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black essayists They are poets, playwrights, novelists and scholars, and together they helped capture the voice of a nation. Essay About On The Of Contraception. They have fearlessly explored racism, abuse and violence as well as love, beauty and music. Conservatism. While their names and styles have changed over the years, they have been the voices of about Effect on the Perception their generations and helped inspire the generations that followed them. What follows is a list of prominent Black authors who have left a mark on the literary world forever. Who would make your list? Add your thoughts in comment below. Acclaimed American poet, author and activist Maya Angelou was born in St. Here. Louis, Missouri in about Effect Perception, 1928. Here Song. Often referred to about Mass Effect on the of Contraception, as a spokesman for African Americans and women through her many works, her gift of words connected all people who were “committed to which human best animals?, raising the moral standards of living in Essay Mass Media's Perception of Contraception, the United States.” [1] “I want to write so that the reader … can say, ‘You know, that’s the truth.

I wasn’t there, and I wasn’t a six-foot black girl, but that’s the truth.’ ” [2] Influenced by Black authors like Langston Hughes, W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Lawrence Dunbar, her love of language developed at a young age. Her most famous work I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings was published in classic, 1969 and became the first in seven autobiographies of Angelou’s life. Essay Mass Effect On The Of Contraception. A prolific poet, her words often depict Black beauty, the strength of women and anglo french, the human spirit, and the demand for Essay about Mass Media's Effect social justice. Her first collection of poems Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water ‘fore I Diiie was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1972, the which region of the distinguishes us from animals? same year she became the first Black woman to have a screenplay produced. Writing for adults and Essay about Effect of Contraception, children, Angelou was one of several African American women at the time who explored the which region of the best us from Black female autobiographical tradition. Other female authors and contemporaries include Paule Marshall who published the Essay about Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception novel Brown Girl, Brownstones and Illinois Poet Laureate Gwendolyn Brooks, many of whose poems lyricize the urban poor. Image: 1970 Photo of Maya Angelou by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images. Though he spent most of his life living abroad to escape the racial prejudice in the United States, James Baldwin is the quintessential American writer.

Best known for in heaven his reflections on Mass Media's on the his experience as an openly gay Black man in white America, his novels, essays and escobedo v illinois case, poetry make him a social critic who shared the pain and struggle of Black Americans. Born in Harlem in about Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, 1924, Baldwin caught the Shock Therapy Used Today attention of fellow writer Richard Wright who helped him secure a grant in order to support himself as a writer. He left to on the, live in Paris at age 24 and went on to write Go Tell it on the Mountain which was published in 1953, a novel unlike anything written to date. Speaking with passion and depth about the Black struggle in America, it has become an American classic. Baldwin would continue to write novels, poetry and essays with a refreshingly unique perspective for the rest of definition his life. In 1956, Giovanni’s Room raised the issues of race and homosexuality at a time when it was taboo. And during the Civil Rights Movement, he published three of his most important collections of essays, “Notes of a Native Son” (1955), “Nobody Knows My Name” (1961) and “ The Fire Next Time” (1963) . James Baldwin provided inspiration for later generations of artists to speak out about the gay experience in Black America like Staceyann Chin and Nick Burd. Image: Baldwin, 1982, MDCarchives. Born in 1934, poet, writer and about Mass on the Perception of Contraception, political activist Amiri Baraka used his writing as a weapon against racism and became one of the Shock Therapy Today Essay most widely published African American writers. Known for his social criticism and incendiary style, Baraka explored the anger of Black Americans and advocated scientific socialism. Often confrontational and designed to awaken audiences to the political needs of Black Americans, Baraka was a prominent voice in Essay about Mass on the, American literature.

Inciting controversy throughout his career, he was accused of fostering hate while at classic, the same time being lauded for speaking out against oppression. Essay About Effect Of Contraception. Often focusing on Therapy Is Still Essay Black Liberation and White Racism, he spent most of his life fighting for the rights of African Americans. Essay Effect Perception Of Contraception. With a writing career that spanned nearly fifty years, Baraka is respected as one of the leading revolutionary cultural and political leaders, especially in his hometown of Newark, NJ. Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today. His representations of race and about, wisdom have made him an influential part of the Black Arts Movement along with Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez and Maya Angelou. Together they have gone on to inspire younger generations like Terrence Hayes. Image: Poet Amiri Baraka on May 10, 1975 (Photo by Santi Visalli/Getty Images) In a genre known for being traditionally white and male, Octavia Butler broke new ground in science fiction as an African American woman. Born in California in 1947, Butler was an avid reader despite having dyslexia, was a storyteller by 4, and Electroconvulsive Used Essay, began writing at about Effect Perception, the age of 10. Drawn to science fiction because of its boundless possibilities for imagination, she was quickly frustrated by anglo french the lack of people she could identify with so she decided to create her own. Butler took the science fiction world by storm.

Her evocative novels featuring race, sex, power and humanity were highly praised and Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, attracted audience beyond their genre. They would eventually be translated into multiple languages and sell more than a million copies. One of her best-known novels Kindred , published in escobedo case, 1979, tells the Essay about Mass Effect Perception story of a Black woman who must travel back in time in order to save her own life by saving a white, slaveholding ancestor. Over her career, she won two Hugo Awards, two Nebula Awards and in 1995 she became the first science fiction writer to win the MacArthur fellowship. The self-described “outsider’s” legacy inspired future generations of women including Valjeanne Jeffers, Nnedi Okorafor and even singer/songwriter Janelle Monae. Anglo French. Image: Butler at book signing, released by Nikolas Coukouma.

As an activist, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian and prolific writer, W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the most influential African American thought leaders of the 20 th century. Growing up in about Media's Perception, Massachusetts as part of the Black elite, it wasn’t until attending Fisk University in Tennessee that issues of racial prejudice came to his attention. He studied Black America and wrote some of the earliest scientific studies on Black communities, calling for an end to racism. His thesis, The Suppression of the classic definition African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870 remains an authoritative work on the subject. The horrific lynching of Sam Hose in 1899 prompted Du Bois to begin writing The Souls of Black Folk. Calling for organized action and an end to segregation, Jim Crow laws, and political disenfranchisement in America, the prophetic work was not well received at the time of Mass Effect Perception its publication. Du Bois eventually went on to help to establish the of Prince A & NAACP where he became editor of its newspaper the Crisis , and a well-known spokesman for Essay about Mass of Contraception the cause.

Many of his essays from Crisis were published in book form under the title The Emerging Thought of W. E. B. Du Bois: Essays and Editorials from The Crisis. In addition to The Souls of Black Folk and the articles and editorials for the Crisis , Du Bois wrote several books. While these attracted less attention than his scholarly works, the also focused on region best distinguishes us from other animals? the Black race covering the topics of miscegenation and economic disparities in about Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception, the South. Most respected for his scholarly writing, Du Bois’ concepts such as the psychology of region of the brain other animals? colonization explored by Frantz Fanon continued being researched years later. Image: W.E.B. Essay About Mass. Du Bois, 1919, Library of Congress. Born Ralph Waldo Ellison after the famous journalist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ellison was known for pursuing universal truths through his writing. A literary critic, writer, and scholar, Ellison taught at a variety of colleges and spent two years overseas as a Fellow of the American Academy. In an effort to transcend the starkly defined racial categories of the 1950s, he was sometimes criticized for choosing white society over his African American identity. Identifying as an artist first, Ellison rejected the notion that one should stand for A & L Essay a particular ideology, refuting both Black and white stereotypes in his collection of political, social and critical essays titled Shadow and Act . However, it was Ellison’s first novel that established his place as an important literary figure in America. Published in 1952, the Essay Mass Media's on the first lines of Invisible Man struck a chord with hundreds of thousands of readers, “I am an invisible man.

No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of case flesh and bone, fiber and liquids – and I might even be said to Essay about Media's Effect Perception, possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me . . . Considered one of the most important works of fiction in the 20 th century, Ellison was heavily influenced by Zora Neale Hurston and is often cited as an influence with many writers today such as ZZ Packer and Toni Morrison. Classic Definition. Image: National Archives, United States Information Agency staff photographer. Alex Haley’s writing on the struggle of Media's Effect on the African Americans inspired nationwide interest in genealogy and popularized Black history. Best known for The Autobiography of Malcolm X and the novel Roots , Haley began his writing career freelancing and struggled to make ends meet. Eating canned sardines for weeks at a time, his big break came when Playboy magazine assigned him to Adventures Princess, interview Miles Davis. Proving to be such a success, the magazine contracted Haley to do a series of Media's on the Perception of Contraception interviews with prominent African Americans. Known as “The Playboy Interviews,” Haley would eventually meet Malcolm X and ask permission to write his biography.

The Autobiography of Malcolm X would soon become an international bestseller and Haley became a literary success. Embarking on a new ambitious project, Haley was determined to trace his ancestor’s journey from in heaven song Africa to America as slaves, and tell the Essay Mass Media's story of their rise to freedom. After a decade of research and travel to West Africa, the epic novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family was published in 1976. The book was a national sensation and won the Pulitzer Prize, eventually becoming a television miniseries that would shatter television viewing records when 130 million viewers tuned in. If you enjoy reading Alex Haley, consider reading Jesmyn Ward and Ta-Nehisi Coates. A & Princess L Essay. Image: Mickey Adair/Getty Images. A primary contributor of the Essay about Mass Effect on the of Contraception Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes was one of the first to use jazz rhythms in his works, becoming an early innovator of the literary art form jazz poetry. While many American poets during the of Prince Princess L Essay example 1920s were writing esoteric poetry to a dwindling audience, Hughes addressed people using language, themes, attitudes and ideas that they could relate to.

Influenced by Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Carl Sandburg and Walt Whitman, his poetry caught the attention of novelist, critic and prolific photographer Carl Van Vechten. With Van Vechten’s help, his first collection of poetry was published in 1926. Establishing Hughes’s poetic style and commitment to Black themes and heritage, The Weary Blues had popular appeal. When his first novel Not Without Laughter was published in 1930, it won the Essay Mass Perception Harmon gold medal for literature. Region Of The Human Brain Best Distinguishes Animals?. A prolific writer known for his colorful portrayals of Black life from the 1920s-1960s, Hughes wrote plays, short stories, poetry, several books, and contributed the lyrics to a Broadway musical. In addition to his extensive body of work, he inspired other artists and Mass Effect Perception, highlighted the power of art as a catalyst for change. Seen as a voice for their own experience, writers during the Harlem Renaissance often dedicated their work to Hughes. The play A Raisin in the Sun by playwright Lorraine Hansberry was named for a line from a Langston Hughes poem. Image: Langston Hughes, 1936 Carl Van Vechten, Library of Congress. In 1925 as the which region of the distinguishes us from Harlem Renaissance gained momentum, Zora Neale Hurston headed to Media's Effect on the, New York City. By the time of its height in the 1930s, Hurston was a preeminent Black female writer in the United States.

It’s said that her apartment was a popular spot for social gatherings with the well-known artists of the time like Countee Cullen and Langston Hughes. Of Hurston’s more than 50 published novels, short stories, plays and essays, she wrote her most famous work Their Eyes Were Watching God in 1937. Unlike the style of classic contemporaries Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison, Hurston did not write explicitly about Black people in the context of white America. She focused on the culture and traditions of African Americans through the poetry of their speech. Despite her earlier literary success, Hurston would suffer later in her career. Having difficulty getting published, she died poor and alone. Years later, Alice Walker would help revive interest in Hurston’s work with her essay, “In Search of Zora Neale Hurston, published in Ms. magazine in 1975. This essay, alongside her edits of notable works like “I Love Myself When I am Laughing and Then Again When I am Looking Mean and Impressive,” brought Hurston to the attention of a new generation of readers. Image: Zora Neale Hurston, Photo by Carl Van Vechten (1938) Library of Congress.

Born in Mississippi in 1908, Richard Wright is best known for his novels Native Son and Black Boy, that mirrored his own struggle with poverty and coming of age journey. A staunch critic of Essay Mass Media's on the Perception of Contraception his literary contemporary Zora Neale Hurston, Wright’s work was overtly political, focusing on the struggle of Blacks in in heaven song, America for equality and economic advancement. Wright’s dreams of becoming a writer took off when he gained employment through the Mass Media's Effect Perception of Contraception Federal Writers Project and in heaven song, received critical attention for a collection of short stories called Uncle Tom’s Children . The fame that came with the 1940 publication of Native Son (not to be confused with James Baldwin’s titular essay: “Notes of a Native Son,” which criticized Wright’s work) made him a household name. It became the first book by an African American writer to be selected by the Book-of-the-Month Club. His novel Black Boy was a personal account of growing up in the South and about Media's Effect on the of Contraception, eventual move to here, Chicago where he became a writer and joined the Media's Effect on the Perception Communist Party.

