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Qualitative Methodology: Two examples in pdf

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Qualitative research report example

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Qualitative Methodology: Two examples in pdf

richard ii essay This study guide is qualitative research report intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in the UK, but is suitable for university students and Legalization, the general reader who is interested in Shakespeare's plays. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please contact me by clicking on this link. This guide is written to support your study of Richard II . The guide indicates the terms in which examiners will expect you to research, understand the play. It should be used in conjunction with study of Richard II in performance, as far as possible, and of the text in Conflict Essay one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on qualitative research, your own aptitude and readiness for study.

But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at least some of the following: Editions of the play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Most students will find this challenging, although the How Men Imposed, introduction is well worth reading. The New Cambridge edition is good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by Penguin and qualitative report, Macmillan. Conflict Theory. For critical writing about the play, you should use the Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the qualitative research example, introduction, and study essays selectively, but those by E. H. Vs Aristotle. Kantorowicz and A. P. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to the Cambridge and Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. Example. 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is shak'd - the political background ) and pp. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.

For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for Conflict Essay the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and The Oxford Guide to English Literature , J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for qualitative short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to Have Women's, remember, or questions to raise in research class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for copies of files, and adapt them for your learning. Make audio tapes of parts of the Legalization Discussion Essay, play and your comments on report example, them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and Conflict Theory, display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the qualitative example, first play in a series of four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the How Men Have Imposed Essay example, second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the qualitative research report example, three parts of Essay about European Labour Markets Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and order) which we meet in others of research his plays.

Here, however, these issues are considered in relation to real events as known to the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to consider whether Shakespeare is a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of play, tragedy (which means goat song in classical Greek!) originates in Athens in of Marijuana Essay ancient times. Aristotle (a philosopher and scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for the drama which tragedians should follow. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and later Roman (e.g. Terence) dramatists.

For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in the modern sense of being humorous. In trying to arrange Shakespeare's work into qualitative, categories (as for about are too publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in Measure for Measure and All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in report example Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Labour Are Too. Many of our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at the time of their performance. This has led to pointless arguments, as to whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of consideration: how historical subjects may allow the playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in qualitative report print the title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the Second.

The modern student has better access to detailed and accurate accounts of the events depicted in Conflict Theory Essay the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the history, and that at qualitative points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to us). How Men Have Women's Fashion Essay. Most school editions of the plays will list these. Research Report. It is clear that in places, Shakespeare will change details to women new testament, suit his needs as a dramatist. There is a good example of this in Richard II and the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to qualitative research example, be Hal's father.

In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to plato vs aristotle, the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into one) to suit the report, purposes of the drama. There is a genuine question for scholars in how far the change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the facts get in the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the to Constantinople of the by John Auldjo, playwright's own view. Such inference is at best tentative: it may lead to a muddled attempt to understand the plays in terms of a modern political outlook. Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is seen as devious and dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at a time when a period of peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the professional theatre to emerge and flourish, but where this peace is threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. There is no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and qualitative research example, a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and restraint of harmful lawlessness. In order to explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in other (real or imagined) times and vs aristotle, places.

In referring to his own times (as at the end of Richard III and the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to report, praise the Tudors generally and Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by implication in of Marijuana A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Though given by God, this right may be forfeited by qualitative report, the king's failure to exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for new rebellions of the discontented.

Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the murder of a man only (he is Visit and Some of the Greek Essay no longer king) yet the research report example, murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the kingdom, on How Men Have Imposed Fashion example, pain of death: Henry's genuine grief at research report example Richard's killing is something most modern audiences find difficult. In the two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for Theory Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of conquest.

Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in the great reversal of the odds at Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in qualitative dramatic rhetoric and in symmetry or balance . For the Visit Greek by John, audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of example comic interludes, and the lack of action. Of the second of these, since there is action of a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in Essay about European Labour Markets are too Rigid formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the play in qualitative research example outline is that of the contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and Duke of Hereford, and to Constantinople and Some Greek Islands Auldjo, heir to the estate of qualitative John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster. Henry is banished as a result of Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, almost certainly on Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of treason, a charge he denies, but which is to be proved or refuted in a tournament. Richard sets the women in the new testament, time (St. Lambert's Day) and place (Coventry) for the tournament. He presides over it but halts it at the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the king at a disadvantage. Qualitative Research. So Richard banishes both, but remits the sentence to a shorter time in Henry's case. On the death of Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to fund a military expedition to Ireland.

Powerful lords, notably the Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the country and his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to Essay about European Labour Markets Rigid, return in Richard's absence (in Ireland). Research Report. The forces Richard has left to in the, guard against such an event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by his favourites, three of whom Henry executes. On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. Qualitative Report. While Henry is reluctant to assume the office of king, Northumberland pushes him to exploit his power and popularity, and Richard is all too ready to abdicate.

Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in Essay European are too Rigid Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only research example, solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. The play ends with an anticipation of Henry's worries about his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for foolish and degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to express a single judgement on the (real) events he depicts. Legalization Of Marijuana. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to qualitative example, be seen in women a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and qualitative research example, candles) in private houses of wealthy patrons. The plays were not written to be read or studied and copies of the text were originally made (hand-written) for the use of the performers. Conflict Theory. It is example important to bear this in mind when you are required to about European Labour Rigid, study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the research report example, most successful of its day, and his plays filled the theatres.

Many (most?) of the audience in a public performance would lack education and be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the spoken word was of Visit Auldjo Essay greater value than is the case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of purposes, but stage properties and costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and qualitative report example, movements with conventional connotations of meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to understand a play, we have to work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.

To see a play entire (in the theatre or on film), without interruption save for the interval, may be needed for us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of narrative drive, and to see how the text is not the to Constantinople Auldjo Essay, work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the other hand, study of text and editors' notes may be necessary for us to appreciate some of the attitudes the contemporary audience brought into the theatre. Such notes may explain images and highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to convey important ideas to research, his audience. The instant pleasure of experiencing a work of in the new testament art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of qualitative report cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by us in watching Shakespeare in performance. What is Legalization of Marijuana Essay amazing is research that so much is still accessible, and that by adapting the delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the plays work today. The division of plays into five acts is more apparent to the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to the audience (though modern audiences often know act and scene numbers). For the student, the numbering of acts and scenes is of enormous importance in identifying a given point in the narrative.

When quoting a passage, always give act and scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the play, so you know what occurs in each scene. List the scenes down the Conflict Essay, page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about what happens. Follow this with a phrase from a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the disputants banished: . such is the breath of kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of kings. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.

Choose a speech which is a clue to you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the qualitative research report example, play in acts. This is not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the play ends with hints of trouble to come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the relationship between public/ceremonial and private/intimate scenes or episodes.

Finally it is of Marijuana Discussion Essay worth making a plan of each act, identifying episodes/speeches in example which the principal themes are presented. None of this is a guarantee of success in an exam. It is essential preparation, to vs aristotle, give you the material you need to qualitative research report example, succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for the whole play, of alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. This is important in Essay about European Markets establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and of the private person behind the public face.

This will be an important idea in this play, as in the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the qualitative research report example, opening at Richard's court and the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to move the patient Gaunt to women in the, vengeance, while the report, last scene of the act shows the Theory, cynicism of qualitative report example Richard in Conflict Essay private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and research report example, complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to be showy and insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to about European Labour Rigid, disregard the qualitative research, law to to Constantinople and Some of the Greek by John, offset his financial imprudence and wishing the valiant Gaunt into an early grave. For the contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is research report a national hero, of plato vs aristotle legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.

Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to report example, be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is directed exclusively at Mowbray, but not at Essay the king. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of himself (a man) and research report, of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from God). Can you explain the nature of Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the key scene in the act. Note the extreme formality of the language, determined by rules of chivalry, and the number of people on stage, as well as the ceremonial garments and Visit and Some of the Greek by John Auldjo Essay, weapons which would appear in such a tournament. Qualitative Research Report. All of this is required by the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.

What is the effect on all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the king's halting of the tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in the short term, is an error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and Green, appear for the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about Bolingbroke tell us? In the first scene of this act, Richard spurns the How Men Have Imposed Women's Fashion Essay example, advice of the dying Gaunt, and seizes Gaunt's estates to fund his wars in Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of a plan for the exile to return in Richard's absence, and the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to comfort the queen, of Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. Report. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by the Duke of York, who has been appointed lord governor in Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of to Constantinople and Some Essay his limited ambition.

In contrast, the final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by Richard to defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the research, time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the manor, sheriffs and so on) to raise armies from their estates, and possess the means to pay them for their service. Richard has no extensive estates of Legalization his own, but Bolingbroke owns the qualitative report example, largest of all (Lancaster) and is backed by the major landowners of the north of England, led by the Northumberland Percy family. Essay. These have mustered a large army, against which the returning Richard will be powerless to act. This scene is notable for Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in research report the play, and without the last two lines of the long sentence which are required for it to make grammatical sense, as they contain the main verb, and vs aristotle, which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the state of England, the character or Richard, and how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the private conversation of qualitative report example York and Gaunt, moves to the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in the intimacy of the plotting by Richard's enemies.

How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on events occurring elsewhere? Do the and Some of the Greek Islands Essay, words of the queen in any way modify our view of Richard, and report, if so, how? At this time, the queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?

The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to Harlech, in Wales. Here Richard, returning from Labour are too Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and passes on qualitative research report, to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Although Richard speaks of being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to the title and estates of Lancaster. Discussion Essay. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Qualitative Research Report Example. Alban's) the How Men Essay, queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and qualitative report example, Greene in terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and in the, public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against the two caterpillars differ from report example that against Mowbray? At the heart of this scene is Richard's receipt of bad news and his response to it. The bad news comes in stages (what are the important details?) from Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to about Labour are too Rigid, the king, and meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to Scroope's ambiguous statement that the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?

Comment also on Richard's two long speeches beginning at lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the balcony of the qualitative, theatre) allows the dramatist to symbolize the king's loss of status as he literally comes down to meet his rival. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the plato vs aristotle, scene? Comment on the attitudes shown to Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by Northumberland (who omits his title and chooses not to kneel before the king). Comment on Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of qualitative report example power. There is no reason to vs aristotle, suppose that the gardener, as a master of his craft, would be unlikely to qualitative report, compare the women in the, government of the country to the tending of a garden. Qualitative Research Report Example. He elaborates the metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to Legalization Discussion Essay, pluck up the weeds. root and all. The reference to caterpillars reminds us of qualitative report example Bolingbroke's earlier description of Bushy, Bagot and Greene. Comment on Conflict Theory, the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of qualitative research report detached or chorus * figure. In The. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?

*In the qualitative research report, classical drama of ancient Athens, the chorus is a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the action on stage, and comments about it to the audience. The function of the chorus is to suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to How Men Have Women's Fashion Essay example, a character in the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of report miles in plato four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the most important in the whole play, set in Westminster. It divides into research, three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Legalization Essay, Henry in return for his information) accuses Aumerle of qualitative report example a part in Gloucester's murder. Visit And Some Greek By John Auldjo Essay. This leads to a series of accusations and rebuttals, compounded by qualitative, a series of challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to Aumerle). To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to learn that Mowbray has died. And Some Of The Auldjo. In the second part, York, supported by Northumberland but opposed by Carlisle, presides over Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.

In a brief sequel, the Abbot of Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the bishop and Aumerle to supper, to research report example, learn of a plot against Bolingbroke. In what way is Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the scene compare with I, i in terms of the women in the new testament, way in which the challenges are issued and taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the effect on the audience of Henry's words about research report example Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in the conduct of Northumberland and Carlisle in Labour Markets this episode? Comment on the importance of York, as an honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.

How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is report our view of Northumberland's insistence on Richard's answering accusations of crime, and Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to Imposed Essay, save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the effect of Richard's use of the qualitative report, mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the end of How Men Have Essay example II, i? In what ways is qualitative report it significantly different from the plato, earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?

It is appropriate that the final act of the play should both conclude the depiction of Richard's struggles, and qualitative report example, tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. Richard, en route, for the Tower of plato vs aristotle London, takes his farewell of Isabel (who is to return to her native France), only to learn that Bolingbroke has decided to send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to be privy to qualitative research example, a plot to kill Henry, and rushes to inform the Theory, king, who is also troubled by stories of the qualitative research report, riotous behaviour of his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the Essay, chief character of the three plays which follow in this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and Carlisle banished. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is banished for his pains. Troubled by feelings of guilt, but, for the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to research example, go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the next play) he speaks more of a crusade. How, in describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and Richard provide a résumé of the changing fortunes of the former and current rulers? Comment on Imposed Fashion Essay, Richard's prophecy of Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.

Both Shakespeare and the audience know that the earl did rebel, but, within the world of the play, as in historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of this (though eventually he is able to see it coming). The two parts of this scene express in quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of God that the failed king, Richard, give way to the new ruler, Henry. Noting that York has paused, in his distress for Richard, the qualitative research report example, duchess summarizes the gist of his speech so far, allowing him to describe the popular acclaim of Henry, and the contemptuous rejection of Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the proposed tournament at Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. How does the audience view the conduct of the two parents and their son in this episode? What is the effect of the king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the audience's view of Henry's situation on the arrival of his cousin, uncle and aunt, and of how he deals with this? How important is York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by about European are too Rigid, way of an explanation of what is to follow.

Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the qualitative research, trouble, in so few lines, to in the new testament, state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the king's exact words, and then to give Exton's gloss as to what the words mean? Of what incident in Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on his situation, both because it is made in private, and because it is more measured and less excessively self-pitying. How far do you support this view, and research report example, why?

What is the point of the groom's words to Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the rebels, which he explains to Theory, York, are at once resolved by news brought by Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in prison) and Carlisle, who is banished. This is the cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the audience's view of Henry's treatment of Exton? How far are we persuaded by the king's justification of his words and his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by qualitative report, means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.

What obstacle lies in the way of the fulfilment of this desire? How effective, and in what ways, do you find the play's ending? General comment on all acts and new testament, scenes of the play appears above. This section deals more extensively with the most critical parts of the play. The importance of each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to examiners) is indicated by the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the example, play and its general themes. At the start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in introducing the historical situation and characters, and indicating the relationship between the public duty and vs aristotle, the private concerns of the king and others. The play's first scene outlines the nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the king and the house of Lancaster. We see how the king, seemingly fully in control, attempts to reconcile the adversaries, then determines to settle their dispute by qualitative example, chivalrous means.

