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avare resume Pierre Campion : L'Avare de Molière ou la Vie comme elle vient. And The Spirit! Conférence prononcée au lycée Chateaubriand de Rennes le mardi 29 septembre 2009. The Way World! Mise en ligne le 30 septembre et, pour le post-scriptum, le 7 octobre 2009. The Flesh! Note ajoutée le 15 mai 2010 : l'article de Denis Podalydès dans Le Monde du 14 mai 2010. World! ou la Vie comme elle vient. The Flesh Spirit! 1 - L'Avare : simplement du bon théâtre ? Mais ce n'est que les tribulations d'un avare, sans trop vraiment d'implications ou politiques ou historiques ou philosophiques, sinon morales Ce qui sépare quand même Harpagon du père Grandet de Balzac ou des héros de Zola, c'est que, dans la pièce de Molière qui montre un avare, il n'y a pas l'analyse d'un système d'enrichissement, de son histoire, de sa signification économique et politique. Pas vraiment de philosophie de l'argent non plus, au sens de Georg Simmel. Treatise! Faudrait-il donc en faire tant de cas, autrement que de principe (c'est au programme) ou de révérence (c'est du Molière) ? 2 - L'avarice et autres passions. And The Spirit! Molière est fasciné par ce que lui-même et son siècle appellent les passions ou les vices : l'avarice dans le personnage d'Harpagon, la vanité sociale dans le bourgeois gentilhomme ou le paysan mal marié et celle du savoir mal placé dans les femmes savantes, les délires de la médecine et des malades, les aberrations du désir sexuel dans Alceste et Arnolphe, l'hypocrisie dans Tartuffe et Dom Juan Grande variété de passions, qui ont d'ailleurs peu à voir les unes avec les autres, sinon le caractère de folie destructrice auquel un Molière ne s'habitue pas C'est cela que je voudrais essayer de vous montrer ce soir : un homme de théâtre fasciné, scandalisé, passionné par les passions humaines, jamais épuisé de les montrer à l'œuvre, y compris les plus futiles, les plus superficielles, les plus bêtes. 1960s Tvs! Et l'avarice est quand même une passion bête, en plus d'être triste.
Ce qu'il suggère sur la scène, en praticien du théâtre comique, c'est bien une dimension en effet mystérieuse et fascinante de la vie humaine, dans laquelle on the flesh and the spirit poem voit celle-ci rivée à sa bêtise et même, parfois, attachée à sa ruine à travers des personnages dangereux, pour eux-mêmes, pour leur entourage et éventuellement pour la vie sociale. 1960s Tvs! L'un (notre Harpagon) passe sa vie à troquer des fonds de grenier contre des écus, cache ses sous dans un trou et se pâme de se les être fait voler, se met lui-même en état d'arrestation #8212; ce qui ne l'empêche pas d'être amoureux d'une jeunesse. Un autre (Arnolphe de L'École des femmes ) s'est choisi une enfant à élever pour des plaisirs à profiter dans une sorte de tranquillité absolue, comme si la sexualité pouvait s'exercer de manière unilatérale et sans risques (et par de tels moyens), et il y met un aveuglement et une persévérance promis à tout instant à l'échec, évidemment. And The! L'autre (Alceste dans Le Misanthrope ) s'éprend de la seule femme de ses connaissances qui le fera souffrir mille morts par sa coquetterie, c'est-à-dire par les provocations de sa légèreté, par le talent qu'elle met à le croquer, parmi d'autres, en homme aux rubans verts , et par le genre de plaisir, raffiné et cruel, pervers, qu'elle y prend : dans sa souffrance, il se brouille avec les premiers venus, avec ses meilleurs amis, avec le monde entier (pervers, il hait l'humanité en chacun et en lui-même), et il fait tout pour ne pas voir celle qui l'aime réellement. Five-factor! Il y a donc au moins un homme inconséquent, grave et futile, qui pense avoir toutes les raisons de haïr l'humanité jusqu'en lui-même, et qui se fait punir, évidemment, de cette prétention déraisonnable et impossible.
3 - Le trop humain, l'inhumain. Poem! Aussi intéressée que les Maximes de La Rochefoucauld aux arrière-fonds de la marionnette amour-propre, à chaque instant la comédie de Molière fait voir l'inhumain dans le trop humain et le trop humain comme la condition naturelle de l'homme. Certainement, lui Molière, personnellement et philosophiquement, il souscrirait à la phrase de Montaigne selon laquelle il n'est rien si beau et légitime que de faire bien l'homme et dûment , mais justement les hommes, tels qu'il les voit lui-même et les fait voir dans et par les comédiens, ne se soucient aucunement de cette maxime-là : ils s'occupent plutôt à remplir au mieux une vocation intime et irrésistible du moi humain à la méchanceté, à l'aveuglement et à la bêtise, à l'extravagance et à l'incohérence, et à une sorte de disposition suicidaire. Publication! Ainsi dans l'avarice, qui fait d'un homme une gesticulation insensée de rapacité. The Flesh And The Poem! Ainsi dans l'hypocrisie qui, conformément à son étymologie, montre à l'œuvre des comédiens des valeurs et de leur propre existence, dont l'un au moins (Dom Juan) a besoin de son valet pour l'assurer de son vrai jeu et le rassurer sur son identité.
Les raffinements du méchant homme dans le grand seigneur font de Dom Juan un raisonneur de désordre pur par l'arithmétique de deux et deux sont quatre, un destructeur des valeurs sociales de sa propre classe de laquelle il se prévaut constamment par ailleurs, bref une terrible chose , un scandale dans la Nature : à l'égard de son Dom Juan, Molière est le Sganarelle fasciné qu'il jouait lui-même. 5-0! Et les manipulations de Tartuffe, que presque tous les personnages de la pièce voient en plein et que le spectateur reçoit comme des ruses grossières, montrent sur le théâtre que le scélérat peut impunément singer la Valeur pour assouvir des objectifs relevant en eux-mêmes d'une crapulerie que ne rachète même pas quelque grandeur : maniant l'image de la vertu, se goinfrer, séduire la femme de son hôte et épouser sa fille, s'emparer de sa fortune et prendre le pouvoir dans sa maison. Comment Orgon peut-il se laisser prendre à des conduites aussi manifestement fausses et, plus grave, pourquoi personne, que la puissance royale, ne peut-il les confondre ? Autrement dit : pourquoi et comment Harpagon, Dom Juan et Tartuffe peuvent-ils être ce qu'ils sont, comment l'homme est-il comme il est, c'est-à-dire comment et pourquoi la Vie est-elle ce qu'elle est ? Voilà bien ce qui motive la curiosité infinie et inventive de Molière, sa curiosité philosophique dans L'Avare et constamment. And The Poem! 4 - Corriger les mœurs en riant ? Castigat ridendo mores  . Five-factor Model! La comédie corrige les mœurs en riant. And The Poem! Oui, certes Mais Molière veut-il vraiment corriger les mœurs ? Ni vraiment moraliste, ni d'ailleurs cynique, et moins ironique qu'il n'y paraît #8212; très direct #8212;, il veut nous manifester dans l'humanité ce qui dépasse l'entendement et les sens, cela sur la scène du théâtre comique. Second Treatise! Ce n'est pas vraiment non plus qu'il préfère en rire de peur d'avoir à en pleurer  : il penserait plutôt que l'incompréhensible dans l'homme, à savoir sa volonté d'inhumanité et de destruction, ne se démontre comme tel que par l'absurde et que l'absurde ne produit sa révélation que dans un certain genre de rire, immédiat, réflexe en somme, et sans illusion : dans la salle, des corps s'étonnent bruyamment des corps qu'ils voient, ils n'en croient pas leurs yeux ni leurs oreilles, ils s'esclaffent, ils s'éclatent . The Flesh Spirit! Si le théâtre, non par l'imitation des actions des hommes #8212; mais plutôt par l'incarnation de leurs gestes d'inhumanité #8212;, peut déjà apprendre à comprendre cela ( manthanein ), la connaissance de l'homme par lui-même aura fait un pas. 1960s Tvs! Le reste, peut-être, s'en suivra. Car le dramaturge demeure fasciné par ses personnages comme le montrent les dénouements de Dom Juan et de Tartuffe , celui de L'Avare ou même celui du Bourgeois gentilhomme . The Flesh Spirit! Le dénouement de L'Avare : le pervers ne s'amendera pas. 5-0! Et il faut bien que le roi intervienne pour faire cesser les scandaleux agissements de Tartuffe : qui peut corriger la vie d'être la Vie ? Et puis, Molière est d'abord un homme de théâtre, dont le métier trouve sa validité et sa récompense à déclencher ce rire-là dans les salles : sonore, sans concept, désillusionné et intelligent, chez les plus bêtes.
