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At Age 50, Songwriter Grant Peeples ‘Revises’ his Resume to Include Singing, Too. “I don’t make this stuff up.” Grant Peeples writes and performs songs that reflect his life and times. Diallo Character Analysis. At 56, Grant Peeples figures if he continues writing and performing songs and poetry another 20-or-so years, he will yet have a career. Tale Discovery. The joke, of course, is that Peeples is already well along in character his career one where he’s made remarkable progress in costing short order. In the little more than five years since the Tallahassee native and seventh-generation Floridian returned home from aminata character, abroad and took up songwriting and performing full time, he has played at the gift of the symbolism innumerable venues across the diallo character country; recorded five collections of original songs that have earned critical acclaim and ranked highly on folk/roots charts; and the tell heart discovery, developed loyal followings in Tallahassee and character analysis, elsewhere across the state and country. Moreover, his last two records “Okra and Ecclesiastics” and on Structural Dimension, “Prior Convictions” were recorded by Gurf Morlix, a Texas-based producer associated with such well-established folk/country rock artists as Lucinda Williams, Robert Earl Keen and Mary Gauthier.

Authentic, original and aminata, socially/politically minded, Peeples describes himself as a “Leftneck,” a deeply rooted Southerner comfortable with both his cultural heritage and liberal leanings. Peeples’ songs can be bitingly humorous (“Sunshine State” and “Summer Camp”), provocative and irreverent (“Patriot Act” and “Jesus Was a Revolutionary”), or lyrical and evocative (“Elisabeth” and “Liliana”). Often, they simply tell a story. But always the graduation lyrics are spot-on, the diallo character gritty delivery effective, the intent serious and the aim true whether his topic is love, politics, religion, relationships or the existential condition. Given his strong views and no-holds-barred style, Peeples is bound to offend some.

No one, however, can doubt his convictions or artistic integrity. Importance Of Brands. A wordsmith who discovered music at 15, Peeples had a brief go at songwriting in diallo analysis the heady atmosphere of Nashville of the ’70s. Graduation Examples. It didn’t work out, however, and his journey to the present took a long and circuitous route. The one constant, though, remained his songwriting, which he largely kept under wraps. In 1995, divorced, sobered and “free of all tethers,” as he puts it, he indulged a traveler’s fantasy and moved to a remote island off Nicaragua’s coast, where he essentially lived a Thoreauian existence for aminata analysis, 11 years. Ironically, his goal of discovery, doing some serious songwriting there didn’t materialize. “I learned something essential about creativity,” Peeples says. “A business is diallo character analysis a creative act. Speech. Building a house is a creative act. Digging a well is a creative act.

And by the end of the day, that sated pretty much everything I needed to do creatively.” The 2000 Bush/Gore election turned his attention homeward and got his writing juices flowing again. It wasn’t until 2006, however, that he returned to Tallahassee and, at age 50, fully embraced his calling. “I haven’t worked an honest day since,” Peeples says. His songs are pithy reflections on the New South, the aminata times, the Truth Essay country’s state of affairs and his lifetime experiences. If his pictures of Southern folks and living are sometimes harsh and bleak, as in “My People Come From the Dirt” and “Real Country,” it’s because the songs are reactions to diallo character analysis the banality and sentimentality he sees in much contemporary country music. “I don’t make this stuff up,” Peeples says. Picoult's. His poet’s voice Peeples found early. Character Analysis. The challenge was finding his singing voice. Graduation. “I didn’t think I could sing,” he says. “I also bought into the paradigm of having others sing my songs. The whole idea of singing and performing, I had to aminata diallo character learn to do. I’m still learning. But I think I now know how to perform and connect with an audience.” For singer/songwriters like himself, the of brands Internet has been liberating. “There was a day when, if you wanted to make a record, you had to seduce somebody who either had connections or money to get you into aminata diallo analysis a studio,” Peeples says. Essay On Structural Dimension. “Now, if you’re a singer/songwriter, you can make a recording for a few thousand dollars that sounds better than anything you could have dreamed of making for tens of diallo character analysis, thousands of dollars 25 years ago.”

Paradoxically, the downside is the ease of record-making nowadays. “There are so many of us doing it that the public is numbed by the onslaught,” Peeples says. “A CD has become like a business card.” His strategy for defining and distinguishing himself is to focus on those who understand what he’s about. Importance Of Brands. “I go out and find people who get what I’m trying to say and who think with the aminata diallo character analysis same symbology as me and graduation, appreciate what I appreciate,” Peeples says. Festivals and home concerts are particularly fertile grounds for such listeners. “I can pretty much tell you everybody at festivals and home concerts gets what I do,” he says. “I’ve played a lot of house concerts where no one had ever heard of me or seen me on YouTube but they didn’t care, because the analysis hosts had done their homework and found performers these people were going to Essay on Structural Dimension get.” Failing creativity a potential hazard of middle-age artists is not something that concerns him at this point. “I’m still a 23-year-old kid getting started,” Peeples says. “I’m still defining who I am. Diallo Analysis. I don’t have to live up to any past successes or awards. Hell, Picasso was still turning out Review of Jodi Picoult's Plain Truth Essay, extraordinary stuff in his late 80s.” Peeples, in fact, was working on aminata diallo analysis, a new record that was released last fall when he was interviewed. “The songs are pretty much written, I’m just polishing and refining them,” he says. “I’m a huge reviser. I revise all the way into the studio.”

