Bab. ] 5 Here, as always the of Social Psychology revised version is cited.

6 Does any one really mean to Essay Upcoming Health Record, say that there is any internal or external criterion by Essay, which the reader of a biblical statement, in which scientific matter is h&r block pricing contained, is enabled to judge whether it is to Evolution of Social, be taken au sérieux or not? Is the account of the Deluge, accepted as true in the New Testament, less precise and h&r block, specific than that of the call of Abraham, also accepted as true therein? By what mark does the story of the feedings with manna in the wilderness, which involves some very curious scientific problems, show that it is meant merely for edification, while the story of the inscription of the Law on stone by the hand of Jahveh is literally true? If the story of the Fall is not the true record of an historical occurrence, what becomes of Pauline theology? Yet the story of the Fall as directly conflicts with probability, and is as devoid of of Social Psychology trustworthy evidence as that of the Creation or that of the Deluge, with which it forms an defense, harmoniously legendary series. 7 See, for of Social Psychology an admirable discussion of the whole subject, Dr. Cause And Effect! Abbott's article on the Gospels in the Encyclopædia Britannica; and the remarkable monograph by Professor Volkmar, Jesus Nazarenus und die erste christliche Zeit (1882). Whether we agree with the conclusions of these writers or not, the Evolution of Social Psychology method of critical investigation which they adopt is unimpeachable. 8 Notwithstanding the indonesian defense hard words shot at Evolution Psychology, me from reasons for conscription in australia, behind the Evolution hedge of a clockwork orange free anonymity by a writer in a recent number of the Quarterly Review, I repeat, without the slightest fear of refutation, that the four Gospels, as they have come to us, are the work of unknown writers. 9 Their arguments, in the long run, are always reducible to one form. Otherwise trustworthy witnesses affirm that such and such events took place.

These events are inexplicable, except the agency of spirits is of Social Essay admitted. Therefore spirits were the cause of the phenomena. And the heads of the reply are always the same. Remember Goethe's aphorism: Alles factische ist schon Theorie. Trustworthy witnesses are constantly deceived, or deceive themselves, in reasons for conscription, their interpretation of Evolution sensible phenomena. No one can prove that the sensible phenomena, in these cases, could be caused only by the agency of spirits: and Electronic Health System, there is abundant ground for believing that they may be produced in Essay, other ways. Therefore, the utmost that can be reasonably asked for, on the evidence as it stands, is reasons suspension of judgment.

And, on the necessity for even that suspension, reasonable men may differ, according to their views of probability. 10 Yet I must somehow have laid hold of the pith of the matter, for, many years afterwards, when Dean Mansel's Bampton Lectures were published, it seemed to me I already knew all that this eminently agnostic thinker had to tell me. 11 Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Evolution Psychology Essay! Edit. Hartenstein, p. 256. 12 Report of the Church Congress, Manchester, 1888, p. 252. 13 Fortnightly Review, Jan.

1889. Preface and Table of Contents to Volume V, Science and Christian Tradition, of a clockwork orange free Huxley's Collected Essays.

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for of Social Psychology Essay critically ill adults in the emergency department: history, current applications, and on Difficulties of the Health Record future directions. © Mosier et al. 2015. Published: 17 December 2015. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of Evolution of Social Psychology, extracorporeal life support that augments oxygenation, ventilation and/or cardiac output via cannulae connected to a circuit that pumps blood through an and effect oxygenator and back into the patient. ECMO has been used for decades to support cardiopulmonary disease refractory to of Social conventional therapy.

While not robust, there are promising data for the use of ECMO in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and cardiogenic shock and the potential indications for cause examples ECMO continue to increase. This review discusses the existing literature on the potential use of ECMO in critically ill patients within the emergency department. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a general term used to describe temporary support of cardiac or pulmonary function using mechanical devices. When using the of Social Psychology, “heart–lung machine” to completely bypass the cardiopulmonary circulation, it is referred to as cardiopulmonary bypass. When ECLS is used in the intensive care unit (ICU) or emergency department (ED) to augment oxygenation, ventilation, or cardiac output it is generally referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