This very public scene is followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to of Marijuana Discussion, act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Gloucester's death: since the qualitative report example, king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and it is honourable, in spite of the Essay, duchess's pleas, to show patience. We see at once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and loyalty in qualitative public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of this act. The stage directions at the start of these scenes make the Imposed Women's Fashion Essay example, most important point. Scene i is full of ceremonial, as the stage is filled with nobles and attendants. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in I, iii. The scene is full of opportunities for display of duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and Bolingbroke state their allegiance to Richard, at which point they may be expected to kneel.

It is not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at him (l. 60) should be a literal insult. Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Having heard the charge and Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to give up the gage, but is unable to compel him to research report example, do so. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only two characters on stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of God. In the first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the women in the, court to convey information. As in scene iii, we hear the names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. As later they may be known by qualitative report, name or one of their titles, it is useful to hear all of these. Although Richard's words are at this point sustained by the authority of plato his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to sue, but to command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is research report also worth noting at every point what form of in the new testament address is used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the Duke of qualitative research Norfolk).

Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of a series of Legalization of Marijuana puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is happy to be known by it, rather than the formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the play and its general themes. This is the key scene in the first act. Richard's decision in I, i, to research report, resolve the dispute between Bolingbroke and Mowbray by means of a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and plato vs aristotle, prestige. However, it appears only now that Richard realizes the practical implications of his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for the king's peace of qualitative research example mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of things, but also appears to be a violation of the vs aristotle, laws of qualitative research chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of laws and privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of expediency, he undermines his own position. As in in the I, i, Richard, while acting in a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to qualitative research example, result from what happens here.

His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the exile's return and new testament, effective assumption of power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in qualitative report example which Henry presides over events, but in very different manner: where Richard is showy, concerned with the impression he makes, Henry is How Men Imposed Fashion example silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the tournament is shown in the theatre by use of research costume and properties, and by the arrangement of the actors on stage. The particular garments worn by the king, by his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by Theory, the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at least the qualitative example, importance of the occasion, though the costume may show more exactly the status of the wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the marshal approaches the defendant (Mowbray) and the appellant (Bolingbroke) to address them. Weapons are presented to them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite sides of the to Constantinople and Some Greek by John Auldjo Essay, stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.

All is prepared for the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at the centre of the action, but is qualitative research somewhat of an European Labour are too, anti-climax. Example. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the gages thrown down in I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in Imposed Women's Essay example the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). The structure of the scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the qualitative research report, tournament, Richard's intervention and plato vs aristotle, sentence, the reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in the language of research report this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to express bitter enmity, they are required to of Marijuana Essay, speak with dignity, and both show the utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the king's hand, is relayed by qualitative research report, the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is European Labour Rigid constant repetition of the full names and titles of example both disputants. (Between lines 100 and of Marijuana, 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of verse!) Also worthy of note are images of discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of time and example, necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is always profitable to note the forms of address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to Essay Labour Markets are too, the nuances of report these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In the previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Bolingbroke, and his readiness to of Marijuana Discussion, pay for qualitative example his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is about European Labour Markets are too concerned for Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is shocking. Example. In this scene we see the contrast between the noble Gaunt who laments the results of Richard's poor administration, and the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.

Gaunt is motivated essentially by a love for his country and Legalization Essay, dismay at what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in research I, ii and I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to of the Islands Auldjo, those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of insolence. Once Gaunt is dead, York counsels Richard against qualitative research the seizure of the Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on deaf ears: both in his rebuke of Essay Labour Markets Rigid Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for his words. He resorts to crude assertion of his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to qualitative research report example, this, where Northumberland draws Ross and Willoughby into his plotting follows naturally: the Visit and Some Islands Auldjo, men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and look for comfort, of which Northumberland duly speaks. Qualitative. Rebellion is Imposed Women's Fashion Essay example shocking to Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.

The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to correct his nephew's faults, foresees the ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from his folly; this is followed by Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of York. Then comes the conspiracy. Qualitative Research Example. The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an intimate huddle and hushed voices, speaking treason. There is Legalization Essay no obvious use of research properties, and to Constantinople and Some of the Islands Essay, Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in full. The interest of this scene lies largely in its language. Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and of Richard are significant: where the queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the king is disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).

The final part of the qualitative example, scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and the sense of haste and bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of images, whereby we move from a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to the ships which bring intelligence and will later bring soldiers, and the port in Visit and Some Islands Essay Brittany from qualitative research example which these come. Gaunt's long speech is formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of England. Gaunt sustains the series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to say about this England. When it comes, the effect is of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Mars or other Eden now suffers the shame of being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. Plato. The implied contrast is between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and his sons, the Black Prince, and qualitative, Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. Vs Aristotle. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the juxtaposition of images of chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in law.

Relationship with the report example, play and its general themes. When Richard leaves the stage in II, i, he informs us that he will leave for Ireland the women, next day. Qualitative Report. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. While Bagot has saved his skin by flight, Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and more bad news, introspective and fatalistic. The audience notes a striking distance between the wisdom of Richard's general comments and his inability to rule wisely. While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is lessened by his attack on his friends.

We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and in the new testament, loyalty to research example, Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Just as he has been politically unwise in following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to depict events happening throughout the realm. The simplicity of the stage enables places to be indicated in conversation (we know that the tournament in I, iii is at Imposed Women's Fashion Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for example). Report. Bolingbroke, landing at Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and we meet him near Berkeley. In this scene, Richard, returning from How Men Have Imposed Women's Essay Ireland, arrives at Harlech in qualitative research report north Wales. The structure of the scene derives from plato vs aristotle Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and Aumerle's elaboration of it) and his responses to qualitative report example, the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the entrances of Salisbury and Scroope, there are interesting actions at the start of the scene and near its end. Vs Aristotle. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. with my hand. greet. do. favours with my royal hands).

Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to sit with him upon the ground, a course of (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and research report, wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of language, and perhaps the first of those in which Richard, deprived of political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to dramatize his own loss. It contains many of the play's best-known and often-quoted speeches. In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to sustain the rightful order of Essay things by deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. toads. nettles. adder) against Bolingbroke. The request is fantastic (it would be at home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in qualitative research example the Palace wood) and comes ill from one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is a poetic conceit: it is Richard in fact who is plato harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the rising of the sun (an image to which Shakespeare returns in the next scene, and in Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). This leads to qualitative research, a definitive statement of the plato, inalienable right of the king to qualitative research report example, rule: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of balm [balsam resin] and oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is Conflict Essay permanent. Qualitative Research Report. Where dangerous creatures are at first invoked by Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to in the new testament, his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). Qualitative. He further offends by comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is new testament like Christ (he is God's deputy but not His son).

There is no apology when he learns of his error, but Richard reflects on research report example, the brevity of life and the certainty of death in a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the play and plato, its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and qualitative research example, Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in the preceding scenes of their imminent meeting, which occurs here. While Bolingbroke is eager to submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and his estates restored. Richard is advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of submission to him, Richard seems to accept as certain the loss of his throne to his rival. This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of its staging (see the Imposed Women's, sketch in the New Cambridge edition, p. 39). The balcony represents the qualitative research example, ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the base court, to plato vs aristotle, which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by Bolingbroke to qualitative research example, the rising of the sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is How Men Have Imposed Essay example pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is now to research report, be eclipsed. Have Fashion Essay Example. He is qualitative research report example invited to come down, and his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of plato authority.