Will his new recording continue the introspective bent of “Prior Convictions”? “Yeah, I think that’s the direction I’m moving in,” Peeples says, adding that he’s immersed himself in poetry and philosophy books the last several years. Meanwhile, he continues touring and performing. “If every night I play a show with 30 people, and three of them go on my mailing list, and I know whatever CD I make for Essay Dimension, the rest of my life, they’ll want to buy it, maybe by the time I’m 75 I’ll have a real career,” he says. Tallahassee Magazine Pup up Party. Copyright 2017 Rowland Publishing. All rights reserved.

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Individual author earnings tracked across 7 quarters, Feb. Aminata Diallo! 2014 – Sept. 2015. Seven Author Earnings reports. Seven times we unleashed our software spider and took a detailed X-Ray of the majority of the US ebook market. Each time, we captured between 35% and 50% of all ebook sales in the gift the US that day. Over 200,000 authors , and close to aminata a million different books . Title-level data spanning half a billion ebook purchases , nearly $3 billion in consumer ebook spending , and speech examples, a billion dollars in author earnings . Quarter after quarter, we’ve tracked the diallo, fastest-growing and most volatile sector of the US publishing industry, and Review Plain Truth, watched how it has shifted. And seen how the different sectors of the industry — from the Big Five traditional publishers and their smaller traditional-publishing peers to Amazon publishing imprints and aminata diallo, self-published indie authors — have competitively fared. But each of our quarterly snapshots, no matter how comprehensive, is only an X-Ray of the US ebook market at that exact moment. It’s what’s called a cross-sectional study . Like a freeze frame photo, it can only graduation tell us how the ebook market is aminata diallo faring as a whole, rather than predicting the future prospects of importance, any particular author along any particular publishing path.

Because although every AE snapshot captures the sales of aminata, tens of thousands of authors — even hundreds of importance of brands, thousands of authors — each data set can only tell us how each individual author’s books happen to be selling at that precise instant in time . The picture painted by each quarterly report, taken on its own, is thus necessarily incomplete. They tell us nothing about the consistency of diallo, those individual authors’ earnings over time. And if I’m an author deciding which publishing route to pursue, isn’t that what I’m really most interested in? Rather than broad comparisons of each publishing path’s total collective “market share”? Publishing professionally, after all, is about building a readership and a long-term, decent-paying writing career.

As an importance individual author, that’s really all I care about, regardless of which publication method I choose. And that’s why single-quarter snapshots of the market, no matter how comprehensive, don’t tell me what I need to know. Let’s say you’re a writer holding a completed manuscript, on the fence about which publishing path to pursue. The traditional path is character undoubtedly the slower one — countless authors end up querying and importance of brands, submitting their work for decades, without ever landing a publishing contract. But for the relative few traditional aspirants who do, does that patience get rewarded with higher long-term stability than indie publishers see? And greater long-term income? Does slow and steady actually win the race? What if, for character analysis example, it turns out that traditionally published authors — as a result of their publishers’ superior marketing muscle — end up being steadier, more consistent earners quarter after quarter, just like the proverbial tortoise? And what if their bestselling indie peers are by on Structural Dimension, contrast more like the proverbial hare, each of diallo analysis, them briefly surging up the charts to be captured by our spider during their single fleeting moment of glory, only to be churned under once again and languish in non-selling obscurity thereafter, overwhelmed by the sheer teeming numbers of Essay on Structural, other indie hopefuls?

What if each indie you see on the best seller charts is analysis only king or queen for a day, or even a month or two, before their brief place in on Structural the sun is taken from them by diallo character analysis, the next lucky — and equally short-lived — indie contender? Imagine that I’m an author deciding which way to publish my first book… or even my tenth book. I’d kind of want to know that, right? And so, most likely, would you. The thing we’d both really like to see is of brands called a longitudinal study of author earnings , rather than a cross-sectional one. A study that tracks the earnings of aminata character analysis, those same individual authors over a longer period of time. And we’d especially like to see such a study done with a statistically well-defined and economically representative sample of authors — such as all authors whose books appeared on any Amazon best seller list over a seven-quarter period — rather than done based upon the gift magi, the self-selected responses of a handful of narrow-demographic, association-dues-paying survey participants. Eighteen months ago, back in early 2014, at Author Earnings we took our first stab at tracking same-author earnings over time.

With only two quarterly cross-sectional snapshots available to compare, the results were suggestive, but hardly conclusive. We simply didn’t have enough data to work with, back then. A Longitudinal Study of aminata character, Individual Author Earnings Over a 7-Quarter Period, from Feb. 2014 – Sept. 2015. By matching up author names across all seven of our quarterly snapshots, we were able to create a single, merged data set. It included over 200,000 authors and importance of brands, their cumulative seven-quarter sales and author earnings from the subset of their Kindle books which appeared on any Amazon best seller list or sub-list during any of our snapshots. It also included their Kindle best-seller sales and earnings broken down by each individual quarter.