5 - Les gestes de la Vie. And The Spirit! C'est aussi pourquoi Molière ne fabrique pas vraiment des actions au sens d'Aristote et qu'il préfère construire ou plutôt susciter sur scène des personnages : chez lui le poète, et à condition d'entendre le mot en son sens anglais, crée des caractères, que, à l'inverse encore des observations d'Aristote, il impose à l'action au lieu de les en déduire. Pandora Internet Radio! Il crée des gestes et des paroles, des paroles (des cris, des tons et inflexions) qui soient des gestes : Sans dot ! et Ma cassette ! (Harpagon), Qu'allait-il faire dans cette galère ? (Géronte, dans Les Fourberies de Scapin ), Le pauvre homme ! (Orgon, dans Tartuffe ), Mes gages ! Mes gages ! (Sganarelle, dans Dom Juan ), Le petit chat est mort (Agnès, dans l' École des femmes ), et ceci, d'Alceste ( Le Misanthrope ), qui dit et fait le geste d'un suicide social : Trahi de toutes parts, accablé d'injustices, Je vais sortir d'un monde où triomphent les vices ; Et chercher sur la terre un endroit écarté Où d'être homme d'honneur on the flesh and the poem ait la liberté. On Government! Ces paroles et ce geste à elles aussitôt joint sont des protestations du corps lesquelles, n'étant pas en général notées dans des didascalies, jaillissent sur place du texte et dans le moment, et justifient d'avance la fonction moderne du metteur en scène et, de toute façon, le génie professionnel des comédiens à l'improvisation, préparée ou non. And The Poem! Où réside le geste, ou plutôt d'où surgit-il ? De la vie même et de son obscurité, où l'expérience, l'art et le métier de l'acteur #8212; les acquis professionnels de son corps #8212; vont le chercher, moins pour l'avoir observé sur le vivant et pour l'imiter que pour le saisir à son principe, corporel, et pour l'exécuter à vif : pour l'incarner.
La Vie comme elle vient. Pandora Radio Free! Les comédiens sont les corps exercés et intelligents dans lesquels la Vie parvient à la visibilité, et peu importe que cela se produise par don et talent inné ou par le calcul et la réflexion que Diderot prétend décrire dans son Paradoxe du comédien . Spirit! Ainsi le détachant comme tel sur sa scène non aristotélicienne et, pour ce faire et pour le penser, l'appelant Gestus , Brecht veut-il donner au geste de théâtre le caractère abstrait et efficace que Kandinsky entend imprimer à sa peinture et qui, prétend-il, est le propre de la peinture depuis toujours  . Federalist Paper 10! Dans Molière, les gestes de la vie sont insensibles aux quolibets des servantes et valets bien intentionnés, aux remontrances raisonnables des épouses comme aux raisonnements des raisonneurs, amis, frères ou beaux-frères, et même aux avertissements de la transcendance, quand elle se manifeste. The Flesh Spirit Poem! Mallarmé :  le théâtre institue des personnages agissant et en relief précisément pour qu'ils négligent la métaphysique, comme l'acteur omet la présence du lustre ; ils ne prieront, vers rien hors d'eux, que par le cri élémentaire et obscur de la passion  . 1960s Tvs! C'est la Vie qui est notre passion inutile et implacable, et adorable. And The Spirit Poem! Elle est bête, la Vie ! dirait un Flaubert. Pandora Internet Radio! Elle est sourde et aveugle aux raisons du philosophe, du moraliste, du sermonnaire et du confesseur, du savant et du politique. And The Poem! Elle est bizarre et étrange, déraisonnable et même effrayante. Pandora Free! Elle suscite un rire convulsif. Spirit Poem! Au reste, elle ne se plaint pas d'être ce qu'elle est (c'est nous qui nous plaignons d'elle), elle ne nous demande rien et même pas à être manifestée.
Ce n'est pas elle, c'est tel humain qui veut qu'elle se manifeste telle qu'il la suppose selon son art ou sa pensée, et en quelque sorte pour l'honneur : Molière et La Rochefoucauld, Schopenhauer et Nietzsche, Flaubert La Rochefoucauld ! De son expérience de la guerre, il tire peut-être la pensée et le style de ses réductions. The Way Of The World! L'homme n'est que les humeurs de son corps, le vide bavard de ses propos (d'où : en dire le moins possible !) et son amour-propre. Spirit! Sous la forme du petit diable que décrit l'ancienne maxime 1 des Maximes  , l'amour-propre est l'amour troublant, premier arrivé et dernier parti, du corps pour lui-même. On Government! Cette espèce d'homoncule est l'image intériorisée du moi, un corps propre, singeur et ravageur, aux mouvements incessants, imprévisibles et incoercibles, infernal. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem! D'où l'impartialité de la scène des corps, ou si l'on préfère, sa neutralité morale.
Chacun des personnages négatifs qui y paraissent, de ces intrigants, séducteurs, menteurs et prévaricateurs, tyrans et meurtriers, extravagants, fous ou simplement dérangés a sa chance au regard du spectacle et peut même à loisir déployer les talents du trop humain à être inhumain, jusqu'à emporter en sa faveur la conviction du spectateur ou la pitié et, en tout cas, le faire balancer. Joint Publication 5-0! La pitié, non pas exactement de l'homme pour l'homme, mais du vivant pour le vivant. Encore une fois, il ne faut pas moins que la vue surhumaine du roi pour distinguer, in and the spirit poem extremis , l'hypocrisie de Tartuffe ou, pour arrêter la course effrénée de Dom Juan, le moyen d'une statue vengeresse que prend la puissance divine, semblable à la statue de Mitys évoquée dans Aristote  . 10! Ce n'est pas que le merveilleux nuise à la logique de ces dénouements, au contraire il convient. Spirit! D'abord parce que le merveilleux, de toujours, est comme chez lui au théâtre, et surtout parce que, dans Dom Juan et dans Tartuffe, son intervention dénote la force elle-même trop humaine de l'imposture, que la scène reconnaît ainsi à bon droit. Second Treatise On Government! Seule une puissance surplombante, exactement informée et adéquatement armée, et évidemment imaginaire (une fiction, bien sûr), peut décréter contre l'inhumanité de la vie, la juger et la punir ; ce qu'il fallait démontrer, par les moyens de la scène. The Flesh And The! Cette neutralité éthique de la scène, même Brecht (surtout Brecht !) a su qu'on ne peut pas impunément la violer, que ses grands exploiteurs de l'humanité devaient garder leur espèce de plausibilité et de dangereux attrait et que tout théâtre qui se voudrait révolutionnaire devrait montrer justement le caractère pratiquement, philosophiquement et moralement problématique de la révolution. Publication 5-0! Ce n'est pas sa faute si certains de ses interprètes, commentateurs ou épigones ont méconnu cette pensée, et nous ont servi de pures et simples, d'édifiantes démonstrations.
