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Nvidia and A Lack Essay, Audi plan to bring a fully autonomous vehicle to market in 2020. Music: Coast, Dirty South, And Midwest Rap Essay. This story was delivered to BI Intelligence IoT Briefing subscribers. To learn more and subscribe, please click here. At CES this week, Nvidia, the leading graphics processing designer, gave a keynote on self-driving car technologies. CEO Jen-Hsun Huang and others from the company discussed the use of its products and technologies in self-driving cars, focusing on A Lack Essay the AI and deep-learning capabilities of its processors.
He also announced that the company will work with Audi to roll out a fully autonomous car by 2020, according to Music: Coast, and Midwest Rap Essay MacRumors. This partnership shows the value of Nvidia€™s chips, but the companies may trail competitors in Essay, terms of deploying fully autonomous vehicles. Huang noted the Helping increasing importance of the AI and deep-learning technologies offered by Nvidia for self-driving vehicles. For autonomous cars to adapt to of Authority Essay the world around them, they need the help of technologies like these to be able to comprehend and analyze the quickly changing nature of the roads, where pedestrians and other vehicles can move quickly and often times unexpectedly. Nvidia€™s vision and graphics processing chips and solutions can help cars recognize and react in these scenarios. The partnership with Audi will place the company€™s graphics processing units into physical vehicles built and retrofitted by the automaker. The companies have worked together for nearly a decade, but primarily on Audi€™s personal navigation systems.
Now, Audi will use Nvidia€™s Drive PX 2 processor as well as the Blaire Essay company€™s Drive computing platform to help build the vehicle. Audi showcased a Q7 SUV concept vehicle equipped with these technologies, and plans to start testing vehicles on public roads in California and other states in 2018. But this might put the of Authority two companies behind competitors in terms of Hip Hop Music: West fully autonomous development. Currently, many companies such as Uber and of Authority Essay, Alphabet€™s Waymo are testing autonomous vehicles, though no company has tested a fully autonomous vehicle on public roads without a driver. However, BI Intelligence predicts that such a test will be conducted at some point in 2017 and these vehicles could be deployed on empirnall holdings the roads as soon as 2019. This means that Audi and Nvidia would fall behind competitors, and with exact deployment and monetization plans still unclear, they may fail to profit from self-driving cars. Since the start of A Lack of Authority 2016, automakers, tech companies, and ride-hailing services have been racing to create a driverless taxi service. This service would mirror how an Uber works today, but there wouldn€™t be a driver. So far, the Hip Hop Coast, West Coast, Dirty South, Rap Essay race has been brutal, as companies jockey for position by spending billions to acquire/invest in companies that will help make a driverless taxi service a reality.
Uber recently took the pole position by A Lack, announcing it would begin piloting its self-driving taxi service (with a driver still behind the wheel) in Pittsburgh later this month. But other companies, including almost every automaker, are quickly catching up as we reach the mid-way point in the driverless taxi race. For the past two years, BI Intelligence, Business Insider€™s premium research service, has been tracking the progress of the empirnall self-driving car space. As our reports have shown, the evolution is happening much faster than many expected, but there are still many barriers that have to be overcome before driverless cars become a reality. BI Intelligence has compiled a detailed report on driverless taxis that analyzes the rapidly evolving driverless taxi model and examines the of Authority Essay moves companies have made so far in creating a service. Empirnall. In particular, it distills the service into three main players: the automakers who produce the cars, the components suppliers who outfit them to become driverless, and the shared mobility services that provide the platform for consumers to A Lack of Authority Essay order them. Here are some of the key takeaways from the Helping report: Fully autonomous taxis are already here, but to reach the of Authority point where companies can remove the strategy driver will take a few years. Both Delphi and of Authority, nuTonomy have been piloting fully autonomous taxi services in Singapore. Driverless taxi services would significantly benefit the companies creating them, but could have a massive ripple effect on the overall economy. They could cause lower traffic levels, less pollution, and safer roads. They could also put millions of people who rely on the taxi, as well as the automotive market, out of empirnall a job.
We expect the first mass deployment of driverless taxis to happen by 2020. Some government officials have even more aggressive plans to deploy driverless taxis before that, but we believe they will be stymied by technology barriers, including mass infrastructure changes. But it will take 20-plus years for A Lack, a driverless taxi service to make a significant dent in empirnall, the way people travel. Essay. We believe the services will be launched in select pockets of the world, but will not reach a global level in should i listen to music while, the same time-frame that most technology proliferates. A Lack. In full the report: Analyzes the moves 18-plus companies have made in creating a driverless taxi service. Discusses the best buy marketing corporate and societal benefits of a driverless taxi service Examines the regulators conundrum when deciding if they should or should not allow driverless taxis to operate Determines the A Lack Essay potential cost of a driverless taxi vs. owning a car, riding in a ride-hailing service, or riding in a taxi Explains the barriers including the technological and regulatory barriers these companies will face . To get your copy of Blaire Essay this invaluable guide, choose one of these options: Subscribe to an All-Access pass to BI Intelligence and A Lack of Authority, gain immediate access to best this report and over 100 other expertly researched reports.
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More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports. Submitted by Teacher-2-Teacher contributor Kim Robb of Summerland, BC. Create life-sized models of two of your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of a character.
Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Interview a character from your book. Write at least ten questions that will give the A Lack of Authority Essay, character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in strategy, the story. A Lack Of Authority! However you choose to present your interview is up to you. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events.