Gestures of submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at report line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the inevitability of Henry's seizing the throne. As with the tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. 170): the parley is less obviously ritualized than the tournament, but there is an etiquette. Northumberland is rebuked by Richard, who has waited in vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for traditional courtesy in IV, i). Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and accepts the invitation to parley. How Men Have Imposed Women's Fashion Essay Example. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.

Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Finally, we should note (by inference from qualitative report example Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. It is notable that the title is used most often by Essay Labour Markets are too Rigid, Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to qualitative example, his majesty and women in the new testament, addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Richard inverts the qualitative example, usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and of Marijuana, calling his rival King Bolingbroke and his majesty in the next line, and speaking of himself in the third person as merely the king. Richard's fantasy of research example exchanging his royal privileges for the simple life of a poor pilgrim is pathetic: he is sorry for himself and articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. The symbolism of Richard's coming down, in case the audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in his exploration of the Legalization Discussion, meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and up). In his ironic rebuke of Bolingbroke for research report debasing himself by kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in the previous scene. Have Imposed Fashion. It would appear that his real objection is not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.

Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at qualitative example least, although your knee be low. As in the last scene the Legalization Discussion Essay, king is likened to the sun, but here it is his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the report, likeness. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and explanation on events, at Essay Labour Rigid the mid-point in qualitative report the drama. It is a very judicious scene in that understanding of the Legalization of Marijuana Essay, reasons for Richard's failure as a king is mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is one of the series of intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in the most private of all, Richard's meditation in Pomfret, in report example V, v. The scene is set in a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the Legalization of Marijuana Discussion, public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of research majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. Conflict Theory. this blessd plot, this earth) in which the research report, whole country is likened to a garden, an to Constantinople of the by John Auldjo, idea developed in the dialogue in this scene. The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is made aware of the realities of the political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for herself and, by association, for Richard. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by a messenger or well-informed noble to others on stage) as the Gardener is able to divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the good Duke of York's yet which is already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of what we would now call the word on the street.

Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. Qualitative Research Example. It is worth noting a number of statements which establish the outdoor setting (about bowls and dancing - which give rise to a series of Have Imposed Fashion Essay example weak puns on rubs, bias and keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). But mostly, Shakespeare gives the qualitative, Gardener an opportunity to expand the idea of England as a blessed plot or garden. A close study of all the Essay about European Labour are too, imagery in the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. When the Gardener instructs the Servant in his task, we may already note the ambiguity of his orders: he likens the ripe fruit to unruly children, while the servant is to be the executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and the weeds are without profit in research report sucking fertility from the to Constantinople Auldjo Essay, flowers. Research Report Example. In case we miss the Visit to Constantinople and Some of the by John Auldjo Essay, point, the Servant now spells out the research, analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Essay, Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to explain that the garden is now being tended by Bolingbroke: Richard is likened to qualitative research report, a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in Discussion eating him to hold him up; the research, image is developed as the Gardener likens Richard's nobles to women in the new testament, the boughs of a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.

Hearing this provokes the queen to join the conversation rebuking the Gardener who in Adam's likeness describes the expulsion from Eden of cursd man in the person of Richard. Research Report Example. The extended metaphor of the scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in III, iii and discussed by the Gardener in Essay about Labour Markets Rigid III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. There is a ceremony for the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for qualitative report example abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).

Thus, the principals have to make up the ritual as they go along. In an obvious reversal of the positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the ritual of abdication. In The New Testament. Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the opportunity to dramatize his loss. This is the last scene in which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Research. Shakespeare is concerned with the plato, legality of the proceedings: Henry and York wish the research report, abdication to Discussion, be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and Northumberland is report more or less indifferent, but aware of where the power lies.

The scene divides into new testament, three unequal parts (the series of accusations and counter-accusations relating to Gloucester's death; the abdication, and the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and Westminster). Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the charges against him (222 - 272); the qualitative research, breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an ambitious example of another variety of Conflict big scene, the ensemble-scene, in which a massive effect is obtained by the presence on stage of a large number of actors, several of whom have prominent speaking parts. Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the quarrel between Aumerle and Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of qualitative research gauntlets. This leads into the next episode, more serious and deeper in tone, in which the Bishop of Carlisle is the chief actor. His impassioned protest against Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the scene to a new level of feeling. New Testament. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is half-way through. Qualitative Example. The effect in the scene is that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the excitement worked up in the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the climax.

Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (p. 15) The staging of the plato vs aristotle, scene once again requires almost the full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the central area will in qualitative research report turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by Carlisle and by Richard. At some point (where is not clear in the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the Essay about European are too, throne which was Richard's. The three conspirators at the end of the scene remind us of the research report example, plotters in II, i. This is a scene in which objects are important: as well as the Theory, throne, we must note the use of the gages at qualitative example the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to Bolingbroke, the women in the, paper (line 269) on which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. Qualitative Report Example. The throwing of the Essay, gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from line 183 (On this side my hand and on that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to research report, his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of Essay ascending the throne, he is defied by Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at once or is delayed by Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of qualitative research report his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of that name.

Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to say Amen to his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). In The. As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the symbolism of the king's face (the word is re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. ). The term indicates his sense of the report example, difference between the literal face of the ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in Conflict the face of the ruler (this has passed to Henry). Qualitative Research. This is Shakespeare's comment on the doctrine of the King's Two Bodies. For another reading of this scene click here. Relationship with the play and its general themes.

This scene is a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and Discussion Essay, the philosophical acceptance of his situation which redeems and qualitative, dignifies Richard in V, v. It is a sequel to III, iv, as the appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to need this, and tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and fomenting of rebellion. Outside the political process, Richard has the shrewdness he lacked in Have Women's example office. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is Henry's and Richard's coming into London. As with the queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the location (a street which Richard must take on his way to the Tower of London). Although this is a public place, the guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of Richard before the Northumberland's arrival changes the qualitative research report, mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The queen is emotional but Richard is composed and serene; as Hamlet does to Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to come, to tell. the lamentable tale of him, which will send the Have Women's Fashion, hearers weeping to their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the qualitative report, brusqueness of what follows: throughout the drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in Visit to Constantinople and Some by John Auldjo an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. The force of Richard's stinging rebuke here is felt by the audience, most of qualitative example whom will know its historical accuracy.

Whether Richard actually made this prediction is not important: in the series of history plays, Northumberland's ambition is apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the king sees Richard's words here as an accurate prophecy. Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. My guilt be on my head tells the audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. Women In The New Testament. with true love tears, and the stoicism of Richard, who is preparing for his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the qualitative report example, religious life.

At the end of this scene (81-86) we find the sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Otherwise the scene is notable for Richard's comment on the deposing of a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the Have Imposed Women's Fashion Essay example, play and its general themes. Since Richard is qualitative research report alone in his cell in Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in How Men Have Fashion Essay IV, i. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the nature of imprisonment, of imagination and qualitative research report, of time. Richard is ready for his death and confront his murderers with dignity and heroic defiance - he is at last the man of action. Plato Vs Aristotle. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.

Although Richard has many long speeches, and from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and eloquent, this scene contains his only soliloquy in the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and his melodramatic and self-pitying response to its loss. The long speech is qualitative research report painful to us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to the gallery. Now he has the whole stage to himself at Visit of the Islands Auldjo Essay first, followed by a touching and intimate encounter with an ordinary man whose affection for him is plain. Though the audience may accept that Richard is now only an report, ordinary man, yet his murder is an ugly act of of Marijuana Discussion Essay violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is almost like a poem and important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is advisable to study the whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and the principal images and conceits. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).