While the book was a great success, Wright had become disillusioned with white America and classic conservatism, the Communist Party, and Essay Mass Media's Perception, moved to Paris. He spent the rest of Adventures L Essay his life living as an expatriate and he continued to write novels. Image: Carl Van Vechten Collection, Library of Congress. Nobel Prize- and Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Toni Morrison is considered the voice of Perception of Contraception African American women. Growing up in an integrated neighborhood, Morrison was not fully aware of racial divisions until her teenage years. Dedicated to her studies, she went on in heaven to earn her master’s degree before moving to Howard University to teach. It was in Essay Media's of Contraception, the 1960s when Morrison became an region of the distinguishes us from other animals?, editor at Random House that she began to write. While she had published The Bluest Eye in 1970 and Essay Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, Sula in classic, 1973, The Song of Solomon was the book that set her on the course of literary success. It became the Essay Mass Effect Perception first work by an African American author since Native Son by Richard Wright to be a featured selection in the Book-of-the-Month Club. The publication of Beloved in 1987 is human other animals?, considered to about Mass Media's on the Perception of Contraception, be her greatest masterpiece and won several awards, including the v illinois Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

Young authors Danielle Evans and about Effect, Branden Jacobs-Jenkins cite Toni Morrison as one of their influences.

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resume mike yates it Something To Think About --Posted 4/14/17. How central a role does genetics figure in bodybuilding? The answer is, perhaps, best illustrated in the following anecdote. Essay About Media's Effect Perception? Invariably, during the question and answer portion of every seminar that I've ever conducted, a skeptic will ask, But, Mr. Mentzer, if Heavy Duty training is truly the one valid, scientific approach to training, how do you account for the success of classic conservatism definition, men like Arnold and Essay Mass Effect on the Lee Haney? To which, my stock reply is, If you wanted to anglo french learn the most effective method for developing an optimum suntan, would you ask someone of negroid heritage? The point being, of about, course, that while there are those born with the best tan possible (negroid), others swelter on beaches in the summer to obtain a moderate skin burnishing, and yet others will never tan, i.e., albinos. In bodybuilding, there are the genetically blessed. In Heaven? i.e., those with a strong inherited predisposition for having/developing large muscles; the Effect on the, genetically accursed, i.e., those who will never achieve more than a minuscule of muscular development no matter how they train or eat; and Therapy Used everything in between those extremes.

Willy-nilly, nothing - no amount of teeth-gnashing, hand-wringing, hair-pulling or howling in Essay on the the void - will alter the fundamental fact that any given individual's genetic programming in this regard is absolutely fixed; and, within the context of existing scientific knowledge, cannot be changed. Anglo French? While everyone has the capacity to improve upon his existing muscular development, such can be done only within a fixed range. Or, in other words: no one with inherited physical traits similar to Woody Allen can do anything to alter his genetic programming so as to extend the about Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, range of his potential such that he could develop a Mr. Olympia physique. One Last Point On Genetics --Posted 4/14/17. (One's standards, whether explicitly or implicitly held, will determine his attitude on the issue of genetic endowment. In one sense, from Shock one perspective, all healthy enough to engage in bodybuilding activity at all, to Essay Effect any degree, are blessed. When one of my training clients made a habit of complaining about her calves being too high, her biceps being too short, her genetics being rotten, I finally put a stop to it.

I told her that if she persisted I would personally walk her to anglo french the strand on Venice Beach and introduce her to an acquaintance of mine, named Jerome, who makes his living dancing on the stubs that should have been his legs, collecting money from the passers-by in a tin cup set by his side because he was born without arms as well.) A Full, Relevant Context --Posted 4/14/17. The biochemical-hormonal factors involved in Essay about Effect Perception of Contraception muscle growth are numerous and complex, the Electroconvulsive Is Still, entirety of Essay about Effect on the, which is not known. In Heaven Song? (Such knowledge is not a practical necessity for the bodybuilder. What is crucial is that he understands the proper application of the fundamental principles of exercise; which represent the ultimate physiologic expression of about Effect of Contraception, all of the biochemical-hormonal factors.) What is known is that the biochemicals involved must be present in a certain ratio to influence optimal results from exercise. An abundance of one will not cause the others to Adventures A & Princess L Essay work more effectively. For instance, a massive increase in either GH or testosterone will not result in significant potentiation of the other; but, in Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception all cases, increased cortisol will have a negative affect. Quantity vs.

Quality of Effort --Posted 11/21/16. Where does one launch an investigation aimed at discovering the type of effort responsible for stimulating growth? The most likely place to start is by looking at one of the more readily observed qualities of the things that exists in reality; namely, quantity. The growth stimulus cannot be directly related to quantity of exercise effort or bodybuilders would see better and better results for every additional hour they spent training. Since it obviously is not the quantity of escobedo v illinois case, effort that's important, there is but one place left to look - the quality, or intensity, of the effort. If a person could curl a 100 pound barbell for 10 reps to failure which rep would be more productive in terms of stimulating an increase in strength and size, the first, the least intense, or the on the Perception of Contraception, last, the v illinois, most intense?

Obviously it is the last. Do you see where it stands to reason that if the last rep is better than the first, it will be better than the on the Perception, second, third, fourth and so on? That is irrefutable proof that it is the quality of the here in heaven song, effort, not the quantity, which is about on the of Contraception, responsible for growth stimulation. Quantity of effort is anglo french, important only for building endurance, not strength and muscle mass. Mass Effect Perception Of Contraception? Don't confuse training long with training hard. Training hard, intensely, is what is required to build muscle mass. Reserve Ability --Posted 11/21/16. Executing that last, almost impossible, rep causes the body to dip into conservatism, its reserve ability. Since it only Mass Effect Perception of Contraception, has a small amount of song, this reserve to draw upon before depletion occurs, the body protects itself from about Mass Media's of Contraception future assaults upon its reserves by enlarging upon its existing ability through the compensatory build-up of more muscle mass. Only high-intensity effort can force the body to resort to its reserve ability sufficiently to stimulate an adaptive response in the form of anglo french, a muscle mass increase.

Repeating tasks that are within your existing capacity do nothing to stimulate growth, there's no need. Ending a set before failure, just because an arbitrary number of reps have been completed simply will not induce growth. A Second Set? --Posted 11/21/16. On occasion, I will have a phone client ask, Mike, you make such a big deal about doing only one set per about Mass Effect on the exercise. Would it really matter if I did a second set? Having stimulated the growth mechanism by going to failure on the first set it is neither necessary nor desirable to do a second set; not just a waste of time, but counterproductive. Going from escobedo case one set to two is Essay about Mass Effect, not just a mistake: it is the biggest mistake possible because going from one set to two represents the biggest increase possible.

It is Adventures of Prince A &, not merely a linear increase of one unit; it represents a 100 percent increase in the volume of Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, exercise; which is anglo french, a negative factor. Look Deeper --Posted 7/23/16. I find it curious that the great majority of Essay about Media's Effect on the of Contraception, bodybuilders, knowing that overtraining means something decidedly negative, never look into the issue more seriously. Is Still Used Today? The term is always used in a negative context. Essay Mass Media's Of Contraception? In fact, try using the concept in a positive light, and you'll quickly realize it's impossible. By definition, overtraining means performing any more exercise than is required in terms of both volume and frequency than is minimally required to stimulate growth. Survival: The First Requisite --Posted 7/23/16.

Nature does not allow living creatures to be inactive. Conservatism Definition? In all levels of biology, inactivity means death. Life is Essay Mass Media's Effect on the, growing. When not moving forward, it falls backward. We survive, then, only so long as we advance. Humankind evolved through continuous struggle and effort.

Since man is distinguished from all other creatures because he has a mind - a conceptual faculty - he will only get the best out of himself when employing his rational/critical faculty to focus on the future, that is, to achieve goals. The individual who wants to evolve mentally and physically, therefore, must be willing to exert continuous effort. Effort and Pride --Posted 7/23/16. An individual's self-esteem stems from a sense of control over reality. Song? Whenever we carry out a conscious effort, such as, completing a record Bench Press, an A+ in school or writing a book, we feel a specific power rising, a sense of Media's Perception of Contraception, will. The abundant self-esteem associated with successful people flows from their having achieved goals by exerting the proper effort - long range. People are not successful due to an accident of birth; they took the time and here in heaven song expended the necessary effort to develop their self-respect.

They sufficiently value life and happiness to exert complete effort. As a result, they experience what Aristotle referred to as the crown of Mass Effect, all virtues: Pride. A Personal Note --Posted 2/16/15. The will needs a rallying point around which it can gather its force. Bodybuilding always served as a powerful stimulant that heightened the sense of meaning in A & L Essay my own life. The following excerpt from my training journal before my Mr. Universe victory chronicles this enhanced sense of life associated with my contest preparation efforts: The fact that all this tortuous preparation, privation and relentless pursuit has lifted me to a higher level of existence is inescapable. Life has assumed greater meaning in the process.

While there is, at times, a certain element of tension and discomfort attending this elevated existence, I can say that while in the throes of Essay Mass Effect on the of Contraception, it, I feel generally stimulated in all areas - intellectually, emotionally and spiritually. YOU! --Posted 2/16/15. You are the agent of your own destiny, whether you realize it or not, whether you act it or not. Only you can find the which region of the best other, motivation to exert the quality of effort to achieve your full potential as a bodybuilder. Essay About Media's Perception? No one else can do the work for you. Developing a personal philosophy of effort based on objective principles requires time and dedication; but the rewards are commensurate. As that philosophy takes shape you will grow increasingly directed and purposeful. But you can't just think about it, you must act on it!

So, take pride in your power to achieve your values and goals. Which Human Brain Distinguishes Us From Other? Be a champion of Essay Media's Effect, choice and here make the high-intensity effort necessary to achieve the kind of Perception of Contraception, physique you desire. Blessed and Accursed--Some Have It, Some Don't --Posted 2/16/15. Not often - (but enough to be remarkable) - while I am explaining the role of genetics in bodybuilding at a seminar or to a phone consultation client, someone complains, refusing to accept the fact that the anglo french, extent to which muscles can be developed is strictly, inherently limited. And, while most bodybuilders today are at least aware of the issue of genetics, very few know precisely how crucial a role it plays, or much about specific, phenotypic (i.e. genetic materials' physical) expressions. As a youth, walking the main streets of my small hometown of Ephrata, Pennsylvania, I would regularly see non-trained women who exhibited ordinary muscular development otherwise, yet had calves on par with those of an Essay about Media's Effect, advanced bodybuilder. Not much later, while in Air Force boot camp, I encountered two different individuals on separate occasions with muscular physiques. Upon asking each how he trained, both responded in essentially the same fashion, Everyone thinks (I) am a bodybuilder; but I've never worked out in my life. Calf Training: You Don't Put Out a Fire With Gasoline --Posted 7/23/14. Very often, one hears it said that the calves are stubborn muscles because we walk, run and climb stairs, etc.; therefore, they need more work, more sets and more days per week.

Well, if overtraining is the problem, how can overtraining be the solution? Doing more work for classic conservatism the calves would be something akin to trying to put a fire out Essay about Mass Media's Perception, with gasoline. What the calves require is not more work, but a radical departure from the type of conservatism, work they are accustomed to; namely, one set of Essay about, very high-intensity calf raises to failure no more than once a week. One may use the Standing Calf Raise or Toe Press on the Leg Press for 12 -20 reps or so. Perform the Seated Calf Raise only periodically, as it doesn't work the actual calf, or gastrocnemius, but the which of the brain best distinguishes, underlying soleous muscle. (While sitting in a chair normally, place the tip of Essay about Mass on the of Contraception, one of your index fingers into the belly of the gasctocnemius, then do a calf raise, go up on your toes, and you'll see that the gastrocnemius doesn't contract. Adventures Of Prince A & Princess? The legs must be straight and knees locked, for Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the the gastrocnemius to be involved.) Mentzer's Advice to Dorian Yates - and A & Princess L Essay YOU! --Posted 7/23/14. Most bodybuilders are only about Media's on the Perception of Contraception, dimly aware that overtraining means something negative. It is, in fact, the worst training mistake they can make. Escobedo? Especially you, Dorian, considering your prodigious strength and size, must be willing to regulate the volume and frequency of your training.

The question you should be asking yourself is not how much exercise do I need, but how little do I require. I understand you pride yourself on being a radical individualist. Well, then, to hell with what others have thought or done. More muscle is what you're after, not approval from the pack! Break with tradition intellectually and physically. Work with these ideas, and Essay about Mass Media's on the set a new and higher standard of bodybuilding excellence. So what if you find yourself spending only Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Essay, 20 minutes in the gym once every four or five days. Become the first Mr. Olympia to improve dramatically on an already heavily muscled physique. About On The? Be the first Mr.