Next, because we were only interested in comparing longer-term performance, we excluded “one-hit wonders” — i.e. authors whose author earnings from Amazon-bestseller-listed Kindle ebooks were not above a $10,000/year run rate in at least 2 different quarterly snapshots out of our 7. Perhaps some of aminata, these single-snapshot earners were indies that just happened to have their books captured on “Bookbub day”, or maybe some of them were traditionally-published authors whom Amazon happened to Review of Jodi Picoult's Plain Essay be deeply discounting for aminata diallo character a few days, giving them a brief pop in sales. Of Jodi Truth Essay! Either way, it means that we caught those authors on a particularly good day in one of our snapshots, which was not representative of their longer-term earnings. 5,643 authors in our longitudinal data set — or roughly 2.8% of the diallo character, original 200,000 — whose Kindle best-selling ebooks appearing on examples Amazon best seller lists were consistently earning them $10K/year or better. Lest anyone get discouraged by that 5,643 number , keep in mind that it is only the visible tip of the character analysis, iceberg: there are many, many other strong-selling authors and books that never appear on any of the Amazon Kindle best-seller lists. Those other writers don’t appear on Amazon’s best seller lists — and thus don’t appear in our data sets — because they happen to write in highly competitive genres where even dozens of sales per day are insufficient to allow a book to reach position #100 on any sub-genre best seller list. Thus those other books and authors are invisible to absorption our spider. (Anecdotally, we’ve spoken to many of these “non-best-selling” mostly-indie authors who are earning five-figure incomes — sometimes six-figure incomes — from ebooks that never appeared on any Amazon best seller lists.)

And even for those 5,643 authors whose visible earnings from Kindle best sellers in aminata diallo character our data sets exceeded $10K/year, many of them also had other Kindle books, too, which were NOT visible on the best seller lists. And thus their true overall Kindle ebook author earnings were higher than we show… to say nothing of their additional earnings from ebook sales at absorption, other retailers, audiobook sales ( 10% of the aminata diallo, audiobooks on Amazon’s best seller lists are indie), and print sales (offset or POD). But even so, it’s a meaningfully large and statistically representative sample, so without further ado, let’s jump in and take a look at the (best-selling) Kindle mid list. We’ll start with the steady $10K-or-better earners. Again, keep in mind that this is by no means all authors who are earning more than $10K+/year, nor even all authors earning that much just from their US ebooks, nor yet even all authors earning that much from importance of brands, only their Kindle ebooks.

These are authors earning $10K+/year consistently f rom only that subset of their Kindle books that appear on the Amazon best seller lists. For now, we’ll focus only on the leftmost set of bars, which include all authors regardless of how long they’ve been publishing. The first thing that stands out from the chart is that there are many thousands of such consistent five-figure-earning “Kindle Midlisters” visible in the data — both traditionally published (purple) and indie published (blue). And as we’ll see in the charts that follow, almost half of these 5,600 authors — over 2,200 of them — are consistently making $25K/year or more on their Kindle bestsellers, and more than a fifth of aminata character, them — over 1,200 authors in the data set — are making $50K/year or more on their Kindle best sellers alone. Once earnings from their other non-bestselling Kindle books, other ebook retailers, and other formats such as audio and print are factored in, it’s safe to say that most of these 5,600 writers in our longitudinal data set are making a living wage from their writing. The two bar charts below tally up the importance of brands, numbers of diallo character analysis, authors making $25K/year or more, and those making $50K/year or more, from best-seller-listed Kindle ebooks alone. At each of these higher income levels, we applied ever-more-stringent requirements for heart consistency in observable earnings. To be included in the charts below, each of these authors not only had to have total 7-quarter earnings at the specified ($25K or $50K) yearly level or above, their earnings each quarter also had to aminata diallo character analysis exceed that of the previous level ($10K or $25K) in at least 4 of our 7 quarterly snapshots.

Let’s take a look: The leftmost set of bars in every chart includes all authors earning at or above a given level, regardless of their earliest publication date. The Gift Of The Magi! The left-most purple bar is thus where we’ll find traditional publishing’s longest-tenured and highest-selling authors: names like James Patterson, Nora Roberts, Lee Child, David Baldacci, Janet Evanovich, John Grisham, and character, Stephen King. The left-most blue bar is also worth a mention. The Gift Magi! Prior to aminata diallo character analysis 2009 indie authors were a niche phenomenon, with very limited access to mainstream readers. Review Of Jodi Truth Essay! Six short years later, there are more than half as many indie authors earning steady midlist-or-better incomes from their Kindle ebook bestsellers as there are among ALL traditionally-published authors — even with all of those perennial traditional-publishing name-brand heavyweights, who spent decades atop the aminata diallo character analysis, old-media best seller lists, also tipping the magi symbolism, ebook scales. So let’s take a look at the other sets of aminata diallo analysis, bars, moving across the charts from the tell discovery, left to right, because that’s where things start to aminata diallo analysis get really interesting. When you look only at authors who started publishing less than a decade ago — in 2005 or later — the gap between the numbers of indie and traditionally published authors earning midlist-or-better incomes nearly disappears. Fast work, considering that none of those indies had widespread access to readers until 2010, giving their traditionally-published cohort-mates a five-year head start. In fact, if we look at only authors who debuted in graduation examples the “ebook era” — i.e. in 2010 or after — we see a reversal.

At each annual earnings level, we find far more indies than traditionally-published authors who debuted in character analysis the last 5 years and are now earning that much or more. If we look at absorption costing examples, the most recent debuts — authors whose first Kindle book was published in the last three years or so — the disparity grows: There are fewer than half as many traditionally published authors as indie authors who debuted in the last 3 years and are now earning consistently at the $25K/year level or $50K/year level from Kindle ebooks. This, then, is the world that all new entrants — whether traditionally published or indie — face in 2015. Diallo Analysis! If you’re a debut author in the gift magi symbolism 2015 with a manuscript in aminata diallo analysis hand, or even an experienced author regaining the rights to your backlist or starting out with a fresh pen name, when choosing your publishing route it’s that right-most set of bars in graduation speech every one of these charts that is today most relevant to you. But what if you are destined to aminata analysis be more than a mid-lister? You don’t want to sell your work short. Isn’t it still worth being patient and pursuing the traditional route, to have a better shot at truly stellar earnings? Surprisingly, as we move into six-figure-earning territory and beyond, the contrast between indie ebook earnings and traditionally-published ebook earnings becomes even more stark. Let’s look at:

Six-Figure-A-Year Kindle Best Sellers. In just our 7-quarter longitudinal data set, we are able to find: Far more indies earning a consistent six figures a year or more from speech, just their Kindle best sellers than traditionally published authors who debuted anytime in the past decade and are able to do the same. 240+ indie authors who are consistently earning $100,000/year or more from just their Kindle best sellers. 85+ indie authors who are consistently earning $250,000/year or more from diallo analysis, just their Kindle best sellers. 40+ indie authors who are consistently earning $500,000/year or more from just their Kindle best sellers. And finally, let’s take a look at: Seven-Figure-A-Year Kindle Best Sellers. Even at the very highest levels of ebook author earnings, the the tell tale, pattern remains the same.

13 out of the diallo, 20 authors who debuted in the last five years, and 8 of the Dimension, 10 authors who debuted in the last 3 years, and who are now consistently earning $1,000,000+/year from just their Kindle ebook best sellers are indie authors. In closing, while these trends in our changing industry are exciting, it’s also worth reminding ourselves that the odds against an author being able to make a full-time, high-paying career out of diallo analysis, writing are long indeed. They always have been. There are many hundreds of thousands of examples, US authors publishing books each year, both traditionally published and indie. Only a few fortunate thousand from among them will end up earning a living solely from their art, no matter which publishing path they take. The choice of how to publish is analysis never an easy one. It’s also worth reminding ourselves that what works best for one author may not be what works best for the gift of the magi another. All paths have their merits and downsides, and neither can guarantee anyone success. But today, our chances of achieving that success as writers are better, and there are more ways we can make it happen, than at any previous time in history. And that’s a wonderful thing. 52 Responses to “Individual author earnings tracked across 7 quarters, Feb.

2014 – Sept. 2015” Like all of your reports before, this one continues to shine a light on analysis the current state of the publishing world. I’ve never questioned my decision to be an Indie author and even if the numbers showed that Traditional was the way to go, the freedom and Picoult's Plain Truth Essay, control is what I like most about being an author/publisher. That being said, this is the first year I’ll crack the diallo character, 25K mark (possibly the 50K mark, but that depends on Review of Jodi Plain how the aminata diallo character, last quarter goes. Last year I hit 10K and the year before 5K. The big difference each year as been the number of titles I have available. This business has changed my life and I’m very appreciative of Essay, all that you do for our community.

Reading these sorts of reports always makes my day. (Sometimes Arthur Byrne) KILLER, KILLER, KILLER report, Hugh and Data Guy! Fascinating, and, to me, very surprising. I’d have expected traditionally-published authors to have a big leg up at the highest levels. Definitely something to consider, should I ever get this novel finished. (75%!) I’d love to know who it is that is making this much money as an indie author. I would find this inspiring and it would also help to validate the data. Just keep an eye at the bestseller lists on Amazon, it’s really that easy.

… and on the bestseller lists at aminata diallo character analysis, barnesandnoble.com and Apple iBooks, too. Hi Matt, you wanted to know of speech examples, indies earning well to confirm this. I’m one of the aminata, indie authors earning over $15k, mostly on the back of a single novella called To Murder a Saint. I found most of my marketing info from importance, Hugh’s site and aminata analysis, J.A. On Structural! konrath’s blog. All the aminata character, info needed to be a successful Indie is already out graduation examples, there. I have been as high as the aminata character analysis, number 45 on importance of brands the Amazon best-seller list overall and number one mystery sub category many times over. You can do it! There are several podcast you might find enjoyable and aminata character, would help you learn about the authors making five figures per month. My favorite is the Self-Publishing Podcast with Johnny B. Truant, Sean Platt, and David Wright. They have interviewed plenty of people who are doing well.

I also like Rocking Self-Publishing. JoAnna Penn has a good one, too. Good luck with your own writing/publishing. Brain, thanks for those recommendations. I’ll check them out later tonight. #128578;

Try reading HM Ward’s blogs. She turned down a million dollar trad deal. http://blog.demonkissed.com/?p=1537. Thanks for the information. I can’t wait to tweet it out. What a great time to Truth Essay be an indie author. Diallo Character Analysis! To all authors: “May the odds be ever in your favor.” Quote from “The Hunger Games” by Suzanne Collins. Thanks, Hugh and Review Picoult's Truth Essay, Data Guy, for your ambitious reporting on this! One thing that shouldn’t go unnoticed is that you are funding this research out of your own pocket(s), and it’s providing lots of information to the whole book-writing and reading world.

I suspect my books are not on those charts even though I’m in the right earnings range, because I use a publishing company name that is aminata different from my own. As you indicate, I’m sure the the gift, stats are actually underreporting those making significant money via self-published books, because many have various pen names as well as company names. It is a wonderful time to diallo character be a writer! Wishing you continued smooth sailing, both literally and figuratively. Great information. I wonder if Amazon’s Author Ranking is an accurate representation of where an importance author stands among his/her peers. I may have missed it, but this is based on gross earnings per diallo, book? Not net income/royalties?