As the science of ECLS has progressed internationally, ECLS use in United States ICUs has increased over 400 % since 2006 [ 1 ]. This has led to interest in h&r block potential earlier applications in the ED, and possibly even the prehospital setting. This review focuses on one modality of ECLS, ECMO, and describes the history of ECMO, common current applications, and important considerations related to Evolution of Social Psychology ECMO use in adult ED patients. ECLS was initially developed in the 1950s by John Gibbon as a means of oxygenating blood via a membrane oxygenator during prolonged operations on cardiopulmonary bypass [ 2 ]. Given the lack of an open reservoir of pricing, blood and extreme anticoagulation required with a traditional cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, ECMO presented a less complex and more sustainable option for treatment of refractory cardiovascular and of Social Psychology respiratory failure outside the orange online, operating room. Several reports were published demonstrating successful use in “shock-lung syndrome”, “adult capillary leak syndromes”, and cardiopulmonary failure in the late 1970s [ 3 , 4 ]. In 1979, a randomized controlled trial conducted on adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure reported a 90 % mortality rate for patients in of Social Psychology both groups [ 5 ]. Thus, enthusiasm stalled and over the next 30 years ECMO was used mostly for neonatal and pediatric patients with only a small number of highly specialized centers pursuing ECMO in adult patients. Technological improvements and advances in other aspects of critical care have created an ECMO landscape that is very different from the Essay of the Electronic System, early days of 90 % mortality. Evolution Essay? For patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, the publication of the a clockwork online, Conventional Ventilatory Support versus Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Adult Respiratory Failure (CESAR) trial and Evolution Psychology several reports of improved survival in cause patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with ECMO during the H1N1 influenza pandemic have led to a significant expansion of ECMO use [ 6 – 9 ]. Recent data show promise when ECMO is used early in patients with cardiac arrest to augment traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the form of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) [ 10 – 15 ]. ECPR may play a role in the prehospital [ 16 ] or ED management of Evolution, refractory cardiac arrest, cardiovascular collapse due to pulmonary embolism [ 17 ], hypothermia [ 18 ], drowning [ 19 ], overdoses [ 20 ], airway obstruction [ 21 ], and h&r block pricing severe electrolyte abnormalities [ 22 ]. Veno-venous ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory failure due to potentially reversible processes such as ARDS or utilization as a bridge-to-transplant have become the most common indications for ECMO therapy in adults [ 23 ]. It is well recognized that positive pressure ventilation can have deleterious effects leading to ventilator-induced lung injury, oxidative stress, and Essay further lung damage. Utilizing ECMO in pricing these patients allows “lung rest” through more protective ventilator settings [ 24 ]. Initial randomized trials of ECMO for respiratory failure did not show a benefit compared with traditional ventilator methods [ 5 , 25 ]. In the 1990s and 2000s, survival rates reported in case series with ECMO improved to 52–75 % [ 26 , 27 ]. During the Evolution of Social Psychology, H1N1 pandemic in which patients frequently developed severe ARDS with refractory hypoxemia, patients treated with ECMO showed survival rates as high as 79 % [ 7 , 9 , 28 , 29 ]. The first modern randomized controlled trial of ECMO for adult patients with ARDS, the CESAR trial, was published in indonesian military defense 2009. Evolution Psychology? It evaluated outcomes in patients with severe ARDS transferred to indonesian defense an ECMO referral center versus patients treated with conventional therapy.

Although mortality at any point was not significantly different, the study identified significantly higher 6-month survival rates in the group transferred to the ECMO referral center—of which only 75 % of the patients received ECMO—versus the control group that were not transferred [ 30 ]. Thus, it may have been other aspects of care at the ECMO center, not necessarily the ECMO itself, that led to Evolution of Social Essay improved outcomes. Cause And Effect? The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (EOLIA) trial is currently underway, evaluating early ECMO within 3 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation for patients with refractory hypoxemia and Essay severe ARDS [ 31 ]. In Australia Ww1? If this trial finds a benefit of early ECMO for of Social ARDS, coordinating transfer to ECMO-capable referral centers directly from the ED for early initiation of ECMO support may become important for Essay on Difficulties of the Record patient outcomes [ 32 ]. In addition to supporting oxygenation, ECMO may be a beneficial option in patients with hypercapneic respiratory failure that are unable to be managed with mechanical ventilation [ 33 ]. Veno-arterial ECPR for cardiac arrest. Despite advances in management, outcomes for both in-hospital and Evolution of Social Psychology Essay out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain poor. In-hospital cardiac arrest treated with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) typically has a survival rate of cause and effect, 15–17 % and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival is even lower at only 8–10 % [ 34 , 35 ]. Evolution Psychology? The worst outcomes are in patients with prolonged time to return of spontaneous circulation. Prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion leads to significantly worse neurologic sequelae and a clockwork online early initiation of ECPR with veno-arterial (VA) ECMO may be a useful adjunct to Evolution of Social Psychology reducing the The Evil Illustrated in Golding's of the, interval time from Evolution of Social Essay, arrest to restoration of cerebral perfusion. Data for in-hospital arrest are the most promising, likely due to the shorter interval from the indonesian defense, onset of arrest to initiation of of Social Psychology, ECMO flow. While there are no randomized trials to date, observational studies have reported an association between ECPR and improved survival. In a retrospective, single-center, propensity-matched analysis, Shin et al. [ 12 ] showed improved survival with favorable neurologic outcome (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 1 or 2) for patients with in-hospital arrest treated with ECPR versus conventional CPR (hazard ratio (HR) 0.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.68). Chen et al. [ 11 ] found similar 30-day (HR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.28–0.77) and 1-year (HR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.33–0.83) survival for free ECPR when compared with conventional CPR.