Remember that the character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Prepare an oral report of Coast, Coast, Dirty South, and Midwest 5 minutes. Give a brief summary of the plot and describe the personality of one of the main characters. A Lack! Be prepared for questions from the class. Should To Music Studying! Give a sales talk, pretending the students in Essay, the class are clerks in a bookstore and you want them to Blaire Essay, push this book. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in A Lack, the book. Include a written explanation of the Hip Hop Music: East West Dirty South, Rap Essay, scene. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the A Lack of Authority, setting of how many visited the troops a scene, and then do it in pantomime.
Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Dress as one of the characters and act out of Authority Essay, a characterization. Has Obama Visited! Imagine that you are the author of the A Lack of Authority Essay, book you have just read. Suddenly the book becomes a best seller. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film.
Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. (Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of how many the troops compared one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on A Lack of Authority, the front page of a newspaper in Blaire, the town where the story takes place. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. This must be done in the correct letter format. Read the same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and A Lack Essay, interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of Blaire your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. A Lack Of Authority Essay! Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book.
Draw a portrait to accompany each description. After reading a book of Helping Essay history or historical fiction, make an illustrated timeline showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Read two books on the same subject and compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must hve been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the A Lack of Authority, movie version with the book. Create a mini-comic book relating a chapter of the times has obama, book. Make three posters about the book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Explain who these characters are and A Lack of Authority Essay, how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book.
After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Should Studying! Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Design a book jacket for of Authority Essay the book. I STRONGLY suggest that you look at an actual book jacket before you attempt this. Create a newspaper for your book. Should Studying! Summarize the plot in one article, cover the weather in another, do a feature story on one of the more interesting characters in another. Include an Essay, editorial and a collection of ads that would be pertinent to the story. Do a collage/poster showing pictures or 3-d items that related to the book, and then write a sentence or two beside each one to show its significance. Do a book talk. Talk to the class about your book by saying a little about the author, explain who the characters are and explain enough about the beginning of the story so that everyone will understand what they are about to read.
Finally, read an exciting, interesting, or amusing passage from your book. Stop reading at Music: East Coast, Coast, and Midwest a moment that leaves the audience hanging and add If you want to know more you’ll have to read the of Authority, book. If the book talk is buy marketing strategy well done almost all the students want to read the book. Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Make a book jacket for the book or story. Draw a comic strip of your favourite scene. Make a model of something in A Lack of Authority, the story.
Use magazine photos to make a collage about the story Make a mobile about the story. Make a mini-book about the jane, story. Practice and the read to the class a favourite part. Retell the Essay, story in your own words to the class. Write about buy marketing what you learned from the story. Write a different ending for your story.
Write a different beginning. Write a letter to a character in the book. Write a letter to the author of the book. Make a community journal. Write Graffiti about the book on a brick wall (your teacher can make a brick-like master and A Lack of Authority Essay, then run this off on red construction paper.) Cut your words out of construction paper and Helping Blaire Essay, glue them on the wall. Compare and contrast two characters in the story.
Free write your thoughts, emotional reaction to the events or people in the book. Sketch a favourite part of the book–don’t copy an already existing illustration. Make a time line of all the events in the book. Make a flow chart of all the events in the book. Show the events as a cycle. Make a message board. Make a map of where the events in the book take place. Compare and contrast this book to another. Do character mapping, showing how characters reacted to of Authority Essay, events and changed. Make a list of character traits each person has. Make a graphic representation of an event or character in the story.
Make a Venn diagram of the people, events or settings in your story. Make an action wheel. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the best strategy, book’s events. Remember that the character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary. A Lack Essay! Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene. Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to read it. Keep and open mind journal in three or four places in your story. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on Helping Blaire Essay, the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place.
Make a newspaper about the book, with all a newspaper’s parts–comics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc. Interview a character. Write at least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is A Lack up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in the parts. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is emotion or growth.
Choose a quote from a character. Write why it would or wouldn’t be a good motto by which to live your life Learn something about the Hip Hop Music: Coast, Dirty South, and Midwest, environment in which the book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the book Retell part of the story from a different point of view Choose one part of the A Lack, story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on should to music studying, the ways you are like and unlike one of the characters in your story. Write about one of the character’s life twenty years from now. Write a letter from one of the A Lack of Authority, characters to a beloved grandparent or friend Send a postcard from should i listen to music while, one of the characters. Of Authority! Draw a picture on one side, write the message on the other. If you are reading the i listen while, same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Of Authority Essay! Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to the setting in the book Plan a party for one or all of the characters involved Choose birthday gifts for one of the characters involved. Tell why you chose them Draw a picture of the Hip Hop Music: East Coast, Dirty and Midwest Rap Essay, setting of the climax.
Why did the author choose to have the action take place here? Make a travel brochure advertising the setting of the Essay, story. Rochester Eyre! Choose five artifact from the book that best illustrate the happenings and meanings of the story. Tell why you chose each one. Stories are made up; on conflicts and solutions. Choose three conflicts that take place in of Authority Essay, the story and give the solutions. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the characters in the story. What things will you need to pack? Think carefully, for you will be there for a week, and there is no going back home to get something! Make up questions–have a competition.
Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the parts as they are told. Each child illustrates a part. Put on the wall. Each child rewrites the story, and divides into eyre 8 parts. Make this into of Authority Essay a little book of 3 folded pages, stapled in Essay, the middle (Outside paper is for title of book.) Older children can put it on the computer filling the unused part with a square for later illustrations.
Outline the story, then use the outline to expand into paragraphs. A Lack Essay! Teacher chooses part of the Blaire, text and deletes some of the words. Students fill in the blanks. Make a chart of interesting words as a whole class activity. Categorize by parts of speech, colourful language, etc. After reading a book of Essay history or historical fiction, make an illustrated time line showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Make game boards (Chutes and Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to get ahead or to be put back.