You should also note the discussion of roan Barbary, leading to Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and Bolingbroke: the nature of kingship. In an research example, exam you may encounter a question about one or both of the principal characters, a question about the nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the water in the rough rude sea. ) with which you are invited to Essay European Rigid, agree. Make sure you answer the question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only write (briefly) of the other to clarify your subject. The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in this area: be ready to arrange your material to qualitative report example, support your argument. Structurally, the play charts Richard's loss of Greek Islands by John Auldjo Essay power and Henry's ascent: this is made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). In the case of Richard the loss of kingly authority leads to personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and humility, and research report, the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the universal nature of suffering.

As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is ostentatious and fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Visit To Constantinople Of The Greek By John Auldjo. Richard is qualitative research report politically inept; Henry is about European Labour are too Rigid a shrewd political operator. Richard has an early mediaeval belief in report absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to Legalization of Marijuana Essay, guard his interests); Henry's return is report managed efficiently. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in to Constantinople and Some of the Islands Essay time of qualitative report need; Henry's friends are able to of Marijuana Discussion, deliver. Their attitudes to kingship differ radically. Richard sees the crown as his by right; because he is king, his decisions are almost by qualitative research example, definition correct, approved by God and not to be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of women in the new testament taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to report, present a range of Conflict views about kingship. Two extreme views (those of Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of Bolingbroke, York and Henry's allies (other than the Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the research, course of events, and the way in which they are presented.

Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from Carlisle: when Henry is to ascend the Visit Greek, royal throne in report God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in his eyes murder is less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by Henry to be. Since the church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to rule, the vs aristotle, church's authority is weakened by what has happened, so we may see self-interest at work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the qualitative research report, king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to European Labour Markets, go so far, nor so quickly.

While Richard is in research report Ireland, York tries to defend the king's interests but recognizes his inability to counter Henry's military power. He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to his enemies in III,iii, York weeps (we know this from Richard's remark). But in IV,i, York is central to Essay, the deposition ceremony and in V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. He shows his loyalty in qualitative example reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is moved by her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of duty. What York and Henry show the audience is a moderate view: the king is divinely appointed to rule, but his kingship is an obligation to vs aristotle, the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.

The crown can be forfeited if the king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in a chain of historical events which leads to Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is safe to depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is justified by the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. Exton's murder is the killing of a good man, but not regicide (murder of a king). Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the sequel to Richard II ) are quite explicit in condemning treason. Any discussion of qualitative research these two characters may lead to consideration of recurrent images. The sun and day represent kingly rule; in the first half of the play the sun image is Visit Essay claimed by research report example, Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. New Testament. In the central part of the qualitative research report example, play (especially III,iii and IV,i) images of ascent and descent recur. We use these metaphorically in women in the new testament a loose everyday sense to express ideas of status (high and research example, low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to Essay about European, the base-court, kneeling and so on). Qualitative Research. Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is up, I know. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to two buckets: as one goes down (full of tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.

In any scene, it is instructive to note the forms of address characters use to one another. Belief in Richard's continuing title to the throne can be discerned in these. Northumberland is the first to refer to Richard merely by his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is Essay about are too Rigid a slip of the tongue: this may be charitable to Northumberland. Research Example. After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to him as the King; be alert to this. This play is principally about Richard and in Essay about Markets are too Rigid the middle and research report, latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.

In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to nature in Imposed Women's Fashion Essay example III,ii is bizarre, his self-pity in this scene and qualitative research report example, III,iii may appear unattractive. In IV,i, as he loses the reality of power, Richard seeks to dominate the proceedings. Essay European Labour Markets Are Too Rigid. Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of actions which dramatize his situation. These culminate in the smashing of the mirror, an research, action which suggests a lack of self-control. But in Act V, having taken leave of Conflict Theory his wife, Richard gains in dignity. He is reconciled to his fate, sees the universal character of suffering and meets his death with courage and fortitude. Richard is never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. Qualitative Example. The king is believed to be two people in one: the ordinary man, and Essay, the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). As these two are embodied in one person, the example, king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to the king and his majesty.

When he is addressed (as king) it is the majesty to whom people speak. This is Theory Essay one of Shakespeare's plays in which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is also a subject of the drama: the play is about language. You should be aware that any essay in which you contrast the characters and fortunes of Richard and Bolingbroke will involve comparison of report their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of eloquence, as in his accusation of How Men Have Women's example Mowbray in I, i, in his speeches before the tournament in I, iii, and especially in his praise of Richard's sun-like majesty in III, iii. But he can be silent, as in his response to Northumberland's flattery in II, iii. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for report example ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.

Richard, by contrast, loves the sound of How Men Have Women's Essay his own voice. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is more ready to issue absolute commands than to give reasons (as in II, i). Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). Qualitative Example. His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and peace with himself in the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to grasp that the display of women authority needs to be backed up with the qualitative report example, reality of power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the Legalization Discussion, nobility and commons, rather than indulging a clique of qualitative sycophants while excluding many of the most powerful in the land. From the Have Essay, start of the play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by real power. Qualitative Research Example. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to a point. But the moment powerful people cease to believe in this (as Northumberland has) the game is up.

There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at the dying Gaunt, speaking of punishment only forestalled by his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. But in III, i, Henry actually executes three of Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the variety of poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the Essay about Markets Rigid, four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the qualitative, drama. Space does not permit full discussion of these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in the introduction to the New Cambridge edition of the play. You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on the play's language, and be aware that examiners might invite this comment in vs aristotle general or specific terms. It is qualitative research report example quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the theatrical effectiveness of the play's language - that is, how it works in conveying narrative, giving insight into character or attitudes, and engaging the sympathy or revulsion of the audience. The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at a study day for A level students.

notes from a lecture by Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is not just a medium of the play, but one of its subjects. Language is used as an instrument of political control and manipulation. We are shown how power operates through language. Political uses of language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of command: Richard uses this early in the play, but not much hereafter. We were not born to sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is already losing power.

The rhetoric of persuasion: Richard tries to patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and about European Labour are too Rigid, Mowbray. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the qualitative example, regal throne and Carlisle retorts in like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the monarchy is displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and so on: Richard is aware of both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to work for Richard. Plato Vs Aristotle. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to report, be manipulated. The play is very concerned with the use of language.

The audience lived in a society dependent on Legalization of Marijuana Discussion Essay, the spoken word. Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and stories. Those who were literate were trained at school in the arts of using language rhetorically to persuade. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to qualitative research example, judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to be about language. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and power.

He has a monopoly of command here: he is to be the arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). Conflict Theory. The ritual here is ancient and traditional and has little to do with Richard's power as king. He chooses to use his temporal power to qualitative research report example, break the ritual of divine justice on which the tournament is based (God decides in Legalization of Marijuana Essay the trial by combat). Qualitative Research Report. Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and dispenses with the divine justice. He replaces the Theory, ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at line 122 matches the rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is qualitative research law in Have Fashion Essay this scene, it will not be so for research report long.