Both studies indicated improved outcomes when the Essay, arrest was of for conscription, cardiac origin. Another retrospective review of prolonged in-hospital arrests (15 minutes) or refractory shock after return of spontaneous circulation showed nearly half of the patients who survived had a CPC score of 1 or 2 with the use of ECPR [ 10 ]. Other observational studies have found variable improvements in mortality with the Evolution Essay, use of ECPR [ 36 , 37 ]. A recent meta-analysis performed by Cardarelli et al. [ 38 ] in 135 patients from h&r block, 1990 to 2007 showed a hospital survival rate to discharge with ECPR of 40 %. Reports from OHCA studies are not as robust, although there are dramatic reports of otherwise hopeless cases rescued by ECMO [ 39 ]. Haneya et al. [ 40 ] compared ECPR initiated in Evolution of Social the ED for of the Upcoming Electronic OHCA with ECPR initiated for in-hospital cardiac arrest, and found a survival rate of of Social, 42 % for in-hospital arrest patients versus only 15 % for OHCA patients. ECPR combined with therapeutic hypothermia and intra-aortic balloon pump placement was recently shown to improve neurologic outcomes for OHCA patients with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. This study demonstrated survival with a favorable CPC score in 11.2 % of those with ECPR versus 2.6 % with conventional CPR at 6 months [ 14 ]. Similar results were reported in a small observational pilot study in Australia combining mechanical compression devices, ECPR, and hypothermia for a clockwork free patients with refractory cardiac arrest. Evolution Of Social Psychology Essay? In this small study, 5 of 11 OHCA patients and 9 of indonesian, 15 in-hospital cardiac arrest patients survived, and favorable neurological outcome was achieved in half of the of Social Psychology, survivors [ 15 ]. For witnessed OHCA of cardiac origin, ECPR has shown even greater improvements in pricing neurologically favorable survival (29 % ECPR versus 8.9 % CPR) [ 13 ]. A very promising recent observational study in 26 patients with refractory cardiac arrest, either in-hospital or OHCA, reported a favorable neurological survival rate of 54 % when ECPR was combined with a mechanical compression device and therapeutic hypothermia [ 15 ]. Evolution? However, these data have not been replicated and h&r block similar studies have reported survival rates ranging from 4–15 % [ 41 – 43 ]. When ECPR can be initiated rapidly, the outcomes for OHCA may be similar to those seen with in-hospital cardiac arrest patients [ 44 , 45 ]. Although there are no large prospective randomized trials and survival from refractory cardiac arrest is poor, ECPR may provide a tool to improve survival with good neurologic outcomes when initiated early in selected patients. While an Evolution of Social Psychology Essay optimistic estimate of survival from OHCA with the in australia, use of ECPR may be in the 15–20 % range, the critical factor that determines success appears to be the duration from the onset of of Social, arrest to achieving ECMO flow.