Do I have that right? So, for example, an indie is getting 70% of the royalties whereas a trad author anywhere around 25% of royalties. So this isn’t as much about Review of Jodi Picoult's Plain Truth author earnings as publisher earnings? (Indies being their own publisher) Apologies if I’ve missed where it says how the ‘income’ is aminata diallo analysis extrapolated. The charts in of brands this report are all based on net author earnings, as what we get paid is the part that actually matters to us authors. For traditionally published authors whose publishers are setting their own prices under agency: those authors are earning 25% of character analysis, publisher net (which is 70% of the consumer purchase price). Absorption Costing Examples! Thus those authors are effectively earning 17.5% of aminata character, consumer purchase price.

For indie authors, net earnings are 70% of the gift of the magi symbolism, consumer purchase price on aminata diallo character analysis titles priced $2.99-$9.99, and 35% on books priced outside of that range. For books in KU, their earnings from borrows (and now pages-read) are calculated based on Review Essay the per-borrow and per-page author payouts for diallo character analysis those months and quarters. For Amazon-imprint published authors, net earnings are 35% of consumer purchase price for all sales, including KU downloads of those titles. Here’s more information on how we calculate indie KU earnings: I have a question about “Publisher Net”. Are we certain that it is 25% of the 70% or is it 25% of the net profits for the publisher after they have allocated costs across their books?

I’ve wondered about this, as I’ve always assumed that it would be the Essay Dimension, latter because the diallo character, use of activity based costing would then, in effect, transfer all of the expenses associated with NY rent, labor, advertising, to the books and thus lower the of the symbolism, net (and the amount needed to be paid). I have not seen a Traditional contract, so that’s why I ask. Hugh and Data Guy. I’ve been a traditionally pubbed author for 35 years. I started out at 2% of cover price in 1980. (not net) Gradually, made it to 6% of the cover price. I’m now at aminata diallo character analysis, 8%. (not net) Only the 1% of trad authors or high mid-list authors, get 10% or more.

These are standards in the traditionally pubbed industry that I am aware of. Heart Discovery! I wonder if your calculation are correct based upon aminata diallo analysis, my contracts? MOST of the authors I know who enter trad pub in romance it is a 6% of the gift magi, cover price (not net). And there are trad pubs who make it net, which is really not good for character analysis the author. I’m not a math specialist, so I leave it to you two to figure this all out. And the caveat that, of tale discovery, course, different writers entering the trad pub, could get more or less than 6%, too. I wonder if you asked the trad authors you worked with for this study, gave you such information? Thanks for aminata diallo analysis all the great work you do…it’s much appreciated.

This information is extremely important for writers today. I am grateful to absorption you for getting this out to those of aminata diallo, us who are really trying to figure this out and find the best path to sharing our work and surviving a tough marketplace for importance of brands creative people. There may be nothing new in that but lots new in publishing today. Thank your for your work! Re the question about who the diallo analysis, top-selling indie authors are to costing validate the data, I’ve read discussions on loops and aminata diallo analysis, a number of Essay on Structural Dimension, authors, including some I know personally, have volunteered that they are earning these mega-bucks. Most write romance (not necessarily erotica, but I’m sure there’s some of that). Mysteries are also represented. I’m a traditionally published author who’s reissued some of my backlist–as much as I could get the aminata analysis, rights to–and plans to self-publish a mystery series.

I’m keeping my fingers crossed! A good number of the top indie earners write Science Fiction, and there are some Thriller authors in there, too… Right now, I’m looking at absorption examples, the full, non-anonymized list of authors, rank-ordered by analysis, their total Kindle earnings. It’s pretty fascinating to see. Out of the Top 54 Kindle-earning authors — those making over seven figures a year from Essay, their Kindle best sellers — 13 of aminata diallo analysis, them are indies: #7, #11, #12, #17, #28, #29, #33, #42, #43, #45, #49, #50, and graduation examples, #53. As in our other reports, we release the diallo, raw data as an Plain Truth accompanying spreadsheet, but author names are anonymized for privacy reasons before release. And I just released three science fiction novels this month…I love this data Data Guy! Hugh, thank you and all involved for aminata diallo character your hard work. Regarding Matthew Nuzum’s request: I’m one of the authors earning six figures a year and the gift symbolism, living off my writing. I’ve done so in the past when I was traditionally published, but this will be the first time I’ve done so in aminata diallo analysis three consecutive years, publishing as an examples indie under the imprint my wife and diallo character analysis, I started, Stray Dog Press, Inc. Examples! For me, indie publishing is much more fun and an avenue to be far more productive.

I have 28 titles on Amazon. I have to diallo admit, though, that keeping up with the changing business environment is my biggest challenge. Absorption! I started writing professionally at character analysis, a number of big ad agencies, and there are times I wish I had my own account exec to handle the business end of things, but I’m not making quite that much money. I once suggested to Hugh that Amazon should offer a consulting service to Review of Jodi Plain Truth indie writers to offer on an individual basis advice on how they can maximize their sales/page reads/revenue. Diallo Character Analysis! They could call it Amazon Max. As always, thanks Hugh and Data Guy! Is there any way to see genre percentages? I know there are all sorts of sub sub genres, but even a higher level would be interesting.

I would also love a more detailed breakdown of which genres are most popular/profitable. I write under a variety of absorption, pen-names and genres (there are several different genres that I absolutely love). Would like to know if I’m investing my writing time in the best area. Spend a little time looking at the Amazon Top 100 Kindle Bestsellers. Then look at the subgenres you’re interested in writing in diallo character and check out the ranks of the top sellers in graduation speech examples those genres to get a feel for how competitive the field is and how well that subgenre overall seems to be going. I downloaded the raw data. Thanks for aminata analysis providing it. I hoped to easily identify a trend regarding the number of magi symbolism, books an author published and aminata character, their income, but it wasn’t immediately obvious. I can see that the ones lower down on importance the list tended to aminata diallo character have fewer books, but this isn’t a hard-and-fast rule. Is this data only from genre-fiction authors?

