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AP and wretch, Other Stories Summary and Analysis of A P, Part 1. This story is market orientation example narrated by wretch, Sammy, a young cashier at the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in the goal bathing suits stop in to buy some snacks. Sammy is immediately struck by disobedient wretch, a “chunky” (596) girl with a “sweet broad soft-looking can.” He is so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of market crackers twice, provoking the ire of the middle-aged customer who was trying to disobedient, buy them. By the time Sammy calms down the irate customer, the girls are making their way towards an aisle close to his checkout slot. He notices that the describe how legislation and agreed related to moving girls are barefoot. None of them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the first as chunky and disobedient wretch, “pale” and Essay on The Truth About in Fairy Tales, the second as “the kind of girl that other girls think is very ‘striking’ and ‘attractive’ but never quite makes it.” However, he quickly identifies the third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and disobedient wretch, almost seems to be showing them how to command attention. Al Capone? He infers that it was her idea to come to wretch, A P in the first place. He calls her the queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the queen’s bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the top of the bathing suit and the top of her head. He is in awe of her beauty, and marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into a grocery store with her straps down.

He continues to Essay Among, stare at her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair. The other people in the store are shocked by the girls’ skimpy attire, as well as the fact that they are walking “against the usual traffic” (597) down the aisles. Disobedient? Sammy criticizes these “sheep” for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to them. He speculates that “you could set off dynamite” (598) in an A P and the shoppers would still go about their business as usual. Nevertheless, they do seem a bit “jiggled,” with some women even turning around to look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes. Only ten years before John Updike published “A P,” his New Yorker colleague J.D. Essay About Among African? Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye . There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of Salinger’s novel, and Updike’s narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for authority and hypocrisy. But while Salinger’s hero is disobedient so self-absorbed that we never get an objective perspective on his world, Sammy is sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and society at large. The main action of “A P” unfolds not in the grocery store but in goldratt Sammy’s mind. It is not a chronicle of his ordinary day at work, but rather of wretch his rejection of bourgeois conformity.

Some critics trace Sammy’s heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and describe of working affect practices related, moral self-reliance (Porter 1155). In the early pages of “A P,” Sammy establishes his contempt for disobedient conformity and consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are “sheep” (597) who can never be roused out of their daily routines. This critique is example cemented by disobedient, his detailed description of the store. Sammy locates himself “between the checkouts and the Special bins” (596) and describes the girls going up “the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle” (597). Essay Truth Princesses? This careful delineation of the story’s space suggests an disobedient, underlying concern for realism despite Sammy’s lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on caricature. Sammy’s list of grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. None of the foods Sammy lists are nutritious. They are all snack foods or condiments—or in the case of the pet foods, not for Essay about Obesity African human consumption at all. Rather than a necessity for wretch survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from how legislation and agreed ways affect related to moving, their physical existence as human beings.

Sammy’s sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to this deadening consumerism. If the other shoppers have, in conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the disobedient girls’ rebellion against social norms seems to be a refreshing dose of human vitality. In Fairy Tales? This interpretation is disobedient wretch reinforced by their nakedness; by Reason Rand's "The Fountainhead", forgoing regular clothing and the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to all who witness it. However, there is an wretch, alternate interpretation of the al capone girls’ nudity. They are consumers just as much as the older shoppers are, and like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in their own way, with the queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597). Although he knows nothing of their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. His sexual desire, then, is wretch just as greedy and overindulgent as the shoppers’ desire for snack foods.

Over the course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on on The Truth, his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women. These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of American consumerism, and he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in pin curlers” (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at the beginning of “A P” is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and compares her to a bird, calming her down by disobedient, “[getting] her feathers smoothed and her goodies into a bag” (596). Although the character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to in Ayn "The Fountainhead" Essay, criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and Other Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for wretch AP and Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

Sammy seems mature enough to notice the rampant consumerism in American culture. None of the foods Sammy lists are nutritious. They are all snack foods or condiments—or in the case of the pet foods, not for human consumption at all. Rather than a. One major theme is fraudulent authority, as illustrated through the character of Essay on The in Fairy Lengel. Disobedient Wretch? Lengel is unbending, without foresight. he has no customer skills, thus, his position is a sham. Irony can be found in Sammy's actions. the prohibition way he speaks. I bet you could set off dynamite in an A P and the people would by and large keep reaching and checking oatmeal off their lists and disobedient wretch, muttering Let me see, there was a third thing, began with A, asparagus, no, ah, yes.

Study Guide for AP and Other Stories. Reason? AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and disobedient, a full summary and analysis. Prohibition? AP and disobedient, Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by John Updike.

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Introduction: GlobalizationPoverty Channels and Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. Machiko Nissanke, University of London, School of disobedient wretch, Oriental and African Studies; e-mail: Orientation Example? Erik Thorbecke, Graduate School Professor and H.E. Babcock Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Cornell University, Ithaca; e-mail: Search for more papers by this author. In 2004 the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) embarked on a large-scale research project on the ‘Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor’ co-directed by Machiko Nissanke and Erik Thorbecke. The first conference was essentially conceptual in disobedient, nature, meant to understand better the various mechanisms and channels through which globalization affects the poor either directly or indirectly. The other three conferences focused on each of the major regions of the Essay on The Truth in Fairy, developing world: Asia, Africa and Latin America.

The objectives of this introduction are threefold: first, to review briefly how the wretch, forces of globalization influence poverty in general; second, to describe and discuss the main transmission channels and about Americans, mechanisms; and third to disobedient wretch, analyze the al capone, impact of globalization on Africa and present an overview of the six Africa case studies included in this issue. 1. The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. Globalization provides a strong potential for a major reduction in wretch, poverty in the developing world because it creates an environment conducive to faster economic growth and transmission of knowledge. 1 However, structural factors and policies within the al capone, world economy and national economies have impeded the disobedient wretch, full transmission of the benefits of the various channels of globalization for poverty reduction. In particular sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been relatively less affected by Princesses in Fairy the forces of disobedient, globalization than other parts of the and agreed ways affect working, world. World income distribution continues to be very unequal and many poor countries particularly in Africa are stagnating. Moreover, there is much empirical evidence that openness contributes to more within-country inequality.

China is a good example with coastal provinces as opposed to inland provinces reaping the major benefits of globalization. Progress on poverty reduction has also been uneven. Although the disobedient wretch, share of the goldratt, population of developing countries living below US$1 per day declined from 40 per cent to 21 per disobedient wretch, cent between 1981 and 2001, this was mainly achieved by Obesity African the substantial reduction of the poor in Asia, in particular in China. Notwithstanding the drop in disobedient wretch, relative poverty, the total number of people living under US$2 per day actually increased worldwide. In particular, poverty has increased significantly in Africa in both absolute and relative terms.

The risks and costs brought about by describe and agreed ways of working affect working globalization can be significant for fragile developing economies and the world's poor. The downside of globalization is disobedient most vividly epitomized at times of Essay Tales, global financial and economic crises. The costs of the repeated crises associated with economic and financial globalization appear to disobedient, have been borne overwhelmingly by the developing world, and often disproportionately so by the poor who are the most vulnerable. On the other hand, benefits from globalization in booming times are not necessarily shared widely and equally in the global community. Though any trend in poverty and income inequality observed so far cannot be exclusively or even mainly attributed to globalization without rigorous analyses, even the most optimistic estimates cannot dismiss concerns that the globalization process, as it has proceeded to date, may have had some adverse effects on poverty and income distribution.

These concerns have generated a passionate debate worldwide as well as a powerful anti-globalization movement. 2. Channels Linking Globalization to Poverty. What are the transmission mechanisms through which the process of globalization affects poverty directly and indirectly? The first and most important of these mechanisms is the growthinequalitypoverty channel. Other channels operate, respectively, through changes in relative prices of factors of Obesity Among African, production (labour and capital) and commodities, movements of capital and wretch, labour migration across borders and the goal eliyahu goldratt, within countries, the nature of technological change and technological diffusion, the disobedient wretch, impact of globalization on volatility and vulnerability, the worldwide flow of information, global disinflation, and institutions. 2.1 The GlobalizationGrowthInequalityPoverty Causal Chain. To analyze and understand the Truth in Fairy Tales, impact of openness on disobedient, poverty, the globalizationopennessgrowthinequalitypoverty causal chain has to be scrutinized link by link.

The first link of the chain is from globalization via openness to growth. The main manifestation of openness is Essay Obesity African through trade and capital movement liberalization, affecting growth directly through increased exports, imports, and capital inflows. Trade liberalization policies encourage exports, which benefit export industries and contribute directly to GDP growth while switching from import substitution to opening up the domestic economy to imports leads over time to a more efficient resource allocation and a higher growth path. In turn, foreign direct investment (FDI) raises the productive capacity of the receiving countries, and is often the conveyer belt for transferring technology and disobedient, know-how. The second link in the causal chain from openness to poverty is the interrelationship between growth and inequality. While it is most likely that the poor will benefit from growth, the ultimate poverty-reduction effects will depend on how the growth pattern affects income distribution. If growth leads to in Ayn Essay, an increase in income inequality, the disobedient wretch, poor may benefit only in Ayn "The Fountainhead" Essay, slightly or, in some instances, actually be hurt by disobedient wretch the globalization process.

Indeed, the growthinequality link is much more complicated than what the classical approach postulated with its emphasis on the growth-enhancing effects of inequality (the rich save a larger proportion of their incomes than the eliyahu, poor so that the impoverishment of the masses is a precondition to higher investment and wretch, growth). There are many consequences of, and phenomena linked to, inequality that at least potentially, could reduce future growth and hence future poverty alleviation such as the diffusion of on The Truth About in Fairy, social and political instability and conflict which could dampen investment because of greater uncertainty. The final link in the globalizationpoverty nexus captures the combined net effect of growth and a change in income inequality on disobedient, poverty. A higher aggregate growth rate of GDP is good for poverty reduction, while increased inequality acting as a filter dampens the positive effects of growth on poverty reduction. Consequently, policymakers should focus on the pattern (structure) of growth and development rather than the rate of market, growth per disobedient, se. In short, poverty reduction requires a combination of higher growth and a more pro-poor distribution of the gains from growth. 2.2 The GlobalizationCapital and Labour MobilityPoverty Channel. According to economic theory, the Reason Fountainhead" Essay, impact of globalization on developing countries well endowed with unskilled labour should lead to a decline in income inequality through an increased demand for unskilled labour, while unskilled labour in disobedient wretch, developed countries would lose out with an adverse effect on equity. However, the empirical evidence reveals that wage gaps between skilled and unskilled labour have been increasing in many developing countries, particularly in Latin America and the goal eliyahu goldratt, Africa. Several specific features associated with the current phase of globalization explain why the theoretical prediction does not hold.

For example, the nature of technical progress and new technology is heavily biased in favour of skilled and wretch, educated labour, as technical change emanates from RD activities in the developed (industrialized) countries in response to local conditions. Hence, technical change tends to be labour-saving and skill-biased, and new technology is complementary to market, capital and skilled labour, while it is a substitute for unskilled labour and tends to increase inequalities in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, technological diffusion and access to new technology is not universal and disobedient, spontaneous, while intensified privatization of research (e.g. in bio-technology) may have adverse effects on access to new technology by developing countries and the poor. The resulting widened productivity differences explain cross-country wage/income inequality. ‘Perverse’ factor movements could provide another explanation.

Capital and skilled labour do not migrate to poor countries as much as among developed countries. Rather, there is a tendency for skilled labour to migrate from developing countries to developed countries, as the market example, massive migration of African nurses and medical doctors to the US and Europe testifies, while unskilled labour migration tends to wretch, be strictly controlled. With capital market liberalization, there is a propensity for capital flight from developing to developed countries, particularly during periods of instability and crisis. Income convergence among the globalizing countries during the first wave of Reason in Ayn Essay, modern globalization was driven primarily by migration. Sixty million people, largely unskilled workers, migrated from Europe to North America and other parts of the new world between 1870 and 1914. In contrast, the extent of disobedient, cross-border mobility differs significantly between skilled and unskilled labour in the current phase of globalization. Unskilled workers from developing countries face increasing obstacles in their attempts to migrate to developed countries. In consequence, wage equalization does not take place through labour migration, as was the about Obesity African Americans, case in the previous globalization era. 2.3 The GlobalizationTechnologyPoverty Channel. The nature of technical progress and disobedient wretch, technological diffusion can be a further channel through which globalization affects income distribution and poverty. As indicated, technological change tends to be highly capital- and Essay about Obesity African, skill-intensive and unskilled labour-saving, as befits the resource endowment of the disobedient wretch, rich industrialized countries where most innovations originate.

Even though much of the new technology does not conform to the resource endowment of poor countries, the Reason in Ayn, potential exists for globalization to confer significantly higher food productivity and rural incomes on developing countries via the mechanism of NorthSouth technology transfer. For example, to realize the potential positive effects of biotechnology on disobedient wretch, poverty reduction, the public and private sectors must: •  establish institutions with local capacity for technology innovation and adaptation; •  reduce transaction costs in the process of international transfer of technology; •  provide standardization, transparency, and access to information for property rights over technologies. In addition to significant investment in higher education and research capacity in low-income countries, a new type of institution (namely the Intellectual Property Rights Clearinghouse) might be capable of overcoming the in Ayn Rand's, lack of disobedient wretch, access to intellectual property rights and the burden of high royalty payments for small and poor farmers in the developing world. Even with such policies, there are important barriers to diffusing technology through globalization. Eliyahu Goldratt? Even if a new technology can potentially increase the income level of small farmers, its diffusion may be slow due to sunk costs of adoption and uncertainties about net payoffs of the technology in question. The lack of capital, credit, and risk-sharing possibilities as well as limited access to disobedient wretch, information about new technologies hinders technology adoption and diffusion.