7 - La scène des corps. The Flesh Poem! En tant qu'homme de théâtre et chef de troupe (on en dirait autant des entraîneurs sportifs, s'ils en écrivaient avec autant de talent), Molière éprouve la pure et simple, la violente évidence des corps, leur pluralité et infinie diversité, leur goût de la performance, leur esprit de caprice, leur forme Chacun des comédiens a son corps (chacun est son corps  ), qu'il n'est pas facile de distribuer dans tel ou tel emploi et d'employer comme moyen au sein d'un spectacle et dans l'intérêt d'un texte : les corps n'obéissent pas aux desseins stratégiques ou tactiques de la pensée créatrice, et quand il eut à chercher une image pour décrire l'obéissance qu'il voulait voir dévouer au pape par ses compagnons, Ignace de Loyola ne trouva que la métaphore du cadavre : perinde ac cadaver . 1960s Tvs! Mieux vaut écrire pour tel ou telle le/la connaissant, et Racine aussi le savait bien, d'un savoir venu de la fréquentation des troupes, des amours qu'il y connut, des répétitions auxquelles il participa, et éventuellement des trahisons qu'il commit en faveur de son œuvre, ainsi à l'égard de Molière. Celui-ci connaît la grande fragilité des corps de comédiens, la sorte à chacun de son charisme physique, de son vigoureux amour-propre, de son mode d'exposition sexuelle, et sa sensibilité professionnelle à l'étendue et au temps à travers la réalité matérielle et symbolique de la scène. The Flesh And The! Lui-même justement, et pour bien exercer ses responsabilités à l'égard des siens, ne peut pas ne pas être à l'écoute de son propre corps, de ses désirs et de ses frustrations, de sa santé et de son âge : il connaît les médecins, il règle avec eux quelques comptes. 1960s Tvs! Il sait faire voir l'amour dans la différence des âges et des conditions, la souffrance de l'exclusion hors du cercle des affinités et des amitiés, les colères impuissantes, et il invente le repli d'Alceste, dit celui-ci, dans ce petit coin sombre, avec mon noir chagrin . Spirit Poem! Les vertus des corps, par et dans les corps des comédiens, ce sont : leur obscurité impénétrable, leur massivité, leur irréductibilité à toute pensée générale et même entre eux, leur obstination à persévérer dans leur habitus et dans leur être, et puis cette grâce et ce bonheur inconscients d'eux-mêmes tels qu'ils règnent dans la jeunesse. Second On Government! La vertu du corps, c'est d'être vivant ; la passion de Molière, c'est de le montrer. The Flesh Spirit Poem! Les vingt ans de Célimène qu'elle oppose seuls aux demandes vieilles et tout aussi injustifiées d'Alceste ; les jeunes amoureux et la force irréfléchie, insolente et irrésistible, le sûr instinct qu'ils mettent à déjouer les complots des parents et gardiens, à se trouver des alliés ; le privilège injuste et prodigieux des corps jeunes Comme ils sont jeunes ! et le fait de savoir qu'ils vieilliront #8212; savoir de source sûre, son corps, à lui, les voyant, eux #8212; ne saurait consoler Molière, au contraire. Pandora Free! La comédie, dans Molière, sait que le meilleur moyen d'évoquer les folies de la Vie, c'est de ne pas la prendre ni soi-même (trop) au sérieux. And The Spirit Poem! S'il y a lieu, l'économie et la sociologie, la philosophie, la métaphysique doivent venir par surcroît. Paper! Post-scriptum : la passion de l'argent.
Parmi toutes les passions ainsi envisagées, que représenterait spécifiquement celle de l'avarice ? Les scènes autour de la cassette indiqueraient une réponse. Sur le théâtre, Harpagon vit l'expérience de la séparation d'avec lui-même. And The Spirit Poem! À grands cris et gestes, il montre l'arrachement mortel qu'on lui inflige en lui volant son argent. Of The! L'inhumanité, ici, c'est celle d'une certaine aliénation aux choses. The Flesh Spirit Poem! Car les choses y sont représentées sous la forme du monétaire. Five-factor! Cette forme-là de l'amour des choses est donc abstraite, comme l'est la monnaie, c'est-à-dire qu'elle se distingue de ou même s'oppose à toute autre forme de possession pratique comme la sensualité (Tartuffe) ou l'amour (Dom Juan) ou même les fétiches sociaux (le bourgeois gentilhomme). The Flesh! Ayant retrouvé sa cassette, Harpagon oublie vite le moment de fantaisie amoureuse qui paraissait le ramener parmi les humains, fût-ce de manière déraisonnable.
D'une certaine façon, l'avarice pousse la déshumanisation à l'extrême. 1960s Tvs! Il y a donc une sorte d'inhumanité qui consiste à sacrifier toute relation d'humanité (familiale notamment ou de domesticité, ou de voisinage) et de simple utilité dans l'usage des choses à l'amour pur et simple de ces choses. And The Poem! Note au 15 mai 2010 : l'article de Denis Podalydès dans Le Monde du 14 mai 2010. Second! Pour saluer la nouvelle publication des Œuvres de Molière dans la Pléiade, le comédien Denis Podalydès a donné ses impressions d'acteur dans un remarquable article du Monde. The Flesh And The Poem! Voici quelques extraits de cet article. Il y a chez Molière une adéquation si parfaite entre le dit et le pensé, entre ce qui s'exprime et la manière dont le personnage l'articule que l'on ne peut s'empêcher de croire, d'éprouver que la réplique, le dialogue sont une matière organique presque tangible : quelque chose qui s'établit dans l'air au sortir de la bouche et demeure, entre l'acteur et le spectateur, comme la chose même du théâtre. World! Quand je dis, par exemple : Il faudra de ces choses dont on the flesh and the poem ne mange guère et qui rassasient d'abord, quelque bon haricot bien gras avec quelques pâtés en pot bien garnis de marrons ( L'Avare , acte III), j'éprouve si puissamment la convergence du sens et du texte, l'exacte pesée du signifié sur le signifiant et inversement, leur équilibre et leur embrassement, leur délivrance de l'un dans l'autre, qu'au coeur d'une situation comique, laquelle m'a depuis longtemps embarqué et mis hors de moi dans le réel de la représentation, des sentiments - disons même des humeurs -, des relations, des conflits qui font rage, je suis arrêté par une explosion gustative, à la fois stupéfié et relancé ; il me semble que m'est sorti de la gueule un poème, un bloc de prose poétique d'une telle densité que le cours de l'action me paraît un instant suspendu en l'air. Pandora Radio Free! Et lorsque le vol de la cassette ôte à l'Avare sa raison de vivre, la langue devient tout à fait folle, fuit, galope, s'époumone, court après le vide en pure perte : Je suis perdu, je suis assassiné, on spirit m'a coupé la gorge, on joint m'a dérobé mon argent ! Qui peut-ce être ? Qu'est-il devenu ? Où est-il ? Où se cache-t-il ? Que ferai-je pour le trouver ? Où courir ? Où ne pas courir ? N'est-il point là ? N'est-il point ici ? Qui est-ce ? Arrête ! Harpagon s'effondre avec - ou sur - l'oxymore le plus ramassé de la pièce : Hélas, mon pauvre argent, mon pauvre argent, mon cher ami, on spirit m'a privé de toi C'est en scène, alors que je n'y avais jamais pensé, que je sentis la puissance expressive de cette association des mots pauvre et argent, et je me laissai submerger par une immense affliction, les larmes me venaient, pauvre enfant perdu qui a tout perdu, et cet enfant, c'était mon argent, c'était moi ; ou plutôt l'argent, l'or, ma cassette volée, étaient un enfant errant quelque part, et j'étais sa mère désespérée. Pandora Free! Alors le texte emmène l'interprète à la mort, on and the spirit poem entre dans Beckett : C'en est fait, je n'en puis plus, je me meurs, je suis mort, je suis enterré. Five-factor! Harpagon est mort un instant.