Groups exchange boards, then play. Create life-sized models of two of your favourite characters and holdings, dress them as they are dressed in A Lack Essay, the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of Hip Hop Coast, West Coast, and Midwest a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of Essay how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them.
Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read. Buy Marketing Strategy! Suddenly the book becomes a best seller. Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and of Authority Essay, the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the i listen while studying, main events of the book. Include a written description of the A Lack Essay, scene. Read the same book as one of your friends.
The two of Helping Blaire you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in of Authority Essay, the book. Essay! Draw a portrait to accompany each description. Read two books on the same subject and A Lack of Authority Essay, compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into rochester eyre a movie. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the A Lack, movie version with the book. Make three posters about the best buy marketing, book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and A Lack Essay, perform an East, original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an A Lack Essay, oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem.
Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Should Studying! Write a one sentence summary of each chapter and illustrate the A Lack, sentence. Mark a bookmark for the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on has obama to bush, back after listing the title and author. Write a multiple choice quiz of the book with at least ten questions. Make a life-sized stand-up character of one of the people in the book. On the back list the characteristics of the person.
Pretend you are making a movie of your book and are casting it. Choose the actors and actresses from people in the classroom. Tell what you think the main character in Essay, the book would like for a Christmas present and tell why. Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in the story. Do some research on a topic brought up; in your book. Write an Hip Hop East Coast, South,, obituary for one of the characters.
Be sure to include life-time accomplishments. Choose a job for one of the characters in the book and write letter of application. You must give up your favourite pet (whom you love very much) to one of the characters in the book. Which character would you choose? Why? Invite one of the of Authority, characters to dinner, and to music studying, plan an A Lack, imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the holdings, meal.
What will you serve, and why? Write an ad for a dating service for one of the characters. A Lack! Nominate one of the Blaire Essay, characters for an office in local, state or national government. A Lack! Which office should they run for? What are the should i listen to music while studying, qualities that would make them be good for that office?
Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the characters. A Lack Of Authority Essay! Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do? Write a scene that has been lost from the book. Write the plot for a sequel to this book. Rochester! Add another character to the book. Why would he be put there?
What part would he serve? Rewrite the story for Essay younger children in picture book form. Write the plot of the story as if it were a story on the evening news Make a gravestone for rochester jane eyre one of the characters. What other story could have taken place at A Lack Essay this same time and setting? Write the Essay, plot and about 4 or 5 characters in this new book.
Give an oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the book. A Lack Of Authority Essay! Tell about the rochester jane, most interesting part of the book. Write about the most interesting part of the book. Tell about the most important part of the book. Write about the A Lack of Authority, most interesting part of the book. Read the interesting parts aloud. Write about best buy marketing a character you liked or disliked.
Write a dramatization of a certain episode. Demonstrate something you learned. Make a peep box of the most important part. Paint a mural of the story or parts of it. Paint a watercolor picture. A Lack! Make a book jacket with an inside summary. Make a scale model of an important object. Draw a clock to show the time when an i listen studying, important event happened and write about it. Write another ending for the story. Make up a lost or found ad for a person or object in the story.
Make up a picture story of the A Lack of Authority Essay, most important part. Draw a picture story of the holdings, most important part. Compare this book with another you have read on a similar subject. A Lack Of Authority Essay! Write a movie script of the story. Gather a collection of how many times compared to bush objects described in the book. Draw or paint pictures of the main characters. Of Authority! Make a list of words and definitions important to the story. Make a 3-D scene. Create a puppet show. Make a poster to advertise the book.
Give a pantomime of an Music: Coast, West and Midwest Rap Essay, important part. Use a map or time-line to show routes or times. Make a map showing where the story took place. Tell about the author or illustrator. Make a flannel board story. Make a mobile using a coat hanger. Give a chalk talk about the book. Do a science experiment associated with the A Lack Essay, reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for how many times has obama visited compared the class. Make a diorama. Make a seed mosaic picture.
Make a scroll picture. Do a soap carving of a character or animal from the story. Make a balsa wood carving of a character or animal from the story. Make stand-up characters. Make a poem about the story.
Write a book review. Books about how to do something- classroom demonstration – the directions can be read aloud. Write the pros and cons (opinion) of a book after careful study. If a travel book is read- illustrate a Travel Poster as to why one should visit this place. A vivid oral or written description of an interesting character. Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages. Tell a story with a musical accompaniment. Make a list of new and unusual words and expressions. A pantomime acted out for a guessing game.
Write a letter to a friend about the book. Check each other by writing questions that readers of the A Lack, same book should be able to Helping, answer. A Lack Of Authority! Make a time-line for a historical book. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Research and tell a brief biography about the author. Make models of things read about in the book. Make a colorful mural depicting the empirnall holdings, book. A picture or caption about laughter for humorous books. Compare one book with a similar book. Think of a new adventure for Essay the main character.
Write a script for an interview with the main character. Retell the story to a younger grade. Choral reading with poetry. Adding original stanzas to poetry. Identify the parts in the story that show a character has changed his attitudes or ways of behavior.
Sentences or paragraphs which show traits or emotions of the main character. Parts of the story which compare the actions of two or more characters. Holdings! A part that describes a person, place or thing. A Lack Of Authority! A part of the story that you think could not have really happened. A part that proves a personal opinion that you hold. A part which you believe is the buy marketing strategy, climax of the story.
The conversation between two characters. Pretend you are the main character and retell the story. Work with a small group of students. Plan for one to read orally while the others pantomime the A Lack of Authority, action. Write a letter to one of the characters. Write a biographical sketch of one character.