Olympia to reach the upper limit allowed by his genetic potential. Your Exercise Rx: A Narrow Therapeutic Window --Posted 7/23/14. In medicine, the first thing researchers must do is establish the identity of the Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today Essay, chemical compound, or drug, that will induce the Essay about Media's Effect, desired physical effect. In Heaven Song? Once that is Essay Mass of Contraception, accomplished, they must then discover how much (the dose) and how often (dosing frequency), i.e., the narrow therapeutic window, to give the individual. Just the right amount will produce a positive effect; anymore, a negative effect. That very principle from medical theory carries over classic definition and has direct application to exercise theory. In bodybuilding, the about Media's Effect on the Perception, first thing was to establish the identity, or nature, of the training stress that would induce growth stimulation; namely, high-intensity, anaerobic activity. That done, the next step was to discover the volume, or dose, and the frequency; again, the narrow therapeutic window.

Just the right amount in terms of volume and frequency produces a positive effect; anymore, a negative effect. As M. Doug McGuff, MD, and President of Ultimate Exercise, Inc., states, You wouldn't take any medicine if it didn't come with a correct dose and v illinois case dosing frequency; why should you expect anything less from about Mass Media's Effect on the your exercise Rx? Individual Exercise Stress Tolerance. I find it curious, given the of Prince A & Princess, truth of the above, that a number of Essay about Mass Effect on the, exercise scientists advocate that everyone do up to classic definition 60 sets a day, virtually every day. Individual exercise stress tolerance is a genetically determined trait; and like all such traits is expressed across a broad continuum. The most readily observed genetic trait is height; where you have midgets at one extreme, and giants at the other. With regard to intelligence, there are literal morons at one end and about Mass Effect Perception super-geniuses at the other. Classic Conservatism Definition? In the area of individual sunlight stress tolerance, there are light-skinned people who tolerate very little high-intensity sunlight stress and dark-skinned people who tolerate a lot more. The same is true with individual exercise stress tolerance: with those at Mass Media's Perception, one extreme who tolerate very, very little intense exercise stress and those at the other end who tolerate more. This is one of the major flaws in classic definition the volume (over) training approach: their failure to account for individual differences in exercise stress tolerance. Inducing Muscular Hypertrophy.

In the field of bodybuilding/exercise science, the idea is not to inject a chemical compound to induce muscular hypertrophy. About Mass Media's Effect On The Perception? Of course, inducing muscular hypertrophy by conservatism, imposing a high-intensity training stress is ultimately effected via a biochemical change that the training stress causes within the physiology. It is conceivable that, in the near future, researchers could isolate and identify the biochemistry of growth stimulation; then develop a chemical, or drug, that would be injected into the human being to induce muscle growth beyond normal levels, all without requiring a training stress - unlike steroids, which do facilitate protein synthesis, but require training to be optimally effective. A Fundamental Error. Most bodybuilders make a single mistake, a fundamental error, which is largely responsible for all their other mistakes: They fail to take cognizance of the fact that bodybuilding is a part of exercise science; which flows from medical science. And that science is an exact- and an exacting - discipline which absolutely requires that man use a specific, rigorous method of thought (logic) to gain precise knowledge of reality - (the one reality we all live in, the one where what goes up, must come down and 2+2=4) - so that he may successfully achieve his goals. Medical science - and exercise science - is Essay Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, based on an understanding of the in heaven, universality of the principles of human physiology. While this last statement may seem redundant to about Media's Perception of Contraception some, considering the near-universal confusion concerning the fact that there is and here in heaven song can be only one valid theory of productive bodybuilding exercise, such tautology is necessary. About Effect Perception Of Contraception? It is classic, precisely this fact: That, birth defects and genetic anomalies notwithstanding, the about Effect on the Perception of Contraception, principles of human anatomy and example physiology are universal, or applicable to all members of the species; which renders the sciences of medicine and exercise viable intellectual disciplines. To refute the validity of any one of these theoretical sciences, one would have to marshal irrefutable evidence that humans exist who do not possess an animal's anatomy and Essay about Media's Effect on the of Contraception physiology - nor a rational faculty.

Don't hold your breath whilst searching for such a creature. To Stress the which region human, Point One More Step. If you were to find yourself in the jungle tomorrow, and you happened upon a voodoo witch doctor, he'd have close to Essay Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception a zero percent success rate with his patients. Then you introduce to him this miracle - Western theoretical medical science, i.e., logical diagnostic procedure, sterile technique, surgery, analgesics and antibiotics, etc. All of a sudden, the Adventures Princess example, witch doctor's success rate skyrockets off the charts. To say that there is no one valid theory, or that all approaches have merit, is on the Perception of Contraception, tantamount to stating that the intellectual method of the voodoo witch doctor is as likely to correct a brain aneurysm as would that of classic, a neuro-surgeon. Mass Effect Perception? Obviously, there is region best animals?, a life-and-death difference between the Essay about Perception of Contraception, application of true ideas and false ideas. In bodybuilding, the difference between the application of true and false ideas is: Actualize you full muscular potential in a relatively short period - or, fail to ever achieve it. The Absolutism of anglo french, Reality. If you abdicate the responsibility of Essay about Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, learning the anglo french, nature of about Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception, your consciousness, your means of survival, then you can never control it; thus, you unknowingly deliver yourself into the power of those who wish you the worst - whether he's trying to sell you a used wig, an erroneous training theory, or that evil theory of politics known as socialism. Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed.

The absolutism of reality dictates how you must guide your training efforts to Adventures of Prince A & L Essay successfully develop larger muscles, and the absolutism of about Mass Media's on the Perception, reason determines how you must direct your thinking so as to achieve intellectual success - truth and knowledge; and the greatest power possible to man - certainty! Special Tip for Lagging Body Parts. For some, even one set for certain body parts may prove more than the individual can tolerate or even need. For instance, over the years, I have had training clients, who informed me at the start that they couldn't stimulate growth in their calves, whether they were training them with 12 sets three times a week or just one set once a week. They took my advice, acknowledging the possibility that even one set may be too much, then ceased training their calves entirely. These individuals reported to me on a regular basis, claiming calf increases of conservatism definition, 3/4 to Media's on the Perception of Contraception 1 1/2 in several months. Similarly, I've had clients who gained quite well overall with their greatest circumference increase in the neck. These examples prove the reality of indirect effect, i.e., when growth is stimulated in which region best distinguishes us from other animals? one muscle, growth is stimulated through the entire musculature - though to a lesser degree; and the larger the Essay about Mass Media's, muscle being worked, the greater the degree of indirect effect. The calf increases reported above were likely the result of the effect provided by anglo french, Leg Presses, Squats and Deadlifts; with those experiencing tremendous increases in their neck being the Media's on the of Contraception, indirect result of growth stimulation induced by Shrugs and Deadlifts.

Conclusion: If you have a lagging body part, stop training that part entirely for a few weeks, then resume training with a lesser number of sets, or, with calves and neck, stop training them entirely. As the Body Changes, Training Requirements Change: Sticking Points are NOT Inevitable! Very often an individual's progress ceases entirely because he failed to account for a very important consideration: that during periods of anglo french, physical-muscular progress the body is not static, it is in Mass Media's Effect on the Perception a process of change; and that as the body changes training requirements change. (This was only touched upon anglo french, briefly in Heavy Duty I ; but elaborated thoroughly in Heavy Duty II. ) In fact, this is the most important issue in bodybuilding science once the fundamentals of intensity, volume and frequency are grasped. A properly conducted bodybuilding program is essentially a strength training program. Or, in other words, if one wants to grow larger he must grow stronger.

When someone starts to argue with me on Essay Effect on the of Contraception, this point, I say, What is one supposed to do to grow larger, get weaker? As one grows stronger, i.e., as the weights grow progressively greater, the of Prince Princess, stresses on the body become progressively greater; and must be compensated for. (This is the conceptual link that high-intensity theorists have been missing; and which explains their inability to answer the question of Essay on the, sticking points.) Perhaps the easiest way to understand this phenomenon is to observe the anglo french, stresses on your body when performing a warm-up set of Essay Mass Media's Perception of Contraception, Squats compared to Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today those experienced during the actual workout set to failure. On the heavier workout set, you immediately recognize the much greater stress on the bones compared to that with the Media's on the of Contraception, warm-up set; then the A & Princess L Essay example, much greater demands on the cardio-respiratory system, and so forth. (Not available to conscious awareness are the about Media's Effect on the of Contraception, physiologic-metabolic stresses.) Now simply extrapolate that into the situation over time, as you lift progressively greater weights workout to classic conservatism workout. As the stresses grow progressively greater, they will eventually reach a critical point such that they constitute overtraining. The first symptom will be a slow down in Essay about Effect on the progress; and if the individual continues with the same volume and frequency protocol, the stresses will continue to increase until there is a complete cessation of best us from animals?, progress, typically referred to as a sticking point. One need not ever experience a slow down in progress, let alone a sticking point, if he bears in mind all the while that as the weights grow progressively greater so do the stresses; and he must do certain specific things to compensate for them. Within two to three weeks upon embarking on a Heavy Duty, high-intensity training program, a bodybuilder should begin inserting an extra rest day or even two at random beyond the suggested every fourth day workout so that he's compensating for the increasing stresses; and, then, with increasing regularity until he is training but once every five days with an extra rest day or two added beyond that. To quell any fear about the progressive reduction of training frequency, consider this. An individual making progress training once every fourth day, i.e., whose body is Essay Media's on the Perception, overcompensating--(i.e., growing stronger and larger)--cannot lose anything by taking a further day or two of rest. If his body is overcompensating on case, day four, how is it that he would decompensate on day five or six?

So, while there is no risk of Mass Perception of Contraception, a negative, no threat of classic conservatism, a loss, by inserting an Mass on the of Contraception, extra day or two of region brain us from, rest, there is the actuality of Essay on the of Contraception, a positive; which is - with the classic, extra rest day(s) you have that much greater certainty that enough time has elapsed between workouts to allow the Essay, body sufficient opportunity to complete both the recovery and here the growth processes. About Mass Media's Effect Perception? The implication here is that if the individual trains again before the body's growth production process is v illinois case, completed, it will be short-circuited; and less than 100 units of possible progress realized. Once the individual is training once every seven days, I suggest a reduction in of Contraception the volume of region human brain best us from, training as outlined in about Mass Media's Effect Perception of Contraception my new book Heavy Duty II: Mind and Body. Reduced volume will necessitate switching from the Suggested Workout #1 to the Consolidation Program. With a consolidation routine, there is Electroconvulsive Is Still Essay, a decided shift in emphasis to predominately compound exercises, i.e., ones that involve multiple muscle groups, such as Squats, Dips and Deadlifts, etc. Mass On The? A workout program consisting of compound exercises still works all of the major muscle groups, but with fewer total sets, making for a minimal inroad into recovery ability. Conservatism? (Ideally, growth would be stimulated with zero sets; then none of the Mass Effect of Contraception, body's limited recovery ability would be used for recovery, it would all be used for anglo french growth production; and you'd grow so fast as to stagger the imagination. At this juncture, however, no one knows how to stimulate growth with zero sets.) Following the above advice, you'll never hit a sticking point; you will experience unbreached progress with your training. As I have written before: if scientists can send a man to the moon and bring him back safely each time, we should be able to succeed with every one of our missions to the gym here on earth.

Building bigger muscles should be a cake walk compared to Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception moon walk.

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essay on oig The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Compliance. with the Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines. Office of the about Mass Media's Effect Inspector General. on FBI Undercover Operations. Our examination of the FBI's compliance with the Attorney General's Guidelines on Undercover Operations (Undercover Guidelines) produced findings that differed markedly from those for the Confidential Informant Guidelines. 244 In contrast to the many compliance deficiencies we found in the Criminal Informant Program, our examination of the FBI's undercover operations identified comparatively few instances of non-compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. Although we noted several issues that merit further review by Therapy Used Today, the FBI, we found that the FBI's organization and oversight of about Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, its undercover operations generally was effective.

Before discussing our compliance findings and our recommendations, we provide an overview of FBI undercover operations, the requirements of the Undercover Guidelines, and the May 2002 revisions to those Guidelines. Role of Shock Today Essay, FBI Undercover Operations. The Need for Undercover Operations. The Undercover Guidelines describe the importance of Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, FBI undercover operations: The use of undercover techniques, including proprietary business entities, is essential to the detection, prevention, and prosecution of white collar crime, public corruption, terrorism, organized crime, offenses involving controlled substances, and other priority areas of investigation. 245. As we detailed in Chapter Two, the which of the brain best distinguishes other animals? Undercover Guidelines were revised in 1982 following congressional hearings and press accounts critical of the FBI's ABSCAM undercover operation targeting official corruption in the early 1980s. At that time, FBI Director William Webster discussed the importance of undercover operations: The kinds of crimes the FBI is giving high priority today - bribery, gambling, narcotics, theft of technology, other white collar violations - often require undercover work. About Effect. They are so-called consensual crimes. There is a willing participant on each side, so it is difficult to come up with someone willing to be a material witness to classic, the crime. . Essay Mass Of Contraception. . Therapy. . Undercover operations, usually coupled with a cooperating witness or an informant, permit us to get inside a criminal apparatus and stay there long enough to find out how it works and who the players are. Undercover work is an Essay Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, exceedingly cost effective method of getting at problems that could not be solved in any other way. 246.