Adoption of new technologies can be slowed by uncertainties about their efficiency. Reason Rand's "The Essay? For example, without independent external information sources, farmers in disobedient, developing countries have to rely heavily on their neighbours (‘leaders’ who have already adopted the prohibition, technologies) to obtain vital information about new methods. 2.4 Other Channels: Vulnerability, Information Diffusion, and Institutions. Beyond increasing aggregate income, globalization increases uncertainty via greater variation in income and expenditure caused by global shocks, such as the various financial crises that have hit Latin America and disobedient wretch, Asia in the last two decades. It was found that the extremely high volatility of consumption observed in Central and in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead", East Europe since the early 1990s is strongly related to trade shocks encouraged by trade liberalization. Consequently trade liberalization, as implemented in the 1990s, may have actually worsened growth and welfare performance in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the per wretch, capita income of the poorest population quintile is most vulnerable to these trade shocks. These results point to Essay Obesity African, the need for emerging and transition economies to adopt forward-looking national policies to support trade liberalization, that is, policies to disobedient, mitigate the impact of trade shocks, and enhance coping mechanisms.

A new ‘culture of prevention’ with mechanisms for limiting the size and frequency of market orientation, shocks at the international level might also be called for. It can be argued that while globalization is a major engine for growth in aggregate, globalization either introduces or exacerbates other trends that affect people's well-being as much if not more than income, for example, through the increasing flow of information about the living standards of others, both within and disobedient wretch, beyond country borders. This flow of information can result in changing reference norms and increased frustration with relative income differences, even among respondents whose own income is rising. For example, individuals in a given location or socio-economic group in a developing country compare their incomes increasingly with those of relatively similar individuals in other locations in more developed regions or countries and might become frustrated by the rising differences in their standard of living vis-à-vis that of other groups. Many social and collective measures should be in place for globalization to have positive effects on poverty. Essay About African? These include measures such as: public investments in health; institutions that can ensure adherence to basic norms of wretch, equity and ways of working affect working practices, fairness; and collective investments in social insurance to protect workers from the volatility that often accompany integration into global markets. In the absence of these measures, the process of globalization may only create opportunities for those that are best positioned to take advantage of them, leaving behind large sections of poor and vulnerable individuals. Institutions mediate the various channels and mechanisms through which the globalization process affects poverty. Institutions act as a filter intensifying or hindering the positive and negative pass-through between globalization and poverty and can help explain the diversity, heterogeneity, and non-linearity of outcomes.

Thus, on the one hand, the disobedient, impact of globalization on the poor is mediated by domestic political economy structures and institutions such as social polarization, oligarchic structures, and predatory regimes, which may bias, confiscate or nullify the gains from globalization for particular groups of market example, poor. On the other hand, the positive effects of globalization on growth and poverty can be found when institutional conditions are characterized by such features as political participation, social cohesion and management of social conflict arising directly from globalization effects. Consequently, safety nets and appropriate social protection schemes that shelter the disobedient, assets of poor households (and particularly the Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, erosion of their human capital) during crises triggered by globalization should be given high priority. Disobedient? Simple institutions such as rural banks (or branches) can play an important financial intermediation role of, among others, transferring the rising flow of migrants' remittances to their rural families and channelling savings and current account deposits to urban areas. Such institutions could reduce significantly the large rent (in the form of transfer fees) presently captured by firms such as Western Union in the developed world.

3. Globalization and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. 3.1 Main Characteristics in the GlobalizationPoverty nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Following largely an inward-oriented development strategy in the early decades of the post-independence period, the majority of SSA countries failed to take advantage of the describe how legislation ways working related to moving, opportunities provided by dynamic growth impetus associated with globalization in disobedient, the 1970s and 1980s. Instead of becoming more integrated into the world economy, they were largely marginalized and experienced slow growth and goldratt, stagnation. Wretch? With growing recognition of their disadvantageous positions, most of the SSA countries have increasingly searched for ways to accelerate their participation in the global economy over the past two decades. Al Capone Prohibition? Indeed, most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment policy regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programme since the mid 1980s. In examining the aggregate economic ‘openness’ indicators and disobedient, their trends over time, it is worth making a few general points at the onset.

First, as documented in detail by Round (2007) and reproduced here in Table 1, SSA is not behind other developing regions in terms of trade openness, as conventionally measured in terms of a trade intensity index (imports and exports relative to eliyahu, GDP in current US$). Further, as expected, average trade intensity has increased in SSA in disobedient, line with the overall global increase, but not as rapidly as almost all other low and middle income regions (this trend is observed irrespective of whether the intensity index is calculated with or without country GDP weights). In spite of the increase in trade intensity, however, Africa's share of total world trade has fallen over these two decades. According to UNCTAD (2003), Africa's share of world exports fell from about 6 per cent to 1.5 per Essay about Obesity Among African, cent, and disobedient wretch, imports from 5 per cent to 1.5 per cent (merchandise trade) over the period from 1980 to 2002. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculated from current US$ estimates).

b World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculations by Round, 2007). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual per cent). Many countries in SSA have also intensified their efforts to attract FDI along other developing regions with various fiscal and other incentive measures. Table 2, reproduced here from Round (2007), shows estimates of FDI flows (inflows and outflows combined) expressed relative to Rand's "The Essay, GDP and (net inflows) as shares of the total net FDI received by wretch developing countries, in both cases shown at the regional level. Eliyahu? SSA shows a marked increase in FDI relative to GDP from 0.30 in the first period to 2.74 per cent in the final five-year period.

However, FDI flows to the region so far have been largely in extraction of oil and other natural resources. Further, again, in wretch, terms of the regional shares of FDI, the Reason in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead", estimates are far less favourable to disobedient, SSA, attracting only around 6 per cent of total net FDI inflows to describe how legislation and agreed practices to moving, developing countries throughout this period. It is disobedient worth noting that in the 1990s, when there was a marked increase in al capone, the share of disobedient, developing countries as a whole in world total FDI, Africa's share fell to 4 per cent. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual ratios). b I (inflows) and O (outflows). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculation by Round, 2007). d Net inflows only: net inflows dominate net outflows in these regions. e Regional shares of total net inflows across the six regions. Essay About Obesity Among? (These may include flows between regions.) These aggregate measures such as the disobedient wretch, trade intensity index are the outcome of many factors and conditions that could affect these ratios, including low levels of per capita income, geographical location and the trade composition, and as such cannot be used as an indicator of the outcome of prohibition, liberalization policies (Round, 2007).

As Pritchett (1996) argues, for the latter, a ‘structure-adjusted’ trade intensity index should be used, which takes into account a host of structural characteristics such as size of GDP per capita, resource endowments, location factors. Hence, it is disobedient wretch necessary to apply due caution in Essay on The in Fairy Tales, assessing the results of the policy regime shift by using these aggregate measures alone. Nevertheless, SSA presents a clear case to support the arguments that the shift to disobedient wretch, the open policy regime alone cannot bring about economic growth and Essay about Obesity, anticipated positive impacts from disobedient wretch, globalization on poverty reduction. How Legislation And Agreed Practices To Moving? As shown in the lower part of disobedient wretch, Table 1, the growth performance in SSA has been poor throughout the 1980s and 1990s. After the two decades' reforms dominated by liberalization, privatization and deregulation, the economies in SSA have not yet come out from the ‘growth tragedy’ syndrome the term popularly used in characterizing the region's economic performance in the comparative growth literature. A large number of studies have emerged that have sought to explain the differences in al capone, economic performances across developing countries through theoretical modelling and cross-country regression analyses in a framework of endogenous growth theory. These have further extended the list of factors giving rise to weaker growth performances of the African economies to an array of variables such as natural and institutional endowments, the quality of institutions and governance and geography (Acemoglu et al ., 2001a, 2001b; Rodrik et al ., 2002; Sacks and Warner, 1995, 1997, 2001 among others). Referring to these studies and based on wretch, their analyses carried out within the AERC Growth project, O'Connell and Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay, Ndulu (2000) and Ndulu (2006) provide further explanations for the slow growth of the SSA economies in terms of sovereign fragmentation, ethno-linguistic fractionalization and more generally geographical disadvantages. These conditions are seen to result in uncharacteristically high costs of development in the region and could explain in a large part the wretch, lower rates of economic growth, investment and very low productivity of investment in SSA compared with other developing countries.

They observe that both the growth rates and investment efficiency in SSA are about half of the average obtained in other developing regions. It should be worth noting that the recent upturn in economic growth recorded in many natural resource-rich economies in SSA is closely associated with the price hike of oil and Essay Obesity, mineral commodities in the world markets. Wretch? The growth rate of real GDP for oil-producing countries and resource-intensive countries in and agreed ways practices related, SSA during the period of 20025 was 6.2 per disobedient, cent and 7.0 per cent respectively, twice higher than those achieved by non-oil producing and resource-poor economies in the region (Round, 2007). 2 The sustainability of such a high growth rate is very much dependent on exogenous factors unless windfalls of commodity booms are used purposely for diversification and orientation example, transformation of economic and disobedient wretch, trade structures. Highly competent macroeconomic management over the commodity price cycle is required to avoid the ‘Dutch disease’ associated with the commodity boom (Nissanke, 1993). Market Orientation? Otherwise, the foundation for long-term economic development of these natural resource-rich economies would remain fragile. Indeed, today, several decades after gaining political independence, the wretch, high primary commodity-dependence remains one of the goldratt, most conspicuous characteristics of the trade linkage of countries in SSA with the rest of the wretch, world. The failure of these economies to eliyahu goldratt, diversify and undergo structural transformation, and hence, to benefit from the technology-driven, highly dynamic aspects of disobedient wretch, on-going globalization has entailed a high cost to the region not only in Essay in Fairy Tales, low economic growth but also in persistent poverty. Disobedient? The incidence and depth of poverty has deepened in the region.

According to the estimates provided by Chen and Ravallion (2004), reported in Round (2007), the number of poor, measured in income poverty based on the US$1 a day international poverty line, increased in SSA, almost doubling from the goal goldratt, about 164 million in 1981 to 313 million in 2001 (Table 3). As the total number of poor in the world fell on account of the sharp reduction in China and other countries in Asia for this period, the disobedient, proportion of the world's poor in Africa rose from about 11 per cent to approximately 29 per cent during this period. In terms of the headcount ratio, the poverty incidence in SSA is 46 per cent in 2001 the highest in the world. Ali and Thorbecke (2000) argue that poverty in SSA is both most prevalent and severe in rural areas. a Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 3) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). b Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 4) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). Poverty is an essentially multi-dimensional concept that can only imperfectly be assessed by Reason "The Fountainhead" Essay money-metric measures such as income or consumption. Sahn and Younger (2007) explore how globalization affected non-income measures of well-being health and education in Africa over the past 1520 years. They expected to find, as they had previously in Latin America, that progress in the provision of public services and the focus of public spending in the social sector would contribute to declining poverty and inequality in health and education, even in wretch, an environment of stagnant or worsening income poverty. Unfortunately, their results indicate that in the area of health, little progress is being made in terms of reducing pre-school age-stunting, a clear and Essay African Americans, robust manifestation of poor overall health.

Likewise, their health inequality measure revealed that there was, on balance, little evidence of success in improving equality of outcomes. Disobedient Wretch? Similar results were obtained in their examination of Essay on The Princesses Tales, underweight women as an indicator of general current health of disobedient wretch, adults. While the story is somewhat more positive with regard to orientation, education, the overall picture gives little cause for optimism that Africa has, or will soon reap the benefits of the process of globalization, unless it scales up efforts in a number of the fronts including the provision of disobedient wretch, public services in the social sector. Furthermore, as Milanovic (2003) notes, countries in SSA have a relatively high intra-country inequality among the highest in the world. This can be seen as a puzzle: Africa should be a low-inequality continent according to the Kuznets hypothesis because ‘African countries are poor and agriculture-based, and also because the main productive asset agricultural land is relatively evenly distributed in most of SSA (except the region of Southern Africa) in part thanks to the tradition of communal-land holding’ (Milanovic, 2003, p. 2). Round (2007) also notes that the degree of income inequality in on The About Princesses in Fairy Tales, Africa has increased sharply between the 1980s and the 1990s. There is no doubt that sustained poverty reduction requires economic growth. However, as we note elsewhere (Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006), the pattern of growth does significantly affect the rate of poverty reduction. In this context, it can be argued that Africa's growth has been distinctly against the poor not only in terms of its ability to disobedient, deliver the required growth rate to ensure that the poor could benefit from economic growth, but also in about Obesity Americans, terms of its pattern.

Economic growth in SSA, where it has occurred, has not been translated much into poverty reduction. Critically, the wretch, nature and orientation, pattern of integration into the global economy in SSA as well as domestic conditions have not been conducive to generating virtuous cycles of disobedient, globalization-induced growth as generally observed in Asia (Nissanke, 2007). In most of East Asia, the structural transformation of their economies has been considerably facilitated by the integration/globalization process. Orientation Example? As we suggest in Nissanke and Thorbecke (2008), the growth accompanied by a substantial reduction of disobedient, abject poverty in East Asia can be explained in terms of the region-wide comparative advantage recycling in production and export of labour-intensive goods. The process involves a strong demand for on The Princesses unskilled and semi-skilled labour, driven by exporting labour intensive goods and pro-trade FDI through effective technology and knowledge skill transfer. 3 Most of the East and South-East Asian economies have successfully gone through the structural transformation of their production and trade structures with continuous upgrading of their human skill endowments and technology/knowledge base. By relying on their dynamic comparative advantages these countries were able to wretch, maximize the benefits from dynamic externalities. Specialization in sectors with large spillovers and dynamic externalities is more apt to engender a pattern of equalizing growth. Moreover, in most of East Asia, the pro-poor pattern of public expenditure in favour of rural poor at early stages of development produced and sustained the ‘shared’ growth for some time. There were concerted efforts on the part of governments to facilitate building primary assets of the poor through such measures as an equitable distribution of land (through appropriate land reforms); extensive public provision of free and universal primary education; promotion of small-scale enterprises and development of rural infrastructure roads, irrigation, schools, agricultural support outposts, health stations, and irrigation systems.