Have you noticed a difference in the novel vs novella vs short story in terms of author financial success? Thanks so very much for providing your reports. They’re fabulous, and I appreciate you taking the time away from writing to share them with us. This is examples cool to see! I actually would have guessed there would be more six-figure+ indie authors, but I imagine there are when other stores and aminata diallo character analysis, non-Top-100 books are taken into costing consideration. I also think it would be cool to see things broken down by genre, if that’s ever possible. I know people assume that it’s all romance authors, but that’s certainly not true. Aminata Character! #128512; Wow, more great stuff. Those graphs showing how the examples, newer an author is, the more indie gives them a chance of success over tradpub, are particularly compelling. Some of the aminata, normal counter-arguments to Author Earnings reports no longer carry any weight.

You’ve greatly reduced the heart, “Bookbub argument.” – I say reduced rather than eliminated because some might say that the most successful indie authors over time are regularly spending promotional dollars. And the aminata, most compelling prior argument I’ve heard from tradpub types is that all the audio and paper sales outside Amazon are not being accounted for and the snapshot is tale discovery too limited. But with this data, that argument starts to diallo analysis fall flat as far as new authors go. It’s not hard to of brands believe that the big bestsellers or top midlisters who’ve been going ten years plus and have a lot of aminata diallo analysis, titles do in fact make a decent percentage of their money outside of Essay on Structural Dimension, Amazon ebooks. We know they’re only making between 70 cents and aminata diallo character, $4 a pop on each unit. For tradpub to really be compelling to new authors we not only have to absorption costing examples believe that there are many thousands of authors who have started in the past five years who are all selling many thousands of units a year outside of Amazon – questionable, but possible – but we’d also have to diallo believe that despite their success outside of Amazon, they have failed to make a dent on the largest book retailer in the U.S. That is speech now into the realm of improbable.

Amazon controls somewhere between 15 and 25% of the paper book market, depending on aminata who you ask. In the future I don’t know if it would be possible to heart discovery develop a sales to rank chart like we have for ebooks and run a spider against aminata diallo character paper books. The Tell Heart! Even without it, a quick scan of bestseller lists for large genres like Suspense Thriller and Romance suggests that the diallo, top end of the symbolism, paperback market is majority non-big 5 books also. So paper may not be the savior tradpub says it is, either. Unless we have thousands of new authors a year making many thousands of hardcover fiction sales (still clearly dominated by diallo analysis, the big 5) each year, the choice for a new author seems clear. The one thing these numbers don’t tell us is absorption where someone who started 5 years ago will be relative to tradpub in another 5-10 years. Maybe (not likely but we don’t have the data either way), tradpub authors who stick it out for a decade will start to have the greater success we’re seeing on the left side of the character analysis, graphs. Even if they did, it would be an open question as to of Jodi Picoult's Truth how long it would then take for them to make back what they lost in aminata diallo their first ten years by going tradpub. It’s always great to see these reports so my hat’s off to those of you sifting through this data and bringing us the gems of the gift magi symbolism, truth. It’s great to see so many authors bringing in an income even if it’s not always six-figures. We know that on top of these authors there are others who didn’t make the Top 100 in their categories, plus authors who (i) sell a lot of books through other stores, (ii) sell ebooks, especially non-fiction, through their own web sites (often at a higher price per book than at Amazon) and (iii) have other sources of diallo character, writing income outside of books.

It is a great time to examples be an author! Once again, thanks, Hugh and Data Guy, for a splendid piece of diallo, work. It’s very encouraging to all of us trying to make a living as independent authors. I began self-publishing in Review Plain Truth Essay May 2013, and hit over $25K in earnings during that first year; doubled that in the second year; and I’m on track to improve even further in character analysis this, my third year in the market. I had hoped to be in graduation examples or near the aminata analysis, six-figure bracket by the end of 2015, but health issues have slowed down my production rate. Nevertheless, if I can whip those problems, that’s my target for next year. Another wonderful discovery is of Jodi Picoult's Essay how helpful most indie authors are towards one another. Aminata Diallo Character! I’ve found very little jealousy or backbiting; only encouragement, sage advice, and a willingness to share strategies and tactics that have led to their success. Can the trad pub world say the Essay, same?

I somehow doubt it. Another great report. But I would hope that a new author isn’t basing his decision on which route to take based on stats alone. Like you said, it’s a long way to character the top if you wanna write (someone should write a song). And you have to the tell tale heart discovery be willing to live with the career path you’ve chosen. Indie ain’t easy. Aminata Character Analysis! We are a specific personality type. I think it’s type D (Don’t want other people running my life).

And it’s hard work. But so is trad publishing. Your stats do offer me some comfort in importance of brands the decision I’ve made. I love being an indie and intend to stay with it through the “dark years,” though these dark years are fairly light shade of dark. I published book 3 yesterday.

I’ll have one more by character, November and Dimension, two parts of aminata character analysis, a serial novel published. 2016 is the gift magi gonna rock. Keep up the good work guys! Thanks again for making this valuable data available. Analysis! It’s great to speech examples know you folks are out there digging up the facts. This is good information.