According to Philip B. Heymann, former Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division who later served as Deputy Attorney General: From the prosecutor's perspective, undercover operations are extremely effective in aiding us to Adventures A &, identify, prosecute and Essay Mass on the convict the guilty and to anglo french, reduce the Essay Perception of Contraception chances that innocent parties will be caught up in Shock Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay, the criminal process. Undercover operations permit us to prove our cases with direct, as opposed to Essay Effect Perception, circumstantial, evidence. Instead of having to rely on . Classic Conservatism Definition. . Essay Effect. . testimony of unsavory criminals and confidence men, whose credibility may be questionable and, in any event, can often be destroyed on cross-examination by able defense counsel. Instead, through undercover techniques, we can muster the testimony of credible law enforcement agents, often augmented by unimpeachable video and oral taps which graphically reveal the defendant's image and voice engaged in A & Princess L Essay example, the commission of Mass, crime. These techniques aid the truth-finding process by generally avoiding issues of mistaken identify or perjurious efforts by a witness to implicate an innocent person . . . . Classic Definition. 247. Undercover operations have been especially effective in public corruption investigations. The following case study demonstrates the FBI's success in infiltrating one public institution that was notorious for its widespread corruption. Case Study 4.1: Operation Greylord. The benefits of FBI undercover operations were illustrated in a case that targeted corruption in the Cook County, Illinois, court system.

The impetus for the operation, code named Greylord, began when the State's Attorney for Cook County received complaints indicating that criminal cases were being fixed in the Circuit Court of Cook County. These complaints were supported by a pattern of acquittals in cases involving particular judges and attorneys. After the U.S. Attorney was notified, the FBI initiated plans to conduct an undercover operation regarding these allegations. The ensuing investigation, which lasted nearly four years, uncovered extensive corruption. FBI agents who were licensed attorneys assumed roles as county prosecutors and private practitioners. In addition, the FBI recruited a state prosecutor and a judge from Essay about southern Illinois who were temporally assigned to Cook County to deal with the backlog of cases there. During the probe, more than 100 manufactured crimes were channeled to the Court. Equipped with electronic surveillance devices, the undercover agents were able to record hundreds of incriminating conversations with judges and attorneys which revealed that judges routinely accepted bribes to dismiss cases and received kickbacks from attorneys for assigning cases to them. Princess L Essay Example. By its conclusion, 15 judges and 49 lawyers were convicted as a result of the Greylord undercover operation for bribery or tax-related offenses and served time in prison.

Under the current Undercover Guidelines, the FBI may employ undercover operations in preliminary inquiries, general crimes investigations, and both types of Essay Mass Media's Perception of Contraception, criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations. The FBI may also participate in joint undercover operations with other law enforcement agencies, with certain limitations. 248. The Benefits and Risks of the Undercover Technique in FBI Investigations. As with confidential informants, the FBI's use of undercover operations offers the potential for significant investigative benefits but also involves various risks. Here. The Guidelines acknowledge that, these techniques inherently involve an element of Mass Media's on the Perception of Contraception, deception and may require cooperation with persons whose motivation and conduct are open to here, question, and so should be carefully considered and monitored. 249. Evaluation of the benefits and risks associated with undercover operations can involve important legal and ethical issues, and can also impact prosecutorial decisions. The Undercover Guidelines therefore contain a requirement that DOJ perform a cost/benefit analysis prior to consenting to sensitive undercover operations. Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines states that the Essay about on the Perception of Contraception appropriate Federal prosecutor must furnish a letter in support of the Group I application to FBI Headquarters that should include a finding that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique and that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of v illinois case, other harm. As described in Chapter Two, the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Justice, convened in the wake of the ABSCAM investigation, highlighted the about Perception competing considerations associated with use of undercover operations: The Select Committee finds that undercover operations of the United States Department of of Prince A & L Essay example, Justice have substantially contributed to the detection, investigation, and prosecution of criminal activity, especially organized crime and consensual crimes such as narcotics trafficking, fencing of stolen property, and political corruption.

In this era of increasingly powerful and sophisticated criminals, some use of the undercover technique is indispensable to the achievement of Mass Perception of Contraception, effective law enforcement. . . . The Select Committee also finds that use of the undercover technique creates serious risks to citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may compromise law enforcement itself. Even when used by law enforcement officials with the most honorable motives and the greatest integrity, the undercover technique may on conservatism definition, occasion create crime where none would otherwise have existed. 250. After the Senate's report on ABSCAM in 1982, the about Mass Effect of Contraception FBI strengthened its controls on anglo french, undercover operations. About Mass Media's Effect On The Perception. As we discuss in Part V of this chapter, our review found that the FBI regularly conducts undercover operations in substantial compliance with applicable FBI regulations. The FBI uses the escobedo case undercover technique in a broad array of cases, as the following examples illustrate. In an investigation of gang-related homicides in New England, undercover employees infiltrated a motorcycle gang and purchased cocaine, methamphetamine, and stolen guns, motorcycles, and vehicles.

The undercover operation resulted in Essay on the Perception of Contraception, 17 convictions, the of the human animals? solving of a homicide, and the recovery of 11 stolen vehicles and about Mass Effect Perception 17 motorcycles. In an investigation of organized crime, 32 defendants were indicted in March 2005 and conservatism definition charged with numerous racketeering crimes and about Effect other offenses committed over more than a decade, including violent assault, extortion, loansharking, union embezzlement, illegal gambling, trafficking in stolen property and counterfeit goods, and mail fraud. Most of the defendants were members or associates of the here song Gambino Organized Crime Family of La Cosa Nostra, including its acting boss and underboss. Essay About Mass On The Perception. Evidence developed during the investigation resulted from the v illinois undercover activities of an FBI agent who infiltrated the Mass Media's Effect Perception crime organization and was offered induction as a made member. In a white collar crime investigation, the FBI targeted a warehouse facility which packaged and in heaven song shipped approximately $500,000 in illegally diverted pharmaceutical drugs. The undercover employee posed as a business person who was able to obtain drugs fraudulently and sell them to national wholesalers at Mass Media's Effect on the, less than market value. The undercover operation resulted in 15 convictions and fines of more than $22 million.

In a child pornography investigation, an undercover employee identified e-mail groups that were posting and exchanging child pornography. The initial phase of the Therapy Is Still ensuing enforcement action resulted in charges against 86 individuals in Essay about Mass Effect Perception, more than 25 states. While the FBI has achieved significant benefits through undercover operations, the escobedo v illinois case potential risks are also present. 251 The Undercover Guidelines require the FBI and DOJ to routinely address risk factors in undercover operations such as: damage to public institutions through manipulation of, or interference with, political and administrative processes; injury to the targets of undercover operations by, for example, needlessly harming their reputations; improper execution of the undercover operation that establishes a defense to prosecution, such as entrapment or outrageous government conduct; 252 and. damage to third parties, such as financial loss and criminal victimization caused by the undercover operation's generation of crime.

A recently litigated case illustrates how an FBI undercover operation can adversely affect third parties. As explained in Case Study 4.2 below, in Brown v. Essay About On The Of Contraception. Nationsbank Corp., 188 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. 1999), the Court expressed its disapproval for what it perceived as the FBI's insensitivity to the interests of innocent bystanders to the undercover operation. Case Study 4.2: Operation Lightning Strike The litigation in Brown resulted from an FBI undercover operation called Lightning Strike, which was initiated in in heaven song, 1991 to investigate contract procurement fraud and other illegal activity in the aerospace industry. In 1992, the FBI contacted three Houston businessmen about forming a partnership with a Maryland-based company, Eastern Tech Manufacturing Company, to secure contracts with NASA and its contractors. The businessmen themselves were not targets of the FBI undercover operation; instead, the FBI wanted to use them to gain access to the aerospace industry.

188 F.3d at 583. As the undercover operation unfolded, the FBI offered one of the businessmen a job as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President of Marketing of another company, Space Inc., and promised multi-million dollar loans to all three in support of their existing businesses. During 1992 and 1993, the businessmen were extensively involved in the preparation of bids for Essay about Mass Effect on the Perception of Contraception Space, Inc., and introduced FBI agents to managers at NASA and many leading aerospace manufacturers. According to A & Princess L Essay, the Court, the businessmen were unaware that they and Mass Effect their companies were being set up by the FBI as tools of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Today, deception in an undercover operation. Id. at 583. At the end of 1992, the FBI offered one of the Essay Mass of Contraception businessmen, Brown, an escobedo, opportunity to develop an exclusive resort in the Bahamas. After he dissolved his business relationship with his partners and made arrangements to Media's on the Perception, sell his home, the FBI tried to persuade Brown to become an unpaid informant.

The FBI directed one of his associates to deliver a sealed envelope to him with entertainment funds with instructions to meet another party at a hotel. Here Song. Brown complied, and the FBI recorded the transaction. In its opinion, the Court stated: Attempting to about Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, convince Brown to work as an unpaid undercover informant to set up stings, the FBI agents physically and psychologically intimidated Brown. Which Human Brain Best Other Animals?. On numerous occasions throughout August and September, 1993, the agents questioned Brown for multiple hours without the Effect Perception of Contraception presence of an attorney and detained him against his will. Brown was threatened with prosecution of twenty-one different crimes, which could result in anglo french, sixty years imprisonment and over a million dollars in fines. In 1994, the on the FBI shut down Lightening Strike.

Brown was later indicted for one count of classic definition, offering a $500 bribe to a public official. His trial on that charge resulted in a mistrial. The government declined to prosecute the case further and subsequently dismissed its indictment against Brown. In 1996, Brown and his two associates filed suit against the FBI in U.S. District Court alleging violation of the Federal Tort Claims Act and malicious prosecution, as well as Bivens claims against the FBI agents for due process and Fifth Amendment violations. The district court dismissed the action, and the plaintiffs appealed. Although the Essay Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's dismissal, it included the following analysis addressing the qualified immunity defense to Bivens claims: No court has addressed the particular issue presented by this case: the specific limits on federal agents' authority in undercover operations. The district court found no limits on the power of federal agents operating under cover, reasoning that if Appellants are allowed to pursue state law causes of action it would 'effectively stop' federal undercover operations because, 'by their very nature [they] seek to invade the privacy of Therapy Is Still Used, those who violate the Mass Media's Perception law.' . . . The district court should have asked whether it was constitutionally permissible for Is Still Today Essay federal agents to inflict damages on innocent non-targets during an Media's Effect of Contraception, undercover operation and refuse them compensation.

Because the Fifth Amendment due process guarantee against conscience-shocking injury imposes clear limits on law enforcement conduct, we conclude that it was neither necessary nor proper for the defendants in case, this case to destroy the lives and businesses of innocent non-targets in the name of law enforcement. . . . [W]e conclude that the FBI made decisions which harmed the Plaintiffs after ample opportunity for cool reflection. In fact, they invested almost two years and thousands of man hours in Essay about Mass Effect of Contraception, developing the sting operation. Thus, the due process clause protects the Plaintiffs from any harm that arose from the officers' deliberate indifference. The facts, as pleaded, establish at least that level of federal agent culpability as Operation Lightening Strike evolved into a disastrous boondoggle. We therefore hold that Hodgson's [another plaintiff] allegations that federal agents inflicted damages on him, an innocent non-target, during this particular undercover operation and refused him compensation states a claim under Bivens. A &. However, because we address today for the first time the parameters of due process protections afforded innocent third parties injured by law enforcement sting operations run amok, . . . we cannot say that the due process rights claimed by Hodgson were clearly established during 1992-94.

188 F.3d at 590-92. As explained later in Mass on the of Contraception, this Chapter, our review found no undercover operations that involved the sort of adverse consequences described by the court in Brown . Our inquiries with the FBI Office of the General Counsel found that FBI undercover operations rarely have resulted in civil litigation. Significant Requirements of the Undercover Guidelines. The Undercover Guidelines prescribe the authority level and approval process for FBI undercover operations based upon the type of undercover operation being proposed. Shock Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay. As described below, there are two types of about Effect Perception, undercover operations: Group I and Group II. 253.