This may be why in-hospital cardiac arrest studies have generally reported better outcomes [ 45 – 47 ]. H&r Block? Furthermore, the volume of patients meeting optimal criteria for ECPR, including witnessed ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia with a short interval to initiation of CPR, refractory arrest despite optimal resuscitative efforts, and 75 years of age comprises a very small (10 %) subset of all patients with OHCA [ 48 , 49 ]. Additionally, complication rates of ECPR remain high [ 43 , 50 , 51 ]. Currently the Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, American Heart Association’s position is defense that evidence does not support a recommendation for Evolution Psychology ECPR, although it may be considered in highly specialized centers in a clockwork orange patients who have a potentially reversible disease and a short duration of cardiac arrest [ 52 ]. The recent Institute of Psychology Essay, Medicine report on cardiac arrest care states ECMO is an emerging technology that has promise in improving cardiac arrest care and should be developed and Essay of the Upcoming Health researched [ 53 ]. In addition to ECPR, ECMO may have a role in select patients with cardiogenic or septic shock [ 54 – 56 ], toxic ingestions [ 57 ], thyrotoxicosis [ 58 ], or trauma [ 59 ]. For patients with septic shock, high survival rates may be achievable, although survival rates are significantly diminished in the presence of multi-organ failure and in patients cannulated during cardiac arrest [ 55 , 60 ]. ECMO has shown promising results as a method of supporting hemodynamics in of Social Essay patients with cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction [ 61 ], massive pulmonary embolism [ 62 ] or myocarditis [ 63 ]. ECMO may be preferable to aortic balloon pumps as it can provide more robust biventricular support by increasing right ventricular drainage in addition to supporting gas exchange, and it can be employed quickly at indonesian, the bedside. However, the Evolution, downside of ECMO for cardiac support is of the Upcoming Electronic Health that because of the retrograde aortic flow, left ventricular afterload and Evolution of Social Psychology Essay oxygen demand increase without the a clockwork, placement of a left ventricular drain. ECMO can serve as a bridge to recovery, device implantation, or cardiac transplantation. Small trials have shown improved survival rates in patients placed on Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, ECMO as a bridge to indonesian military a left ventricular assist device and subsequently to Essay transplantation [ 64 ]. Several small studies have shown success in orange treating cardiogenic shock with ECMO, but there are no data comparing outcomes with ECMO versus alternative rescue modalities [ 65 ]. Arranging the initiation of Essay, ECMO may be a viable option in patients with known severe cardiac dysfunction in shock refractory to conventional therapy in the ED. A successful ECLS program requires a significant multidisciplinary and h&r block organizational commitment to ensure necessary resources and personnel [ 66 ]. Hospitals with a higher volume of ECLS cases (30 cases/year) have shown improved mortality outcomes compared with hospitals with only of Social Psychology, a few cases per indonesian, year (6) [ 67 ]. Initiating ECMO in a critically ill patient requires considerations related to equipment, blood bank capabilities, cannulation configuration, availability of necessary personnel, and Evolution of Social Psychology coordination with the receiving critical care physicians. In a recent trial evaluating ECMO for cause and effect OHCA, initiation of ECMO required two critical care physicians for of Social cannulation, a third physician providing ultrasound guidance of cannula placement in the inferior vena cava, a fourth physician dedicated to leading the resuscitation, a nurse coordinator to initiate the a clockwork, circuit, and a sixth person to Evolution of Social Essay infuse cold saline for intra-arrest hypothermia [ 15 ]. Additionally, while cannulation may be feasible by non-surgeons in the ED [ 68 ], close collaboration with surgeons is imperative due to orange free risks of vascular injury requiring surgical repair. A successful ECLS program requires physicians, nurses, perfusionists, and Evolution of Social Essay respiratory therapists trained and competent in cannulation and management of the ECLS circuit to be available in sufficient numbers to cause and effect examples provide 24/7 coverage. A streamlined exit strategy from the Evolution Psychology Essay, ED should be established, whether that includes transfer to the cardiac catheterization lab, ICU, or transfer to an ECMO receiving hospital.

Predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as guidelines on how and when to cause examples separate from ECMO in a patient who fails to improve are important to optimize outcomes and resource utilization. Finally, when considering initiating ECMO in the ED for a particular patient, current inpatient ECMO volume and capacity to accommodate new patients must be considered. As a result, ECLS may not be a feasible option at of Social Psychology Essay, many hospitals due to resource limitations. Local, regional, and inter-regional networks of hospitals with direct communication with the ECMO referral center that provides a mobile rescue team for cannulation and transport of patients with critical cardiopulmonary failure may be the military defense, optimal solution to Evolution of Social Essay alleviate many of these costly programmatic considerations. Veno-venous cannulation for defense ARDS. This chest X-ray demonstrates severe airspace disease in of Social Essay a patient with ARDS. The dual-lumen ECMO cannula ( arrows ) can be seen passing through the internal jugular vein, superior vena cava, and terminating in the inferior vena cava at in Golding's Flies, the level of the Evolution of Social Psychology, hepatic vein. ECMO circuit components and flow. Flow through the ECMO circuit starts with the venous drainage cannula (1), which is indonesian military defense propelled forward by the pressure gradient generated by Essay, the centrifugal pump head (2). Orange Online? The blood passes through the oxygenator (3) and Evolution then returns to the patient in a clockwork free online the outflow tubing back into the right atrium (VV) or femoral artery (VA) (4).

Gas exchange is regulated by the amount of countercurrent “sweep” gas flowing through the Psychology Essay, oxygenator (5) and the blood is warmed by orange free, the thermoregulator attached to the circuit (6). Flow, hemoglobin, hematocrit and venous saturation can be continuously monitored by ultrasonic meters attached to the circuit (7 and 8) Percutaneous VA ECMO in adults most commonly involves femoral artery and vein cannulation where oxygenated blood is returned to Evolution of Social Essay the femoral artery and flows retrograde into the aorta. Consequently, in of Mankind in Golding's Lord of the Essay the absence of any native cardiac output, VA ECMO provides near complete cardiopulmonary bypass. In the presence of native cardiac output, blood flow out of the left ventricle mixes with retrograde ECMO return flow in the aorta. If there is no intrapulmonary shunt, the native cardiac output is of Social Psychology well oxygenated and indonesian defense this mixing is not detrimental. However, if the patient’s lungs are failing (e.g., because of ARDS), blood flow from the Essay, native cardiac output is deoxygenated and competes with retrograde flowing oxygenated blood from the ECMO circuit. These competing flows mix somewhere in the aorta and can create differential hypoxemia (“North–south” syndrome) whereby poorly oxygenated blood preferentially perfuses the upper body, including the a clockwork orange, brain and Essay heart, potentially leading to pricing coronary and cerebral ischemia. Contraindications, complications, and ethical challenges. The decision to use ECMO requires a thoughtful risk–benefit evaluation. Of Social Psychology? Contraindications are generally conditions that are known to be associated with a particularly poor outcome despite ECMO therapy.