Fill in what you don’t find in the text using your own imagination. Write an account of what you would have done had you been one of the characters. Construct a miniature stage setting for part of a story – use a small cardboard box. Best! Children enjoy preparing a monologue from a story. Marking particularly descriptive passages for A Lack of Authority Essay oral reading gives the reader and empirnall holdings, his audience an opportunity to appreciate excellent writing, and gives them a chance to of Authority, improve their imagery and enlarge their vocabulary. The child who likes to make lists of new unusual and interesting words and expressions to empirnall holdings, add to his vocabulary might share such a list with others, using them in the context of the story. Giving a synopsis of a story is an excellent way of A Lack of Authority gaining experience in arranging events in sequences and learning how a story progresses to a climax. Using information in empirnall holdings, a book to make a scrapbook about the subject.
A puppet show planned to illustrate the story. Children reading the same book can make up a set of A Lack questions about the book and then test each other. Biographies can come alive if someone acts as a news reporter and interviews the person. Preparing a book review to times has obama visited the troops to bush, present to a class at a lower level is an excellent experience in A Lack of Authority Essay, story- telling and gives children an understanding of how real authors must work to prepare books for children. Have the rochester eyre, students do an author study and read several books by the same author and then compare.
Cutting a piece of paper in the form of A Lack a large thumbnail and should while studying, placing it on the bulletin board with the caption Thumbnail Sketches and letting the children put up drawings about the books they’ve read. Stretch a cord captioned A Line of Good Books between two dowel sticks from which is A Lack Essay hung paper illustrated with materials about Blaire various books. Clay, soap, wood, plaster, or some other kind of modeling media is purposeful when it is used to make an illustration of a book. Constructing on a sand table or diorama, using creatively any materials to represent a scene from the story, can be an individual project or one for a group. A bulletin board with a caption about laughter or a picture of someone laughing at excerpts from of Authority, funny stories rewritten by the children from material in humorous books. Visiting the should i listen, children’s room at the public library and telling the A Lack Essay, librarian in person about the kinds of books the children would like to have in the library. Video tape oral book reports and then have the children take turns taking the Helping Blaire Essay, video home for A Lack of Authority all to share. Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the Helping Blaire Essay, book.
Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in another school. A Lack Of Authority! Do a costumed presentation of your book. Dress either as the author or one of the characters. Write a letter from one character to another character. Write the first paragraph (or two) for a sequel. Outline what would happen in the rest of book.
Write a new conclusion. Write a new beginning. If a journey was involved, draw a map with explanatory notes of significant places. Make a diorama and explain what it shows. Make a diorama showing the setting or a main event from the book. Make a new jacket with an original blurb. Use e-mail to tell a reading pen pal about the book. Participate with three or four classmates in how many times has obama the troops, a television talk show about the book. With another student, do a pretend interview with the author or with one of the characters. Cut out magazine pictures to make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the of Authority, book. Rochester Jane! With two or three other students, do a readers’ theatre presentation or act out a scene from the book.
Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the A Lack Essay, same book. Focus on a specific topic and report your group’s conclusion to best strategy, the class. Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of reading. A Lack Of Authority! Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of Music: East Coast, Dirty South, and Midwest Rap Essay your book. Explain the similarities. For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and A Lack, write a tabloid-style news story related to your book. Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about something that happened to one of the characters.
Write a paragraph telling about the title. Is it appropriate? Why? Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book. Why is it appropriate? Is it better than the should to music studying, one the book has now?
Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the setting of the A Lack, book. What types of activities would there be for them to attend? Write a letter to how many times visited compared to bush, the main character of the book. Write a letter to of Authority Essay, the main character of the book.
Write the East Coast, West, letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Prepare a short puppet show to tell the story to the class. Write a description of one of the main characters. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the description. Make an ID card which belongs to A Lack Essay, one of the characters.
Be sure to make the empirnall, card look like the cards for that particular state. Include a picture and all information found on A Lack, and ID card. Don’t forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the Music: East Coast, South, Rap Essay, character–especially the signature. I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to of Authority Essay, find the one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to 20 questions for use in determining if other people have read the book carefully. Must include some thought questions. How? Why Dress up as one of the characters and tell the story from a first person point of Hip Hop Dirty South, and Midwest view.
Rewrite the story as a picture book. Essay! Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students. Write a diary as the main character would write it to eyre, explain the events of the story. Must have at least 5 entries. Make a map showing where the story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book.
Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in the book. Tell how the conflict was or was not resolved. A Lack! Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in the book. Make a collage representing some event or part of empirnall your book. Of Authority! Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book.
Need at least 25 entries. Choose any topic from your book and write a 1-2 page research report on should to music, it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story. Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts. Make a comic strip of your story. Make a display of the time period of your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book.
Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and of Authority Essay, tape record it as it would be presented. Don’t forget background music! Make a wanted poster for one of the Hip Hop Music: East Coast, Dirty South, and Midwest Rap Essay, characters or objects in your book. Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the character or object, (c) the character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object. Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of your story. Include an of Authority Essay, explanation as to Helping Essay, why this setting was important to the effect of the story. A Lack Of Authority! Design an advertising campaign to promote the sale of the book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and a button. Find the top 10 web sites a character in your book would most frequently visit.
Include 2-3 sentences for each on why your character likes each of the sites. Write a scene that could have happened in Music: East Coast, West South, and Midwest Rap Essay, the book you read but didn’t. After you have written the scene, explain how it would have changed the outcome of the A Lack Essay, book. Empirnall Holdings! Create a board game based on events and characters in the book you read. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book. Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and clear directions, events and characters from the story. Make models of three objects which were important in the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in A Lack, the book. Design a movie poster for the book you read. Cast the major character in the book with real actors and actresses. Include a scene or dialogue from the book in the layout of the poster.
Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the jane, events of the story on a map. Make sure the map is Essay large enough for us to read the main events clearly. Attach a legend to your map. Write a paragraph that explains the times the troops, importance of each event indicated on the your map. A Lack Essay! Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Helping Essay! Make a test for the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions.
After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. Of Authority Essay! Select one character from the book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero. List these qualities and tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the novel you read. You have been instructed to select your cast from members of your English class. Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Best Strategy! Plan a party for the characters in the book you read. In order to do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to A Lack, the party which would appeal to all of the characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and tell what each would wear to the party. (c) Tell what food you would serve and Essay, why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is A Lack of Authority this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the main characters from the book you read. Blaire Essay! Give three examples of what each character learned or did not learn in the book.
Obtain a job application from an employer in our area, and fill out the application as one of the characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is Essay required, write it. You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the times has obama visited to bush, characters from the book you read on trial for a crime or misdeed. Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments. Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you.
One of A Lack of Authority you becomes the prosecuting attorney; the other is the empirnall holdings, defense. If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on your own. Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and A Lack of Authority, its effect in the book on times has obama visited the troops, your title page. A Lack Of Authority Essay! Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read. Tape a monologue of Helping Blaire that character telling of his or her experiences.
Be sure to write out a script before taping. You could perform this live if you so choose. Make a television box show of ten scenes in A Lack Essay, the order that they occur in the book you read. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and make two slits in Hip Hop East Coast, and Midwest, opposite sides of the of Authority, box. Slide a butcher roll on which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to write out a script before taping or performing live.
Tape an interview with one of the holdings, characters in the book you read. Pretend that this character is being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter. You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. You may choose to do a live version of of Authority this. Write a letter to a friend about the book you read.
Explain why you liked or did not like the book. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of yours. Write out an rochester, imaginary telephone conversation between the two of you in of Authority, which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. Imagine that you have been given the task of conducting a tour of the should, town in Essay, which the buy marketing strategy, book you read is set. Make a tape describing the homes of A Lack of Authority your characters and holdings, the places where important events in the book took place. You may want to use a musical background for Essay your tape. Coast, West Coast, South, And Midwest! Do some research on of Authority Essay, the hometown of your book’s author.
You may be able to strategy, find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc. What else is of interest in the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the town. Make a tape describing the A Lack of Authority Essay, places you show people on the tour. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why. Write the copy for a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on the front page should be based on events and Blaire, characters in the book. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in A Lack of Authority, the book you read.
Use pictures and words cut from magazines in your collage. Make a time line of the major events in the book you read. Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in the plot. Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and Helping Essay, affect characters. Make a paper doll likeness of one of the A Lack, characters in the book you read.
Design at rochester eyre least threes costumes for this character. A Lack! Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the best strategy, clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and of Authority Essay, events in the book. Pick a national issue. Compose a speech to be given on that topic by empirnall holdings one of the major characters in the book you read. Be sure the contents of the A Lack of Authority, speech reflect the characters personality and buy marketing, beliefs. Retell the A Lack of Authority, plot of the book you read as it might appear in to music, a third-grade reading book.
Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for that age group. Tape your storytelling. Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. A Lack! Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content.
Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order. Should I Listen While Studying! You don’t want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to A Lack of Authority, your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at the final product to Coast, Coast, South,, see if your instructions to the class were clear. A Lack Essay! If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to see how well you taught the lesson. Look through magazines for words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to create a collage on a bookmark. Has Obama Compared! Make the bookmark available for others to A Lack Essay, use as they read the same book.
Write the title of your book. Decide on some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. Present it to the class to solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to ask questions about the book. After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and provide everything needed to play. Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the Music: West Coast, and Midwest Rap Essay, character’s personality, likes and dislikes.
Decide on a gift for him or her… something he or she would really like and use. A Lack! Design a greeting card to go along with your gift. In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift. Design a poster to Essay, advertise your book. Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book. Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself.
Make the group feel they would like to know you better. Of Authority Essay! Organize your best points into an introduction to compared, present to the class. Be sure to wear your cover! Read the classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for of Authority or would like. Cut out the classified. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the one advertised be a good buy for empirnall holdings him or her? Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the sketches on a bulletin board.
Include a brief character sketch telling us about the characters. Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character. A Lack Of Authority Essay! Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and explain how you feel about the book. Prepare and has obama compared to bush, present an oral interpretation to the class. Create a poster that could be used as an A Lack of Authority Essay, advertisement. Best! Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the first half of the list.
We’ll take a look at editing out some obvious duplicates. There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to send in Essay, or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to empirnall holdings, Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year. I Love you Mrs. Raider and Mrs.
Moore(: 3. xD. hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the book like it is just about to A Lack of Authority, come in theaters. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in the book. I also think that you can put an idea of having to do a short song or rap of what is happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. Should To Music While Studying! i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas. Of Authority Essay! They gave me a 120% on best, my final grade! I know get to graduate. Thanks BOB! This is an A Lack of Authority, amazing list!
I don’t know which idea to choose! Act out the empirnall holdings, entire book in a two hour movie! That is such a good idea. AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site. How can we pick one if there is over 300 of them. Of Authority! You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in order to KNOW. FALL in order to GROW. LOSE in order to GAIN.
Because life’s greatest lessons. are learned through PAIN. Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years … Three books three years three new ideas thee A’s.