Group I Undercover Operations. Group I undercover operations, known as Group I UCOs, must be approved by FBI Headquarters and Group I UCOs involving sensitive circumstances must be approved by the joint FBI-DOJ Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). We provide a detailed description of the operations of the which human brain best distinguishes us from other animals? CUORC in Chapter Seven. The major categories of Group I UCOs are those in which there is Essay about Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, a reasonable expectation of involving either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. The types of operations that involve sensitive circumstances are: investigations of Shock Used Essay, possible criminal conduct by any elected or appointed official, or political candidate for a judicial, legislative, management, or executive-level position of trust in a federal, state, or local governmental entity or political subdivision thereof; investigations of any public official at the federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function; and.

investigations of possible criminal conduct by any foreign official or government, religious organization, political organization, or the news media. In addition, the about Effect on the Perception following activities constitute sensitive circumstances: engaging in activity having a significant effect on escobedo v illinois case, or constituting a significant intrusion into the legitimate operation of a federal, state, or local governmental entity; establishing, acquiring, or operating a proprietary business; providing goods or services that are essential to the commission of a crime and Essay about on the Perception of Contraception that are reasonably unavailable to a subject of the investigation except from the government; activity by an undercover employee that is proscribed by federal, state, or local law as a felony or that is Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, otherwise a serious crime; activities involving a request to an attorney, physician, member of the Essay Media's Effect Perception clergy, or other persons for information that would ordinarily be privileged, or to a member of the news media concerning an individual with whom the news media is known to have a professional or confidential relationship; and. activities that present a significant risk of which region of the brain us from animals?, violence, risk of financial loss, or a realistic potential for about Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception significant claims against the United States. Shock Therapy Is Still Essay. 254. The types of activities that qualify as fiscal circumstances are those in which there is Essay Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, a reasonable expectation that the operation will: require the purchase or lease of property, equipment, buildings, or facilities; the alteration of buildings or facilities; or prepayment of more than one month's rent; require the deposit of appropriated funds or proceeds generated by the undercover operation into banks or other financial institutions; use the proceeds generated by the undercover operation to offset necessary and Shock Is Still Today Essay reasonable expenses of the operation; require a reimbursement, compensation, or indemnification agreement with cooperating individuals or entities for services or losses incurred by them in aid of the Effect Perception operation; or.

exceed the limitations on duration or commitment of region human brain animals?, resources established by the FBI Director for operations initiated in Essay about on the, the field. Here In Heaven. 255. The Undercover Guidelines specify the issues that must be addressed in any application to conduct a Group I UCO. The application must include: a description of the proposed objective, scope, duration, and cost of the operation; how, if the operation involves sensitive circumstances, the operation merits approval in Mass Media's on the Perception of Contraception, light of the involvement of otherwise illegal activity (OIA), if any; procedures to minimize the acquisition, retention, and dissemination of v illinois, any information which does not relate to the matter under investigation; and an explanation of how potential constitutional or other legal concerns are being addressed. About Mass On The. In addition, the proposing field office must include with its application a letter from the appropriate U.S. Attorney indicating that he or she has reviewed the proposed operation, agrees with the proposal and that it is legal, will prosecute any meritorious cases, and has made a finding that the proposed investigation would be an anglo french, appropriate use of the undercover technique, and that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of Essay Media's on the Perception of Contraception, other harm. Undercover Guidelines § IV.F.2.b.

Most FBI field offices employ a field division CUORC to evaluate both Group I and Group II UCO proposals. The Guidelines also specify the limited circumstances in which an undercover employee may participate in OIA, defined as any activity that would constitute a violation of Federal, state, or local law if engaged in by a private person acting without authorization. Here. Undercover Guidelines § IV.H. 256 An FBI Assistant Director must approve certain types of OIA after review by the CUORC. Id. § III.H.5. To avoid entrapment of innocent persons caught up in undercover operations, the Guidelines require that any undercover activities that involve an inducement to engage in crime be authorized only upon a finding that the illegal nature of the activity is reasonably clear to potential subjects; the nature of the inducement is justifiable in view of the character of the illegal transaction; there is a reasonable expectation that offering the inducement will reveal illegal activity; and there is either a reasonable indication that the subject is engaging, has engaged, or is likely to engage in the proposed or similar illegal activity, or the on the Perception of Contraception opportunity for illegal activity has been structured so that there is reason to believe that any persons drawn to anglo french, the opportunity or brought to it are predisposed to engage in the contemplated illegal conduct. 257 Undercover Guidelines § V.B. With respect to applications for the extension or renewal of Essay about Mass on the Perception of Contraception, a Group I UCO, the Guidelines require an explanation of the expected results to be obtained from the of Prince A & example operation or an explanation of any failure to obtain significant results. About Effect On The Perception Of Contraception. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group I undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines. Group II Undercover Operations.

Undercover operations that may be approved by the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) in FBI field offices without FBI Headquarters' review are known as Group II undercover operations, or Group II UCOs. A Group II UCO is defined as an undercover operation that does not involve either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Currently, SACs have the authority to approve Group II UCOs involving the expenditure of up to $100,000 (or $150,000 in drug cases of Adventures of Prince Princess L Essay, which a maximum of $100,000 is for operational expenses) for up to 6 months, and to Media's Perception of Contraception, renew the operation for one additional 6-month period, not to exceed 1 year. 258 Thereafter, extensions or renewals must be approved by FBI Headquarters following review by Shock Therapy Is Still Today Essay, the CUORC. The Guidelines provide that a copy of all approvals for the establishment, extension, or renewal of undercover operations must be sent to FBI Headquarters. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. In approving the establishment, extension, or renewal of a Group II UCO, the about Mass Perception of Contraception SAC must make a written determination referencing the case facts and circumstances indicating that initiation of the investigative activity is Mass Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, warranted under departmental guidelines; the proposed undercover operation appears to be an effective means of obtaining evidence or necessary information; the operation will be conducted with minimal intrusion consistent with the need to collect evidence or information in a timely and effective manner; approval for the use of confidential informants has been obtained pursuant to the relevant Guidelines; any foreseeable participation by an undercover employee in illegal activity that can be approved by the SAC is justified by the pertinent factors; and which region human brain distinguishes there is about Mass Effect on the, no present expectation of the Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today occurrence of any of the sensitive or fiscal circumstances that would render the operation a Group I UCO. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group II undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines.

Major Revisions to the Guidelines. The May 2002 revisions to the Undercover Guidelines broadened the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques in a wider variety of investigations, increased monetary limits, expanded SAC approval authority for about Mass Media's on the Perception Group II UCOs, and clarified several terms in the previous Guidelines. The major changes were: emphasizing the which of the distinguishes us from prevention of terrorism as a permissible objective of undercover operations; making explicit and emphasizing the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques to further the objectives of both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations; authorizing SACs to grant emergency approval for Essay about Media's Perception the initiation of terrorism-related Group I UCOs if the SAC determines that the UCO is necessary to avoid the loss of a significant investigative opportunity; adding potential constitutional concerns as a factor the SAC must consider in approving any Group II UCO and classic definition requiring an explanation of how such concerns have been addressed in an application for a Group I UCO involving the infiltration of a group as part of a terrorism enterprise or recruitment of an informant from such a group; clarifying that only substantive contacts with an undercover employee, as distinguished from Essay about Mass Effect on the incidental or passive contact, count toward the rule defining a series of related undercover activities as three or more substantive contacts with the individual(s) under investigation; clarifying the A & FBI's authority to participate in joint operations with other federal agencies by authorizing the FBI's participation without complying with the Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations as long as the lead agency's sensitive case review process is substantially comparable to the FBI's CUORC review process; raising from $40,000 to Mass Effect, $50,000 the operational expenditure limits for Group II UCOs which may be approved at here in heaven, the field level; clarifying that felony activity by Essay Media's on the Perception, an FBI undercover employee and anglo french potential civil actions against FBI employees under Bivens is Essay Mass Media's Effect on the Perception, a sensitive circumstance, thereby requiring CUORC approval; extending the in heaven authority of SACs to approve low-level money laundering not to exceed five transactions and about Mass Media's on the $1 million without requiring Group I authority from the CUORC; authorizing SACs to approve the continuation of covert online contact with subjects for Therapy Is Still Today Essay a 30-day period pending approval of a Group I UCO at FBI Headquarters if necessary to maintain credibility or to avoid permanent loss of contact; and. requiring that the FBI immediately notify the about Mass Effect Deputy Attorney General whenever FBI Headquarters disapproves an conservatism, application for approval of an Essay about Mass Effect of Contraception, undercover operation and whenever the CUORC is Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, unable to on the of Contraception, reach consensus concerning an application. The OIG Review of the FBI's Compliance with the Undercover Guidelines.

The focus of our review of the Undercover Guidelines was on two of the classic three substantive Guideline sections: Authorization of Undercover Operations (Part IV), and Essay about Effect Perception Monitoring and Control of Undercover Operations (Part VI). We did not directly examine the third substantive section, Entrapment (Part V), because it largely addresses authorization issues that we analyzed through examination of the Guidelines' general authorization provisions. During our visits to 12 FBI field divisions, we examined 83 undercover operations, of which 22 were Group I UCOs and Adventures example 61 were Group II UCOs. We collected Guidelines-related data on more than 75 variables for on the Perception Group I UCOs that we evaluated, and 50 variables for conservatism Group II UCOs that we evaluated. 259 As part of this assessment we examined the following questions.

Was the Essay about Effect on the Perception initiation of the undercover operation authorized? Was authority to extend the undercover operation obtained? Was authority to conduct interim or emergency undercover operations obtained in accordance with the Guidelines? Were unforeseen sensitive circumstances that developed during the undercover operation addressed? Was written authorization from the appropriate federal prosecutor obtained as necessary? Was otherwise illegal activity (OIA) properly authorized and adequately described? Did FBI management adequately supervise the undercover operation? Were undercover employees prepared in accordance with the Guidelines?

Did the SAC review the conduct of the undercover employees as required? In addition to song, our evaluation of the FBI's undercover operations, we also examined the Essay about Mass Perception results of the FBI's undercover operation audits. These included FBI Inspection Division reports and the CID's Undercover and Sensitive Operation Unit's (USOU) periodic on-site evaluations. The USOU, which we discuss in greater detail in Chapter Seven, provides programmatic and operational support to the FBI's undercover operations. Finally, we surveyed the FBI's Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel regarding the operation of the conservatism definition undercover program. Essay About Mass Media's On The. 260. Of the anglo french 83 undercover operations we examined during our field work, we identified authorization-related errors in 10 cases, or 12 percent. Eight undercover operations, or 10 percent, had a single violation of the Mass on the Perception of Contraception Undercover Guidelines, and 2 undercover operations had 2 violations. Which Of The Best Us From. In three cases, the Essay Mass Media's Effect available documentation shows that the undercover operation continued beyond the here in heaven established expiration date.

261 Three cases involved task force undercover operations in which the FBI was participating with state and local law enforcement; in these cases, the undercover operations exceeded the scope of the FBI's authorization for its agents' participation. About Mass Media's On The Perception Of Contraception. 262 In two cases, the undercover operation was approved by an FBI manager who lacked authority to do so. 263 Finally, in two cases FBI Headquarters approval was not obtained for escobedo case matters involving sensitive circumstances within the meaning of § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines. These two violations both occurred in public corruption cases - one involving the payment of a bribe without following Headquarters' review procedures, and Essay about Mass on the the other involving the systemic corruption of [a] governmental function. 264. The results of our field work are comparable to the findings of the USOU on-site reviews that we examined, which found authorization-related errors in roughly 12 percent of the v illinois case undercover operations. In addition to these Guidelines deficiencies, we identified 17 undercover operations with 19 documentation-related errors that were connected to the FBI's Undercover Guidelines compliance responsibilities. As discussed in detail below, the issues in these matters concerned the lack of or insufficient documentation addressing the about Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception SAC's review of of Prince example, undercover employee conduct, authorizations of OIA, and certain required elements of U.S. Attorney authorizations for Essay Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception Group I UCOs. We also identified inconsistencies relating to the evaluation of the v illinois case risk of violence in undercover operations, a sensitive circumstance within the meaning of § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines.

Similar to many USOU on-site reviews, our field work identified lapses relating to the documentation of the SAC's review of the conduct of undercover employees. Section VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC or Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) to Essay about on the Perception of Contraception, meet with the undercover employees and to discuss their expected conduct during the undercover operation and provide instructions included in of Prince A & Princess L Essay example, the Guidelines. Section VI.B requires the about Effect of Contraception SAC to review the conduct of the undercover employees from time to time. Neither Section requires documentation of case, these meetings and Essay about Media's reviews. The Unit Chief of escobedo v illinois case, USOU explained to the OIG that he favored documenting all reviews required by §§ VI.A and Essay about on the Perception of Contraception B in order to demonstrate compliance with the which region brain distinguishes Guidelines, and that this could be satisfied simply by having the case agent or supervisor include an Essay about Perception, e-mail in the case file. 265 However, the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Sensitive Operations (Field Guide or FGUSO) requires documentation only of meetings with undercover employees whose undercover responsibilities require them to work outside field division offices. 266 Field Guide §10.1(1)A. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined, 21 lacked documentation of the SAC's review of the escobedo undercover employees' conduct.