In contrast, the Reason in Ayn "The Essay, high susceptibility and vulnerability to exogenous shocks through its fragile trade linkage may have left SSA behind and suffering from disobedient wretch, vicious cycles of globalization-induced decline (Nissanke, 2007; Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006). Many parts of SSA remain isolated from global markets and Essay Truth About Princesses Tales, the global community as the region's access to information and technology is limited. There is some evidence to suggest that in SSA ‘globalization may be associated with increasing inequality and (hence) with an increase in poverty’ (Round, 2007). 3.2 Case Studies of the Impact of Globalization on Poverty within Sub-Saharan Africa. The six case studies in this issue cover the macromicro spectrum from completely aggregate focusing on the whole SSA continent to detailed village studies. They also rely on a variety of techniques such as computable general equilibrium modelling, reduced form regression equations, benefit incidence analysis, and disobedient, qualitative and quantitative surveys of rural households.

Likewise, these studies employ a wide range of data sets ranging from cross-sectional data covering all SSA countries to very detailed micro surveys of villages to explore how different manifestations of Reason Rand's "The, globalization such as trade liberalization, FDI, migration within and between rural and urban areas, rural commercialization and institutional changes in land tenure systems affected the structure of growth and poverty. 4. Fosu and wretch, Mold analyze the Essay Obesity Among Americans, gains from trade liberalization for SSA estimated by wretch previous studies on multilateral liberalization, focusing on findings from a number of Reason in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, computable general equilibrium models. They conclude that studies on the global implications for poverty reduction from trade liberalization are constrained by data limitations but that, in any case, the impact is likely to be very modest with one recent estimate of only 20 million fewer poor for the whole SSA region. On the basis of simulation exercises run on the standard GTAP model the authors calculate that the welfare gains from further trade liberalization would be minuscule of the order of one-fourth of one per cent of SSA's GDP (excluding South Africa, the welfare result is a loss for SSA). Fosu and Mold suggest that African countries reconsider the emphasis of their policies towards trade, for example by pushing more aggressively the agenda on regional trade liberalization and the much higher potential pay-off of policies facilitating international migration.

Finally, the authors warn that without sufficient reforms that render labour demand more elastic, the disobedient, marginal expected gains from trade for Essay about Obesity African SSA are most unlikely to create significantly more employment and could possibly even result in adverse effects on poverty reduction. Asiedu and disobedient, Gyimah-Brempong explore the effect of capital liberalization (as a manifestation of globalization) on employment and the flow of FDI in Africa. Two empirical equations are estimated on the basis of data for 33 African countries over the goal eliyahu the period 19842003. The first equation regresses FDI in country i at time t on FDI policy in the same country and time-span; while the second equation regresses employment on FDI policy. Assuming that capital and labour are complementary inputs, one would expect an increase in capital inputs to lead to an increase in labour inputs hence employment. Wretch? However, two qualifications need to be made: first, multinational firms investing in Africa are likely to adopt relatively modern technologies that are capital- and Truth About in Fairy Tales, skill-intensive using relatively little unskilled workers and wretch, possibly shedding some; and Essay about Obesity African, second, when the disobedient wretch, motivation for FDI is on The tariff-jumping to serve protected markets the outcome is unclear; liberalization policies could lead to increased or decreased employment.

Given the relatively small sizes of African countries the tariff jumping motive may not be relevant and only of marginal importance. Based on their econometric work, the authors found strong evidence that the liberalization of investment policies is positively associated with FDI flows to Africa. In turn, capital liberalization by encouraging investment, indirectly stimulates employment by wretch multinational firms. Noting that FDI tends to employ skilled labour, Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong recommend that to ensure that some of the benefits of describe ways working practices to moving, FDI go to the poor, countries might consider implementing policies that encourage multinational companies to utilize more unskilled labour through such incentives as tax breaks. Daniels examines how trade liberalization through price transmission affects the welfare of female-headed households as opposed to male-headed households.

By focusing on three years, i.e. 1995, 2000, and 2004, Daniels is able to disobedient, evaluate the impact of tariff reductions on gender in in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay, two periods, 19952000 and 20002004. The study reveals that the consumption pattern of female-headed households is different from that of male-headed households ceteris paribus : women tend to allocate a larger proportion of the budget to food, child and health care than men and vice versa for disobedient alcohol and tobacco products. Hence female-headed households benefited relatively more from the goal goldratt, tariff reductions on wretch, imported food, while men benefited relatively more from on The About in Fairy, tariff reductions on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Another interesting finding is disobedient that the impact of the first period round of tariff reductions was strongly in favour of the wealthy and Essay Obesity Americans, the very poor in contrast with the tariff reductions in the second period which favoured the lower part of the income distribution. Most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programmes since the mid 1980s. Yet, most rural communities in the region were left relatively untouched by the globalization process, as they have remained isolated due to the poor physical infrastructure and high transaction costs as well as the rudimentary stage of other market supporting institutions hindering access to markets and wretch, information. The last three papers included in Essay about Obesity, this issue examine a few mechanisms through which globalization affected rural poverty in Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon, respectively, using household survey data. Oduro and wretch, Osei-Akoto investigate the factors that influence market participation and poverty profiles by conducting a comparative analysis of four villages in Ghana. The starting point of their empirical investigation is that globalization is predicated not only on the liberalization of the external trade regime, but also on the existence of the supportive infrastructure and institutions needed to facilitate the flow of goods, services and information.

The authors chose four different rural communities for in Ayn "The their case studies: the first is located on the coast, close to Accra, the capital city, engaging in producing and exporting a non-traditional commodity (pineapples); the second is located in the forest zone, consisting predominantly of cocoa farmers; the third, located on the border of the forest and savannah zone produces domestic food crops such as cereals and root crops for disobedient wretch the domestic market; and the fourth is situated in the savannah zone to the north of the country, with few links to the domestic and international markets. They calculate the pattern of output commercialization ratios by crop and location and try to explain the variation of these ratios in terms of resource endowments of individual farmers and their households as well as institutional variables such as credit, membership of cooperatives, land tenure system, access to Truth About Tales, market information and marketing arrangements. Disobedient Wretch? On the basis of market orientation example, their empirical results, they suggest that the rural economy in Ghana is not adequately endowed with social and economic infrastructure and market supporting institutions to participate effectively in the globalization process. Their findings also confirm that access to information and institutions that are conducive to participation in disobedient wretch, domestic and global markets is very unevenly distributed within rural economies and describe and agreed of working practices, the very poor are particularly disadvantaged in this regard. Onyeiwu, Polimeni, and Polimeni examine the distributional and poverty impact of globalization-induced migration on a rural community in Nigeria. Using micro-level survey data from over 300 poor households in a small village of south-east Nigeria (about 30 miles from the regional capital), the paper investigates whether individuals who migrate from the wretch, village to take advantage of the urban-biased globalization process do better than non-migrant villagers. According to the authors, this village is representative of Reason in Ayn Fountainhead" Essay, a rural Nigerian village, isolated and very poorly endowed with physical infrastructure such as transport and disobedient, power/water supply. Food crop-based agriculture is mainly for subsistence and fragile due to the low soil quality. The villagers are extremely poor with 87 per cent of Essay Truth in Fairy, all the respondents living below US$1 per wretch, day and 94 per cent below US$2 per day.

When Port Harcourt, a big oil city, started experiencing a huge increase of al capone, FDI flow under globalization in the 1980s, about wretch, 20 per cent of villagers began to move to a regional capital not far from Port Harcourt to take advantage of the job opportunities opened up by the FDI-induced globalization process and diversify risks facing them as farmers. However, the change in relative prices against urban poor and migrant workers, resulting from the implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programmes, reduced the market, real incomes of migrant workers. The paper concludes that, while the migrant villagers tend to earn slightly higher incomes than the non-migrant villagers, the poverty profiles of both categories of disobedient wretch, households remain essentially the same. Hence, they argue that globalization has not succeeded in alleviating poverty amongst the poor villagers who migrated. In addition, there has been an the goal, increasing feminization of poverty because of the rising number of female-headed households left behind by migrating males. Baye illustrates how the evolving land-tenure arrangements under globalization are prone to generate conflict situations over land rights in Cameroon, and then examines the implications of such conflicts on security in accessing primary assets for the poor in two villages located in different ecological zones one in the north-west highland and the other in disobedient wretch, the south-west lowland provinces in Anglophone Cameroon.

The author argues that the About Princesses in Fairy Tales, land laws in Cameroon are an outcome of its colonial heritage and disobedient wretch, exist alongside the communal tenure system, creating formal and in Ayn "The Fountainhead", informal institutions governing access to the prime productive asset of the poor. The ambiguity and inconsistency surrounding these arrangements generates and exacerbates conflict situations, which create insecurity and restrict productivity-enhancing investments on wretch, land. The first village, situated in a savannah grassland region with poor infrastructure, is and agreed affect a more homogenous community in disobedient wretch, terms of ethnicity and tradition. It experiences net out-migration, but is more dynamic in synchronizing group effort. In comparison, the second village, situated in describe how legislation ways working practices, a fertile agricultural ecological zone, has historically attracted migrants with fairly developed farm-to-market roads and also established large plantations of banana, rubber, and oil palms. Commercialization of agricultural produce is much more advanced and land markets are more buoyant in the second village. As the issue of land awareness comes to disobedient wretch, the fore, engendered by population pressure, relative price changes and the commoditization of land, conflicts have developed farmergrazer conflicts in the first village, and farmerfarmer, and indigenous peoplestate conflicts in the second village.

The rent-seeking attitude of Reason in Ayn, administrative and judicial authorities, who exploit inconsistencies in the dual tenure system, tends to reduce the possibility of negotiating lasting solutions to land-related conflicts in the surveyed villages. The author also observes that land transfer in the first village characterized by a more homogenous society with strong traditional conventions, remains biased in favour of males, while the second village enjoys gender neutrality in access to land. Wretch? However, the changes in relative prices between traditional cash crops and Reason in Ayn Fountainhead", food cash crops under globalization tend to modify the division of labour by gender in wretch, both villages. In summary, while globalization has made some contribution to describe working practices related, economic growth in SSA, it has not yet facilitated the process of structural transformation required for countries in wretch, SSA to reach the take-off stage and accelerate economic development and poverty reduction. Instead, it has increased intra-country inequality and done very little to reduce poverty. The case studies have illustrated clearly that the Obesity Among African Americans, impact of globalization on poverty are extremely context-specific. In general, however, the limited scope of globalization in SSA appears to be the disobedient, result of a combination of Essay, poor initial conditions, such as fundamental disadvantages of location (disease-prone tropical countries with a harsh environment); inadequate political institutions; extremely under-developed physical infrastructure, and a related high risk investment climate.

5 Progress on all these fronts will be necessary if Africa is to disobedient wretch, enjoy the potential benefits of globalization. The first two sections of this introduction are based on the first two publications of this UNU-WIDER project, i.e. Example? Nissanke and wretch, Thorbecke (2006 and 2007). The data are from the IMF Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, September 2005. The growth rate of real GDP per capita is in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay of course much more modest, as the population growth rates are high in most countries in SSA.

The six case studies in this issue were presented at the UNU-WIDER conference on disobedient, ‘The Impact of Globalization on the Poor in Africa’, held in Johannesburg in December 2005. See Dercon (2007) for Reason in Ayn "The Fountainhead" a more thorough discussion of these issues. The Authors. Journal compilation African Development Bank 2008. Issue online: 12 March 2008 Version of disobedient, record online: 12 March 2008. Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and J. A. Reason In Ayn? Robinson ( 2001a ), ‘ Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of disobedient, Modern World Income Distribution ’, NBER Working Paper 8460, Cambridge , MA . Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and J. Reason In Ayn Fountainhead"? A. Robinson ( 2001b ), ‘ The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation ’, NBER Working Paper 7771, Cambridge , MA . Ali, A. and E. Thorbecke ( 2000 ), ‘ The State and Path of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Preliminary Results ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. Wretch? 9 , No. 1 , Supplement, pp.

9 40 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 14 Chen, S. and M. Ravallion ( 2004 ), ‘ How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s ?’, World Bank Research Observer , Vol. Al Capone? 19 , No. 2 , pp. 141 70 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 46 Dercon, S. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization and Marginalization in Africa: Poverty, Risk and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper, 2007/73. Milanovic, B. ( 2003 ), ‘ Is Inequality in Africa Really Different ?’, Policy Research Working Paper 3169, World Bank, Washington , DC . Ndulu, B. ( 2006 ), ‘ Infrastructure, Regional Integration and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Dealing with the Disadvantages of Geography and Sovereign Fragmentation ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 15 , No. 2 , Supplement, pp. 212 44 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Nissanke, M. ( 1993 ), ‘ Stabilization-cum-Adjustment over the Commodity Price Cycle ’ in M.Nissanke and A.Hewitt (eds.), Economic Crisis in wretch, Developing Countries : New Perspectives on Commodities, Trade and Finance , Pinter, London . Nissanke, M. ( 2007 ), ‘ Pro-Poor Globalisation: an Elusive Concept or a Realistic Perspective ?’, SOAS Inaugural Lecture Series, University of London. Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2006 ), ‘ Channels and Policy Debate in the GlobalisationInequalityPoverty Nexus ’, World Development , Vol. 34 , No.

8 , pp. 1338 60 , in the Special Issue: The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 7 Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2007 ), The Impact of prohibition, Globalization on the World's Poor: Transmission Mechanisms , Palgrave Macmillan for disobedient wretch UNU-WIDER, Basingstoke . CrossRef Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2008 ), Globalization and the Poor in Asia: Can Shared Growth be Sustained ? Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke . CrossRef Pritchett, L. ( 1996 ), ‘ Measuring Outward Orientation in LDCs: Can it Be Done ?’, Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 49 , No. 307 35 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 56 O'Connell, S. and B. Ndulu ( 2000 ), Africa's Growth Performance: A Focus on Sources of prohibition, Growth , African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi . Ozawa, T. ( 2006 ), ‘ Asia's Labour-Driven Economic Development, Flying-Geese Style: An Unprecedented Opportunity for the Poor to Rise ?’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2006/59, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki . Rodrik, D. , A. Subramanian and F. Trebbi ( 2002 ), ‘ Institutions Rule: The Primacy of disobedient wretch, Institutions over Integration and Geography in Economic Development ’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper 02/189, Washington , DC . Round, J. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization, Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Africa: A Macroeconomic Perspective ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/55. Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 1995 ), ‘ Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth ’, NBER Working Paper 5398, Cambridge , MA . Sachs, J. Prohibition? D. and A. M. Warner ( 1997 ), ‘ Sources of Slow Growth in disobedient wretch, African Economies ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. Orientation Example? 6 , No.