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fireftp resume The File Transfer Protocol has held up remarkably well over the years. The protocol was first standardized in the early 1970's decades before most networks were protected by of Authority, strict firewalls that drop incoming packets first, ask questions later. The FTP was designed for an environment where clients and servers interact with each other with a minimum of empirnall restriction. Additionally, the FTP was designed to operate over communications channels where packets travel directly to A Lack, their destination, and not in todays environment where there may be a transparent intermediary that is responsible for sending the packets to and from a host on a private network. The primary problems that the holdings FTP poses to firewalls, NAT devices, and of Authority Essay, load-balancing devices (all of which will simply be referred to as routing devices and not routers since gateway machines generally aren't problematic) are: Additional TCP/IP connections are used for data transfers;
Data connections may be sent to random port numbers; Data connections may originate from the server to the client, as well as originating from the client to the server; Data connections destination addresses are negotiated on the fly between the client and server over the channel used for the control connection; The control connection is idle while the best strategy data transfer takes place on the data connection. The ramifications for A Lack Essay problem (1) are that routing devices must maintain state information for the control connection where the FTP conversation between client and times to bush, server takes place, and subsequent data connections. For load balancing devices especially, this means that it is A Lack Essay, imperative to send the data connections to the same internal server that the control connection associated with it is being sent. For problem (2), this means that it is impossible to for FTP to work with a configuration where only visited, a handful of A Lack well-known ports are allowed in and all other ports are denied.
Instead, both the FTP control port (21) and Helping Blaire, a large range of high-numbered ports must be allowed in. But, as a consequence of problem (1), the range of ports can be locked down for of Authority everything except use by FTP with a little work by the routing device. For problem (3), this may mean that a restrictive routing device on the client side may cause problems for FTP. For problem (4), this requires routing devices to understand the FTP and dynamically modify the contents of the control connection so that internal server addresses are rewritten to acceptable external addresses. This also requires that the routing device maintain state information so that packets arriving at the acceptable external address are transparently re-routed to the internal server address.
For problem (5), routing devices that time out best, TCP/IP connections must be aware that FTP control connections can be completely inactive for A Lack of Authority Essay hours while the data transfer takes place on a separate data connection. Best Buy Marketing Strategy? The classic example of a problem with this case is the of Authority common occurrence where a lengthy download finishes and holdings, the client wishes to start another download, but the routing device has timed-out the control connection since no activity took place for 15 minutes. A Lack Of Authority Essay? The client program then locks up waiting for the server to reply to a message it never received because the routing device did not route it to the server. The FTP specifies a mechanism for a default data connection, where the server can connect back to the client from port 20 to the same IP address and port number that the client is originating from on the control connection. However, it really isn't feasible because the preferred transfer mode is stream mode and would require that the default data connection be reopened with each data transfer (and TCP won't let you do that until TIME_WAIT expires on the previous default data connection that has the same connection endpoints).
Therefore, all modern FTP clients negotiate with the server on where the data is sent and who initiates the should while studying connection. The client program can specify active mode by sending the PORT command to instruct that the server should connect back to a specified IP address and port number and then send the data. Or, a client program can choose passive mode by using the PASV command to ask that the A Lack of Authority Essay server tell the client an IP address and port number that the client can connect to and receive the data. In a nutshell, PORT is should i listen to music while, used to have the server connect to the client, and PASV is used to have the client connect to the server. Since the client connects to the server to establish the control connection, it would seem logical that the client should connect to the server to establish the data connection, which would imply that PASV would be preferred (and at the same time eliminate the single biggest problem with FTP and firewalls).
Mysteriously, the implementers chose to specify in the FTP specification that PORT should be preferred and PASV need not be implemented at all by FTP client programs. At this point it might be helpful to A Lack Essay, see how the client and server are communicating for best each type of data transfer. A Lack Of Authority? The first example is an best strategy, Active session that logs in anonymously and does a single active data transfer, a directory listing. Note that a directory listings are treated as data transfers just like uploading and downloading of files! The biggest problem caused by FTP client programs choosing to use PORT to negotiate FTP data connections is the fact that the of Authority Essay server must be the connecting out back to the client's IP address. For restrictive firewalls, it is desirable to forbid all incoming connections, so using PORT would cause the jane connection incoming from the server to A Lack of Authority, fail. Another big problem is that when a client program is using network address translation to rochester eyre, hide behind a routing device on an internal network, when using PORT the client tells a server on A Lack, the external network to connect to an address on the client's internal network. I.e., from the example above:
Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. That almost always results in the routing device denying the connection, or the connection to fail completely if the IP address is Helping Essay, a RFC 1918 compliant reserved address (i.e. 192.168.x.x, 172.16.x.x, 10.x.x.x). In either case, the client user will typically experience a discarded connection that is A Lack, very frustrating since the client program will just lock up until the connection is considered permanently timed-out. Solution 1 : The client user should configure their FTP client program to use PASV rather than PORT. Using passive mode may not solve the problem if there is a similar restrictive firewall on i listen to music while studying, the server side.
Solution 2 : A better solution is for the network administrator of the client network to use high-quality network address translation software. Devices can keep track of FTP data connections, and when a client on a private network uses PORT with an internal network address, the device should dynamically rewrite the packet containing the PORT and IP address and change the address so that it refers to A Lack of Authority Essay, the external IP address of the routing device. The device would then have to route the connection incoming from the remote FTP server back to the internal network address of the client. I.e., from the example above we had: Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. When the packet containing this PORT reaches the routing device, it should be rewritten like this, assuming the external address is rochester jane eyre, 188.8.131.52: Client: PORT 17,254,0,26,7,138. The remote server would then attempt to Essay, connect to 184.108.40.206:1930. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection to eyre, and from the client address at 192.168.1.2:1930. When an FTP server is behind a firewall, there can be problems when FTP clients try to use passive mode to connect to A Lack of Authority Essay, an ephemeral port number (temporary random port number) on the FTP server machine.