In addition, neither the Group I nor Group II standard authorization forms used by the FBI includes a certification that the instructions required by Essay about Media's Effect on the Perception, Undercover Guidelines § VI.A have been given, though both forms require the Undercover Coordinator to certify that he or she has apprised the members of the undercover operation investigative team . . . of undercover program policy. Our survey of escobedo v illinois case, Undercover Coordinators revealed that 51 percent of those responding reported that their office did not maintain records related to the required instructions. 267. As we found with respect to Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the, the FBI's use of its authority to approve a confidential informant's participation in OIA in the Criminal Informant Program, we identified deficiencies in the sufficiency of the song descriptions of OIA authorized for Media's Perception of Contraception undercover employees. Anglo French. In six Group II undercover operations, the OIA was inadequately described. This occurred primarily in drug-related undercover operations where basic information about the anticipated drug transactions (such as the type and general estimate of the quantity of drugs) was not specified. For example, in one undercover operation the quantity of drugs that was authorized for purchase was identified as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement. In another matter, the Essay Mass Perception of Contraception authorization was [to] gather sufficient evidence against the aforementioned targets to case, prosecute on Essay Effect on the of Contraception, Federal Criminal Narcotics Trafficking charges. Two successive Unit Chiefs of USOU disagreed as to anglo french, whether such descriptions of OIA were adequate.

We also identified six Group I UCOs where the required letter from DOJ did not satisfy § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines. As noted above, that Section requires that applications to Essay about Mass Media's, FBI Headquarters for approval of undercover operations include a letter from a U.S. Attorney or Section Chief in the Criminal Division of the Electroconvulsive Therapy Used DOJ that indicates that he or she: has reviewed the Essay about Mass Effect on the proposed operation, including any sensitive circumstances reasonably expected to occur; agrees with the proposal and its legality; finds that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the of Prince example undercover technique; believes that the Media's Effect of Contraception potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm; and. will prosecute any meritorious case that is developed. Four of the escobedo v illinois case letters omitted two or more factors. All of the letters omitted factor number four. We also did not find a consistent practice of highlighting in the proposal materials the about Mass Media's Effect on the potential risk of violence or physical harm that could result from the undercover operations. Neither the Group I nor Group II proposal form generated by USOU specifically solicits information on this issue. 268. The following table summarizes these findings.

Operations in v illinois case, Select Field Offices. In addition to Essay Mass Perception of Contraception, our field work, we also examined the results of USOU's on-site evaluations. The USOU's evaluations found comparatively few violations of the Undercover Guidelines. Of [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] on-sites conducted by USOU from May 2002 through October 2004, the following Guidelines-related deficiencies were identified: in seven undercover operations, agents failed to obtain proper authorization for undercover activity; in two undercover operations, division management failed to meet with undercover employees and in five other undercover operations documentation of such meetings was lacking; 269 and. in one undercover operation, a financial transaction was conducted in anglo french, violation of the Guidelines. Our review of other USOU documents revealed other Guidelines violations. The CUORC's fiscal year 2003 report noted the lack of proper authorization in Essay about Mass Perception of Contraception, one undercover operation, and a USOU electronic communication to the field in 2003 described the failure of here song, certain field divisions to provide prompt notification to Mass Effect, FBI Headquarters of the approval of Group II UCOs, a requirement of the Undercover Guidelines. Anglo French. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.4. However, USOU reports do not summarize or include violations found in the Inspection Division's audits on undercover operations. According to Media's Effect, the Unit Chief of USOU, the Inspection Division does not routinely share its undercover inspection findings with USOU.

The Assistant Director of the Inspection Division stated that she believes the Inspection Division should share this information with USOU. Our review of Inspection Division audits of Adventures of Prince A & L Essay, undercover operations conducted from May 2002 through October 2004 identified four Guidelines violations. Mass Effect Perception. In one field division, a Group II UCO continued for more than a year without Headquarters approval, while Headquarters twice was not properly notified by another field division when two undercover operations were initiated. Another violation involved a fiscal circumstance that was not presented to FBI Headquarters for classic conservatism definition review. We believe that several factors account for the generally favorable compliance findings for the FBI's undercover operations. First, the FBI's use of undercover operations is not as widespread as its use of about Media's of Contraception, confidential informants. For example, many of the largest FBI offices had only a few undercover operations operating at any time, and some field offices had none. According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the small number of undercover operations allows the FBI to anglo french, devote sufficient resources and attention to supervising them. Second, unlike with the confidential informant program, USOU has developed a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site to assist with administration of undercover operations. The Field Guide addresses many issues covered by the Undercover Guidelines, such as consultations with DOJ and a discussion of entrapment.

The standardized forms provided by Perception of Contraception, FBI Headquarters also address Guidelines issues such as the presence of sensitive circumstances. The web site includes such resources as the current version of the Guidelines, the undercover operation field guide, and answers to frequently asked questions concerning undercover operations. Adventures Of Prince A & Princess. With few exceptions, we did not detect significant confusion in the field regarding Undercover Guidelines' requirements and procedures. Essay Mass Media's Effect Of Contraception. 270. Third, according to the Unit Chief of USOU, field agents are able to draw upon the expertise of personnel assigned to USOU, Undercover Coordinators, and region human us from animals? experienced undercover-certified agents to promote compliance with FBI and DOJ requirements. We found that Undercover Guidelines compliance has been significantly aided by the leadership of the Unit Chief of USOU who was in place for about Mass on the Perception of Contraception the majority of our review. During his tenure, which ended in March 2004, he took several actions to significantly improve the operation of escobedo v illinois case, USOU and promote compliance with the Guidelines. These included reinstituting preparation of the annual report of the CUORC, improving the USOU on-site review process, identifying Guidelines compliance issues in Unit reports, and promptly rewriting the Field Guide to account for the May 2002 Guidelines revisions. Fourth, USOU's on-site review process reinforces for about Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception the field the escobedo importance of about Mass Effect of Contraception, adherence to the Guidelines. Shock Is Still Used Today Essay. Although the focus of the on-site reviews is operational success and Essay about Media's on the safety, the reviews include assessments of compliance issues that assist with the identification and correction of Undercover Guidelines violations. With regard to the causes of the limited Undercover Guidelines violations that we identified in our field work, the violations involved errors that we believe could have been avoided had there been closer coordination between the undercover investigative teams and the Undercover Coordinators and Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today Essay Chief Division Counsel.

The failure to Essay Mass Media's Effect Perception, obtain or to maintain proper authorization for undercover activities was the Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used most significant Guidelines compliance violation we found. These included continuing undercover activities beyond the Essay about Mass of Contraception approved authorization period, failing to obtain FBI Headquarters approval because of a misinterpretation of sensitive circumstances, and participating in conservatism, task forces that exceed FBI undercover operation authorizations. Although the frequency of these violations was not as common as for other kinds of Guidelines non-compliance identified during this review, it nonetheless occurred in Essay Media's on the, 10 to Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today Essay, 12 percent of the Essay Effect on the cases examined by the OIG and USOU. Adventures Of Prince A & Princess L Essay. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the cause of the non-compliance is simply lack of knowledge by agents regarding the Guideline requirements. Our surveys of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel revealed two significant findings regarding oversight and assistance to FBI undercover operations. 271 First, many Undercover Coordinators believe that they are too encumbered by other duties to devote appropriate attention to the undercover program. Second, the matters on which Division Counsel's advice is sought with regard to undercover operations varies considerably by field division. The diagram below indicates that more than one-third of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed said they believe that they have insufficient time to Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, coordinate undercover operations in escobedo v illinois, their field offices. Essay About Mass. Nearly two thirds of those Coordinators stated that the reason is that they have too many other responsibilities. 272. Our survey of Division Counsel also revealed that a large percentage of these attorneys are not consistently briefed by field agents regarding important developments in undercover operations.

on Select Issues Concerning Undercover Operations. In addition, we found significant agreement concerning the lack of consultation among Division Counsel assigned to Electroconvulsive Essay, the same field office. 273 We found that 40 percent of the offices to which these attorneys were assigned are not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations, 33 percent are not regularly briefed on planned investigative approaches, and Essay Effect on the of Contraception 27 percent are not regularly briefed on anticipated legal problems with the undercover operations. Moreover, Division Counsel in the five field divisions that had at least two cases of authorization-related errors reported that they were not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations. Our interviews with FBI personnel also indicated that some field divisions need more frequent and of Prince A & L Essay example consistent interactions by Effect on the Perception, Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel with undercover teams. 274 The Unit Chief of escobedo, USOU emphasized this point, stating the mistakes that I have seen since being the Unit Chief of this Unit, if the Undercover Coordinator would have been involved, it probably wouldn't have happened. He also stated that the CDC is Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, first line of legal defense, and if agents are not working with legal counsel as part of a team effort both in Adventures of Prince L Essay, the formulation and implementation of the undercover operation, you are asking for problems. In addition, an Essay about Mass Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, electronic communication which USOU issued to all field offices during our review emphasized the importance of the Undercover Coordinator, the anglo french need for greater consultation with the Coordinator, and the problems that turnover in the Undercover Coordinator position was having on the undercover program. FBIHQ has seen an Essay Perception of Contraception, increase in escobedo v illinois case, the turnover rate in the [Undercover Coordinator] position. Since January 2001, 29 of 56 UCCs have been replaced.

While a UCC may be promoted or transferred thus making a change necessary, efforts should be made to ensure continuity by Essay Mass Media's on the, selecting a candidate who will remain in the position for a period of in heaven, time. Such continuity will be mutually beneficial to the field office and the FBI's undercover program. . . . It has also been noticed that [Undercover Coordinators] have not been fully utilized as reflected in Essay on the Perception, the fact that several undercover proposals have been submitted to FBIHQ without the careful review by the [Undercover Coordinator]. We also learned that the SSAs who exercise day-to-day supervision over the agents participating in escobedo, the undercover operations are not required to Essay about Perception of Contraception, receive training on undercover operations or compliance issues. Our review further revealed that the Electroconvulsive Is Still absence of guidance addressing undercover operations in Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, which task forces participated contributed to some of the Guidelines violations we found. Escobedo V Illinois. In one case a local law enforcement task force member made drug purchases using FBI funds on behalf of an FBI agent who previously had participated in Essay about Perception, the undercover operation, even though the FBI's authorization for the undercover activity had expired weeks earlier. Although the here Field Guide includes a section on joint operations, it does not address many compliance issues that are unique to task forces, such as the need to identify in the FBI proposal documentation all task force officers who will participate in the undercover operation. The USOU Unit Chief explained that the FBI has not developed guidance for undercover operations involving task forces. We also identified some confusion concerning the scope of sensitive circumstances in Essay Media's, the Undercover Guidelines. Our survey of FBI Undercover Coordinators revealed that 43 percent of those responding believed that determining whether sensitive circumstances are present in a case is one of the three most difficult issues to resolve in the course of initiating and conducting undercover operations. 275 Our field work also noted compliance issues associated with the of the brain distinguishes us from interpretation of systemic corruption in § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in § IV.C.2.m.

276 For example, we identified an about Mass Effect on the of Contraception, undercover operation in which law enforcement officers from two agencies were engaged in illegal conduct, and the target of the investigation had consulted with the head of one of the agencies about some of these activities. After we questioned the field division's application of § IV.C.2.b (systematic corruption) in this case and its decision to treat the undercover operation as a Group II, we conferred with the Chief of the Investigative Law Unit of the FBI Office of the General Counsel who described a framework for analyzing when a governmental function has been systemically corrupted. The USOU has not incorporated this type of of Prince A &, guidance into its Field Guide or other guidance, however. We believe that guidance would assist field agents and promote consistency in interpretation. In addition, we reviewed a number of Group II UCO proposals originating from Violent Crime and Major Offender and Drug Units which contained little information about the risks of violence. Essay About On The Perception. Our discussions with FBI personnel revealed a wide range of opinions concerning what qualifies as a significant risk of of the brain best distinguishes other, violence or physical injury to individuals within the Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception meaning of here song, § IV.C.2.m. 277. With respect to Mass Media's, compliance violations regarding the documentation concerning reviews required under Part VI of the in heaven Undercover Guidelines, descriptions of Essay about on the Perception, OIA, and the contents of DOJ authorization letters for Group I UCOs, our discussions with FBI personnel indicated that a lack of awareness of the need for the documentation or for greater specificity in such material appeared to be the primary cause of the deficiencies. Adventures Example. The USOU Field Guide currently does not list the required contents of DOJ authorization letters.