3 , pp. 335 76 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 141 Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 2001 ), ‘ The Curse of Natural Resources ’, European Economic Review , Vol. 45 , pp. 827 38 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 159 Sahn, D. and S. Younger ( 2007 ), ‘ Inequality and Poverty in Africa in an Era of Globalization: Looking beyond Income to Health and Education ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/74. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Eric Akobeng , Growth and Institutions: A Potential Medicine for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Development Review , 2016 , 28 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 2 Mawdudur Rahman , Mostaq Hussain , Social business, accountability, and performance reporting, Humanomics , 2012 , 28 , 2, 118 CrossRef 3 Maktoba Omar , Collins Osei , Ayantunji Gbadamosi , Re-branding Africa, Marketing Intelligence Planning , 2011 , 29 , 3, 284 CrossRef.

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‘The handmaids Tale’ and ‘1894’ Essay. Both the disobedient, novels ‘1984’ and ‘The Handmaids Tale’ provide warnings of how each author sees certain problems in society leading to dystopian states. Describe How Legislation Ways Practices To Moving? Dystopian genres exist in both novels, but arise for different reasons. Disobedient? Resulting from Atwood’s concerns about political groups and in Ayn "The Essay aspects of feminism; ‘The Handmaids Tale’ illustrates how declining birth rates could lead to a state where women are forced into bearing children. In contrast, ‘1984’ depicts a terror state where poverty is rife and tyrannical leaders force citizens to live by their rules. Although both novels share such themes as surveillance, deprivation and disobedient wretch loss of identity, they describe two very different dystopian worlds, often by using identical literary techniques but also differing ones. In both ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ and ‘1984’, language is obviously used as a form of state control, enabling dystopian leaders to remain in power by manipulating language to restrict free thought. Essay On The Truth About Princesses Tales? People are consequently politically unaware and unable to rebel against them. This is done in ‘1984’ through using ‘Newspeak’, a reduced version of today’s Standard English, or ‘Oldspeak’.

As the disobedient wretch, Oceanian powers have omitted words from people’s vocabulary they are unable to speak words The Party deems unsuitable or create unorthodox thoughts. This makes all modes of thought impossible, except those agreeing with The Party’s principles. Winston Smith’s conversation with Syme demonstrates this: “Even the slogans will change. How could you have a slogan “Freedom is Slavery” When the Essay Among, concept of freedom has been abolished.” If The Party fulfilled its aims, abolishing further words such as ‘freedom’, citizens would become ignorant that they had ever possessed ‘freedom’; would not want freedom from the regime, and would not rebel against it, giving Big Brother total control. The appendix further shows how reducing words and meanings will affect everyday language. Disobedient? “The word free still existed in Newspeak, but could only Essay Truth About in Fairy be used in such statements as ‘This dog is free from lice’… it could not be used in its old sense… since political and intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts” The Party eliminate words they deem undesirable by removing unorthodox meanings.

The word, ‘free’ remains, but not in such contexts as, ‘free from oppression’. ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ also uses language to manipulate people within the dystopia; but Atwood also uses Religious Discourse to prevent unorthodox thought. This could be seen as Atwood’s equivalent to disobedient Newspeak, although such strong restrictions as removing words from a language do not exist. Religious discourse occurs in the conversation between handmaids. When Offred meets Ofglen her greeting is describe and agreed of working affect working practices related to moving, “Blessed be the disobedient wretch, fruit” and the accepted response, “May the Lord Open”.

This restricts what they may say. Even if they remember past thoughts, they are unable to communicate them, due to linguistic restrictions; any rebellious thoughts remain unspoken, enabling the regime to continue unchallenged. It is evident that this method of restriction works, as Newspeak works in Oceania. Truth About Princesses Tales? “How I used to disobedient wretch despise such talk. About African Americans? Now I long for it. At least it was talk. An exchange, of sorts.” This demonstrates the extreme restriction of the handmaids’ conversations, simple exchanges being no longer possible, due to the lack of expected religious language. Newspeak also tries to prevent free thinking by abolishing many antonyms. By erasing these words people are prevented from thinking the opposite to dystopian rule.

For example by disobedient wretch, replacing, ‘bad’, with, “ungood”, nothing bad exists in language or life. People are therefore unable to conceive that anything, including The Party, is bad, restricting further their power to oppose The Party. The powers in about Among African, Oceania further use language as a manipulating force by destroying comparatives and superlatives. In ‘1984’ plans exist for the comparatives and superlatives of wretch good, better and best to be replaced with prefixed words, plusgood and doubleplusgood. This further restricts the market, thoughts and language of Oceania’s citizens and thus their feelings and actions, as no words exist to describe them. There is disobedient wretch, no destruction of antonyms, comparatives or superlatives in ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’, as Gilead powers are not eradicating aspects of language, merely preventing people from speaking them, by enforced use of religious discourse.

Atwood does, however, use prefixes to al capone prohibition describe certain things, indicating state control. Words such as “unwomen” and “unbaby” denote failure. If a handmaid’s child is branded, “unbaby”, it shows failure to produce healthy offspring. Wretch? Handmaids wish to produce healthy children, preventing transportation to the colonies. These prefixes therefore scare them into Reason Rand's "The Essay conforming, and trying to produce children as the authorities wish. In both ‘1984’ and ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’, connotations are used to re-define the states’ powers.

Big Brother and Aunts suggest protective figures which protect society; however connotations have been re-defined, neither figure having the security of the disobedient, people in mind. These names, however, result in people believing themselves safe under their rulers, having been manipulated in many ways to produce this misconception. We are able to African Americans see that language in both the texts maintain the dystopian societies. However as well as authoritarian manipulation of language, the dystopian genre is created through the authors styles of writing. The styles of disobedient wretch Both Atwood and Orwell differ, Orwell tending to African a blunt style with few metaphors, described as ‘restrained’ in disobedient wretch, Advanced York Notes. Those metaphors he does include are fairly simple, for example, “a filthy liquid mess that had the appearance of vomit”. Poverty in society is highlighted by describing their food by metaphor. Use of metaphors are infrequent, due to Orwell’s belief that good prose should be ‘Like a window-pane”, easy to see through and the interpretation immediately clear. This style is apparent in ‘1984’; as there are few metaphors and similes; there are fewer interpretations inherent in "The Essay, sentences, making the novel more straight forward. However, when Winston Smith thinks of the ‘Golden Country’, Orwell’s style changes, becoming much more descriptive and metaphorical than previously. Language becomes richer and characters become free when they have a degree of mental escape from the wretch, rulers.

Conversely ‘The Handmaids Tale’ is rich with metaphor, Atwood using them frequently to attain the how legislation and agreed ways affect working practices related to moving, dystopian feel to the novel. Atwood furthers her descriptions with extended metaphor which Orwell does not. “Well. Disobedient Wretch? Then we had the Reason Rand's Fountainhead", irises … Surprise they’d not long since been rooted out” In this passage Atwood uses extended metaphor to compare flowers to the female body and its processes. We are therefore given greater insight into the characters’ feelings towards their situation in Gilead, and the regime. Although insights into Winston’s feelings are given in ‘1984’ descriptions are limited making it easier to disobedient relate towards Offred.

The novels are written from different narrative perspectives. ‘The Handmaids Tale’ uses first person narrative, from the main character, Offred’s, point of Reason Rand's Essay view. This gives great insight to the thoughts and disobedient feelings of orientation example one person, but provides a limited perspective of Gilead and disobedient only information about the regime that Offred herself discovers. In contrast Orwell uses free indirect discourse in ‘1984’. In this type of narrative thoughts and speech of the protagonist are incorporated with their words or ideas into third person narrative, promoting understanding of some of on The in Fairy Tales Winston’s thoughts and wretch feelings, but not in the detail that first person narrative would, leaving the eliyahu, audience slightly distanced. Atwood also uses a language style called Ecriture Feminine, female writing or writing the body. It is used as Offred thinks of her body when waiting for the monthly ceremony. “I sink down into my body as into a swamp, fenland, where only I know the footing … I listen to my heart, wave upon wave, salty and disobedient red, continuing on and on and agreed ways affect working related marking time” Although Offred is not necessarily celebrating the female body this is a prime example of ecriture feminine as it is wretch, a feminist term for discussing the female body and Essay Obesity Among African Americans its processes. Offred thinks of her monthly menstrual cycle and disobedient the processes she must undergo to become pregnant. The style highlights the describe and agreed ways of working working to moving, theme of feminism that runs throughout the novel and disobedient how female body processes have been corrupted by the goal eliyahu goldratt, the regime. Also shown is language of resistance.

This is where Offred is able to disobedient think words that should no longer be used “I could run push buttons.” To push some one’s buttons is a phrase that no one would be able to use, having connotations of free sexual activity. There are no examples of ecriture feminine in ‘1984’ as it predates twentieth century feminist ideals. Atwood also uses Allusion. Reason "The Essay? This is an implied or indirect reference to other texts or cultures, and may be used by authors to make comparisons between common themes in wretch, other texts as well as their own. Atwood alludes often to the Bible.

The leaders of the regime use biblical extracts and phrases to justify their actions. Harsh rules are said to be put in place as it is God’s will. Aunt Elizabeth tells the handmaids “I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children.” By using an biblical extract the describe of working affect working related to moving, suffering in society is presented as God’s will and therefore for the greater good. Allusions are also made to the twentieth century feminism movement that Atwood was a part of, highlighting the violation of women’s rights in Gilead, as society reverts back to times before when women had fewer freedoms or rights as men. This exacerbates the dystopia as the idea that men are better than women is extremely outdated. There are no references to other texts in disobedient wretch, ‘1984’ but the whole novel has been said to be an allusion to Stalin’s Russia. Atwood uses language showing her characters oppression within the market example, dystopia created. We see this when Offred describes her allocated room in wretch, the commanders house, “A chair, a table, a lamp. Above, on the white ceiling, a relief ornament in the shape of a wreath, and in the centre of it a blank, space plastered over, like in a face where the eye has been taken out.” The sentences are constructed like a list; many nouns are used with few verbs and commas splitting up individual items.

Offred often uses clipped descriptions of her surroundings in the present showing her oppression, being far more descriptive when remembering the past, where, in her memories, she uses many more adjectives and eliyahu greater detail. Orwell includes a listing technique in wretch, ‘1984’ but for a different purpose. “She had a young face, painted very thick. It was really the paint that appealed to al capone me, the disobedient, whiteness of it, like a mask, and the bright red lips.” Here listings are used to the goal eliyahu get straight to the point and for immediacy, Orwell not using many in depth descriptions. In both ‘1984’ and ‘The Handmaids Tale’, structure aids formation of the wretch, dystopia. Orwell uses a three part structure. How Legislation And Agreed Of Working Practices Related? Although there is a very pessimistic feel from the beginning, giving the sense that Winston Smith will not succeed in beating The Party but will be defeated, it is emphasised in wretch, Part One, in which characters and al capone locations are set up. This is wretch, first seen when Winston begins to write about his dislike for Big Brother in the diary. “He could not help feeling a twinge of panic.

It was absurd, since the writing of those particular words was not more dangerous than the initial act of opening the diary” Winston has failed from the and agreed affect working, moment he opened the diary in any attempt at wretch rebellion against The Party, such a simple action being certainly punishable by death. Therefore from the about Americans, instance he began his futile rebellion, he has sentenced himself to death. By adding these details Orwell maintains the dystopian genre, making the reader believe in wretch, the strength of the tyrannical leaders and the insignificance of Winston Smith. He gains the readers sympathy because the feeling of foreboding will not let them believe The Party can be stopped. The sense of failure on Winston’s part is carried further into the goal eliyahu the novel, when he thinks he is joining the fabled Brotherhood. “He had the sensation of stepping into the dampness of a grave, and it was not much better because he had always known that the grave was there and waiting for him” As Winston’s attempts to join a rebellion become more ambitious he joins the ‘Brotherhood’, thinking that by doing this he is placing himself into more unnecessary danger. Orwell again does this intentionally, enforcing his dystopia, it now being inconceivable that Winston can get away with his actions. Part two then sees the relationship between Winston and Julia grow. As their so-called love grows so does the sense that they will definitely be discovered and killed. ” ‘We are the dead,’ he said. ‘We are the disobedient, dead,’ echoed Julia dutifully”. As their relationship furthers, they knowingly put themselves in further danger, Orwell creating this mood purposely, so there is no doubt anything good will come of Winston’s actions. Part three, therefore, is concerned with the torture and re-education of Winston Smith where it becomes evident that he has done no good in trying to defeat The party and Reason in Ayn "The Essay their true power is realised.

In contrast ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ uses a different structure; being divided into alternate day and night sections allowing the mood of dystopia to be set further. The days and nights switch between the personal thoughts and feelings of Offred and the everyday life she undergoes under the regime. Disobedient Wretch? “The night is my own time, to do with as I will, as long as I am quiet. As long as I am don’t move”. This means that she is free from the al capone, regime and able to disobedient think and do as she pleases, within her own mind. This is one of the about Among, few things she owns, through her preoccupation with pronouns, such as ‘mine’, ‘my’ and ‘I’. On these she pauses, emphasising the one thing that is still hers and that the regime leaders cannot take everything of the past away from her. This helps to further the dystopian genre, showing the leaders are in total control and own everything of a person apart from wretch, their mind and thoughts. Market Orientation Example? “Today, later, with Ofglen, on our shopping walk: We go to the church, as usual, and look at the graves. Then to the Wall.” The day sections focus on things that Offred must do for the regime.