The most common problem is when the firewall the FTP server is behind is strict, i.e. the firewall allows only a few well-known port numbers in rochester jane eyre and denies access to of Authority, all other ports. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can configure the firewall to allow in the entire ephemeral port range. The range of best ephemeral ports that need to A Lack, be opened up is dependent on the configuration of the server machine that is running the how many times to bush FTP server software -- not the ephemeral ports on the firewall! So, find out how the FTP server machine has configured the ephemeral port range (whose default range varies with the operating system) and of Authority Essay, then open those ports on the firewall. Ideally, the Essay firewall should be configured so that only that range of ports is A Lack, accessible to the FTP server machine. Also double check to be sure that there aren't any other TCP services with port numbers in the ephemeral port range listening on the FTP server machine. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the firewall vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and ports dynamically opened when a passive FTP connection is should studying, detected. This is similar to what intelligent network address translation software can do on the client side for PORT -- the FTP control connections are monitored, and A Lack Essay, when a packet containing PASV from an FTP session is detected, the empirnall holdings firewall can automatically open the port. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173)
The firewall would then parse the request and A Lack of Authority Essay, find that the client will be instructed to best buy marketing, connect to of Authority Essay, port 52397 on the address 172.16.3.4. The firewall would then add a temporary rule that would allow exactly one connection to port 52397 only from the same IP address that the FTP control connection is connected from. The other server-side problem that can occur is when a client is trying to access an FTP server on an internal network protected by a routing device. Because a server response from PASV includes an IP address and port number, if this IP address corresponds to a private network then the should client will not be able to of Authority, connect to that private address. Hip Hop Music: Dirty Rap Essay? From our PASV example above, we have: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) If left unaltered, the A Lack client would try to connect to port 52397 on the IP address 172.16.3.4.
If the client is not on the private internal network, the client would time-out trying to connect to that address, when in reality it should be connecting to the external IP address of the routing device. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the routing device vendor's documentation to visited the troops, see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and of Authority Essay, dynamically replace the IP address specification for packets containing the should to music while studying PASV response. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) The routing device should rewrite the A Lack of Authority Essay packet like this, assuming the external address is 220.127.116.11: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (17,254,0,91,204,173) The remote client would then attempt to connect to the routing device at 18.104.22.168:52397. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection between the remote client and the internal FTP server at IP address 172.16.3.4.
Load-Balancing Routers can allow an administrator to expose a single IP address and delegate connections among multiple identical slave servers. This is similar to Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), only instead of disks the array is of TCP/IP servers. Load Balancing provides two challenges for FTP. The first is that there are multiple connections associated with each FTP session, one control connection and one or more data connections. Blaire? For PASV data connections to of Authority Essay, work, the load balancer must be able to send the studying connection from the client to A Lack of Authority, the same slave server that is handling the control connection. The second problem, which is related to the first, is that when a slave server replies with the jane eyre PASV response, the PASV response's IP address must be accessible to Essay, the remote client. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the how many compared to bush server network can give each slave server a valid externally accessible IP address.
The external IP address of the A Lack of Authority load balancer could be used as the preferred address, but having each slave server have its own external IP address would allow PASV data connections to connect directly to the slave server without requiring traffic from slaves to pass through the load balancer. It also means that the load balancer does not need to do any special automatic handling of FTP. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the should to music load balancing router vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be handled automatically so that the Essay PASV reply is visited the troops compared to bush, dynamically rewritten to contain the A Lack Essay external IP address of the load balancer. Solution 3 : If the best buy marketing routing device isn't intelligent enough to take special care of FTP sessions, but has the A Lack Essay ability to always forward traffic from the empirnall holdings same remote client IP address to the same internal server IP address, then the network administrator of the server network may be able to A Lack of Authority Essay, configure the FTP server software to spoof the address it uses for PASV replies. For example, NcFTPd Server has an option to let you specify an IP address to use for PASV replies rather than the real IP address of the machine. You could use this option to empirnall, have NcFTPd use the external IP address of the routing device and hope that packets sent to A Lack Essay, that address would be forwarded to the internal IP address of the FTP server machine.
The good news is that load-balancing routers are relatively new, and empirnall, most vendors are aware that FTP and A Lack, other protocols need special handling. So, it is highly likely that FTP traffic can be farmed out from the Music: East Coast, Coast, Dirty South, load balancer with configuration of the load balancer. Cases do arise where there is Essay, a restrictive firewall on both the client side and server side. To Bush? Again, a restrictive firewall is one whose policy is to deny everything except for traffic between a few well-known ports. When this happens, a client user cannot use PORT because the A Lack Essay FTP server cannot connect back to the client program listening ephemeral port number, and a client user cannot use PASV because the client program cannot connect to the FTP server software listening on an ephemeral port number.
Obviously, something has to give, but if possible the server-side firewall should be the holdings one that is reconfigured. By definition, a server is providing a service , and it should make a decent effort to make itself accessible to A Lack of Authority Essay, clients. It also makes sense to fix the server side once rather than have to fix each individual client-side firewall. Someday, all devices doing network address translation will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PORT can be used, and someday all firewalls will have built-in special handling of strategy FTP sessions so PASV can be used too. A growing number of routing devices have automatic special handling of FTP sessions, but if you run an FTP server on a port other than 21 then your device is A Lack of Authority, likely to not know to perform that special handling. Empirnall Holdings? Therefore if you must use a non-standard port number then it is imperative that you configure your routing device so that your port number is treated as an FTP service with special handling. Even if the server-side network's routing device is configured for of Authority that special handling, problems could still arise on the client side! Some firewalls require that FTP data connections from the server originate from port 20, which is the standard port number for FTP data connections. If your FTP server is running on non-standard port N , it is required by the FTP specification that its data connections originate from port N - 1. East Coast, Coast, Dirty South, Rap Essay? Client-side firewalls may deny these connections, so beware.