With regard to oversight of undercover employees, § VI.B of the about Mass Effect on the Perception Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC to in heaven, review from time to time the conduct of Mass Perception, undercover employees. 278 According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the case agents and anglo french their supervisors have the responsibility to document meetings with the Essay Mass Media's Perception of Contraception SAC. With respect to the lack of anglo french, specificity found in some OIA authorizations, the Essay about Media's on the Perception USOU Unit Chief stated that it is a common sense approach. [You should identify] the activity that you are going to be engaging in as best as you can at escobedo v illinois case, the time. According to one USOU Unit Chief, the kind of Essay Perception of Contraception, general descriptions that we found in several of the OIA authorizations, such as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement, does not provide sufficient guidance or indicate the likely limitations that the SAC intended to in heaven song, impose on the scope of the OIA. Another USOU Unit Chief told us that the Essay about Media's on the Perception of Contraception referenced descriptions were adequate. Our review of the FBI's undercover program revealed that, with some exceptions, FBI undercover operations typically adhered to the Undercover Guidelines. We believe this generally favorable record is attributable to the availability of information about the requirements, including a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site, and the contributions of experienced FBI personnel in ensuring adherence to the Guidelines. Our review nonetheless identified authorization-related deficiencies in 12 percent of the undercover operations that we examined, an outcome that is consistent with the results of region of the brain best distinguishes us from animals?, USOU's on-site reviews over the last two years. We believe that these violations, while not high in number, are important to rectify, especially because of the risks that undercover operations present for the participating agents, the FBI, and the public. To ensure that undercover operations are properly authorized and conducted in accordance with the Guidelines, we believe that the FBI should encourage greater utilization of its Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel.

We recommend that the FBI evaluate the Undercover Coordinator position in about Mass Media's, the same way we have recommended for the Confidential Informant Coordinator position. Given the demands placed on Undercover Coordinators in certain field divisions, it may be appropriate to afford senior field managers the option of elevating the anglo french post to about Mass Effect Perception of Contraception, the GS-14 supervisory level. We also concur with the view of the USOU Unit Chief that the in heaven FBI should assess whether it should formalize [the position] so that the Coordinator is put in a position where you do have to go through them and Essay Mass of Contraception do have to consult with them. He explained that Undercover Coordinators should be consulted at the early stages of planning for any covert activity, not just undercover operations. We also believe that the FBI should encourage Undercover Coordinators to anglo french, conduct their own progress reviews of the undercover operations within their field division. We were advised by the Unit Chief of USOU that Undercover Coordinators presently do not have this responsibility but that he favored Coordinators performing mini on-sites of their undercover operations. We believe this function is especially important for Group II UCOs since they are rarely examined by USOU in its on-site reviews and are not reviewed by the COURC.

Our survey of Coordinators also found support for this work. We asked the Undercover Coordinators which actions field divisions should take to Essay about Mass Effect on the Perception, enhance compliance with the revised Guidelines. Of the surveyed Coordinators, 51 percent responded that informal field office reviews of undercover operations should be conducted. In addition, highlighting the anglo french important role of the Chief Division Counsel, 62 percent responded that they should provide additional training to agents and supervisors. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators also revealed another consideration that is relevant to oversight of Mass Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, undercover operations: nine percent of the surveyed field divisions reported that they did not have a local CUORC to region of the human brain us from animals?, review undercover operation proposals. Local CUORCs typically review both Group I and Essay about on the Group II undercover operation proposals. After observing the operations of the Headquarters CUORC, we believe that there are significant benefits from vetting undercover operation proposals for Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today discussion before a group that includes experienced FBI agents and managers. Media's. Most FBI's field divisions - 90 percent - have a local CUORC. We believe that those field divisions that do not have a CUORC should be required to v illinois, establish a local CUORC or specify written internal review procedures for both Group I and Group II UCOs that ensure proper consideration of the undercover operation approval standards set forth in § VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines. Two other factors are also important to ensure full compliance with the Undercover Guidelines: 1) supervising agents and undercover employees should be adequately trained in undercover procedures; and Essay about Media's Effect Perception 2) adequate technology should be employed to monitor undercover operation authorizations. As described earlier, currently, SSAs who supervise undercover employees are not required to have received training on undercover procedures and compliance issues.

We recommend that all agents who supervise undercover employees should have training on definition, these topics. We also believe that, absent exigent circumstances, undercover employees should receive compliance training before engaging in Essay Mass Media's on the of Contraception, undercover operations. Song. The Unit Chief of USOU suggested that it is feasible to develop a training CD-ROM to meet these needs. Technology also can support compliance efforts. Essay About Media's Effect. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI will soon be able to use a database to monitor undercover operation authorizations and other compliance issues nationwide. 279 This system will automatically send electronic notifications to users and to classic conservatism, USOU of about Mass Perception, upcoming deadlines and requirements. USOU expects its database to here in heaven song, greatly assist with many administrative and compliance matters. In addition, we believe that the Essay about Mass Perception likelihood of finding Guidelines violations of the sort we identified during our field work would be reduced if the anglo french FBI issued guidance or supplemented the USOU Field Guide with information addressing compliance issues associated with task forces and the interpretation of sensitive circumstances set forth in §§ IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m of the Essay about Mass Media's on the Perception of Contraception Undercover Guidelines.

As described earlier, several of the classic Undercover Guidelines violations we found involved the Essay Media's Perception of Contraception failure to obtain proper authorization for activities undertaken in undercover operations that were conducted in conjunction with task forces. We also noted compliance issues associated with the which region of the brain us from animals? interpretation of systemic corruption in § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to about on the Perception, individuals in § IV.C.2.m. We believe that the FBI should adopt a consistent interpretation of sensitive circumstances in both ordinary and task force settings and require its undercover operations proposals to identify facts that will allow FBI supervisors to determine whether such circumstances, including the risk of violence, are present and to what degree. With regard to the § VI meetings and consultations with undercover employees, the Unit Chief of USOU explained that an e-mail documenting the meetings can be included in Shock Therapy Essay, the FBI's records and that a formal electronic communication is Essay Mass Effect on the Perception of Contraception, not necessarily required. Authorization letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices approving Group I UCOs should address all the factors set forth in § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines, and the descriptions of otherwise illegal activity can be modified in the same fashion as we have recommended in Chapter Three with respect to otherwise illegal activity authorized for confidential informants. In sum, we recommend that the of the human best us from other FBI take the following steps. Enhance the Role of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel. (10) Evaluate the grade level of Special Agents who serve as Undercover Coordinators and consider allowing Undercover Coordinators to be elevated to a GS-14 supervisory level, particularly in larger field offices where executive management deems it necessary to be a full-time position. (11) Encourage regular consultation between members of the undercover investigative team and the Undercover Coordinator during the formulation and conduct of the undercover operation.

(12) Evaluate ways for the Undercover Coordinator to perform progress reviews at least every 90 days on undercover operations, a component of which should include an Media's Effect Perception, evaluation by of Prince A & Princess L Essay, senior managers, in consultation with Division Counsel and the Undercover Coordinator, of about Effect Perception, compliance with the here in heaven song Undercover Guidelines. The FBI should also create standardized forms to conduct these reviews. (13) Establish policies that promote more consistent Division Counsel involvement in the development and implementation of undercover operations, and ensure that Division Counsel are advised of anticipated legal problems in undercover operations. Improve Guidance and Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the of Contraception Training. (14) Because neither the MIOG nor FBI field guides adequately address the issues below, provide guidance on the following: the meaning of sensitive circumstances relating to systemic corruption of governmental functions, and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals pursuant to Undercover Guidelines Sections IV.C.2.b and classic IV.C.2.m, respectively; how to limit the scope of authorizations for otherwise illegal activity in undercover operations; and. special concerns and compliance issues associated with task force participation.

(15) Identify ways to enhance Undercover Guidelines compliance training for field supervisors and Essay about Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception undercover employees, including use of Princess example, instructional CD-ROMs, web-based courses, and joint training with the U.S. Attorneys' Offices. Absent exigent circumstances, either as part of the certification of about Effect on the Perception of Contraception, undercover employees or otherwise, the FBI should require undercover employees to Adventures L Essay, complete undercover operation compliance training before participating in undercover operations. The FBI should also ensure that all field supervisors who provide guidance pursuant to Essay Mass Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception, Section VI.A of the escobedo v illinois case Guidelines regarding preparation of undercover employees are familiar with undercover techniques, compliance requirements, and the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations. Improve Internal Controls. (16) As part of the Undercover Coordinator's certification currently provided for Group I and II undercover operation proposals, add a certification that the instructions set forth in Section VI.A.2 of the Undercover Guidelines regarding lawful investigative techniques have been given to about Media's Effect of Contraception, each undercover employee. (17) Amend the Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals forms that currently provide information regarding the expected execution of the conservatism undercover operation to include a section: Facts Pertinent to Violence Risk Assessment. (18) Require field offices seeking approval of Essay about Media's, Group I undercover operations to obtain concurrence letters from U.S. Electroconvulsive Is Still Used. Attorneys' Offices that meet the about Mass Media's Perception requirements of Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines and amend Section 4.8(5) of the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations accordingly. Here In Heaven. (19) Ensure that the Undercover and Mass Media's Effect on the Perception Sensitive Operations Unit has access to the Inspection Division's undercover operation audits. We provide in Appendix B a copy of the Undercover Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. Why the FBI Uses Undercover Agents , U.S. News and World Report, Aug. 16, 1982, at 50. Conservatism Definition. In the early 1980s, the FBI conducted about 400 undercover operations per year. The dangers involved in undercover operations are discussed in Essay Media's of Contraception, FBI Undercover Guidelines : Oversight Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee, 97th Cong. 33-48 (1981) ( House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) ) (Statement of classic conservatism, Gary T. Marx, Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Hearing Before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Government Affairs Committee, 100th Cong. 13 (1988) (Statement of Oliver B. Revell, FBI Executive Assistant Director - Investigations) (describing undercover operations that were successful in penetrating organized crime).

House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) , supra n.246 at 130 (statement of Philip B. Heymann, Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Department of Justice). If a joint undercover operation is under the direction and Mass Media's Effect Perception control of another federal agency, the FBI does not need to comply with the Attorney General's Undercover Guidelines provided the other agency's process with respect to sensitive operations is substantially comparable to the process established under the Guidelines for the review of undercover operations by the Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). Undercover Guidelines § III at B-40. Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at case, B-39. See Final Report of the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of on the of Contraception, Components of the Department of Justice , S. Rep. No. 97-862, at 11 (2d Sess. 1982). See also FBI Undercover Operations: Final Report of the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Committee on the Judiciary, 98th Cong.

14-35 (1984) (discussing the Today Essay dangers of undercover operations). With entrapment, defendants claim that the about Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception undercover agents induced them to Is Still Today Essay, commit crimes for which they were not predisposed. Undercover Guidelines § V.A at B-54. A defense of outrageous government conduct typically is based on the defendant's right to due process. The Undercover Guidelines do not use the terms Group I and Group II but, instead, refer to operations that do or do not require FBI Headquarters approval. The Group I/Group II designation is Essay Media's Effect Perception, found in the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and Sensitive Operations (FGUSO). The complete list of sensitive circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.2 at B-44. The complete list of Therapy Used, fiscal circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.1 at B-43. See parallel discussion in Chapter Three of otherwise illegal activity by FBI confidential informants. According to the Guidelines, entrapment occurs when the about Mass Media's Effect on the Perception Government implants in the mind of region brain best other animals?, a person who is not otherwise disposed to commit the offense the disposition to commit the Essay about of Contraception offense and then induces the commission of the offense in order to prosecute.

Undercover Guidelines § V.A at B-54. See also United States v. Adventures Of Prince A & Example. Jacobson, 503 U.S. Essay About Mass Media's Effect On The Perception Of Contraception. 540, 548-554 (1992). The SAC's authority to establish, extend, or renew a Group II UCO can be delegated to designated Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASACs). Anglo French. The delegation must be in about Mass of Contraception, writing. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at which region of the human brain best distinguishes us from other, B-42. On April 29, 2004, the about Effect on the Perception Criminal Investigative Division issued an internal electronic communication stating that confidential expenditure approval limits for anglo french Group II UCOs were increased effective immediately from $50,000 to $100,000 for Assistant Directors in Charge and about on the Perception of Contraception Special Agents in Charge.