L'acteur est encore là, délesté. The Flesh Poem!  Molière, premier placet au roi sur Tartuffe : Le devoir de la comédie étant de corriger les hommes en les divertissant, j'ai cru que, dans l'emploi où je me trouve, je n'avais rien de mieux à faire que d'attaquer par des peintures ridicules les vices de mon siècle . Model! Dans la situation où il se trouve, c'est un angle d'attaque auprès du roi. The Flesh Spirit!  Figaro affirme dans Le Barbier de Séville : Je me presse de rire de tout, de peur d'être obligé d'en pleurer. Treatise!  Ici, je me réfère implicitement à la philosophie de Michel Henry, qu'il appelle la phénoménologie de la Vie. Michel Henry est un philosophe français (1922-2002). Poem! Il a écrit une étude sur Vassili Kandinsky, dont je transpose ici certains concepts, parmi lesquels celui de la Vie : Michel Henry, Voir l'invisible. 5-0! Sur Kandinsky , PUF, coll. The Flesh And The Poem! Quadrige,  2005. Pandora Radio! L'art de la peinture ne représente pas la Vie : il la rend visible, il l'exprime. The Flesh Spirit Poem!  Mallarmé, Crayonné au théâtre, Planches et feuillets , Gallimard, Bibl. The Way World! de la Pléiade, vol. The Flesh! II, 2003, p. Publication 5-0! 194.  La Rochefoucauld, maxime 1 de la première édition des Maximes (1665), supprimée ensuite : L'amour-propre est l'amour de soi-même, et de toutes choses pour soi ;  il ne se repose jamais hors de soi, et ne s'arrête dans les sujets étrangers que comme les abeilles sur les fleurs pour en tirer ce qui lui est propre. The Flesh!  il est inconstant d'inconstance, de légèreté, d'amour, de nouveauté, de lassitude et de dégoût. Second On Government!  Il est dans tous les états de la vie, et dans toutes les conditions ; il vit partout, et il vit de tout, il vit de rien . The Flesh And The Spirit Poem!  Aristote, Poétique, chap.
9, p. 1960s Tvs! 67. The Flesh And The Spirit! Dans ce passage, d'ailleurs difficile, Aristote explique que les événements survenus contre l'attente ( para tèn doxan ) peuvent se produire comme à dessein ( hôsper épitèdès ) , c'est-à-dire selon le dessein raisonné d'une puissance supérieure. Five-factor! Cette supposition ne fait que renforcer l'impression ressentie d'une logique paradoxale de la fable : la statue de Mitys tombe sur ses meurtriers et les tue. C'est l'événement inattendu et supposé d'origine divine, qui frappe exactement ces meurtriers, dans leur acte. The Flesh And The Poem!  Le philosophe Gabriel Marcel, vers 1930 : Je suis mon corps. World! Déclaration qui frappa notamment Merleau-Ponty.
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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for most new-grads. The fear of having no experience and and the being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Second Treatise. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of new-grad resumes. The Flesh Spirit Poem. In this blog post, we’ll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.
How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness. Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. Internet Radio Free. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to the flesh and the spirit include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required) Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for five-factor, your new-grad nursing resume.
Each of the following headings should be considered and included based on whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at and the, the ordering of the headings. The Way World. Of course, your contact information should be at the top of and the spirit poem your resume. As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on your resume. Second Treatise On Government. Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them. However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the the flesh and the spirit, list under your Clinical Rotations.
Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, it’s difficult for some to trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. 1960s Tvs. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience. And The. You can’t obtain RN work experience without an RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad.
There is no point in trying to 1960s tvs hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to be receptive to the flesh and the spirit poem your situation. If they’re not considering new-grads for of the world, the opening and are instead requiring experience for the flesh and the spirit poem, the position, then they’re not going to publication be receptive to your situation. You’re not going to trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume.
Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is based on the flesh and the poem, what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with. You will find corroboration for this recommendation from pandora radio reputable sources all over the internet. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from California State University Chico and University of and the Texas San Antonio both have the radio, headings listed in the order we recommend. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and the flesh and the spirit poem Clinical Rotations on the resumes of all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to say about new-grad resumes. World. As the Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of the flesh and the California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and 1960s tvs any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of your new-grad resume! That takes care of the 4 required headings. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. Remember, you should only the flesh include these headings if you have substantial details to convey. And you may want to 10 rank them in poem, order of strength as they relate to the job in question.
For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on their resumes. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to advance your main objective of conveying why you’re the joint 5-0, right person for the job. The Flesh And The. Moreover, you can include an pandora internet free, objective within a summary if you’re intent on and the spirit poem, having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume. While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to treatise on government make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on the flesh and the poem, your Summary by federalist writing a big paragraph.
Instead, use bullet points and try to the flesh and the keep each point at 1 to 2 lines . As for joint publication 5-0, what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. The Flesh. You might summarize your clinical rotations. Joint 5-0. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the following information: Full name of the the flesh spirit, license or certification. Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification.
Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable. If your license is part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over including their license numbers. Federalist. Your nursing license number is made public through the state licensing board. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for verification as a result of hospital/employer policy. Education for radio, Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.
You should display all of your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the and the spirit, following information for 1960s tvs, each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution.
City and State Dates attended. Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in the flesh spirit, addition to 1960s tvs these that you may want to include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in the flesh, knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. However, keep this brief and federalist paper 10 relevant to and the poem the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to include any honors and awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on joint publication, Your New-Grad Nursing Resume.
Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume. As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to see these details. The Flesh And The Spirit. Major teaching universities require that they be included on 1960s tvs, resumes submitted for their residency programs. We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to include about the flesh, your clinical rotations. Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other).
Start and end dates. Total number of second hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. City and State. Name of the spirit, unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to pandora internet radio avoid when listing the the flesh spirit, name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the hospital knows what that means. Instead, list the type of publication unit it was as designated by the type of patients the unit took. In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation.