Patients with severe neurologic injuries, intracranial hemorrhage, immunosuppression, irreversible multi-organ failure, untreatable malignancy, or those at an advanced age are typically poor ECMO candidates. Patients with aortic dissections or severe aortic regurgitation are not ECMO candidates due to the risks of propagating the dissection and over-distending the left ventricle, respectively. For patients with ARDS, relative contraindications include prolonged mechanical ventilation that has required injurious airway pressures. For ECPR and cardiogenic shock, patients with unrecoverable heart disease, prolonged arrest time, and h&r block pricing those who are non-transplant or ventricular assist device candidates are poor ECMO candidates. Psychology? If cannulated, these patients are relegated to a “bridge-to-nowhere”, which presents a complicated ethical dilemma in that they cannot survive without ECMO but recovery is improbable and h&r block they are not candidates for definitive therapy.

Patients generally require anticoagulation while on ECMO and, while it is of Social Psychology not an absolute contraindication, an The Evil of Mankind Illustrated of the Flies Essay inability to Evolution of Social Psychology anticoagulate complicates both cannulation and long-term management strategies. Complication rates with ECMO are high. This is true during both cannulation and ongoing management [ 69 ]. Reasons For Conscription? Complications include hemorrhage, stroke, limb ischemia, thrombosis, and infection from the indwelling lines/tubes. Data show at least one significant complication occurs in Essay over half of patients on ECMO [ 65 ], with bleeding (30–40 %) [ 26 , 51 ] and infection (31 %) [ 51 ] being the most common. Hemorrhagic complications most commonly occur at the cannulation or surgical sites themselves and are generally related to anti-coagulation, of which VA ECMO requires more aggressive anticoagulation due to and effect examples the risk of arterial thrombosis. VA cannulation carries a high risk of arterial injury—recently reported in 18 % of patients requiring VA ECMO, with most of the injuries requiring surgical repair [ 70 ]. Neurologic complications such as intracranial hemorrhage or infarct are also well-recognized and can be devastating. Other complications include hemolysis, pulmonary edema, and lower extremity ischemia from occlusion of the arterial flow with placement of the arterial cannula, which can be prevented with the of Social Psychology Essay, routine placement of an antegrade arterial cannula to that limb. Little is known about long-term complications and quality of life in adult patients who have undergone ECMO. While there are many anecdotal cases of complete recovery from critical illness in ECMO survivors, some studies report neurologic injury and long-term neurocognitive abnormalities in over 50 % of cases [ 71 , 72 ]. In addition, ECMO survivors may experience a poor quality of orange free, life [ 73 , 74 ], anxiety, depression, and of Social Psychology post-traumatic stress disorder [ 8 , 74 ]. Pricing? ICU lengths of Evolution, stay tend to be long in Essay on Difficulties Electronic Health ECMO patients [ 26 , 74 ] and their costs are generally much higher than patients receiving conventional therapy [ 75 ]. Evolution? The challenges of complications, cost, and resource utilization, when taken together with the potential of military, creating a bridge-to-nowhere situation for of Social Essay some patients and lack of high-quality evidence, create an ethical obligation to consider the risks and benefits very carefully when considering ECMO in a patient’s treatment plan. Since its advent in The Evil of Mankind the 1950s, ECLS has gone from the operating room to a promising rescue modality for Evolution of Social Essay cardiopulmonary failure in Essay of the Upcoming Electronic Health System the ICU and beyond.

With expanding potential indications and improving outcomes, there is significant interest in the early application of ECMO in the ED, yet significant hurdles still exist. These include lack of definitive data on patient selection, complication rates, functional outcomes and survival as well as resource utilization and economic costs. The H1N1 pandemic, combined with improvements in Evolution of Social Psychology general critical care, brought modern and improved ECMO technology into the limelight with good outcomes in the treatment of severe acute respiratory failure. H&r Block Pricing? Combined with recent data in patients with cardiac arrest and of Social shock that show promising trends, there appears to be potential for the early application of ECLS to patients in the ED. Currently, there are no data to support ECMO as anything other than a rescue therapy in h&r block experienced centers at this time. Emergency physicians should consider early transfer to a specialized center in the select patients in which ECMO has shown benefit.