I’d really like to diallo character see a the list of speech examples, assumptions at the top put to aminata diallo character analysis at least an anecdotal test. You know who these authors are, so contact a handful and see if they’d be willing to share their real data privately to discovery compare to what your model thinks they made over these seven quarters. Then generate the margin of error between the model and character analysis, the anecdotal data collected from of Jodi, volunteers. I’m not interested in seeing any individual’s numbers, just the aggregate. I’d like to see if the estimates are close for the tracked titles, and how close they are. I’d like to see if non-tracked titles, vendors and formats balloon the income level as much as you surmise they might. Thanks for all your hard work in diallo character creating these reports. This is a fantastic report over absorption costing, a long period. What a source of character, inspiration for those contemplating self publishing. Thank you. It would be great to get genre percentages.

Are there any non-romance writers among the 500k+ crowd? #128578; More than a few of them are science fiction writers. Can anyone explain the difference between an Essay “indie author” and “Amazon published” authors. I assumed that the Indie authors had published their own kindle book, which leaves me wondering what an Amazon published book is. Thanks in advance.

This was a great piece of work. (Updated with a link to the list of Amazon Publishing imprints). Hi everyone and thanks to diallo character analysis the folks here for providing us all this data. Very helpful. Of Brands! So much to diallo character know and so much to learn. I will be a debut indie author I hope next year. I have learned so much in just the last year. I have all the pieces of the absorption costing examples, puzzle of how to jump into the ocean of indie authors making a living at it “except one”.

No one seems to analysis want to absorption tell me how I am suppose to get access to any monies earned from diallo analysis, Amazon, Kindle and Essay on Structural, all the other sources. Can I have any monies earned no matter where it’s from go EFT directly into a bank account? Or do I use PayPal then xfer into a bank account? I don’t understand why this is character analysis so cloak and tale, dagger out there. What am I suppose to do stare at the figures wishing I could actually use them to fund the diallo, continuation of my indie career? Please this is important if anyone is ok with telling me I would appreciate it. It’s hard enough that I will have to use Kickstarter in order to pay for my first book cover and other expenses. I’ve never had to ask the public for money as I am not a politician but a normal worker bee who has worked a long career in Dimension IT.

Cheers to you all. Hope to connect. All major retailers can EFT your author earnings directly into your bank account every month. Ok thanks, once I get to the point of using Amazon Kindle ebook publishing service will I be required to have a Tax ID? For a Tax ID, your Social Security number works fine. Or you can set up your own publishing company as an LLC, S Corp, or the like, get a Tax ID for it, and use that. Many indies eventually do the latter. Does this track KENP earnings as well? My KENP earnings are 2 to aminata diallo 3X my ebook sales numbers.

KENP earnings are included. This is a good analysis as far as it goes, but since it only includes ebooks, it doesn’t make a compelling case against traditional publishing. We need to of the symbolism see a graph that shows earnings from overall sales (both ebooks and paper books ) for each category. Only then will the comparison be complete. Hi, I started as an ‘indie’ Sci-Fi author on Amazon a couple of years ago, and after a couple of false starts, I started earning a few bucks from my books. I now have eight up on character Amazon, but most of my income is generated from two main series. ‘He Who Dares’ and ‘Echo of of the magi symbolism, Tomorrow’. Over the last two years, I’d have to say that my average monthly income is about $5,000 and character analysis, looks to get better after I post the next books in the series.

Like many authors, I tried the traditional path to getting published but gave up after I had a draw full of rejections letter. Looking at the data, it looks to me as if self-publishing is the Essay on Structural, way to go, and analysis, seems to be the graduation examples, trend in the future. At least you don’t have to fight to get pass the ‘editor’ or wait six months to a year before you get anything back from them. Aminata Diallo Character Analysis! Good, bad, or indifferent, you can post your story on examples Amazon, sit back, and wait for the sales, and analysis, hits to arrive. People will soon tell you is your story is worth reading or not, and many reader aren’t shy about posting a review. A couple of things I found I’m in the process of Plain Truth, correcting are the cover art and editing. I found a great artist to do the cove for me, and that alone improved sales, and secondly I get myself a group of volunteer editors/proofreaders who correct the many errors my poor typing skills produced. On the whole, I found self-publishing was the way to go, and from the response and sales I’m happy that people found my stories worth reading. I have read your books and aminata character analysis, I was thrilled to see your response here. I really enjoyed your work and it was partially what inspired me to begin my own Science Fiction series. I am through the outlining phase and just begun writing my first book, that I am hoping to publish to Amazon early next year.

The story is flying and I am putting word to Truth type at a ferocious pace. I consider the pacing and general technicality of my work to aminata diallo analysis be similar to your own. Thank you for your work and I’ll continue to be a fan. I understand the limitations of pulling data, but I am probably not represented on the charts accurately. Heart Discovery! I write primarily milfic and scifi, and diallo character analysis, I have only a handful of books that have already pulled in over $10,000 per year (I have several more than will easily reach that mark soon).

But I also have 24 books. As I posted elsewhere, a handful make less than $1000 per year, and importance of brands, two make less than $200. However, take my eight or so books that make about $4000 each, and diallo character, while they would not have made a blip on magi symbolism this research, together, they earn $32,000 per year. In toto, my books earn well into the six figures per diallo analysis, year. This is great information. I was with a small publisher until Jan 2016 as they decided to close down.

I am now in speech the first two months of not-so-clueless self-publishing. I’m looking at the long term of this as I write in a highly competitive genre, at least one of them, so it’s going to be a challenge. I’m scanning through the aminata diallo character, comments and a common theme among the graduation examples, questions kinda hit me: # of books. I wonder if that has a correlation to diallo character analysis the data you guys are pulling for this. You’d think that the more books you have, the higher the earning but for some it’s just one book that’s really the “alpha” or they only have a couple of books and are in a really great niche or they have a good number of books and are not quite there ($10K/annum minimum) Anyway, it was just a thought I had as I was going through this.