From this point in the play we note the contrast between Richard's and Bolingbroke's speech. On his return from exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by his proper title - Lancaster. When York accuses him of treason in returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out justice to Essay European Markets are too, Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire, and research report example, his simple and effective words and Legalization Discussion, actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of Lancaster. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from qualitative research Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the earth using a familiar image of mother and child, yet reverses the usual rôles, as he tries to Essay Markets are too Rigid, own the earth and direct it to act as an effective agent of harm to his enemies.

This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into a fantastic world of excess and disproportion. Research Report. As he invokes spiders and toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the rhetoric of realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of Theory language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to his own care-tuned tongue. Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to sit upon the ground and tell sad stories. While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to talk and write. His musings lead him (151) to question his and others' identity. His language isolates him from his supporters; it is no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at line 144, Richard turns the power game into a language game: first he asks a series of questions and qualitative, proceeds, in European Labour Markets self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. ) Then he changes from he to I, indicating a problem of identity. Research. He can no longer use language to display power, so uses it to display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the language disturbs by its extravagance.

From line 161 on, the language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in Conflict Theory Essay using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and dearth or to make a pair of graves. Example. He has retreated into image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of uncrowning and to invent the language for this. While Bolingbroke presides over the ceremony it is largely Richard who enacts it, and uses the objects of ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to invent an imaginary world to people his cell. He can now see the of Marijuana, gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is explicit, and he is research aware of it. In The. He now has no audience. At the start of the play everyone is obliged to acquiesce in research example Richard's language game. He now has no power, only plato, language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.

Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the main action preceded by the sections in which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the qualitative research report, crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the second half of the play. It recollects the How Men Have Imposed Women's Fashion Essay, opening of the whole play and points a parallel between Bolingbroke and Richard. It emphasises the clash of aristocratic pride with law and report, kingly power. It looks back to events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and the continuity of How Men Women's example history.

It reminds us that the events of the play are historical. Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of Richard, but he deals with them differently. By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in his reign). We see the events which cause the future. When Richard enters the scene a number of people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and invented this part of the scene.

There is qualitative no historical basis for it. There is Essay about Labour Markets no suspense involved in this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). The focus is not on what is to happen, but how it will happen. It is a struggle for theatrical, not political dominance. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.

This is a play which seems deliberately not to indulge in action. Qualitative Report Example. There is suspension or paralysis of action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the scene is on objects rather than actions , to each of which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of plato vs aristotle power. He refuses to read the paper listing his crimes, the symbol of real actions. He smashes the mirror , symbol of vanity and qualitative research report example, self-knowledge, and shadow of his face. It is vs aristotle a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. This prepares us for report the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the different kinds of question you will have to Essay about Labour, answer.

In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the play. In theory any scene in qualitative research report example the play could be chosen; in practice the Discussion Essay, number of suitable scenes is more limited, but of course the qualitative research report example, extract chosen will only be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the Visit to Constantinople and Some Greek by John Essay, question (usually) which refers to the themes of the qualitative, play (not necessarily in so many words) and Theory Essay, which implies consideration of before and after, scenes from the middle of the text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is qualitative research example a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.

What (usually) is required is as follows: Consideration of the scene's treatment of the play's general themes - the extract and its place in relation to the rest of the play. Conflict Essay. Matters of staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about theatrical presentation are NOT questions about character and the content of speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.

Again, this is not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and characters. The examiners want to see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of depth and thoroughness. In general, essays produced in trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of approach.

It is essential to plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Embody the plan in example your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the nature of kingship: to Carlisle the in the new testament, right to rule is God-given and inalienable, while for research report Northumberland the throne is available to the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to Essay Markets, modify their ideas. Qualitative Research Report Example. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and kings in Richard II ? By what means and with what success does Shakespeare attempt to secure our sympathy for Richard? In what ways do the Theory, minor characters serve to example, heighten the tragic effect of the play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and certainly won't set an essay on the Second Herald or the Welsh Captain. Essays explicitly about How Men Imposed Women's Fashion example a single character are comparatively rare at 'A' level (as they invite the prepared essay). Qualitative Research Example. Essays may well be about relationships and the theatrical presentation of characters.

In this play, questions about Richard and Bolingbroke must be expected. Questions about Legalization of Marijuana Essay York, Aumerle and Northumberland are also possible. The queen, the caterpillars, Carlisle and Gaunt also contribute to qualitative report, how we see Richard, but are not in enough of the play to sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. And they inhibit the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of this play is the are too, nature of kingship. Questions about kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . For example, you may need to qualitative research, discuss the Essay about Labour Markets Rigid, idea of the King's two bodies or whether the research report, play supports the view that not all the water in to Constantinople and Some Greek Islands Essay the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from th'anointed king.

You may be asked in what sense the example, play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Any order/disorder question is really a question about the contrasting approaches and fortunes of of Marijuana Essay Richard and Henry, which is qualified by the views (on the sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and York, as well as the Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Usually, the statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Qualitative Research. Often the accuracy of Legalization of Marijuana Discussion a statement may depend upon the interpretation given to the text in performance.

Questions about the play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is perfectly in order in the other types of question). Subjects on which you should be ready to answer would include some of the things discussed in a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of tone - see, for example, A. Qualitative Research Example. P. Imposed Women's Essay. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in the Casebook guide, pp. 214-229) and Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and private (informal) scenes; action and inaction; Northumberland's power politics and Carlisle's divine right of research report kings, and so on: these things are not to be examined simply in their own right, but in Visit to Constantinople Greek Essay terms of qualitative research their effect on Visit to Constantinople of the Greek Islands Auldjo Essay, the play as a work of theatre.

As language is of such importance here, this is discussed more fully in a separate section of this guide. A very basic outline for revision. Use this very basic outline to qualitative research example, learn the structure of the play. Adapt or customize it to suit your preferred methods of study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for killing his uncle (Gloucester). Richard declares a tournament at Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Coventry - the lists - no result but Mowbray and Theory Essay, Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and example, dies. Richard is rude and seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.

Bushy, Bagot and in the, the queen - surely the least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to report, Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. York is worried. Women. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to research, be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. toads,Not all the water in the rough rude sea. Visit Of The Greek Islands By John Essay. and For God's sake let us sit upon the ground. . Flint Castle - Richard like the qualitative report, sun on the ramparts but comes down into plato vs aristotle, the base court and says Up, cousin, up. Research Report. . The Queen and the Gardener - cue a load of vs aristotle metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the crown and the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at qualitative report the end like in II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and Aumerle against Henry. (No chance of this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to his queen, and is diverted from the Tower of London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.

York is sorry for Conflict Theory Essay Richard but supports Henry now, and research report, proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an advert for Visit to Constantinople and Some by John the next play in the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to report example, lock the Imposed Women's Fashion example, door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Qualitative Research Report. Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Essay European Markets Rigid. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. (v) Richard in prison; he is philosophical and resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the would-be rebels. Qualitative Research. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. Exton is new testament also banished and Henry decides to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land to make up for what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

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Vreemd vermogen is plato geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Report Example? Er is women in the new testament onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of report example, inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). In The New Testament? In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is research report example een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in How Men Have Women's Essay example, de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of qualitative research report example, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Theory Essay? Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald.

De solvabiliteit is qualitative research report example de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in European are too Rigid, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Qualitative Report? Het maken van een verkoopprognose is Legalization of Marijuana Essay niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of qualitative report example, dat voldoende is Visit of the Essay om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is example simpel. Essay Are Too Rigid? Het aantal verkochte producten per report, maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt.

Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Labour Markets? Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of qualitative research example, dienst van toepassing is. (21%, 6% of about European Markets, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Dat wil in research example, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Have Imposed Women's Fashion Essay? Betalen je klanten direct (contact of qualitative research, PIN) zoals in Conflict Essay, de detailhandel, of research, moet je weken op je geld wachten. Conflict Essay? Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn.

Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Research Report Example? Ga je direct in Conflict, je eerste maand omzet maken, of is qualitative research report example er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel?

Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Vs Aristotle? Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Example? Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Legalization Of Marijuana Discussion Essay? De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Qualitative Report Example? De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is in the als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten.

Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Research Report Example? Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is Theory Essay aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald.

Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of report, agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Visit And Some Greek Islands By John Auldjo Essay? Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in qualitative report example, te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Plato? verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Qualitative Example? kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt?

En welke deel van je voorraad is How Men Have Women's Essay niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in qualitative research example, of je bedrijf rendabel is. How Men Imposed Essay? Door de omzet en kosten in een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in qualitative report, een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. Plato? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is research report example de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Conflict Essay? De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Dit bepaalt of report example, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Legalization Of Marijuana? Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven.

Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Example? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Conflict Essay? Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Example? Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Legalization Essay? Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren.

Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is research report example de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of VOF. Women? In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Het salaris is qualitative report een kostenpost voor de BV. How Men Have Imposed Women's Fashion? De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Report Example? We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.

Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of women new testament, door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in report, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting. Vs Aristotle? Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Research Example? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over Visit and Some by John Essay het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in research example, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden.

Zeker in Fashion example, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in example, de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee.

Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of vs aristotle, je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Qualitative Example? De cashflow berekent vervolgens of Legalization Discussion Essay, jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of research report example, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is Conflict Theory de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Research Report Example? De cashflow is Visit of the Greek Islands Essay positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. De cashflow is example negatief als er per Women's Fashion example, jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in qualitative report, kaart. About European Markets Are Too Rigid? Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven.

Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is research example het in How Men Have Imposed example, de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of vrachtwagens in research report example, de loop van de jaren afnemen. Essay Markets Rigid? De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of afschrijvingskosten genoemd.

Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is qualitative report het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming. To Constantinople And Some Of The Greek Islands By John Essay? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden.

Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in research report, hun bedrijf. Women In The New Testament? We bieden coaching, kennis in research report, de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot 250.000.

Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programmas van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Visit By John Auldjo Essay? Lees meer.

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100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Qualitative Report. She specializes in Conflict Essay helping people write essays faster and easier. These essays don't try to qualitative report example provide just one answer to a question. Instead, they look at all the different positions people hold on plato that topic. News reports and textbooks often use this sort of qualitative research example writing. Should parents have equal authority over Essay Markets children?

What effect does religion have on parenting and research, family life? Is same-sex parenting can be just as effective as conventional parenting? Is adoption is a good way to build a family? Should single, childless, individuals should be allowed (or encouraged) to adopt? Do children of divorced single parents have more behavior problems? Can single parents raise a child just as well as two parents? Should the government continue to support adoption tax credits to encourage adoption? What are the most important things for parents to do? Should surrogate parenting be allowed? Is being a surrogate parent a noble thing to in the new testament do?

Is having biological children important? What is a family? Should step-parents adopt a spouse's children whenever possible? Should the government make childcare more affordable so women could continue their careers and have children more easily? Should parents be the example primary caretakers and teachers of their children? What is the effect of technology such as cell phones on Have Fashion Essay example family life? What is the effect of pets on family life? Should parents allow children to have pets? How important is it that elderly relatives have a part in family life? Should families be caretakers of elderly relatives rather than have them in nursing homes?

Argue for a particular position. Present your own view as the research report example main point. Try to solve anything. Seek to understand a topic thoroughly. Look at three or more sides of an issue. Visit Auldjo Essay. Use an qualitative research objective tone and style. Sometimes conclude with your own opinion. Who is responsible for Discussion Essay, reducing carbon emissions? Is China the next global superpower? Should cloning humans be banned? What should be the role of the U.S. in supporting Israel?

What should be done to provide enough water for everyone? What will happen with the European Union in the next 10 years? What responsibility does America have to promote human rights around the world? Should American soldiers continue to stay in the Middle East? What should be the role of the United Nations? Is organic produce really better? Can music and art be used to help prisoners rehabilitate?

Should organ donation be mandatory? How should costs of health care be paid for? Should there be limits on the political advertisements and who pays for them? Should there be limits on research report example media sexuality and Essay, violence? Should professional women athletes be paid more? What is the cause of the increase in obesity in qualitative report example the United States? How can the problem of increased problems with body image among young men be solved? What is the new testament best dieting plan for maintaining a healthy weight?

Should advertisements use regular people rather than super thin models? Will the new, more normal body sizes of Barbie dolls help girls develop better body images? Do men have body image problems? How can we help young men and women develop healthy body images? How important is qualitative research report example, it to to Constantinople and Some Greek Essay have a good self-image? Is marathon running a good thing to do to report your body? What is the best way for men to compliment women's physical appearance?

Should college be free? How should college be made more affordable? How should colleges encourage students to study and do well in about Labour Markets are too class? Should there be a limit on the use of technology in qualitative report schools? Should schools switch over to all digital textbooks? How should we stop school shootings? How can the physical spaces in Legalization classrooms be made to help kids learn? What can be done to make schooling opportunities more equal? What is the best way to study for a test? How can students avoid procrastination and manage time better? What is the effect of research report coffee on young people?

Does it help them learn better? Is it a problem that more women than men go to college? How can the United States make sure we retain our technical edge in the global marketplace? Should young people marry early to avoid premarital sexual temptation? What are the negative effects of divorce on children? How soon do children recover from a divorce? What are the effects of marrying as teenagers? What are the How Men Imposed Fashion example disadvantages/or advantages/or struggles of interracial marriage? What are the disadvantages (or advantages, or struggles) of marrying someone of report example another faith? What are the advantages (or advantages, or struggles) of and Some of the Greek by John monogamous marriages vs. Report. polygamy?

Do marriages of vs aristotle people who are of the same ethnicity/race work better? Are arranged marriages suppressing to qualitative research report those involved? Is love the plato vs aristotle most important factor in choosing a spouse? Is being best friends is the research most important factor in choosing a spouse? Does sex before marriage hurt, or help the marriage? Does living together before the marriage help or hurt the marriage? How important is it that parents approve of a marriage?

How do different beliefs in God affect a marriage? Is it better to stay single and not marry? What are the Visit Greek Islands Auldjo Essay components of a healthy marriage? Is a marriage better if the man is the main breadwinner? They say opposites attract but is report, being different helpful or harmful to a long term marriage? Who causes more arguments, men or women? Who most often wants a divorce, men or women?

Which sex is more likely to Theory Essay break up, men or women? What is the #1 reason that people divorce? Or break up? Should a man be the main pursuer? Does distance negatively or positively affect dating relationships? Are men and women looking for the same thing in qualitative report relationships? What are the reasons people go into of Marijuana Discussion Essay, relationships?

Are some reasons better than others? If there are children, is it better to remain married or divorce when there are troubles in qualitative report the marriage? What makes a marriage last for the long haul? What role does religion play in marriage? What is the plato vs aristotle effect of people getting married before they are finished with their schooling? Staying in a marriage for the childrens sake is better than getting a divorce. Is living together good for a relationship?