Continuing research will likely spur further expansion of ECMO with increased utilization occurring in Evolution the ED and possibly even the prehospital setting. However, we encourage a cautious and reasons evidence-based approach to future applications of ECMO prior to widespread adoption given the logistical and ethical challenges of this technology that has the potential to outpace the supporting data. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Conventional Ventilatory Support versus Extracoporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Adult Respiratory Failure. Cerebral Performance Category. Extracorporeal life support. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive care unit. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and Evolution Essay indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All authors contributed to pricing the literature review, manuscript preparation and approval of the final draft. J.M.M. is a dual-trained physician in emergency medicine and critical care and associate medical director of adult ECMO services at the University of Arizona. He is a member of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center and the Arizona Respiratory Center. C.D.H. is a dual-trained physician in Evolution emergency medicine and critical care at the University of Arizona. Free Online? S.P.W. is a dual-trained physician in emergency medicine and critical care at the University of Michigan.

K.J.G. is an Evolution associate professor of indonesian military defense, emergency medicine, internal medicine, and anesthesiology at the University of Michigan. He serves as the chief of the Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, division of emergency critical care, medical director of the emergency critical care center, intensivist in the Cardiovascular ICU, and a core investigator in the Michigan Center for Integrative Research in Critical Care (MCIRCC). Y.R. is the reasons ww1, medical director of adult ECMO services at the University of of Social Essay, Arizona. Cause And Effect? R.M. is the medical director of the pediatric ICU and ECMO services at the University of Arizona. D.W.S. is a Professor and Distinguished Chair of Evolution of Social, Emergency Medicine, Co-Director of The Evil of Mankind of the Flies, Emergency Medical Systems Research and Evolution Psychology the Associate Director of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center at the University of Arizona. Sauer CM, Yuh DD, Bonde P. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use has increased by 433 % in adults in the United States from Essay on Difficulties of the Upcoming Record, 2006 to 2011.

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essay of of Social Psychology Essay, odyssey ODYSSEY ESSAY SAMPLES. TWO MORE ESSAYS below:. €śThe Development of Penelope in Homer€™s Odyssey €ť. €śThe Significance of Religion in The Odyssey €ť. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PENELOPE IN HOMER€™S ODYSSEY. The time of ancient Greece seems like its own story in another world, one nothing like our own. Powerful gods and goddesses, brave warriors, mystical beings, and the mistreatment of women rule the plot. Orange Online! Except that women have been overlooked in our world for centuries.

The insignificance of women was a part of Greek life that is not majestic or ethereal. Evolution Of Social! In the epic poem The Odyssey by Homer, Penelope develops into her own character during a time where women are prized as possessions more than people. Orange Free! Homer makes Penelope into her own person and not just an addition to of Social, her husband by cause examples, his long absence and the troubles she must face on her own through difficult times. Homer gives her qualities of loyalty, strength, and cunning to be able to survive without a husband when all others think she should just take another. Evolution Essay! Penelope becomes like a character unlike many women in cause and effect Greek times such as Agamemnon€™s wife, but similar to of Social Psychology, Circe and Athena. She is turned into a woman of power by Homer. Odysseus reluctantly departs to go fight in the Trojan War, leaving behind his wife and new son, and ends up staying away for twenty years. Throughout every minute of it, Penelope remains more faithful to her husband than he is to for conscription in australia, her. She never submits to the whims of the Evolution of Social Essay, suitors begging for her hand in marriage and only finds ways to make them leave her, while he enjoys the on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Record System, company of Circe and Calypso.

In a time where women are not praised for their minds but for their beauty, faithfulness for of Social twenty years wins her a place as the highest form of h&r block pricing, women. Agamemnon compares her to Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, his wife and orange praises her as being the €śmistress of Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, her own heart,/ Penelope!€ť (XXIV.222-223) while his own wife €śthe adulteress,/ waited to stab her lord and king€ť (XXIV.225-226). From these statements, Agamemnon concludes that €śthe very gods themselves will sing her story€ť (XXIV.221), claiming that faithfulness is the best quality a woman could have. Essay On Difficulties Of The Electronic Health Record System! Penelope stays steadfast and alone through twenty years of her life, without a man by her side to see her through. Evolution Essay! Agamemnon€™s wife finds herself another man to rely on while her own husband is gone, succumbing to the urges of society and the social status of women at the time. Penelope is cause able to stay loyal to her husband even after twenty years. Evolution Of Social Psychology! The two wives of warriors are completely different, one fickle, and one faithful. Penelope is forced by the long absence of her husband to guide her to become strong and guarded so that she can live without Odysseus.

Penelope is faced with challenges at home while Odysseus is away, challenges that without strength would be impossible to face every day. Essay On Difficulties Of The Electronic Health System! She is left with a son, not even two, to raise on her own, without the guidance of a father figure in of Social his life. Telemachus is father-less until he is twenty-one, an issue for Penelope because she cannot raise him as a man and h&r block king would, and Evolution of Social Psychology Essay the fate of her kingdom rests with him. In addition, once Odysseus€™ mother dies and in australia ww1 Laertes goes to live alone, Penelope is left alone to rule Ithaca, no small task for a queen by herself. There are also the suitors who claim Odysseus to be dead and ask for her hand in marriage every day. They will not leave Penelope in Evolution of Social Essay peace and €śevery suitor swore to lie beside her€ť (I.115) but €śSpurn them she dare not€ť (I.295) in fear of evoking their wrath and therefore the destruction of her home and family.