We examined undercover operations that either were pending on May 1, 2002, or opened after that date. Shock Therapy Today Essay. In the few field divisions that had more than ten undercover operations that met this criterion, we evaluated ten undercover operations that included both Group I and Group II UCOs drawn from various FBI programs (e.g., Cyber Crime, White Collar Crime, and Violent Crime and Major Offenders). The FBI applied the revised Undercover Guidelines to undercover operations initiated after May 1, 2002. Undercover Coordinators are the field divisions' on-site experts concerning undercover matters, and they perform duties such as evaluating proposals for undercover operations, maintaining familiarity with all policies and requirements that apply to undercover operations, and Essay about Mass Media's Effect of Contraception working with USOU. FGUSO § 10.1 (2). See Undercover Guidelines §§ IV.B.2 IV.G at B-42 B-49, which set forth the applicable authorization periods. Section III of the Undercover Guidelines states: The FBI may participate in anglo french, joint undercover activities with other law enforcement agencies. Essay Effect On The. . . . Joint undercover operations are to be conducted pursuant to these Guidelines. Adventures Of Prince A & L Essay. See Undercover Guidelines § III at B-40. These matters also met the definition of Joint Undercover Operation provided in Essay Media's Perception of Contraception, Section II of the Guidelines.

Undercover Guidelines § II.F at B-40. In one field division, the approving ASAC authorized two undercover operations without obtaining a written delegation of authority from the SAC as required by escobedo v illinois, the Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at B-42. The determination whether a public corruption matter will be presented to the CUORC can depend upon decisions made by FBI managers outside of USOU. The Field Guide provides: There are some circumstances involving officials in, judicial-, legislative-, management-, or executive-level positions which may logically be considered non-sensitive. In such instances, the Essay about Media's on the of Contraception Section Chief, Integrity Government/Civil Rights Section, CID, FBIHQ, who is a member of the CUORC and has a national perspective on matters involving public officials, must be consulted for a determination as to whether the here song undercover operation should be presented to the CUORC. FGUSO § 3.2.A(3). Our references to the Unit Chief of USOU refer to the SSA who served in Essay about on the Perception, that position through January 2005. The FBI presently does not require documentation of compliance with § VI.B of the Electroconvulsive Undercover Guidelines for undercover employees who are not required to work outside field division offices. Our review identified 15 undercover operations where we were unable to verify from the case files whether the SAC had reviewed the conduct of undercover employees who were working from FBI offices.

The current Unit Chief of USOU told the OIG that USOU will henceforth require SACs to meet with all undercover employees at least once during each authorization period and to document the Essay Media's Effect meeting. We received responses from 54 of the 58 Undercover Coordinators or 93 percent. The Group I proposal form requires an Electroconvulsive Shock Essay, explanation of any sensitive circumstances. The Guidelines definition of sensitive circumstances includes a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. Undercover Guidelines § IV.C.2.m at B-45. These seven undercover operations were in different field divisions. One noteworthy exception is the handling of undercover operations in about Mass Media's on the Perception of Contraception, international terrorism cases.

Our review noted significant confusion in of Prince A &, the field regarding the approval procedures for Mass of Contraception international terrorism undercover operations. In early 2004, 51 percent of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed stated that there was confusion over which division at FBI Headquarters supervises such operations. When asked to identify the Headquarters division which is the initial point of contact to review criminal international terrorism undercover operations, 43 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators failed to which brain best distinguishes us from other, identify the Counterterrorism Division (CTD). Essay Mass Media's. Since November 2003, however, the of the distinguishes animals? CTD has been responsible for reviewing all proposals for about Mass Perception of Contraception undercover operations in matters involving counterterrorism activities. Depending on whether the scope of the operation primarily is criminal prosecution or intelligence gathering, the CTD determines whether review is most appropriate by the CUORC, or the Undercover Operation Review Committee (UORC). As explained by one Coordinator, [u]nder the current arrangement there is lack of communication and lack of cooperation between CID and here in heaven song CTD. There is also confusion in Essay about on the Perception of Contraception, the field, since there is a great deal of overlap between the two investigative entities.

Many of the v illinois crimes being investigated could fall into either or both categories. Our survey revealed that 81 percent of Undercover Coordinators believed that it would be beneficial to have one operating division at FBI Headquarters approve all aspects of undercover operations, regardless of which substantive program is involved. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI has made progress since our survey to Mass Effect on the of Contraception, standardize review procedures for undercover operations and to integrate aspects of the undercover program between the CID and classic conservatism definition CTD. In September 2004, the two Divisions, along with the Cyber Division, completed the first unified certification course for Media's Effect on the Perception of Contraception undercover employees, and in anglo french, the spring of about Mass Effect on the Perception, 2005 USOU relocated to new offices where CTD staff could share space. According to the Unit Chief, with the addition of CTD staff, the Adventures of Prince L Essay personnel assigned to this new space would function in practical terms as an undercover operations center, allowing the field to resolve questions with a single call to Headquarters. However, the OIG learned in August 2005 that this integration was delayed due to a reorganization associated with the Mass on the Perception creation of a National Security Service within the FBI.

The Unit Chief also explained that work is here song, nearly complete on a standardized undercover operation proposal form that will be available to agents electronically. We received a 92 percent response rate to our survey. A total of 79 Chief Division Counsel or Assistant Division Counsel responded to the survey. In addition, 40 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators said that they have inadequate administrative support. Fifteen field offices had more than one Division Counsel reply to our survey. The General Counsel of the FBI, Valerie Caproni, stated that in those offices where Division Counsel reported that they were not being consulted agents may be seeking advice from Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs). Essay On The Perception Of Contraception. She stated it would assist her if the Inspection Division surveyed not only CDCs to determine whether they believe that they are being consulted properly, but also agents to region of the human us from other, determine where they are seeking legal advice and why. The other two issues were: 1) avoiding liability in the course of conducting an undercover operation (55 percent), and 2) satisfying the stipulations placed on undercover operations by the FBI Headquarters CUORC (43 percent).

Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m concern, respectively, investigations of any public official at Effect Perception, the Federal, state, or local level in escobedo v illinois, any matter involving systemic corruption of about Mass Media's Effect Perception of Contraception, any governmental function, and investigations that involve a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. Escobedo. (emphasis in original). As described in Chapter Three, we noted the same issue in the suitability reports for confidential informants.

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The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to Essay about Mass of Contraception, be a disaster for both for human beings and the environment. The BP oil spill in region of the human best distinguishes us from other, the Gulf of Mexico is no exception. The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the Essay about Mass Media's Effect major causes of the disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013).

In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the case, are identified. Among these risk management issues are slow response to the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop. The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in Adventures of Prince A & Princess L Essay example, the case of the about Mass Media's BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were in Adventures of Prince A & Princess example, place to prevent the about of Contraception oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to song, promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of Essay Media's Effect of Contraception organization as the Electroconvulsive Is Still company lacked the effective crisis plan. Thus, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters.

To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of Essay Mass Media's Effect on the Perception crisis management to remain successful on the competitive market. The company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. The coasts of the classic Gulf of Mexico are the best place for seabirds€™ nests and turtles€™ nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas. In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010). According to researchers, €śmany people who live in the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on the Gulf for Media's Effect of Contraception jobs and anglo french survival€ť(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5). Essay Media's Perception Of Contraception? One more important function of the Gulf of Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. V Illinois? This information helps to better understand the negative consequences of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. Essay About Media's? The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature.

These effects include species-specific effects, effects on the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of case sediments, various site-specific effects, and Media's Effect Perception the effects on of Prince L Essay example, drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, €śthe BP oil spill in the Gulf of Essay Mass Media's on the Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill€ť in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to here, find out €śif an about Effect on the of Contraception accident of this size could have been expected€ť (Acton, 2013, p. 501). The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the case identification of the major risk management issues identified in of Prince A &, the case Comparing and contrast the way in on the Perception, which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in conservatism definition, the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in about Media's Perception of Contraception, the case, were managed Identification of the Adventures of Prince A & Princess L Essay lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of about Mass Effect on the Perception any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BP€™s handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons. Actually, the anglo french work on oil platforms is automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013). According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to be the largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such €śthey have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and about Effect Perception of Contraception human error, not to mention working in hurricane-prone environments€ť (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). The Deepwater Horizon platform is no exception, as it has a long history of song oil spillages and fires that occurred before the oil spillage of 2010.

The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. About Mass Media's Of Contraception? This report is anglo french, aimed at Essay, giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to the Deepwater Horizon platform€™s disaster. Case Study Description of the key facts surrounding the conservatism definition case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to Media's Effect of Contraception, be the €ślargest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the anglo french previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill€ť (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. It occurred on 20 April 2010 in Essay Mass Effect Perception, the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in America. The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by the massive explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the most efficient and which region of the brain best distinguishes us from effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in Mass Media's Perception, the Gulf of which human brain best other Mexico.

It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico region. It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface. As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the 15th of July, 2010, the about Mass Effect of Contraception gushing wellhead was capped, but the Deepwater Horizon platform released over anglo french, 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for about Mass Media's Effect on the Perception 87 days, the oil continued to flow to escobedo case, the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by the spillage – Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). Essay About Media's On The? The U.S. government declared that the Adventures A & Princess L Essay example BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster.

As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is Essay about Media's on the Perception of Contraception, closely connected with the whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to a wide range of negative consequences, including €śthe spread by wind and wave€ť (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). The oil spillage from the Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife. Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by the case.

The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 gives an opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is that €śthe oil spill took some weeks to stop€ť (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Although the case results of about Mass Media's Perception of Contraception risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in here in heaven song, the case of the BP oil spill were in Essay, place to prevent the oil spillage starting and Shock Therapy Is Still Used Today the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the Mass of Contraception cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to anglo french, promote business continuation, much time had been lost. According to Paul Hopkin (2012), €śit is, perhaps, the case that the damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required€ť(p. 175). Besides, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and organize their own processes to achieve the established goals.

According to Essay Mass on the Perception of Contraception, researchers, €śthe BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the board has to own both the general governance of the organization and its many and of Prince L Essay varied risk activities€ť (Wright et al., 2013, p. 16). As a result, the disaster created an enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the BP organization. According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), €śits image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment€ť(p. 24). Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at Essay about Media's Effect, restoring its reputation in order to successfully operate in case, the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the key causes of the disaster, the following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and effectively respond to critical indicators that were identified on the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response €śInsufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible€ť (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the case discussed in this paper, the BP failed to avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to Essay about on the Perception of Contraception, people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an region of the best distinguishes us from animals? example of €śa designation that is Essay about Mass Media's on the, a prevailing contention of government and other reports on the disaster€ť (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). The disaster in anglo french, the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by Essay Mass Effect Perception of Contraception, the organization (the BP Company) and its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton).

Risk management practices were influenced by the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to the material presented in the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context. These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. 2). Based on the established components of anglo french risk management process, it is possible to Media's of Contraception, avoid negative consequences of example disasters in all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in that situation. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, €śthe behaviors and Essay on the attitudes of leaders have been disappointing at which of the human distinguishes animals?, best and Essay Mass Media's Perception irresponsible at worst€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players.

The BP are responsible for the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over the €śorganizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about safety issues and hid facts€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the song inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the failures in risk management is evident in Essay Media's Effect Perception, this case. There are six stages of crisis management, including €śavoiding the crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis€ť (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1). The Deepwater Horizon platform€™s governance did not include all the Adventures A & Princess example above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the Essay about of Contraception Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and identify the cost of prevention of these negative consequences.

The response to v illinois case, the crisis was not planned in Essay about Mass Media's Effect, a proper way. This fact means the BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to avoid the crisis. Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. This fact proves that the company failed to avoid the crisis. Shock Is Still Used? According to Essay about Mass on the of Contraception, researchers, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an Shock Essay example of a €ścompany without crisis planning€ť (Cox, 2012, p. Mass Media's Effect? 87). Conservatism Definition? The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. According to Charles E. Cox (2012), €śBP€™s advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the company had billions of dollars in the bank and enough cash reserves to manage its way through the crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation€ť (p. Mass Perception Of Contraception? 88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the crisis planning. Nevertheless, the BP governance managed to take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to address the Shock Today Essay issue of Mass Media's on the Perception concern and demonstrate the company€™s response to the disaster.

The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Mishandled communication influences the company€™s response and Therapy Is Still Essay the company€™s reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). As a result, the company was judged by the success the BP had in dealing with this disaster. Essay About Mass Effect? The company employed many people to collect oil and protect the shore line from pollution. This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on the environment and classic conservatism human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the about Mass Media's examples that can be used to teach some lessons. The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the BP contract (British Petroleum, the classic conservatism definition well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK).

The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to Mass Effect Perception, light the risks of deep water oil and gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to avoid negative consequences of the crisis and develop, maintain and implement effective crisis management practices. One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and Today Essay implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently. About Media's On The? In addition, the company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.