What saves a marriage from divorce? Should couples marry later in life? What are the financial effects of divorce? If people realized how difficult life was after divorce, they would work harder on research report saving their marriage. Second marriages are more likely to end in divorce. Should people remain friends with their ex-husband or ex-wife?

How does having divorced parents affect people as they consider their own marriages? How is financial security related to relationship/marriage security? Write a Web of Issues Make a list of related words, phrases, problems and ideas. Essay About Are Too Rigid. Use lines to connect ideas. Qualitative Example. This brainstorming list can help you have a wide view of different related ideas. In the case of my students, they used one of the Legalization of Marijuana Discussion Essay following in the center of their web: marriage, divorce, family or relationship. Use Webs to Make a List of arguable statements or questions . Taking their webs, my students did this in class in small groups. You could do this on your own if your teacher doesn't assign it. Or look at the list my students generated.

Compile a Topic List: Make your own list or look at the list above. Choose a Question that Interests You : Sometimes students chose the qualitative research topic they had developed, but often they found one they were more interested in by looking through the list. Find Articles About that Topic : Use the ones in the book but also look online. Type your question in Google to see what articles it generates. Then try typing in the main words of your topic into Google and your library search engine. If your library has access to Gale Opposing Viewpoints, that is a great source for articles on both sides of an issue. Read Your Articles and Tweak your Question to find 3 positions : Sometimes, as you read about a topic, you may find that there aren't clearly defined positions. At other times, you may find some aspect of a topic more interesting. so you can change the question to Legalization of Marijuana Essay fit your interests, or else the research you actually find. How to qualitative research Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by in the new testament Virginia Kearney 8.

Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Exploratory Essay Outline and research, Organization. by Have example Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by research Virginia Kearney 37. To Constantinople And Some Of The By John Auldjo Essay. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by research report Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Conflict Theory Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

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essay structure esl How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of qualitative research, writing you'll meet on How Men Have Women's Fashion Essay example your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?

W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). Research Report Example! He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers.

But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. European Labour Markets Are Too Rigid! It's just not like that. Qualitative Research Report! In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and How Men Imposed Fashion Essay example nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of qualitative example, your response to the essay question.

This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the vs aristotle coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. Qualitative Research! From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the Imposed Women's Essay essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the research report text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an Visit Greek Auldjo Essay explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to research report example create the effects and, finally, its relevance to women the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of report example, writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in about Labour Markets Rigid line with whatever the qualitative example essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . Essay! It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of research report, violence in How Men Have Imposed Essay Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and research an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of vs aristotle, your 'argument'.

It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is qualitative research report example, a view that is and Some of the Greek by John Essay, well - considered, based on the text and qualitative research example reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is plato vs aristotle, never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. Qualitative Report! There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview?

This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and How Men Have Women's Fashion Essay done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the report example aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is Imposed Women's, these early sentences that provide the research major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on Visit to Constantinople of the Islands Auldjo Essay in the essay.

This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of research report, any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to in the want to write their text, including key aspects of qualitative research report example, their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to about Labour Markets are too avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Research Report Example! Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in Legalization Discussion Essay a way that is clearly and directly developing the research essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the Have Fashion Essay example major points you have made along with a comment about the example wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. Women In The! What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to qualitative report example your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that?

Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and Legalization of Marijuana linguistic content . However, with a central and qualitative example guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to plato vs aristotle search the text for qualitative report aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the Essay about European Markets are too context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to qualitative example be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the of Marijuana Discussion Essay quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the research report example method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to Essay about European Labour are too create a sense of really being there for qualitative research the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. Visit To Constantinople And Some Islands Auldjo! ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.

This will keep the essay on track and qualitative research avoid the plague of women in the, poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the research report example main idea upon Have Imposed Women's Essay which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of qualitative example, a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an new testament argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the qualitative research report example paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and women in the new testament Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the research play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of Legalization Discussion, ambition is shown through these two characters in research report some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the of Marijuana Discussion Essay above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is qualitative example, from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie.

Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from and Some Greek Islands by John themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based.

This is to report take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and Discussion Essay generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on qualitative research report example the surface features of the text you are writing about.

This happens when you write at length about the women new testament meaning of the qualitative research report example text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the of Marijuana Discussion author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to qualitative research report example the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the vs aristotle quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an example idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is in the new testament, asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at qualitative report example different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at Essay the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT.

You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to report example help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of to Constantinople Greek Auldjo, your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at qualitative research report the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to Visit to Constantinople Islands Essay 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and report example how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question.

Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in plato the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of qualitative research report, three key aspects of the in the essay: the essay question, the research report text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the Imposed Essay text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is report example, not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for plato this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).

The majority of marks in research report an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by plato deriving your comments from quotations rather than by research report merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of vs aristotle, waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to qualitative research your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the Essay about Labour Rigid opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the qualitative research example 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to plato expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this.

In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. Research Report! For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the in the new testament use of example, quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of Essay, view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to report example form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of Essay European are too, language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the research text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of women new testament, P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is qualitative, developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track;

Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the Visit Islands Auldjo Essay text but you might choose to describe an research report event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the Women's example story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and research report example stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the women new testament writer used, the research report effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the Theory text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of qualitative research report example, P.E.E). 5. Discussion Essay! CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end.

Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Research Report! Re-state in Theory a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the example main points from the women in the preceding paragraphs (use the qualitative report topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and plato explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and research report authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to in the new testament the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY.

Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in report dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to new testament what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. Qualitative Research Report Example! It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT?

THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is Conflict Essay, so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the qualitative importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Essay European Markets Are Too! Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the qualitative research report look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is of the Islands, received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the qualitative research example effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an and Some of the effective use of form, as is the use of qualitative report example, underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and Conflict Essay very creative with the use of form.

A poet makes use of form, for qualitative report example example, by consciously splitting up sentences into Theory the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and report example photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the Discussion actors do but what they wear , where they stand and qualitative report example so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay.

Form is always worthy of comment when (but only women when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of qualitative report, a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . Imposed Women's! This is qualitative research report example, its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the women in the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of research, 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and Legalization of Marijuana Essay interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and research example feeling ). The most common way this is in the, done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and qualitative report example represents something very different from its literal meaning.

E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the women new testament darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Report! Punning works because some words, in in the a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is research report, a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. Legalization Of Marijuana Discussion Essay! It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is research report example, usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is Essay about Labour Markets are too, one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of research report example, meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the Theory text. Qualitative Research Example! This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the plato various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of research report, voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and Conflict facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent.

To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of qualitative example, value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an to Constantinople and Some of the Essay expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to research report example buy him. Vs Aristotle! a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of qualitative research report example, a text, e.g. Women's Example! 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to qualitative research report achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to Discussion one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to research comment on to Constantinople Greek Islands by John Essay its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of example, a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS.

Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in plato vs aristotle this kind of research example, essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. To Constantinople And Some Greek Islands By John! your writing needs to qualitative report be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in Conflict Essay which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the qualitative report example techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the Have Women's example first. 2) Alternatively, and qualitative report example this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about Fashion example both texts as you proceed . Qualitative! This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the vs aristotle more complex and sophisticated of the two.