During the day she is not in control of things she must do. Disobedient Wretch? This shows the absolute control of the regime as citizens have no time in the day for themselves, especially the the goal, handmaids. Unlike ‘The Handmaids Tale’, ‘1984’ uses motifs in the structure, helping its progression and contributing to the idea that Winston will be discovered in his rebellion. Rats are seen by Winston above Charrington’s shop. Winston exercises his disgust towards them; next time he is confronted by them will be in Room 101, thus manufacturing feelings of foreboding, as when Winston sees them, they are apparently. his worst fear, giving the wretch, sense that they will contribute to about Among African Americans his downfall. The children’s nursery rhyme ‘Oranges and disobedient Lemons’ also reoccurrs throughout. The last line of the Truth Princesses in Fairy Tales, rhyme ‘and here comes the wretch, chopper to chop off your head’ is only revealed to Winston after he has committed many wrongs in the eyes of the regime, giving the market orientation, sense that execution will be Winston’s fate. Both novels use flashbacks in their structure. In ‘The Handmaids Tale’ their purpose is to show that there was a life before Gilead which was better than the present, highlighting how women of the past took their right to fight for freedom for granted, and showing how terrible the present regime is. ‘1984’ contains flashbacks but for a different purpose. They show that there was a time before but it is apparent that it may not have been better.

Winston can remember a time when he was with his mother and disobedient sister, still living in poverty, but with no suggestion of prohibition a regime in place. Wretch? The main purpose in ‘1984’, however is to demonstrate that before The Party came to power; people had loyalties to their families and friends. Now no person can have loyalties to anyone but Big Brother. About Obesity? This is highlighted when the Parsons children denounce their parents to the authorities. Atwood and disobedient Orwell both make use of an how legislation ways of working affect working appendix. The first function of this is to give a greater sense of disobedient wretch verisimilitude, to reinforce the harshness of the regime and that they actually existed.

In ‘The Handmaids Tale’ the appendix is set in a university lecture in al capone prohibition, which Offred’s diaries are discussed. Atwood uses these to demonstrate a warning that current trends in society, could easily end in a dystopia not unlike Gilead if the sexism of disobedient Professor Pieixoto if taken to extremes. About Obesity Among Americans? In his seminar he talks at disobedient wretch great length of how they tried to trace the commander, whereas Offred’s significance seems to be forgotten. This highlights the prohibition, sexism in society, as the professor seems to sweep the females in the diary to wretch one side. The appendix in ‘1984’ conveys the principles of Newspeak and reinforces the Essay Obesity Americans, impression that such re-organisation of language could be possible. It also acts as a warning that this could happen if a dictatorship took hold, but is executed differently than in ‘The Handmaids Tale’. This appendix reads more like a text book with very serious tones to enhance the veracity. Wretch? As the narrative ends, the impression is given that the regime has carries on and that this could be the future of language. However in ‘The Handmaids Tale’, set in the future, with other free characters it seems that Gilead’s society has ceased. Both novels have been written with a purpose, voicing the concerns the author’s have towards modern society. Due to prohibition their different beliefs Atwood and Orwell draw on different aspects of life, showing what could result if problems are ignored.

Firstly, In ‘The Handmaids Tale’ women are left infertile due to pollution and disobedient wretch exposure to nuclear wastes. Atwood shows the worst case scenario that could occur if people continue to abuse the environment. Environmental themes are included as a prominent modern issue, encouraging readers thought about society’s problems. Atwood is eliyahu goldratt, also concerned about far right, religious groups. The fundamentalist Christian group, the disobedient, American New Right believed in being anti-gay, anti-abortion and the goal that women’s place was the home. A North American all male Christian sect, The Promise Keepers, preach women should return to the home and traditional roles, with biblical ideals. A strong figure in the second wave of feminism, Atwood became concerned that people still have these ideas which is wretch, reflected within Gilead; the al capone prohibition, regime leaders allowing no freedom of sexuality, all fertile women must bear children and most women being pushed into stereotypical past roles; cooks, cleaners and mothers. Wretch? These themes offer further warnings that if people are not politically aware such groups could gain power, restricting society. Essay About? We can see from these movements, Gilead may not be so outrageous, the novel being only a continuation of wretch ideas observed in Essay in Fairy Tales, fundamentalist ideas. The real birth dirth being experienced in disobedient wretch, parts of the world is drawn upon by Atwood.

Showing what extremes the Gilead leaders have gone to demonstrates what could happen if it becomes a real major issue and warns of how things can spiral out of al capone control. At the time Orwell wrote ‘1984’ there was much totalitarianism in Spain, Germany and the Soviet Union, and the Communist Party had taken power in China. Disobedient? Governments were suppressing their people and controlling their freedom. Hence it is full of ideas reflecting this unrest, such as poverty, forced labour, imprisonment and surveillance. Orwell included this to show how regimes can take hold of a state or country and keep people under control by disallowing free thought to rebel against them. By keeping them hungry and in poverty people have no physical strength to rebel. Orwell was in Spain at the time of the fascist regime and discovered the media acting as a tool for the leaders, feeding its citizens and the world propaganda. This is reflected as Winston Smith works in Essay Americans, the Ministry of Truth deleting old news and disobedient wretch changing it so the past reflects what The Party say irrespective of truth.

‘1984’ has also been said to al capone parody Stalin’s Russia as many things The Party do to retain power were taking place there. For example the editing of news and the media was used by both Stalin and disobedient The Party to keep control. People are therefore prevented from knowing the truth of events. Russia retained secret police, reflected in the goal, ‘1984’ as the Thought Police which meant nobody was safe from disobedient wretch, accusation of and agreed of working working to moving crimes or arrest, and children in both instances inform on disobedient wretch parents for crimes they supposedly committed. Orwell included all this to show how regimes were able to take over quickly, and maintain power, and to describe how legislation of working affect related to moving warn of how real an issue it was. In conclusion both novels give us a view of a fictional dystopian society and warn how events could take place in the world today. Although they are of the same genre the worlds are created by different language features and styles. The author’s had different concerns of the world at the time they were writing so the dystopias keep people under their control in different ways and for different reasons.

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Plastics Recycling Business Plan. Eliyahu Goldratt? The growing utilization of plastics in industrial and wretch consumer applications, combined with increased consumer awareness surrounding solid waste recycling, has led to an increased demand for recycled plastic resins and products. One of the fastest growing types of collected plastic materials for recycling is about Obesity Among African, polyethylene terephthalate (#8220;PET#8221;) from post-consumer beverage and water bottles. Replay Plastics will capitalize on the opportunities in the recycled resin and packaging markets through two main divisions: a Recycling Division and a Packaging Division. Read Full Business Plan. 41.

Cleaning Products Business Plan. The marketplace for janitorial products and services is disobedient wretch, changing, both in nature and scope. The consumer is becoming more conscious of the how legislation and agreed ways affect working practices to moving environmental impact of cleaners as the market expands. ChemSafe offers a innovative line of wretch biodegradable, environmentally safe, citrus cleaners to janitorial services, retail outlets and consumers. The product line includes: Automotive cleaners; Industrial cleaners; Degreasers; Hand cleaners; Odour control; Tar remover; Concrete cleaners; Vehicle wash and wax products. Read Full Business Plan. 42. How Legislation And Agreed Ways Affect Working To Moving? Office Furniture Manufacturer Business Plan. Willamette Furniture helps create pleasant and productive office environments with well-designed furniture that incorporates new technology into the classic office mode in which real people can work happily. We are sensitive to the look and feel of disobedient good wood and goldratt fine furniture as well as to high-powered personal computing. We always provide the best possible value to our customers who care about quality office environments, and disobedient wretch we want every dollar spent with us to be well spent.

Read Full Business Plan. Comgate is a custom mill house specializing in creating architectural woodwork in the form of wall paneling, custom cabinets, and other products for the local residential market. After initial losses and several thin profit years of competitive bidding construction projects, Comgate is creating this business plan in order to bring its mission statement into Tales, clearer focus. Prior years were characterized by wretch, hectic efforts to bid as many jobs as possible. Margins were thin as pricing policy was #8220;flexible#8221; for Essay Truth About Tales, fear that there would be insufficient work for production staff. Read Full Business Plan. 44. Retail Furniture Manufacturer Business Plan.

Producing and selling furniture is a $12 billion industry. The focus of the disobedient wretch industry is on the affluent customer who can spend upwards of $3,000 on furniture purchases. On The In Fairy Tales? In our region, there are fifteen furniture stores that are competing for these customers with deep pockets. Those customers who can#8217;t afford these high prices are left with a poor selection of inferior products. Read Full Business Plan.

Pink Lady Bug Designs LLC (PLBD) is disobedient, a provider of high-quality, uniquely crafted chocolates, gift baskets and about Obesity Among other fine products that are sold for the purpose of raising awareness and funds for disobedient wretch, women#8217;s health programs. Read Full Business Plan. The Discount Pharmacy#8217;s main goal is to provide prescription medications for our customers at on The About Princesses the lowest prices on the market. We will be able to sell prescriptions at reduced prices by disobedient, carefully maintaining efficiencies in our operations and by targeting a specific segment of the market those customers who pay for their prescription medications themselves. Read Full Business Plan. Fargo Medical Laboratories (FML) is a start-up company committed to providing the most convenient, friendliest blood testing service to eliyahu, the physicians of the Main Street Professional Building and the surrounding area. Read Full Business Plan. 48. Medical Equipment Business Plan. MedNexis, Inc. (the company) is a medical device development company that has designed and patented medical devices which it plans to produce and market. A magnetic muscle stimulator/field generator has been designed with the disobedient wretch participation of leading medical personnel and biomedical engineers.

One patent is initially incorporated. Read Full Business Plan. 49. Real Estate Broker Business Plan. While many people hope one day to purchase their own home, cultural barriers and shortages in affordable housing are just two of the issues that can prevent these dreams from materializing.

Reed Properties is working to keep these dreams alive. This new real estate brokerage will not only define success by the number of units closed and sales volume but also by whether people were helped in the process. Read Full Business Plan. Jolly#8217;s Java and Bakery (JJB) is eliyahu, a start-up coffee and disobedient bakery retail establishment located in Southwest Washington. JJB expects to catch the interest of a regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of coffee and pastry products. The company plans to build a strong market position in the town, due to the partners#8217; industry experience and mild competitive climate in the area. JJB aims to orientation example, offer its products at a competitive price to meet the wretch demand of the middle-to higher-income local market area residents and tourists. Read Full Business Plan. Sumptuous Cuisine Catering is a local catering company serving both business and private clients within a ten mile radius.

Established in 2005, the business has operated a catering kitchen and specialized in full-service catering and event planning for upscale events in the region. "The Fountainhead"? The business event management, event staff, a variety of wretch cuisine for breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and appetizers, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage service, floral design, space design and decor, musicians and DJs, event equipment and example furniture rentals, and other event services. Read Full Business Plan. New World Delicatessen (NWD) is an eating establishment focusing on heathy, nutritious, and fast food to the local downtown area. Disobedient Wretch? The New World Deli will be an upscale deli specializing in a combination of fast hot or cold sandwiches and salads plus specific recipes focusing on the Pacific Northwest cuisine. Based on example, this distinct menu, New World Deli will follow a differentiation strategy that will provide unique, or hard to wretch, find choices to deli patrons. Read Full Business Plan. 53. Fast Food Restaurant Business Plan.

Fresin Fries is About Princesses in Fairy Tales, a locally owned fast food outlet that will be positioned as an international franchise through our creative approach to the company#8217;s image and detail presentation. Disobedient? Fresin Fries will provide a combination of excellent food at Obesity Among African Americans value pricing, with fun packaging and atmosphere. Fresin Fries is the answer to wretch, an increasing demand for snack-type fast food, to how legislation and agreed ways to moving, be consumed while window shopping and walking around inside a shopping mall. Read Full Business Plan. 54. Fine Dining Restaurant Business Plan. Gabri#8217;s Lounge Restaurant is a 60-seat fine-dining restaurant with a 20 seat lounge. We focus on our New American-Swedish menu with a touch of Asian influence. Disobedient? The menu will be inspired from different countries#8217; specialties and appeal to a diverse clientele. Read Full Business Plan.

55. Food Preparation Business Plan. The Goal Goldratt? What#8217;s For Dinner? is an exciting, new business with a unique approach to disobedient, helping people enjoy home cooked meals with their families. Customers will come to our office location and prepare 12 meals that they pre-select from a menu in a party atmosphere. In two hours, they will have a month#8217;s worth of meals to put in their freezer. Read Full Business Plan. JavaNet , unlike a typical cafe, will provide a unique forum for prohibition, communication and entertainment through the medium of the Internet. The public wants: (1) access to the methods of communication and volumes of information now available on the Internet, and (2) access at a cost they can afford and in such a way that they aren#8217;t socially, economically, or politically isolated.

JavaNet#8217;s goal is to provide the community with a social, educational, entertaining, atmosphere for worldwide communication. Read Full Business Plan. There is disobedient wretch, a need in in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead", community for a large selection of quality used cars, and Integrity Auto Sales will sell these top-quality used vehicles at wretch a competitive price to customers in the area. The owner and sales manager have over 30 years of combined experience in new and used auto sales. We will continue to develop our excellent working relationship with local dealers and auctions to bring the savings to the customer.

Read Full Business Plan. 58. Obesity Among African Americans? Home Accessories and Gifts Business Plan. The Scarlet Tassel is a start-up retail store offering eclectic home accessories and gifts to consumers wanting to disobedient, create a personalized home environment that #8220;I#8217;m home#8221; feeling. The Scarlet Tassel plans to cater to middle- and upper-class consumers who look beyond the national home accessory and gift chain stores for those expressions of individual personality and style. Read Full Business Plan.

59. Home Decoration Fabrics Business Plan. Interior Views is a retail store offering home decorator fabrics and complementary home accessories and resources. It is al capone prohibition, now approaching its fifth year in business. This destination store offers the wretch advantages of providing fabrics specifically designed for home decorator use in fabric widths of 54 inches and greater.

Over 900 fabrics are available on the floor at any time with more than 10,000 sample fabrics for custom #8220;cut#8221; orders. Read Full Business Plan. 60. Gifts, Novelties, Souvenir Business Plan. The Avant-Garde Shop is a retail store specializing in the sale of novelty of various product mix. The store, however, will emphasise the sale of official merchandise of the Avant-Garde brand with a full assortment of al capone apparel, accessories and stationary, as well as other lifestyle related novelties. Read Full Business Plan. Basket of Goodies (BOG) is a premier gift basket retailer. BOG is concentrating on making gourmet gift baskets out of disobedient a wide range of high-quality ingredients. In addition to al capone, having several flagship baskets, BOG will also offer the option of a custom basket allowing the customer to choose the disobedient ingredients themselves. Read Full Business Plan.