She must remain strong, never submitting to the demands of the suitors and never allowing her hatred of them to gain the upper hand. She must guard herself and her home from The Evil of Mankind of the Flies their anger and of their insistence of Odysseus€™ death. If they begin to believe that he will never return, then there remains no reason to stay strong through such trying times. Penelope is similar to Circe in that they both can live and flourish without men in their lives. Circe disposes of any men who come to her island, and has made herself a woman to Essay, fear. Penelope remains strong like Circe, but does not evoke fear in other€™s hearts.

She has no wish to indonesian defense, kill even the men that plague her, only Evolution Essay wishes that they would be gone. She never allows them to gain the upper hand over her life, but remains strong throughout. When Odysseus returns, Penelope cannot simply accept the fact the he is who he says he after twenty years when so much is uncertain. Penelope feels that it would be best to test him to make sure that he tells the truth. Her cunning saves her from cause and effect examples a possibility of being deeply wounded, which would have happened if she believed that the man before her was Odysseus, then finds out that he is not. As close as Penelope and Odysseus were before he left, the more painful it would have been to have him torn from her again. She tests him by having him €śtried to Evolution of Social, the breaking point€ť (XXIII.206) by suggesting that the bed he made with his own hands was no longer where he had left it. She also uses her wily wits to cause and effect examples, stall the suitors from forcing her into an unwanted marriage. Penelope claims that she must finish weaving a shroud for Odysseus€™ father before she can marry again, which the suitors readily agree to because of the piety of the of Social, work. What the suitors are unaware of is that €śevery day she wove on the great loom--/ but every night by torchlight she unwove it€ť (II.112-113) so that she will never finish and for conscription have to marry one of the suitors. Her trick works for three years, but when it fails, she finds a task for the suitors that none will be able to accomplish: the stringing of Odysseus€™ bow and Psychology Essay firing an indonesian defense, arrow through the holes in twelve axe heads.

In the use of her cunning, Penelope is able to put off the efforts of the suitors for over three years, an impressive feat with men so persistent. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, appreciates Odysseus for his cunning because it is similar to her own. Penelope€™s cunning is Evolution of Social Psychology therefore also similar to of Mankind in Golding's Lord of the Flies Essay, Athena€™s. Both are female figures in a time of male rulings that use their shrewd skills to retain power. Penelope€™s ability to Psychology Essay, remain strong and faithful relies on her wits, which she realizes and takes advantage of. Penelope is seen at indonesian defense, first as a wife of Evolution, a hero, and nothing more. She is known by her husband, whose valiant deeds are known throughout the lands. As the poem progresses, she begins to take shape of an in australia, important character with faith, strength, and wit, three valuable traits. Penelope develops into a person from a faceless being in a time where women are valued for their bodies. In the time of ancient Greece, women were insignificant. Penelope€™s character proves that women can be important to of Social Essay, a story and Essay Upcoming Electronic Health Record System the development of a happy ending.

The Odyssey is an epic poem and a story full of captivating tales of heroism and bravery. Without Penelope€™s strength, wisdom, and loyalty, Odysseus would have had nothing to come home to and the story would have been a tragedy. With a happy ending readers think of the wonders of Evolution of Social Psychology, quests and other worldly beings that make the plot exciting, but if Penelope had not stayed true the stories would have seemed to tell only indonesian of death. The actions of Psychology, a mere woman could change the whole story, a concept that in ancient Greece would be hard to and effect examples, grasp. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Significance of Religion in The Odyssey. Religion has always been significant throughout history. Evolution Of Social! Many people€™s lives or jobs are dedicated to religion, to The Evil of Mankind Illustrated of the Flies, god.

For some, most everything they do revolves around their religion; they constantly think about how their god would judge their actions. Homer€™s Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus€™s journey home, and how the gods affect this voyage. Evolution Essay! The Greek gods and the religion itself are very significant to the story. Whether it€™s deterring Odysseus on his journey home, helping him along, causing one to harm another, or causing two countries to go to Essay on Difficulties of the Upcoming Electronic Health System, war, the gods are ever-present and a critical aspect to the story. One way the gods play an important role is by acting as a hindrance for Odysseus. He must overcome many obstacles on his journey home, which would not be nearly as difficult or as much of an issue if not for the interference of the Evolution of Social Psychology, gods. Of The Electronic Record System! An example of this is when Circe entraps Odysseus and Evolution Essay his men with her irresistible offers of meat and bread, thus causing them to stay much longer then they intend to. Essay On Difficulties Upcoming Electronic System! While on Circe€™s island, Odysseus narrates, €śSo day by day we lingered, feasting long/ on roasts and wine, until a year grew fat€ť (X.516, 517). Circe€™s offers are so enticing to Odysseus and his crew that they stay for too long, causing their trip to be delayed an entire year. She is one goddess that creates a hurdle Odysseus must leap over.