Routing devices have long been inappropriately deleting TCP/IP connections that they manage, mostly because they place greater restrictions on connections than does the TCP/IP protocol itself. For example, a TCP/IP connection with no outstanding acknowledgments pending is allowed to be idle indefinitely, unless one or both ends of the of Authority connection agree to use TCP/IP Keep Alive probes. If Keep Alive probes are not enabled, a TCP/IP connection is permanently open and best strategy, available for sending and Essay, receiving until it is closed, or reset (for example, when one end's host machine is rebooted). Since a routing device is Essay, often responsible for A Lack of Authority Essay managing many internal host machines' TCP/IP connections, it needs to place reasonable limits on West Coast, Rap Essay, the number of connections it is managing. Therefore, it will try to reclaim connections when it can, and a common way to do this is to put an activity timer on the connection and delete connections when the Essay timer shows that the connection has been idle for Blaire a long period of time. Essay? Unfortunately, when a connection is timed-out, the routing device typically drops incoming packets for it if the connection tries to resume activity.
When that happens, the sending host's client program will then lock up until it times-out. If the routing device were kind enough to send back a reply to to music while, the sending host with an error message, rather than dropping the packets and ignoring the A Lack of Authority sending host, the client program could immediately err-out rather than time-out after a considerable delay. Since the FTP protocol uses two connections, a control connection for communicating with the client, and Hip Hop Music: East Coast, West and Midwest, another connection to transfer data, there is twice the probability of getting timed-out by an impatient firewall. The most common instance of this problem occurs comes into play during a long file transfer. When a transfer is initiated (on the control connection), the control connection is idle until the A Lack of Authority transfer (on the i listen to music studying data connection) finishes. If the A Lack Essay routing device does not special case for jane eyre the FTP protocol and the data connection takes longer than the routing device's idle timeout, then the control connection will be timed out. Of Authority Essay? This is a significant problem since the client program may wish to continue using the buy marketing FTP session, such as downloading additional files.
Even if the client program is planning on ending the session, the FTP requires that the client program send a message (QUIT) to the server indicating that the connection should be closed, and the server is then required to reply with another message indicating that the session is A Lack, officially closed. How Many Has Obama The Troops Compared To Bush? The ramifications are that the client program could then lock up waiting for a reply to a QUIT message that the server will not receive since the firewall timed-out the A Lack Essay session, unbeknownst to holdings, both client and server. The solution for this specific case, which some, but not all, FTP client programs do, is to either place a very short time-out on A Lack of Authority Essay, the reply to the QUIT message, or to simply close its end of the FTP session (which violates the FTP protocol, but is to music studying, de facto behavior and is generally accepted). The general solution for this problem is that the routing device needs to special-case the FTP protocol, and when there is activity on A Lack Essay, a FTP session's data connection, it must mark the FTP session's control connection as active, in addition to marking the data connection as active. Unfortunately, as of this writing, this solution is not widely implemented. Another solution is to enable the TCP/IP Keep Alive feature on the control connection. When this is enabled by an application program such as an strategy, FTP client or server program, if the connection has been idle for Essay a preset time, the TCP/IP stack will automatically send a heartbeat message to the other end's TCP/IP stack, and Helping Essay, if no reply is received, the connection will be properly timed-out at the TCP stack on the host machine, rather than at the firewall. The problem with this is that due to legacy behavior of the TCP/IP protocol (which is decades old, remember!) the A Lack default time before sending the Keep Alive probes is often set to several hours! So, under default conditions, the connection would have to be idle for several hours before the TCP stack would send out its heartbeat message, which is not realistic considering the default idle timeout for routing devices is often under 15 minutes. For the Keep Alive feature to work under realistic conditions then, it must be configured to start sending the probes before the routing device's idle time out jane, kicks in.
For example, if a firewall is configured to discard idle connections after 15 minutes, you would want your Keep Alive probes to be sent after 10 minutes of A Lack inactivity. If the connection is really timed out, it won't receive a reply to the heartbeat message and will then be properly closed by the TCP stack, and if a heartbeat reply is received, the firewall will (should!) mark the connection as no longer idle. As long as one side of the how many visited the troops compared to bush FTP session enables Keep Alive and has the heartbeat timer configured to a sensible value, this problem should be solved. But surprisingly, it is usually not trivial to of Authority, configure the should i listen while heartbeat timer, if it is A Lack of Authority Essay, configurable at Hip Hop and Midwest Rap Essay, all. Typically, it is required to tune the operating system's kernel or TCP stack. Application programs can only enable Keep Alive mode, but not specify when it should be triggered. Therefore, unless the operating system provides a mechanism to configure the of Authority Essay timer and the system administrator of the machine running the application program has bothered to configure the timer, a program enabling Keep Alive mode is unlikely to solve the problem. We've shown that the File Transfer Protocol can be a difficult beast to tame in the presence of advanced networking hardware.
We will leave you with a brief list of guidelines, but realize that for FTP to work smoothly you will most likely need to expend considerable effort on configuration or considerable cash on hardware that is rochester jane eyre, FTP aware. Use passive (PASV) mode from within your FTP client whenever possible. If you can login to an FTP server, but your directory listings and data transfers time-out you most likely have a firewall in Essay the way. For best results with firewalls or connections involving private network addresses, use intelligent routing devices that know to automatically take special care of East Coast, West South, Rap Essay FTP sessions. FTP servers require large numbers of A Lack of Authority ephemeral ports that must be externally accessible by clients. Since many FTP clients (and Web browsers) still do not default to passive mode, FTP data connections will fail unless ephemeral ports on the client machine are remotely accessible.
All Rights Reserved. This is revision 1.1.1 (April 18, 2005) of rochester jane this document.