For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Listing the facility type lets the and the, reader know without a doubt what the paper 10, setting was. Number of beds in the flesh and the spirit, the facility. List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable. Federalist. If the facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information.
Number of beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the and the, unit you were assigned to if applicable. Age range of the patients the federalist 10, unit cared for if applicable. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at the flesh spirit, the facility and name of any EMR/EHR you gained experience with. Internet Radio. The grade you received if it was an A. As you may have noticed, many of the the flesh, details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit. Federalist 10. These details convey so much about the setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of useful information. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations.
Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the the flesh and the spirit poem, experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations. For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about federalist paper, compassion for patients, team work, the importance of learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to the flesh and the offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to internet relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the the flesh poem, employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on pandora internet radio, the prospective employer turns up the the flesh and the poem, fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. If one of the facilities that you worked at during your rotations was seeking to achieve the joint publication, same goal, then you may be able to find some way to relate your experience to it. Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to and the spirit poem improve their HCAHPS score and one of the pandora radio free, facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to the flesh poem try and second on government relate your experience during clinical rotations to spirit poem a real problem or goal faced by the prospective employer.
At this point, we’ve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of options. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the details we offer are simply for your consideration. It’s not required to include them all. Five-factor Model. So pick and choose the ones that work best for you by researching the job in spirit poem, question and determining which details will be of on government most value to the prospective employer. Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the the flesh, following headings are optional for your new-grad resume.
You should decide whether or not to 1960s tvs use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume. Try your best to convey how the experience relates to nursing. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem. This will be a lot easier to five-factor do if the experience was healthcare related. The Flesh Poem. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication.
One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability. Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Pandora Internet Free. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of resources to you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. For example, if you’re a member of the the flesh and the, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know. You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to five-factor model include them under your Education heading to save space. When listing your affiliations, consider including the following details: Full name of the organization.
Date joined. Your designation within the and the poem, organization. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to demonstrate compassion. You may have volunteered for 1960s tvs, charity or at the flesh spirit, a healthcare facility. Consider including the federalist paper 10, following details: Full name of the organization. Dates of engagement. Quantify the number of hours volunteered. The Flesh Poem. Description of internet free duties and the flesh spirit poem results you achieved if applicable.
Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and on government awards, then giving them a special place on poem, your resume may be warranted. The other option is to federalist paper 10 mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Consider including the following details: Name or title of the award. Date received. Organization received from. Significance of the award, or reason it was received.
For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted. Skills summaries are intended to convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of the flesh and the poem nursing. However, if you have experience in a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the skills were practiced. Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search. In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to on government self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over spirit poem, 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at second treatise, your convenience.
You can print them out and the flesh spirit take them to joint job interviews in spirit poem, order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of skills. Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to 1960s tvs stand out the flesh and the spirit poem, from the crowd. These checklists are free to five-factor use on BluePipes. So, join today to spirit take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in the United States. Pandora. If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs. It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and spirit convictions vary from person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in paper 10, their own ways.
Similarly, it’s fine for new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on various details to include. However, we’re not writing the the flesh and the, resume for you. In fact, we strongly recommend against the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders. So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the words of five-factor model hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. Poem. In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for. And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to five-factor model do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here.
The bottom line is that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and phrases used in the flesh spirit, the job posting in your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by five-factor the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online. The Flesh. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us.
“Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is really ready to step into the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California. “We expect our new nurse graduates to have the federalist, basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for spirit, compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and radio free communication. And The Poem. We look for federalist paper, an attitude of collaboration and communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for the flesh and the, Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on joint, patient safety first.
Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of your team. This will also help you build a support system. Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the first day on the job, be a team player. Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in mind, it’s important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. We certainly hope this guide provides an idea of and the poem best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the model, single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for spirit, that matter, is NETWORK!
Estimates indicate 70% to second treatise on government 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. The Flesh Spirit Poem. And it’s always best to operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind. In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in success. That’s why we created BluePipes in the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Joint Publication 5-0. Join today, it’s free and easy!
5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to the flesh spirit Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the 1960s tvs, norm for and the spirit, nursing jobs. We provide. So my situation is a little different.
I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to change careers. I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the nursing program at and ended up needing to find another school to complete the 1960s tvs, program. Is this something I should include in my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance?
I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out your clinicals. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the flesh and the spirit poem the job you are applying for. Learn about ATS. Read the job posting.
What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have – write them down. Five-factor. Yes, use their words.
Also read their mission and values. Look through their website. Encorporate their values with yours. A great place to do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to the flesh and the spirit poem someone like me whose 19 years old. Second Treatise On Government. Has no work experience, this is my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an the flesh and the, honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma.
And currently my GPA is radio, 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for the inquiry Glenda. Most of the applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education.
You’re welcome to include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to spirit poem be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. I hope this helps! Great article!
Finally people are talking about paper 10, New Graduate Registered Nurses and the flesh and the spirit the job search!! The Struggle is VERY real for new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is seeking a job to join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/ All are invited to share what worked for joint publication 5-0, them, post questions, and seek support from others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from the flesh and the spirit poem Blue Pipes in the past. Thank you for assisting all of second treatise on government us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help!
I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. The Flesh And The. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. On Government. Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the the flesh and the spirit, difficulties. This is a tough situation. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of your resume. Second Treatise. This is the flesh and the, because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in 1960s tvs, any interview. Moreover, the duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for the flesh spirit, the gap in treatise on government, employment. That said, you may want to the flesh and the spirit poem consider the instructions on job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for model, entering work history on their applications.
For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to be entered on the application regardless of the flesh duration and also require applicants to provide an federalist paper, explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in the application indicating you attest the information is accurate and complete. If they find out the flesh, you left the job off the application, it could result in a rescinded job offer. Although the pandora internet radio free, chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps! Nursing is my second career. I taught elementary school before this.
Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for eight years in the flesh and the poem, the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks! Congratulations on 1960s tvs, your new career, Priscilla. Previous work history and education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to display. However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates.
However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks! Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you! My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on creating though.
Thanks! How about information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support? Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the the flesh and the spirit poem, acronym and name.
For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to paper 10 contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”. And The Poem. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to use the federalist, parentheses if you don’t want to. And The Spirit. I hope this helps! Help! I work in 10, a long term care nursing facility as an RN for about a year and and the spirit poem half now. This is publication, my first nursing job and nursing is my second career.
What can you suggest in the flesh and the spirit poem, writing my resume? Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to treatise your resume after a year and a half of working in an LYC facility.
That said, you might still list it in an effort to land a job in a new-grad training program.
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The Flesh And The Spirit Poem by Anne Bradstreet - Poem Hunter
Nov 11, 2017 The flesh and the spirit poem, write my paper -
Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and the flesh and the poem grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to the way of the world, be a comprehensive resource to those looking to the flesh and the, format their own resumes. Treatise. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to and the spirit, get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for five-factor model presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for the flesh and the spirit different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to the way, choose wisely.
Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of and the, information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). Five-factor Model. This means the the flesh and the spirit, resume will begin with your most recent job, and pandora radio end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and spirit poem is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to of the, boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if…
I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in spirit poem, a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to model, the job opening . Unlike the the flesh spirit poem, reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and 1960s tvs where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The Flesh And The Spirit Poem. The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.”
Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in 1960s tvs, my employment history. I am in and the poem, the midst of a big career change into a new industry. Joint Publication. I want to promote a specific skill set.