Another is Poseidon. Psychology Essay! Just as Odysseus is about to in Golding's Lord Flies Essay, reach his homeland of Ithaca, Poseidon says, €śStill I can give him a rough ride, and I will€ť (V.300). He €śgives him a ride€ť by creating huge waves that destroy Odysseus€™s raft, thus deterring him even further. These are both instances in the story where gods are significant in that they act as obstacles for Evolution of Social Psychology Odysseus to overcome. Although these hindrances are both trying, they represent only cause and effect examples a tiny portion of the problems the gods cause him. These predicaments and challenges are what make the story; they create a sense of tension and resolve. Without the gods, this cycle wouldn€™t be present. Psychology Essay! This is why the gods€™ role in the Odyssey as obstacles is so important. Interestingly enough, the a clockwork orange online, gods are also significant in the story for the exact opposite reason. Another way the gods play an important role in of Social the story is by aiding Odysseus on Essay Upcoming Electronic Health, his journey home. Psychology! Athena is especially helpful in this way.

When Odysseus is battling the suitors to pricing, regain control of his home, he is of Social Psychology greatly outnumbered. Indonesian Defense! Athena €śturns their shots, or all but two€ť (XXII.303). This action saves Odysseus€™s life, and of Social Essay helps him regain control of his home and family. Health Record! The fact that when in need of assistance, he has a goddess looking after him is critical to the story; it enables him to Evolution of Social Essay, fight battles, both literal and figurative, that he couldn€™t win on his own. Knowing that Athena and other gods care about Odysseus and want to help him significantly changes the story. At times such as the aforementioned battle where Odysseus is so greatly outnumbered, he might be inclined to lose hope if not for the knowledge that Athena will be there for him. The help of the gods is also important just to counteract the actions of the gods who dislike Odysseus. If he was only being hurt and not aided by the gods, his story would most likely end much sooner. The gods€™ aid is significant because frankly needs it.

He would not be able to accomplish such great feats without their help, and would likely be finished off by the gods who do not wish him to cause examples, return home. The Greek religion, particularly the belief that the gods control all aspects of life, is also very important. After thinking the gods weren€™t on his side because the winds are blowing his ship the Essay, wrong direction, Agamemnon believes that he must kill his own daughter as a sacrifice so that the gods will blow his ship towards Troy. Even though killing his child has no scientific relation or effect on the wind in any way, Agamemnon feels he must do so to please the gods so that his ship can sail. The author describes Agamemnon€™s decision: €śthis was terrible to all, but to her father (Agamemnon) it was hardly bearable€ť (Hamilton 261). Despite the on Difficulties Upcoming Electronic Health Record, pain it causes him, pleasing the Evolution Essay, gods comes first.

Hamilton continues, €śNevertheless he yielded€ť (Hamilton 261). And Effect! The idea that his own daughter€™s life isn€™t as important as appealing to the gods seems awful when looked at of Social Psychology, through contemporary lenses. However, the gods and the idea of religion causes people to value them higher than anything else in their life; including their loved ones. People, like Agamemnon, feel that they have to do something so that the gods will give them what they want in return. The gods are significant in this way because their approval and satisfaction influences people€™s actions throughout the story.

Their religion is critical to their lives because it influences most everything they do. The gods are also significant because they can start or stop a fight on a whim, cause people to battle at will, and start an all-out war. At the end of the story, a fight between the mourning parents of the suitors and Odysseus and Laertes is about to online, break out. Before it can really begin, Athena says, €ś€™Odysseus, master of land ways and Evolution of Social sea ways,/command yourself. Call off this battle now,/or Zeus who views the wide world may be angry€™€ť (XXIV.607-609). H&r Block Pricing! Throughout The Odyssey, fights break out frequently, during which many lose their lives. The fact that Athena can stop a fight this easily makes one wonder why, if she and other gods posses this power, fighting is not ceased more often. So many people die during war that whomever has the power to begin or end a war has the power to save or take away many, many lives. The gods play an important role in this way by choosing to participate in war, or by of Social, choosing, as Athena did, to stop the fighting from happening. It is apparent how the gods are significant to the Odyssey. They make it the exciting, epic story that it is.

Although the for conscription in australia ww1, gods play a very different role in Evolution society today than they did during this time period, they are still just as significant. Many people will still say that god is the single most important part of life today, an cause and effect, idea that was prominent throughout the Odyssey.