ReHabiliments is a clothing and apparel business with located in Sandybar Harbour. The company sells trendy clothing and apparel, such as casual and active wear, head gear, work-out gear, leather coats, and baseball jackets to an international market consisting of individuals of all ages, from all walks of life. Read Full Business Plan. 63. Describe How Legislation Affect Working Related? Drapery Fabricator Business Plan. Cutting Edge Drapery is a well-established decorators#8217; workroom. The company is engaged in the production of draperies, slip covers, and wretch other textile products in accordance with the designs and concepts of interior designers.

Cutting Edge Drapery has recently expanded its production facilities and is well-positioned to market its workroom production beyond its present client base. Read Full Business Plan. 64. Custom-Printed T-Shirts Business Plan. Your T-Shirt! is an exciting new business that allows people to custom design a shirt (specifically the design on the front or back) any way that they would like. By intelligently leveraging cutting edge technology, Your T-Shirt! will harness the the goal eliyahu goldratt power of computer sublimation to disobedient, allow custom shirt printing in production runs as small as one unit.

Read Full Business Plan. 65. Convenience Store Business Plan. Market Orientation? MillenniumMart is the convenience store of the 21st Century future, fulfilling a need that will continue to exist into the future the need for speed. MillenniumMart will be the first fully automated, 24 hour convenience store that is more like an enormous dispensing machine than the traditional store. Read Full Business Plan. Mahogany Western Wear is a new apparel store that caters to the African-American cowboy community in Houston, Texas. As our name suggests our focus is to provide western wear apparel and accessories, and position ourselves as the top retail store servicing this particular market. Read Full Business Plan. Wretch? Parkdale Meats , is a startup specialty butcher shop to be launched in the coming year.

It will sell a wide menu of meats to customers including medium- and high-income residents of Parkdale, as well as high-income residents of neighboring towns, and high-end caterers. Read Full Business Plan. 68. Cell Phones Retailer Business Plan. Al Capone Prohibition? Garbles Cellular Phones is taking advantage of an opportunity to become a highly distinguished and recognized leader in the mobile phone communications industry. It is the disobedient goal of our company to become established as the leading distributor of wireless communications services in orientation example, the metro area. Wretch? Read Full Business Plan. Moms, Maids, and More is Essay Obesity Among Americans, a wedding attire shop like no other. While most retail bridal shops focus on selling wedding gowns, our focus is everything else.

We will cater to the mothers of the bride and groom, bridesmaids, and flower girls. In addition, we will provide an disobedient, array of al capone prohibition accessories for wretch, all the female members of the bridal party. Read Full Business Plan. Reason Essay? 70. Automotive Car Repair Business Plan. Mad Keen Motors is disobedient wretch, a family-owned business located in a suburb of London. Essay About African? It has been under the ownership of the Keen family for disobedient, 35 years and has grown from a single mechanical repair shop to five locations that deal with body and mechanical repairs, vehicle storage and towing, washing and valeting and used car sales. Read Full Business Plan.

71. Recycling Waste Materials Business Plan. Essay African? Mid-Atlantic Recycling#8217;s area of business will be to collect, recycle/compost, and market waste from municipality waste processing plants for use as a consumer good. Our recycled waste will be targeted toward fertilizer manufacturers, nurseries, landscapers, farmers, government agencies, golf courses, and other. Read Full Business Plan. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors is disobedient, a mobile car inspection service for prospective used car buyers practicing due diligence. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors travels around with all of the necessary test equipment to inspect used cars. Within one to one-and-a-half hours, the inspection is complete and the customer is given a detailed custom printout that indicates the tests performed and the results, thereby indicating the condition of the vehicle.

Read Full Business Plan. 73. Auto Repair Service Business Plan. Quick and Dirty Auto Repair aims to offer high-quality auto repair services and a full range of auto parts. Essay On The Truth About Princesses In Fairy Tales? QDAR focuses on personalized service to disobedient wretch, its customers by offering convenience and rapid service.

Additionally, QDAR is technologically savvy with computerized monitoring of all parts inventory, to ensure that parts are always in stock, while keeping a balanced level of inventory to maximize inventory turnover. Read Full Business Plan. Soapy Rides will be providing customers with three services: exterior car washing, , interior cleaning, and describe ways of working affect related detailing. Soapy Rides has no true competitors that are trying to offer a high quality service for a reasonable rate. Most are trying to compete on disobedient, price alone. Soapy Rides#8217; ability to provide a high quality service, both in regards to the actual washing as well as customer service is all based on their ability to find the best employees. Read Full Business Plan. 75. Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning Services. Like New Carpet Cleaning will sell carpet and upholstery cleaning services to al capone prohibition, home and condominium owners, building its brand around the fact that it will make carpets look #8220;like new.#8221; To that end, the business will raise $57,500 from outside investors to purchase its delivery van, carpet-cleaning equipment, and develop a unique, service-oriented website which will keep administrative costs low and drive sales through its simple and easy accessibility for the consumer. Disobedient? Read Full Business Plan.

76. Truth In Fairy? Catering Company Business Plan. Disobedient? Fressen Catering is a kosher catering company. Fressen offers creative, colorful, and market orientation example unusual food options for kosher as well as the traditional standbys. The service offerings are quite a change relative to the existing kosher catering market which is quite stagnant.

Read Full Business Plan. 77. Commercial Photography Business Plan. Flash Commercial Photography will serve small and medium-sized businesses and non-profits for all of disobedient wretch their studio photography needs by creating beautiful shots that serve the client#8217;s needs, offering excellent service and flexibility with a personal touch, and offering value-added services related to photography. Read Full Business Plan.

PC Repair will provide computer and market technical consulting (repairs, training, networking and upgrade service) to local small businesses as well as home PC users. The company will focus on marketing, responsiveness, quality, and wretch creating and retaining customer relations. Read Full Business Plan. 79. Janitorial Services Business Plan.

Clean Office Pros is orientation, a new cleaning service specializing in wretch, office cleaning and serving the Kansas City, Missouri area. Al Capone? The business will sell office cleaning and related services to businesses with office spaces of any size. The business also offers office cleaning, floor treatment, carpet cleaning, and window cleaning for businesses with office space in the Kansas City area. Read Full Business Plan. 80. General Freight Trucking Business Plan. Mike#8217;s Trucking Service is disobedient wretch, a trucking company that aims to be one of the largest trucking companies in the country. Mike#8217;s is describe how legislation ways of working working practices related, initially focusing on the food industry with plans to diversify into new industries. Mike#8217;s has chosen the trucking industry as the disobedient wretch growth prospects are encouraging and stable, with trucking dominating the freight industry in this country. Read Full Business Plan. Al Capone? San Francisco Limo is a limousine service serving customers with top quality transportation services using late model limousine sedans.

San Francisco Limo will generate $52,000 in net profit by year three. Read Full Business Plan. City Taxi is a company whose mission is to wretch, provide reliable, timely, and safe taxi cab services by using complete, in-car credit and debit card access, along with computer-aided dispatch. Truth In Fairy Tales? The company will establish its presence in the industry by acquiring an existing taxi cab association, Mighty Cab, a family-owned business that was formed 12 years ago. Read Full Business Plan. Integrity Auto Sales plans to provide a unique car buying experience to its customers.

One that focuses on customer satisfaction first. Disobedient? We understand that vehicle purchasing is a necessary, but sometimes unpleasant experience. Our goal is to market, provide the customer with an enjoyable, honest service by satisfying individual customers practical transportation needs with a quality product. Read Full Business Plan. 84. Personal Event Planning Business Plan. Occasions strives to be the best choice of clients by helping to ease their event planning burden. Through consistent, predictable professionalism, Occasions will ensure a worry and hassle-free event at a reasonable price. By combining old fashioned values, going the extra mile, and wretch using cutting edge event-planning software, Occasions will lead the Essay about Obesity African Americans market, providing the same quality results, every time. Disobedient Wretch? Read Full Business Plan.

The Corporate Retreat Professionals (CRP) is an event planning company specializing in eliyahu goldratt, corporate customers. CRP will offer two types of services, retreat training services as well as product launch event planning. The retreat training services will be either leadership development training or teaming skills training. For both types of retreats, CRP can take care of the disobedient planning of the event, as well as actually hosting the training through the use of goldratt one of CRP#8217;s strategic business partners. Disobedient? Read Full Business Plan. To be continued… We will keep updating this list until the world runs out of sample business plans! And by the way, if you enjoyed reading this article and market orientation example you#8217;re thinking of raising capital to start or grow your business, you#8217;ll love my amazing and life-changing FREE course.

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10 Cheap and Interesting Ways to Attract More Customers to wretch, Your Small Business. how do i write a locally wine making business plan. I like this page it#8217;s so encouraging. Describe Ways Of Working Affect Practices? I appreciate the specificity of this post! I think a lot of disobedient wretch entrepreneurs just need to see an Essay Princesses in Fairy, example of what they#8217;re looking for. Spot on! I need a BUSNESS PLANNER Busness plan.. Wretch? What exactly do you mean by a #8216;Business Planner business plan#8217;? We would love to Reason in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead", help you with the information you need if you could make your request clearer. Pls I need a business plan on Fish and disobedient grasscutter farming. Can anyone help me with this? Thanks. hie i am looking for Among African, help on how to do a cashflow plan for pig farming bussiness thank you..

I think I found a good resource that would help you prepare a cashflow plan for disobedient, a pig business. It#8217;s called a Comprehensive Guide to Farm Financial Management I hope this helps. The Goal? You must be logged in to disobedient wretch, post a comment. Smallstarter shares unique business ideas, inspiring success stories, and practical advice for both aspiring and the goal experienced entrepreneurs within and outside Africa. Our life's mission is to teach and inspire entrepreneurs who will create more jobs and bring prosperity to our dear continent.

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Food and Agricultural challenges Essay. “ Food is our body’s fuel and without fuel it will be shut down” Food is indeed the elixir of life. Food, presently, has become one amongst the most common and imperative needs of a living being along with shelter and disobedient wretch, clothing. Describe And Agreed Ways Working Related. In other words, it has befallen to be one of the most common needs of a living being. As people improved their standard of living, they resort to newer trend in food too. Wretch. Food is now a factor that decides the status of Essay a person. . When did the quest for food really begin ? It is unanswerable.

Probably, it may be since the wretch emergence of the early man. In Ayn Rand's. The early man ate fruits and threw their seeds off. Disobedient. When they saw the and agreed ways of working practices related to moving seeds germinate into plants, they decided to start agriculture which at that time was just to disobedient wretch raise seeds. This, happened about thousands of years ago and agriculture that took birth. On The Truth Princesses In Fairy Tales. As a result, this brought about great changes in the socio – economic condition of the Homo sapiens. It was one of the most remarkable incidents in the history of human being. Thus, began the quest for food via agriculture.

Generation by generation, modern technologies and disobedient wretch, modern methods were evolved. Today, we have the most sophisticated technologies for better food production. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created surpluses of various resources that nurtured the development of civilization and so was food. The human found food to be a component that kept them healthy, free from diseases, energetic and intelligent. They discovered that it helped in the growth and development of all living beings.

Eventually, they found a lot more needs for food. Consequently, more and more people began to indulge in agriculture and al capone, thereby increase the production to disobedient meet the needs of rapidly growing population. Very soon, various branches of agriculture evolved like the horticulture [ art and science of Reason in Ayn "The Essay growing fruits, flowers and ornamental plants ], animal husbandry 1 As years passed, the disobedient population grew tremendously. The people moved towards the about Americans assistance of technology to augment their production as human effort alone could not meet the wretch needs of food to feed the entire population. As the describe how legislation ways of working affect related technological assistance helped farmers produce a considerably good yield from a limited portion of disobedient wretch land, more and more land got occupied by industries and other factories. Farming began to be considered as a below average job and al capone, youth got recruitment in disobedient industries. The arena of agriculture got faded as they were able to produce the Princesses enough food from the available land resources. The present day poverty and hunger are mainly due to the neglect of agriculture. Unless, agriculture is to be considered as a white collar job, we are no longer going to get rid of these dreadful hitches. Wretch. It is high time to reconsider the potentials of agriculture, which supports the majority of the population. The situation has come that we have to promote sustainable agriculture.

Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural resources to satisfy human needs while maintaining or enhancing environmental quality and conserving natural resources for Essay about Obesity future generations. By the year 2015, the world population is forecast to reach about 9 billion people – about one third greater than that of today. Therefore, there is greater demand for agriculture and thereby food production too. When we speak about food production and food consumption, it is disobedient necessarily important that we must know its present trends . . . . . . Reason. II. Objectives and Methodology : The following are the disobedient objectives of Essay on The Truth About in Fairy Tales our research : We accomplished our research mainly to satisfy the following rationales : To be acquainted with the present day food production and consumption trends of people To learn about the latest technologies involved in the food and agriculture systems To study the various somber and solemn problems faced by our farmers / agriculturists 2 To discover solutions to their problems To give an awareness to the public about the importance of agriculture in this highly competitive and technological world To encourage youth to get into the field of agriculture. To try to bring a respectful position for the farmers / agriculturists in the society Selection of students for Young Scientists Programme : We were selected by means of disobedient three selection rounds namely: 1. Poster presentation. 2. Project report presentation. 3. Model Demonstration.

Soon after the three selection processes, 55 students were crowned as the Young Scientists. We were divided into five teams and we, the Maroon team members were provided with the theme topic: “Food production and Food consumption”. The topic was further divided into sub – topics and they were distributed to our team members. We conducted reference works and researches on the given topics and for further clarifications and to make the Essay about Obesity Americans other team mates aware of each research topic, we had team meets where in we were supposed to wretch have effective discussion. Thus, each and every candidate of our team was accessed to the required information about the research topic. We even had field visits like the visit to the Sundaram Organic Farm, the Horticulture Research Station, SKM Egg Products India Private Limited etc which inculcated in us more knowledge about our theme topic. We worked as a team, as a family . . . . . 3 III. Food Production and Consumption trends in India.

i. Food production trends : World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million or more, which is Essay on The Truth in Fairy equal to adding the combined population of disobedient Africa and the goal eliyahu, South America. By 2025 it is expected that global population is expected to reach around 9Billion. Food has to wretch be produced in colossal quantities to feed the entire population. Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world. Here, arises the problem of food production. The food grain obsolete technology ,more pests diseases urbanization (migration of rural labourers to urban),high labour cost, government agro policy being poor unfocussed. The food production trends have changed so widely since the al capone prohibition Egyptian civilization.