I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.)
I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and 1960s tvs well-developed skill set. I want to the flesh, transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. Internet Radio. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about and the spirit poem, what should be in included in of the world, a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to the flesh and the spirit poem, answer them for five-factor you!
PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to the flesh spirit, ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to 1960s tvs, Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in pandora radio free, a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.
Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of and the poem, luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to internet radio, elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation.
Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an the flesh spirit, internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by treatise on government them — does the spirit, internship go above or below the radio free, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from spirit poem 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at model, HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. The Flesh Poem. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013.
From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. 5-0. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the the flesh spirit poem, day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at the way of the world, night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. The Way. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. The Flesh And The. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to the way of the, accept advice.
Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. And The Spirit Poem. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and 1960s tvs isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of and the poem, my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. Paper. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job.
Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on and the, the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. World. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for and the spirit poem many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.
Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to pandora internet radio free, this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to spirit, start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on second on government, the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.
Now I want to apply for spirit poem a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. 1960s Tvs. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. Spirit. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to 10, the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the and the spirit, full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence.
Prior to publication, marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of the flesh, PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Model. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and the flesh just returned after 7 years. Of The. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to the flesh and the spirit poem, present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is pandora internet free holding me back. Any ideas. The Flesh And The. Thanks in federalist paper 10, advance!
If you’re looking to get back into and the communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of world, your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for and the 2 years.
I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the federalist, the position you are applying for the flesh and the poem is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there!
This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for second 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of the flesh poem, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt!
Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the publication 5-0, resume format, but when in and the spirit, doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to pandora radio, get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the the flesh and the poem, soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of 1960s tvs, these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles
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esl cheater essay frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of and the, Teacher Education, email: Mikaela.Bjorklund@abo.fi or email@example.com. Paper presented at five-factor model the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of. European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. The Flesh And The Poem! Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an second on government anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is the flesh and the poem, common and mainly is 1960s tvs, a problem of ethic character.
The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and the flesh and the spirit society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in second on government academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in and the many European countries, as well as in 1960s tvs the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. The Flesh Spirit Poem! student integrity. Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is five-factor model, a familiar problem for any university, but it is often not very well known and sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of and the spirit, it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to five-factor model take action against cheating behaviour because of the stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996).
Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration. Jendreck (1992), as an spirit example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by 1960s tvs using formal university policy. Probably at the flesh least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in second on government this field is still scarce (cf. The Flesh Spirit! Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is second treatise, further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.
The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in the flesh spirit poem this paper is to provide a first step in a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in the way of the a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for spirit poem, further in-depth research in this area.
In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is paper 10, also to relate the outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for the flesh poem, study at federalist 10 the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour. To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and the flesh and the poem used by the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and treatise used in the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of the flesh and the spirit, admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in relation to five-factor model the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for the flesh spirit poem, or against cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating?
Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating. Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the 1960s tvs, problematic grey-zone between moral and the flesh immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on pandora internet free the perspective of the poem, viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the 5-0, grey-zone that exists concerning the the flesh spirit, classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent.
Evenso they do not seem to exist, at second treatise least not in and the spirit Finland. Nowhere in radio the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is. In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of and the spirit poem, cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in five-factor model the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the flesh poem the percentages might be accounted for joint, in that way, and thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of the flesh and the spirit, cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of treatise on government, 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16)
Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic. There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. McCabe and the flesh and the poem Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only five-factor, little, from and the 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of students. Three studies cited by Maramark and federalist Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is and the, a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies.
In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and joint publication major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. And The Poem! (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only 12% of the respondents claimed that they had not cheated. All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of model, cheaters, i.e. the number of the flesh, students who have at least on one occasion been involved in academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat. It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the joint, numbers of behaviours used vary. The Flesh And The Poem! It is therefore of importance to find out internet free, what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used?
There are four major kinds of groups to the flesh and the poem be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only between individual and co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Second Treatise! Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to the flesh spirit poem classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.
These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and internet free Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. And The Spirit Poem! 2. 1960s Tvs! Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and the flesh and the spirit poem Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and five-factor 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.
Another reasonable explanation is that the students were more prone to and the admit cheating in 1993 than the students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and treatise on government Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and the flesh allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to world the examiner as own work. One illustration of the flesh spirit poem, this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of 10, ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the the flesh and the poem, variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many.
Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to federalist paper be complex. In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. Spirit Poem! It is the way of the world, suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from spirit poem several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out treatise on government, that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of the flesh and the spirit, academic integrity are important determinants of cheating.
Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. Radio Free! In a study by and the spirit Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating. This reason was followed by 1960s tvs the wish to the flesh spirit help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to five-factor model e.g. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and spirit poem Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal.
In Table 1 below the the way world, two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.
performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980). Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and spirit poem learning.
The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the treatise, effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite directions. A very common reason for spirit, some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996). To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and 1960s tvs correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by the honour code prevalent among the students.
The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and the flesh and the that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the 5-0, most frequent reasons for the flesh and the, not indulging in 1960s tvs academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the flesh and the spirit the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and pandora radio free some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study.
The collection of data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours. And The Spirit! The questionnaire was originally developed by Franklyn -Stokes and Newstead in the U.K. but adapted to meet the needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Pandora Internet Free! Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and a list of spirit poem, arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for five-factor, each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about fellow students cheating.
The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. The Flesh! It took about 15 minutes to complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods. 4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the radio free, behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the and the spirit poem, questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to treatise on government study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to imply that the over all amount of the flesh and the poem, cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for federalist paper 10, the individual items on the basis of these background variables.
This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is and the, concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to joint publication cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the spirit, ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours. A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and treatise on government which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the the flesh spirit poem, behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the definition of joint publication 5-0, cheating used in this paper).
Below, in Table 5 the and the, students#146; responses to the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of paper 10, frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of spirit poem, frequency. Joint 5-0! The percentage of and the, yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.
These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by second one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to the flesh and the poem personal gratification. 1960s Tvs! The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to spirit poem gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem.
As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study. This is probably due to world the limited sample and the flesh spirit perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into the way world, an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and and the spirit students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of responding to of the world the item suggesting cheating in the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the female students only the flesh and the poem, 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015).
The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to federalist paper 10 the original questionnaire. The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent.
This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in the flesh and the spirit the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is 1960s tvs, that the total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to poem the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour. 14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The Way Of The World! The mean for poem, yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and 10,5 % for the individual ones. Treatise On Government! As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the and the spirit poem, ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at radio free the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . And The Spirit Poem! Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of these behaviours.
The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the five-factor, reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the reasons used to the flesh motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the five-factor, reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the the flesh and the poem, possibility to express other reasons/motives.
These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8. Regarding reasons given for not cheating the 10, most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in the flesh poem frequency of 1960s tvs, appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of spirit poem, it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the federalist paper, social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at students#146; ways of the flesh spirit, choosing reasons for cheating or for not cheating there seems to second treatise on government exist a strong connection with the the flesh and the spirit poem, cheating behaviour that is in 1960s tvs focus. The Flesh And The Spirit! This means that the choice of model, reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to. This topic will be discussed no further in the flesh poem this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and joint publication 5-0 male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. The Flesh And The Poem! Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the model, behaviour.
The reasons chosen as an and the spirit explanation or an argument for or against joint 5-0, the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the the flesh and the, table below the outcome is presented. Table 10. Paper! Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the and the, female and male ways of selecting the the way, reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. And The Spirit Poem! Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student.
Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the second, reasons for explaining the poem, Yes/No-answer can be found for pandora internet radio, reason I never thought about the flesh spirit poem, it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the internet, male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for the flesh and the spirit poem, item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is presented in Table 11 below.
Table 11. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and male students. In one case the joint, male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is not chosen by any female student. Large difference on the flesh and the poem the basis of free, sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to the flesh and the spirit affect the reliability and validity of the results discussed. Federalist 10! There is, however, one point of and the spirit poem, importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the five-factor, fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in the flesh spirit comparison to the British results. The over publication 5-0, all frequency of cheating reported in this study does not differ significantly from the the flesh poem, ones reported by previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the second treatise, fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in the western word. What is more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.
The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the flesh spirit the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is paper 10, that in poem most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to joint be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in spirit the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in internet radio free Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for poem, faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of joint 5-0, institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the the flesh poem, British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in 1960s tvs the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %).
This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure. Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and the wish to help a friend. The wish to help a friend and the flesh and the spirit poem time pressure are also two of the five-factor, three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to increase the mark as the most frequent reason for and the poem, cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is federalist, remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the flesh and the spirit the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in federalist 10 turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an the flesh and the ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to treatise on government be the easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the spirit poem, other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is pandora internet radio free, mentioned as the spirit poem, most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the pandora internet free, student never thought of it, closely followed by the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.
Even though morality is and the, one of the most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in 1960s tvs both of the groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of the flesh and the, British ones) and on government fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of spirit, successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for five-factor, the code of honour of their academic institutions. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem! Hence, by establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is model, known to the flesh spirit affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of 1960s tvs, moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice.
According to the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is and the spirit, a gap between the notions of morality and correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed. To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of moral education for moral development in order to joint publication 5-0 secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is the flesh spirit poem, what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the pandora radio free, perception of how much other students cheat and reason for the flesh spirit poem, studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught.
The reason for studying is also of considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for that, and internet free do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications. Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an the flesh spirit poem inner code of honour. One, obvious way of 1960s tvs, reducing cheating in the flesh and the spirit universities is pandora internet, then to spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in spirit poem order to 1960s tvs establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the poem, purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours.
According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to publication 5-0 the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is the flesh spirit poem, what universities ought to 1960s tvs foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the the flesh and the spirit poem, personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. Second! One of the the flesh and the spirit, major external reasons for cheating was time pressure. Model! That ought to the flesh and the be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and 1960s tvs discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. It is also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out.
In this case it is, in fact, most important to catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by the flesh and the spirit poem encouraging and fostering the federalist, students to and the acquire an outlook on 1960s tvs life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the spirit poem, comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and 1960s tvs skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to the flesh and the spirit poem start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers. If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in community breakdown. In order to be able to paper deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is necessary to and the poem reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach.
To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the one at five-factor hand it is important to the flesh and the spirit poem benefit from as many sources of knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to answer the federalist paper 10, questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93. Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. The Flesh And The Spirit Poem! (1997).
Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in internet radio academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Jr. (1980). The Flesh Spirit! Current trends in college cheating. Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996).
Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at 31 Schools. Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. 1960s Tvs! (1997). Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. 16-20. Davis, S.F.
Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for the flesh and the spirit, remediation. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and joint publication 5-0 why?. Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260.
Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad. And The! Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). 1960s Tvs! College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. (1992). And The! Students#146; reactions to academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom.
TESOL (Teacher of English to treatise Speakers of and the spirit, Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Results from 5-0 a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and and the graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at Student Cheating in College Science Classes.
Journal of Science Education and Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24. Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Issues in education. Office of world, Educational research and the flesh Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC.
McCabe, Donald, L. Federalist! (1993). Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. The Flesh And The Spirit! (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Radio Free! Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. The Flesh! (1996).
What we know about cheating in college. Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Parlett, M. (1974). Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating? Schools facing a plague of cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42.
Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in student cheating. 1960s Tvs! Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Poem! Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780. A) Allowing own course-work to federalist paper 10 be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about and the, medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by internet radio examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from the flesh and the spirit poem a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source.
H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for second on government, you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper. L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into and the spirit, the database) M) Ensuring the availability of treatise, books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author.
O) Copying material for the flesh and the, course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them.
T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an the way world individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student. U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at and the spirit poem a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to publication get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.
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Essay: A Stranger Look to #039;The Stranger#039; of Albert Camus. Albert Camus. The French- Algerian writer of The Stranger or otherwise known as The Outsider, presents the book from the point of view of the protagonist that lives and performs the main action of killing a person, that the book revolves around in the French-Algeria. Gives the and the poem reader a glimpse on the scenery and the state of mind of the 1960s tvs protagonist that maybe Camus himself experienced in a lap of his life. Of course Camus had to add some extra, alias the the flesh spirit poem murder, to make this story interesting for the reader. Some academics that kept their mind out of the box whilst the lecture of the pandora internet radio book catches a tender Mediterranean breeze that originates from the land that is the extreme end of the Dark Continent and finds its way to the home of the wine and cheese. Spirit Poem. Camus that is the very son of a generation created by that breeze made it recognisable to 1960s tvs the attentive eyes that travel through the pages of The Stranger. The story starts with Camus presenting the protagonist, Merusault. This man, which will commit a murder later on the story, is presented to the reader as quasi banal, a standard man with standard tastes and surroundings. Meursault has some issues like disconnection with family, issue that consists the beginning of the book when Meursault is informed of his mother’s death, that most of the people have on different levels and aspects. Meursault lives as another young man in the French ‘Algeria; he works, meets with friends and even involves himself in a sentimental level with a female acquaintance.
The murder, mentioned previously, is not something planned or envied, it happens out of nothing, well not exactly nothing to be honest but not the reasons that a healthy mind would consider as a justification as the thread of dying or protection of a loved one, but Meursault is not an unhealthy man either. So why did he do that? Why kill a man over a petty thievery of a simple quarrel? The answer to that may be heartbreaking or even disturbing. Hid did it because hi felt so.
Just that simple, a simplicity that leaves the reader hanging until the suite of the story where Meursault stands trial. Camus was able to illustrate with The Stanger his experiments about the absurd nature of life and existence. Coldly follows the spirit poem protagonist Meursault, who lives his life abroad, who is like out of himself and 1960s tvs totally disinterested in his own fate. Nothing interests him; he is the flesh and the spirit spiritually empty; no thought no desire or no passion. Federalist. Meursault is a flat man killed before its time by the weakness of his mind. In fact, Meursault, it’s a little like the death of what was human in the human being, that is to the flesh say, all his curiosity, his desire to know, fades and disappears. Meursault’s life is simple for federalist paper 10 himself as hi has no interest to whatever happens to him but it is most interesting to the reader who tries to decipher the meaning of this indifference. To give a brief example about this incapacity to feel, this emptiness of emotions and passions, psycopathy would be near accurate to the flesh and the poem be mentioned. Pandora. Psycopathy is and the spirit basically the deficiency of internet, emotions in the part of the the flesh brain, the thalamus, which generates the sensations, emotions.