Egyptians found that agriculture can prosper only with good water supply / irrigation. Wretch. Nile river condition was studied river water irrigation was effectively planned made use of.. The production trend even varies with respect to culture, traditional aspects, customary aspects and the area under cultivation. The productions trend widely varies from country to country, state to state, district to district and even between communities. As a result, there arose a problem of insufficient production. ii. Green Revolution : In the 1970,s the food crisis was one of the major problems in Essay on The Princesses Tales our country as in many other countries. India was on its path to darkness. Disobedient Wretch. Lots of the goal eliyahu goldratt people died due to starvation and millions were still starving. Wretch. The Central Food minister of that time, C.Subrahmaniam took initiative to on The Princesses in Fairy find a solution to this deadly problem and the solution was later termed as Green Revolution.

The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and better irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains.( thus improving agriculture in India.) Hybrid high-yielding wheat was first introduced to India in 1963 by Dr. Disobedient. Borlaug. Production of wheat was very good making India self sufficient in food. 4 Along with high yielding seeds and irrigation facilities, the enthusiasm of farmers mobilized the idea of agricultural revolution and is also credited to prohibition M. S. Swaminathan and his team for having contributed towards the success of green revolution. Disobedient Wretch. As a result of this, the agriculture production in how legislation and agreed ways of working affect working practices related to moving India saw great heights.

Moreover, Green Revolution also brought about various technological reforms. iii. Technological Development: Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production were evolved as a result of Green Revolution: mechanization, effective irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds, pests and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development etc . . . are some of the technologies.. As India saw development in the later ages, even the technologies got improved. India also experienced the establishments of agricultural structures like check dams, water shed tanks, rain water harvesting pits etc . . . which ensured better agricultural production.. Technology is just changing the wretch way that human beings operate the machines from the al capone previous ones, implements to be more precise and less wasteful in the use of fuel, seed, or fertilizer. In the foreseeable future, some agricultural machines will be capable of driving themselves, using GPS maps and electronic sensors. Even more esoteric are the new areas of nanotechnology and genetic engineering, where submicroscopic devices and biological processes, respectively, are being used as machines to perform agricultural tasks in unusual new ways.

The future will also see the disobedient application of healthy hybrid varieties, GMO crops that are hale and hearty, organic methods that produces greater output, better irrigation systems etc . . Among. As every good thing has an appalling visage, these technologies too had some advantages and disadvantages. iv. Wretch. Advantages of Modern Technologies: It was successful in meeting a growing demand for food by the world’s population. Yields of primary crops such as rice and wheat increased dramatically. The price of food declined, the Essay Truth in Fairy rate of increase in crop yields generally keeps pace with population growth, and the number of people who go hungry to bed was slightly reduced. 5 The boost in food production has been due mainly to disobedient scientific advances and new technologies, including the development of new crop varieties The use of Essay Truth Princesses Tales pesticides and disobedient wretch, fertilizers, and the construction of large irrigation systems helped the farmers increase their production It reduces time cosumption as it ensures effective management of crops in a shorter period of time Disadvantages of modern technologies : Increased chances of unemployment [ as technological equipments can do the work of 50 – 100 labours] Evidence indicates, however, that excessive reliance on monoculture farming and about Obesity African, agro industrial inputs, such as capital-intensive technology, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers, has negatively impacted the environment and disobedient wretch, rural society. A number of Essay about Obesity African Americans “ecological diseases” have been associated with the intensification of food production by means of latest technological methods Chemical fertilizers can also become air pollutants, and have recently been implicated in the destruction of the ozone layer and in global warming Excessive use of technological equipments has also been linked to the acidification/salinization of soils and to wretch a higher incidence of insect pests and diseases through mediation of negative nutritional changes in crop plants Most of the present day technologies are prone to describe how legislation ways of working affect to moving causing pollution [ land, water and air ] v. Disobedient Wretch. Food consumption trends: The agriculture and food sector figures prominently in this enterprise and must be given due importance in and agreed ways working practices any consideration of the promotion of wretch healthy diets for individuals and population groups. The Goal. Food strategies must not merely be directed at ensuring food security for all, but must also achieve the consumption of adequate quantities of safe and good quality foods that together make up a healthy diet. Any recommendation to that effect.

will have implications for disobedient all components in the food chain. It is therefore useful at this juncture to examine trends in consumption patterns worldwide and deliberate on the potential of the Essay African Americans food and agriculture sector to meet the disobedient wretch demands and challenges of the future. The food consumption trends in prohibition the ancient period were governed by the Hindu and Jain beliefs. As a result of this, Vegetarianism was the disobedient wretch most prominent system during the ancient days. It was also partly under the surveillance of the Delhi and Reason in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, Mughal dynasties. Later, towards the medieval period, people learned to consume what is needed and disobedient wretch, preserve the rest so that they could use them during periods of describe how legislation of working working practices related starvation. Therefore, the wretch trend of the on The Truth in Fairy Tales medieval period turned to be limited consumption. Presently, in the modern era, the consumption trends cannot be defined because people consume food not only for disobedient health but for Princesses Tales various other reasons too.

The consumption trends of the majority of the population are also controlled by advertisements. The consumption trends are partly hereditary too. Most importantly, the consumption trends of the present day people are mainly to showcase their status. For example, the ones who consume rich food are given higher positions in the society and the rest are treated with lower dignity in the society. In short, the food consumption trends unlike food production trends vary even from disobedient wretch, person to person. With respect to each food item, the consumption trend varies widely. The kilograms in which the food items are consumed determine the market demand for the specific item thereby, expressing the trend of food consumption. From this, the disobedient consumption trends of the present day human society [ India ] are lucid and patent. 7 vi. Country – Country variations : The food consumption trend of the people varies from country to country. Changes in agricultural practice over the past 50 years have increased the Reason in Ayn Fountainhead" world’s capacity to provide food for disobedient wretch its people through increases in productivity, greater diversity of foods and less seasonal dependence.

Food availability has also increased as a consequence of prohibition rising income levels and disobedient wretch, falling food prices. This has resulted in considerable changes in food consumption over the past 50 years in al capone prohibition all the corners of the world i.e. from wretch, country to country. Global and regional per capita food consumption (kcal per capita per day) Region. 8 For instance, the consumption trends in India is as follows ( it is extremely different from that of USA which ranks 1st ) : vii. Link between Production and Consumption: To meet the forecasted consumption rates of the entire population of different countries, great attention has to be laid on Essay, food production.

The food consumption trends depend on the mode of food production. If the food produces is sufficient to feed the population, then the people can adopt their own consumption trend while if it is wretch not, then the people will have to change the goldratt mode of disobedient consumption in a way that will satisfy the how legislation ways affect working practices related entire population. Thus, the link between the food production and consumption is tightly bound and will need great attention in disobedient the future when the population will be high and the food produced will not be sufficient to feed the entire population. If it is obligatory to ensure a safe and sound future, then it is equally significant to Reason in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay bring stability and steadiness in the food production and consumption trends of today. The present day situation of the world cannot be understood. The farmer who is producing the food cannot fix the rate of the food and the consumer who is consuming the food is also not able to fix the rate ! ! Is the present day food production and consumption: producer controlled, consumer controlled or trader controlled ? – – Combination of all the three . . . . V. Production, Procurement and Distribution constraints : However, despite all these trends in food production and wretch, consumption, there are certain dilemma and constraints with respect to al capone prohibition production, procurement and distribution that have to be given more attention. i. Food production constraints: Improvement solutions are to be resorted by tackling together the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the disobedient wretch problems of Reason Rand's Fountainhead" Essay rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million. Future increases are expected to bring total population to disobedient wretch 9 billion by the year 2014 and 16 billion in 2025 (exponential increases).

Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Food grain production in describe and agreed ways of working practices to moving India(2009-2010) : 234Mn tonnes Per capita food grain produced: 193Kg/year. Food grain production growth (in phase with population growth) : 5.5Mn. tonnes/year Suggestions for increasing the food grain production : irrigation, use of fertilizers, use of Botanical Pesticides control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of disobedient grain, land reclamation, mechanization soil conservation, ,Most Efficient water management river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, Birth control. Crop rotation, Organic farming, Mixed cropping Co-operate farming (supply ,operation maintenance of agricultural machinery equipments) Few Environmental problems which need urgent attention.: soil erosion from mechanization, accumulation of al capone DDT in food and water and wretch, animal life from pesticide use, and Water pollution from how legislation of working working practices to moving, chemical fertilizers. Increased frequency intensity of drought flooding.

Climate change affects Rice wheat production. New pattern of pests diseases. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. Shifting cultivation and land tenure systems should involve conservation farming techniques. Organic manures and appropriate use of chemical fertilizers can raise soil fertility. Even if the disobedient production becomes stable, there lies a lot of problems in describe how legislation and agreed ways of working working the next stage – procurement. Disobedient Wretch. ii. Urban Market Facilities and Management. Public markets have burned down throughout the world over the last few years because of inadequate structures and maintenance, poor management, fire-hazard practices … or to force traders into new markets.

These blows to the goal the local economy have important financial implications for small traders and entrepreneurs as well as consumers. Disobedient. Existing market spaces and facilities are often insufficient in developing countries and countries in transition. Consequently, many food traders occupy roads around markets. Urban markets are usually seen as a source of revenue to local town coffers, but those funds are often not reinvested in infrastructure maintenance and market orientation example, better services. This leads to traders feeling that market taxes are not justified and to unrest when rates are increased. Cold-storage facilities are usually insufficient and rent is disobedient wretch often high. Essay Among African Americans. The few cold-storage rooms built by market managers are often inefficient,. Perishable food products, therefore, deteriorate rapidly.Public markets lack professional management and its continuity. Market authorities have insufficient skilled personnel and are unable to enforce regulations.

Consequently, trading in disobedient wretch public markets becomes more difficult and, therefore, costly. 11 iii. Essay Truth About Princesses Tales. Food Retailing. With respect to procurement and distribution, food retailing and food retail markets can be of great assistance in the modern era though it has not become more effective in India.Middle and high-income consumers shop at disobedient wretch supermarkets while low-income consumers, who can spend as much as 80 percent of their income on food, go to local shops, to market places near their homes or buy from street vendors. Public retail markets have not expanded rapidly enough in newly urbanized areas and existing markets have been unable to accommodate the increasing number of retailers.

Lack of space or new market opportunities in satellite city districts are thus the cause of spontaneous markets which fill an important gap in the distribution chain. However, their unplanned nature may create traffic, health and environmental problems. iv. Urban Markets: Hygiene, Health, Security and the Environment Since there is lack of the goal eliyahu goldratt private investments and public contribution, the wretch markets of India lack hygiene, health and other basic requirements. Though, the government has taken effective measures, there is no much development in this situation. Market authorities usually guarantee cleaning inside the markets, but this is market orientation rarely adequate.

Toilet facilities are rare and seldom properly cleaned. Wretch. Water points, drainage and sewage are usually insufficient. Inadequate lighting in markets exposes users to market orientation example additional risks and increases the likelihood of theft. Disobedient. The precarious hygiene conditions of established and spontaneous markets, the increasing quantities of waste, and the growing number of Lorries required for food transport, have an Reason in Ayn "The Essay adverse impact on the environment, as they pollute air and water, increase noise and threaten public health. Wretch. v. Public Distribution System (PDS) Public Distribution System (PDS) is an Indian food security system. Established by the Government of describe and agreed of working affect practices India under Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution and managed jointly with state governments in India, it distributes subsidized food and non-food items to India’s poor. 12 Major commodities distributed include staple food grains, such as wheat, rice, sugar, and kerosene, through a network of Public distribution shops, also known as Ration shops established in several states across the country. Food Corporation of India, a Government-owned corporation, procures and maintains the Public Distribution System.

In terms of both coverage and public expenditure, it is disobedient wretch considered to be the most important food security network. Market Example. However, the food grains supplied by the ration shops are not enough to meet the consumption needs of the poor or are of inferior quality. Disobedient Wretch. The average level of consumption of PDS grains in market India is only 1 kg per person / month. The PDS has been criticized for its urban bias and its failure to serve the disobedient poorer sections of the population effectively. The targeted PDS is Reason Rand's costly and disobedient wretch, gives rise to much corruption in al capone prohibition the process of extricating the poor from those who are less needy. Today, India has the largest stock of grain in the world besides China, the government spends Rs. 750 billion ($13.6 billion) per year, almost 1 percent of GDP, yet 21% remain undernourished. Distribution of food grains to disobedient wretch poor people throughout the country is managed by and agreed working practices related, state governments. As of date there are about 4.99 lakh Fair Price Shops (FPS) across India. The food distribution in India is not effective.

It has lot of drawbacks when compared to the distribution systems of the developed countries. The food distribution system in India is disobedient as follows : 13 VI. Food Wastage : i. Food Wastage – an introduction : Food waste or food loss is the food that is discarded or lost, uneaten. As of describe and agreed ways of working affect practices 2011, billion tons of food, about one third of the global food production, is lost or wasted annually. Loss and wastage occurs on all steps in disobedient the food supply chain. In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries much food – about 100 kilograms (220 lb) per in Ayn Rand's Essay, person and year – is wasted at the consumption stage. In terms of production, the food wastage may occur in various stages. Research found that food grain waste occurs mainly in the beginning of production, transportation distribution, storage system, preparation food,(cooking), serving after consumption(throwing away the unconsumed)From planting, crops can be subjected to pest infestations and severe weather, which cause losses before the harvest part of a crop. In India, the wastage in food grain cooked food is intolerably high..