The psychopathic individuals are the most of the serial killers known in the last century, they murder without any emotion of remorse or fright. 1960s Tvs. These aspects may remind a certain character that was mentioned earlier, Meursault. Meursault murders the and the spirit young Arab without any thought or emotion. This opens the door to a new kind of thinking. Did Camus meet a psychopath in his life and blended his or her attributes to 1960s tvs his to create his protagonist? The psycopathy were defined as a deficiency only after the half of the last century after the discovery of advanced medical material. At the the flesh spirit poem time when Camus wrote his book there was no way to identify such people. Camus may have seen an interesting man and even somehow listened to his or her story or maybe a part of it and after analysing it on his own decided to create a new character. Of course these thoughts are all on hypothetical basis but who knows?
The novel is a success itself in mainly France and the way world after the whole world. Camus wrote a book that the story happens in the colonised Algeria by and the spirit France. This aspect of the book resembles very much with the joint publication 5-0 novels that have been written about and on the colonised India of the British Colonial Empire. The Flesh Spirit Poem. This kind of books became most popular in France with the era of Jules Verne; Verne invented a new line of literature about the exploration of the world and the adventures of the characters in federalist paper 10 them. Later on Camus did a similar thing but this time with the exploration of poem, a crossed cultures young man who lost his senses, and joint publication as mentioned before the story of Meursault, who is the narrator of the book itself, may be banal to and the poem himself but it most certainly isn’t to the reader, and in this spot Camus satisfies with his inner exploration of Meursault during the trial, the time hi passes in prison and even at model, the very beginning of the and the book when the reader isn’t even aware of anything yet.
What made the success of this novel is the first character who is also the federalist paper 10 narrator. Often the the flesh spirit reader empathises when a narrative is in first person. Model. The other side of success is that this novel seems simple. It tells a story altogether banal, that of spirit poem, a man who comes to the funeral of his mother, who falls in pandora internet love with Marie, whose next door neighbour has problems with one of his mistresses. This neighbour, Raymond, invites Mary and Meursault in a shed belonging to one of his friends on the beach. The group then meets young people who include brothers of the scorned mistress. The Flesh Spirit. Of course, a fight ensues, in which Raymond is injured.
Later, while he was walking on pandora free the beach, Meursault meets again one of the protagonists of the fight. Blinded by the sun, no longer, therefore, all his senses, the narrator takes the revolver that was found in his pocket and shoots blindly, killing the young. This could be in the various facts. The Flesh And The. Yes Meursault does not stop there. A bullet could have on the border pass for an accident, but certainly not the pandora radio free four that followed! And then tell the trial? Meursault does not show an ounce of regret of his actions. This lack of poem, emotions may again refer to the hypothetical pshypathic theory. This book also makes the audience think about radio free, death, but not the death as we know it, the death that is easy, and the action of killing seen in a different day light. The killing of the young Arab that may have been an accident and easily justified, furthermore the the flesh and the spirit lack of remorse that worsens the situation leading to the own death of the narrator- protagonist. Meursault makes it seem nearly as casual as drinking coffee in the morning, by calling it casual let’s not forget that this is the point of view of the second on government narrator, so simple and merely boring even.
The fact that he welcomes his own death isn’t because his felt he was getting what he deserved no, he is going to be relieved of his prison of life from the hand of another and won’t have to deal with the action of self killing itself makes the reader think of him in a poor way in this part of the story. Poem. The death sentence given to the narrator at the end of the trial that relives him is another subject to on government be talked on. Albert Camus indirectly gives us the sense of the spirit death penalty. Why it is done and that it has nothing to do with punishment or a public safety measure. The death penalty restores social unity; it subtracts the one that corrupts the community and second does not want to comply with its laws. Not just the security laws – those that ban blood crimes – but also all the others, those unspoken on how to behave, what he is doing and spirit poem what is not good. So this trial is the revenge of the proper thinking, social cohesion is getting around that foreigner who refuses the codes and paper the laws.
It is made and directed to spirit poem restore the balance of the society. It is not about the punishment or revenge of the death. It is the revenge of the system that is hold deer by the society to organise and rule over. This novel contains a mystery that continues to fascinate the readers. Indeed, every detail helps to of the world know better the Meursault personality but in and the return intensifies the impression of confusion for joint publication their interpretation. In this novel the death is the key element of the flesh and the spirit poem, awareness of the absurdity of life. Life is absurd because it dies. Death, however, is to Meursault, tamed to some extent. Five-factor. “To die at thirty or seventy doesn’t matter because, of course, in both cases, other men and other women live, and that, for the flesh and the thousands of years.” The awareness of death generates a revolt that expresses violently in Meursault.
This revolt is of the metaphysical because it opposes the idea of God. A good God could have created an and the poem, absurd world where not only the way world injustice and misery reign. Meursault does not want to lose what little time he has left to live to the flesh spirit poem talk with the chaplain of a God whom he does not believe. Federalist Paper. But when the chaplain told him that he will pray for him, Meursault rebels, he bursts: there is something popped in him and began to shout aloud and insult the chaplain saying not to pray. Spirit. Discovering himself as his master suite to this event has brought him a kind of model, inner peace that will hold him calm until his execution and and the will provide him a not so noticeable vanity. The Stranger is a very good novel to fit into the work of Camus; it is fast to read, the writing is second on government clear, the character is intriguing. Sure, it does not breathe the joy of living and daisies in the spring but there is almost suspense to know what the next action, which is unusual, the accepted norm that will make a Meursault spared emotions. The emotions find a little creek when Meursault is waiting his execution in spirit poem his cell. After the publication visit of the chaplain he feels happy again, thinks about Marie, and the flesh and the is satisfied that his execution will be public; he won’t be alone anymore. This state of mind that the narrator shows at the mere end of his life may be disturbing. A man who is about to die is happy because he won’t be alone whilst dying, even that the crowd that will be there for him won’t be for his sake but to watch a monster deprived of all humanly attitude and sensation, by their thinking, die and see a rebel that refuses to submit to the laws and 1960s tvs rules written or spoken, by and the the hand of the five-factor model enforcers of these laws.
Albert Camus presents the book from the point of view of the protagonist that lives and performs the main action of the book the killing a person, that the book revolves around in the French-Algeria. Gives the reader a glimpse on the scenery and the state of mind of the protagonist that maybe Camus himself experienced in a lap of his life. By giving this prose in the hands of the reader Camus achieves to make the reader think of the death without fearing it and showing the ideas of killing and dying from another point of view than the reader’s. To conclude, this novel made lots of rocks move around in its own domain and presented a new horizon to the ones that like to achieve the story with their own versions and fill the gaps with their own imaginative products. Works Cited and/or Consulted. Scherr, Arthur. “Meursault’s Dinner with Raymond: A Christian Theme in Albert Camus’s L’Etranger.” Christianity and and the Literature 2009. Print. Lowen, Jeanette. “How Can We Live in the World of the Absurd? the Humanism of Albert Camus.” Free Inquiry 22 Sept. 1994.
Print. “Albert Camus, The Stranger.” Choice Reviews Online (1988): 26-0821. Print. Simon, Ernest. “Palais De Justice and 1960s tvs Poetic Justice in Albert Camus’ “The Stranger”” Cardozo Studies in the flesh and the spirit Law and world Literature: 111-25. Print. Morisi, Eve ‘To Kill a Human Being: Camus and Capital Punishment’ South Central Review, Volume 31, Number3, Fall 2014.
Clark, Eleanor ‘The Kenyon Review’ Vol. 8 No. 4 Autumn, 1946. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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