Some of the major causes of this food wastage are improper storage facilities, lack of wretch effective transport systems, lack of refrigerated transport vehicles, ill – maintained roads, attack of pests and rodents, lack of initiative of the public, lack of awareness, insufficient technological assistance, lack of preservation techniques and a lot more . . . Essay About. . The food wastage problem of today’s India needs immediate attention and has to be paid more attention to ensure minimal wastage in wretch the coming years. ii. Management of Food waste Reduction. A quantity of wheat required by the entire production of Australia is al capone wasted each year in India, according to a new report on global food wastage. Disobedient Wretch. At least 40% of all fruit and describe how legislation ways of working working practices, vegetables are lost in India between the grower and disobedient wretch, consumer due to lack of refrigerated transport, poor roads, inclement weather and corruption. Prohibition. Therefore, the best way to get rid of wastes is to minimize the wastage by disobedient wretch, ourselves. Market Example. However, some of the disobedient waste reduction management techniques are given below: The feeding of food scraps to animals is, historically, the Essay Truth Princesses most common way of dealing with household food waste. Vermi composting is the practice of wretch feeding scraps [ food waste ] to worms who produce soil as a byproduct food waste can be dumped, but it can also be fed to animals, or it can be biodegraded by composting or anaerobic digestion, and reused to Reason Rand's "The Essay enrich soil Food waste coming through the sanitary sewers from disobedient, garbage disposal units is treated along with other sewage and contributes to in Ayn Fountainhead" sludge which in wretch turn is Reason in Ayn used in wretch biogas plants In any function, food is to be served to the requirement. Moreover food waste can also be recycled to produce various substances like paper, packaging material etc.. . Campaigns and awareness programmes like LOVE FOOD, HATE WASTE must be encouraged so as to on The in Fairy make the public aware of the importance of food and the consequences of disobedient wasting food. Let us join hands to foresee a world that doesn’t waste food.

VII. Prohibition. Food preservation and Food Packaging. i. Food preservation – a brief overview. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of disobedient bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation can also include processes which inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut, which can occur during food preparation. Many processes designed to preserve food will involve a number of food preservation methods. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination). There are many traditional methods of preserving food that limit the energy inputs and reduce carbon footprint. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. ii. Principles of Food preservation:

Preservation of a variety of food items, whatever the method maybe, is based on the following principles : 15. Prevention or Delay of Microbial Decomposition of food. a. By keeping out on The About Princesses Tales micro – organisms [ asepsis ] b. By removal of micro – organisms by means of filtration. c. By hindering their growth and activity through. Addition of chemicals [not recommended] Prevention or Delay of Self Decomposition of food. a. Destruction of food enzymes. b. Inactivation of food enzymes.

Thus, it is concluded that the main aim of food preservation is to inhibit either the microbial or self decomposition of food items. Food preservation involves the application of various methods that work on these principles. iii. Disobedient Wretch. Food Preservation Methods: There are various methods that can be applied over food items for its long term preservation. The main aim of Reason in Ayn Rand's food preservation is to disobedient increase the shelf life of the food item subjected to these preservation methods. However, a food item cannot undergo all the preservation techniques. The technique for each item is chosen with respect to the pH of the food and various other chemical factors.

Some of the most accomplished food preservation techniques are: Refrigeration. Salting or Curing. Adding food additives. iv. Food packaging. The word ‘PACKAGING’ means to cover the physical property of how legislation and agreed ways of working affect working to moving a material to prevent it from its enemies. 16 Food packaging: Food packaging means to disobedient wretch pack the food to prevent it from enemies, decaying and microbes. Food packaging can be done to food items with the help of packaging materials. Most of the food items are specific to certain.

materials and it is decided with attention to their chemical and physical properties. Types of food packaging materials: v. Describe Ways Affect Working Related To Moving. Value Addition: Value added agriculture is a process of increasing the disobedient economic value and consumer appeal of an Essay on The Truth in Fairy Tales agricultural commodity. It is disobedient a production/marketing strategy driven by customer needs and orientation example, preferences. “Value – added” is used to characterize food products that are converted from raw product through processes that give the resulting product an “incremental value” in the market place. An “incremental value” is realized from either higher price or expanded market. For example, jams, cheeses, and pre – cooked meats are considered “value – added” products. Importance of value added products: Financial benefit – A value added agricultural product may have more market value than any other commodity Helps meet the changing preferences and interests of the public Possesses better quality, nutrition, convenience, safety, health, variety, price, social and environmental acceptance etc . . . Value – addition has become one of the major trends in the field of agriculture.

It has brought about great changes in the mode of consumption of the wretch public. Despite all these technologies, there are certain problems faced by the farmers and agriculturists. VIII. Problems faced by Agriculturists and Farmers : i. Major problems faced by Agriculturists and Farmers : The major problems confronting Indian agriculture are those of on The About Tales population pressure, small holdings, depleted soils, lack of modern technology and poor. (quality and numbers) facilities for wretch storage.

Population pressure: Population increase hence dwelling area are needed more .Therefore the area for eliyahu goldratt cultivation becomes decreased. In country like Japan hill slopes have been cut into terraces for cultivation Small and Fragmented Land Holdings: The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence and discontentment.

Inadequate Irrigation Facilities: By and large the irrigation facilities available in India are far from adequate. So for half of the total area under food crops has been brought under irrigation and the remaining half is left to the mercy of disobedient wretch monsoon rains which are erratic in how legislation of working affect related to moving time and space. Depleted Soils: Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which have resulted in the depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of wretch maintaining natural fertility of soil has been drying out. Lack of material resources and Rand's Fountainhead", ignorance of scientific knowledge have further depleted the soils of the natural fertility.

Earlier only animal waste was enough to maintain soil fertility. Storage of food grains: Storage of food grains is a big problem in India. Nearly 10 per cent of our harvest goes waste every year in the absence of proper storage facilities. This colossal wastage can be avoided by developing scientific ware-housing facilities. The government has taken several steps to provide storage facilities in disobedient wretch the form of private storage go downs. Moreover, Government support guidance for Agricultural product Export has become very poor corruptive system. Truth In Fairy Tales. Farm Implements:

Although some mechanization of farming has taken place in some parts of the country, most of the farmers are poor (in knowledge finance) and do not purchase modern farm implements and tools. This hampers the development of agriculture. ii. Minor problems faced by wretch, Agriculturists and Farmers: Indian agriculture is a gamble of monsoons. Monsoons are irregular unevenly distributed and uncertain. It exerts a very unfavourable influence on agriculture. The serious drainage problem caused by the increased construction of roads, railways and Essay on The Truth About Princesses, canals disturbed the natural drainage system by checking the normal flow of rain water and disobedient wretch, bringing heavy floods. This result in large scale damage to al capone crop. Disobedient. Global climatic changes affect agriculturist and farmers through their direct and indirect effects on the crops, soils, livestock and pests. The over cropping in a land leads to the exhaustion of soils. Declining trend is seen in the productivity of the land. Exploitation of land with excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides leads to land fertility degradation.

The land under cultivation of food grains has been declining due to construction of industries and residential building etc. Al Capone Prohibition. There is inefficient water management. In order to withstand the global competition India has to use its vast potential of Agriculture by adopting modern technologies in farming. iii Steps taken by the government and other organizations: Subsidized five per cent interest rate on crop loans on timely repayment Initiated discussion session on topics that both help farmers to understand their existing situation and wretch, identify their opportunities and constraints Encouraged farmers to think of ways to improve their own marketing Laid focus on practical issues. Used audio-visual presentations during farmers meeting sessions [ organized by the government ] Used traders and others to inform farmers about how the market works Ensured that farmers are able to make a comparatively good produce Provided farmers with the information they need about various agricultural practicesRegardless of the implementation of various measures and steps, problems still exist in the case of food preservation. Problems affecting the production, procurement and exportation have been solved to a great extent. It is food preservation that needs a lot of attention in this era. IX. Modern Technologies in Food and Agriculture: i. Technologies in Food preservation: The modern technologies involved in food preservation are : Pulsed Electric Field Electroporation.

High Pressure Food Preservation. Hurdle technology Pulsed Electric Field Electroporation: Pulsed electric field (PEF) electroporation is a method for processing cells by means of brief pulses of a strong electric field. PEF holds potential as a type of low temperature alternative pasteurization process for sterilizing food products. PEF for food processing is a developing technology still being researched.

High pressure Food preservation: High pressure food preservation or pascalization refers to the use of a food preservation technique which makes use of high pressure. Pressed inside a vessel exerting 70,000 pounds per square inch (480 MPa) or more, food can be processed so that it retains its fresh appearance, flavour, texture and nutrients while disabling harmful microorganisms and slowing spoilage. Hurdle technology: Hurdle technology is a method of ensuring that pathogens in food products can be eliminated or controlled by the goal, combining more than one approach. These approaches can be thought of as “hurdles” the pathogen has to disobedient wretch overcome if it is to remain active in the food. The right combination of hurdles can ensure all pathogens are eliminated or rendered harmless in the final product. As a result of these modern food production, procurement and preservation techniques, the environment is being degraded to a great extent. Moreover, the the goal environment too is disobedient not so cooperative with agriculture.

It provides a lot of hurdles that agriculture is not able to prosper very effectively today. X. Eliyahu. Environmental Consequences: i. Wretch. Consequences caused to the environment from agriculture: Modern Agricultural practices use a lot of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. They are rich in nitrates and phosphates. Essay On The Princesses Tales. Once they are sprayed over the plants, they get suspended in the soil. Disobedient Wretch. When they are subjected to rainfall, they get drone away into water bodies. They then cause Eutrophication. These depositions of Essay about Among Americans nitrates and phosphates may lead to the growth of algae on the surface of the water. They utilize the maximum oxygen in the water thus creating a situation wherein there is loss of marine life. This situation is known as eutrophication.

Other consequences are pollution [ the technical devices used in food production may initiate harmful emissions of gases causing pollution ] and the rise of BOD [ Biological Oxygen Demand ]. It is said: “As you sow, so shall you reap”. As modern agricultural methods are causing great deteriorations to wretch the environment, the environment in turn is not supportive to agricultural practices. ii. Consequences caused to agriculture by the environment: Soil is a dynamic living matrix that is an essential part of the terrestrial ecosystem. It is a critical resource not only to agriculture production and food security but also not to example the maintenance of disobedient most live processes. This soil is getting deteriorated day by day, so is agriculture. The Goal Eliyahu Goldratt. Agriculture accounts for 70% of disobedient wretch all water use. Water resources are depleting at a faster rate with water table falling worldwide. The global environmental outlook report says that, if the present water consumption pattern continues, two out of every three persons on earth will live in water stressed conditions by the year 2025. In such a condition, when the water resources are fast depleting, agriculture too become a depleting practice.

Agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change and its impact is threatening global food security. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on climate change and conditions affecting agriculture. Thus, as the present situation continues, the environment gets degraded more and more creating climate imbalance. As a result, the agricultural practices also foresees downfall. Therefore, the environment too is a threat to agriculture today. In spite of all these threatening reasons, man still is moving towards industrialization and is degrading the environment without paying enough attention towards agriculture. XI. Industrialisation and Agriculture: Industry is the production of an economic good or service within an economy. The Industrialization that took place in Europe in the late 18th century brought about great socio – economic changes in the world. Even today, the most advanced technologies that we experience are a result of this industrialization.

However, this process also brought with it certain ill effects. It popularized industries and made agricultural practices face a downfall. "The Essay. . 22. It is transparent from this that both the GDP and the growth of agricultural sectors have both experienced serious downfall in disobedient wretch the past fifty years. Unless this situation is treated with the appropriate solution, this dreadful condition cannot be overcome. As it continues, the public may have to move towards greener methods in the future. i. Describe How Legislation And Agreed Of Working Working Related To Moving. Recent Issues: 1. The Pepsi project Issue which has become a threat to the Punjab agricultural practices. Diversification of agriculture has become the main aim of the Pepsi Project . 2. The ONGC – Cauvery Oil Asset [ industry ] that created oil spills in the field which lead to large scale destruction of crop fields and also the ravaging of the paddy fields that surrounded the leaking pipelines of wretch this industry.

3. The MESCO and Jindal steel plants, established in Orissa have turned against the existing agricultural practices. Their establishments have accounted for large scale destruction measures like deforestation and the illegal use of agricultural lands and forests. These issues have become a real threat to the world. Though, the agricultural produce is not sufficient to feed the entire population, people are moving towards industries and urban jobs rather than concentrating on agricultural activities which is the scope of future. Since people are not ready to change their attitude, it is necessary to Essay Obesity have a balanced industrialization for disobedient wretch the betterment of agriculture. 23 ii. Balanced Industrialization for the betterment of Agriculture Industrialization and prohibition, Agriculture must go hand in hand for the betterment of disobedient wretch our country. Industrialization should be practiced in such a way that there.

are no adverse effects on the agricultural practices. Essay On The Truth About In Fairy Tales. At the same time, it is disobedient wretch necessary that scientific advances of the industries should have the potentials to prohibition bring about agro – ecosystems. Apart from these industrial measures and other preventive measures, it is obligatory that each individual has to contribute to the betterment of our nation in one or the other way. We must furnish the public with a better understanding of the complexity of the wretch present day agricultural systems We must develop a need to address both food consumption and production We must provide the essential knowledge and innovation through cross-sectoral approaches We must explore new ways of policy coordination. We must motivate the educated ones so as to involve them in agriculture We must initiate awareness programmes as a result of which the farmers would become knowledgeable about the modern technologies in food production and food preservation We must join hands to build up a brighter and greener INDIA.

“ Developed India is possible only if the agriculture is developed; But Prosperous India is possible only if the agricultural sectors are improved. sustained along with industrial growth . . Obesity. ” Use less less resources to achive more more productivity. Industrialisation agriculture fields should support mutually without degrading our eco system. The prospective future of mankind is not outside his control, but well with in his boundary. Taking care of rights of future generations, let us use/consume carefully all types of wretch resources given by the nature. As Young Scientists, let’s take an oath to Essay about Among African Americans produce good food, consume just adequate food, waste nil food and disobedient, store the balance food for the future.

Britannica Encyclopedia, F Series [ Food ] Green technologies in food production, pg no: 149, 2012 edition; author: Joyce.I.Boye University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 14 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Food and Agricultural challenges. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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