This is graduation speech fantastic information. Thanks so much for the tremendous effort you’ve put into gathering these stats and for aminata diallo analysis making the information free to everyone. Other persons would not be so altruistic and your generosity is absorption costing much appreciated. My general comment after having reviewed a few of the reports is that it shows how well self-published ebooks are doing in the last five years when compared to traditional published ebooks. Aminata Diallo Character Analysis! The benefit of self-publishing as I see it, are 1) it allows for persons who would have been rejected by Essay, the Big 5 to get out aminata diallo character analysis, there and sell their books, 2) the royalties for the self published author are way greater than the traditionally published, 3) it requires a lot shorter process to be published and start making money compared to the other method. While this is good I view the reports with caution as I keep wondering (despite all the graphs etc.) if it’s a simple numbers game. What I would like to the gift magi symbolism know is absolutely numbers of self published books versus absolute numbers of traditional published books per year. For example, if there are 100,000 persons self publishing on kindle and 1000 making a living from it that’s a 1% chance for diallo character a self published author. On the other hand if 50,000 authors are traditionally published annually and 500 are making a living from it that’s 1% of the total. As a result it would not matter which route you choose for your book.

With hard work and of brands, luck you could be part of the 1% either way. Diallo! Now if the absolutely figures were reversed i.e there were 100,000 traditionally published titles and 50,000 self published titles then the result would be more intriguing. What is important I think is to discover is what things the Essay on Structural Dimension, successful self-published authors are doing? Are they performing the same activities as the more recent and successful traditionally published authors. Which groups spends more/less money on marketing? Those are my questions though I’m not sure your metrics would allow you to appropriately answer those questions. This is fabulous information!

Thank yu so much for aminata diallo character the tremendous time and effort that must go into these reports. How are you mining the raw data? Signup below to absorption costing get notified when new reports are added. Add your data! No matter where you are in your publishing career, your data can help other writers better understand this rapidly changing market. Character! Take this anonymous survey and view the results. Would you like to make your voice heard?

Whether you are a reader, an aspiring writer, or a published author, sign here to allow us to importance advocate for you.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for analysis, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Dimension? Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to character analysis, develop phobias?

Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and absorption examples not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of aminata diallo character, falling in on Structural, love? What causes feeling of aminata diallo, romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep?

Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and the tell tale heart discovery others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive?

Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne?

Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer?

Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to diallo analysis, older generations)?

Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age?

Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails?

Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by the gift, purring and diallo kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in absorption examples, boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in aminata, colonies?

Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and graduation speech breed them to aminata character, become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and Essay on Structural cicadas to aminata character, make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered?

Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to heart discovery, light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage?

Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the diallo unrest in Review of Jodi Essay, the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the aminata character analysis Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the gift magi symbolism, the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to aminata diallo analysis, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is heart discovery, North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the diallo character analysis world.) Why has the the tell heart discovery neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?

Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by aminata character analysis, gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the the gift settlement of diallo, Australia by the English?

What caused the colonization of of the magi symbolism, Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is aminata, English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism?

What caused the of brands great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the aminata analysis Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the the gift of the magi symbolism parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is aminata diallo character, different from the European system used by absorption examples, most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at aminata character Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an of the magi, atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to character analysis, study history? (Depending on the tell heart, how you answer, this could be worked into diallo character, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to tale, get some ideas of possible answers.

Title: The causal question makes a great title for character, your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to importance of brands, the question will be the thesis of character analysis, your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. Of The Magi Symbolism? The end of analysis, your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. Of Jodi Plain Truth Essay? To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the character reasons in parallel format.

Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the tale heart discovery experience, and aminata diallo character analysis they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and the tell tale you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and character turn them into of brands, full sentences. Character? Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Importance Of Brands? Conclusion: In the aminata diallo character analysis conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in examples, the chart below. Easy Introductions and diallo Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. Essay On Structural Dimension? How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by character, Virginia Kearney 109.

Easy Words to Review Picoult's Truth Essay, Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about diallo analysis writing. Please look at magi my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for aminata diallo, Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Graduation Examples? Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to aminata character analysis, find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the gift symbolism, the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche.

2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from aminata character analysis, you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you!

Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Graduation Speech Examples? Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students!

I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the diallo character people who teach the of brands beginning levels of aminata diallo, college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. Costing? I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is character, why I've decided to Essay on Structural, post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years.

Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and aminata diallo character respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to aminata character, learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.

Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on graduation examples Foreign Portfolio Investment in analysis, comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to on Structural, Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on aminata analysis FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the graduation speech two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in character analysis, the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of Essay on Structural Dimension a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to aminata, about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in examples, 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in diallo analysis, the development process of the tell host economies.

It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is diallo, estimated that the importance sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of aminata diallo character analysis world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the Picoult's Essay competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to aminata diallo character, influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.

ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is discovery, more likely to aminata diallo character, be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to examples, foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of diallo analysis international business expansion. Geographical distances of graduation markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas.

In addition, the firm has to aminata diallo character analysis, carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the Dimension institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the aminata analysis movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in the gift, one country (the home country) acquires an aminata, asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the magi management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.

FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in aminata analysis, the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of absorption a long- term relationship between the diallo character analysis direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is Essay on Structural Dimension, exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per aminata diallo character, cent or more of the Review Picoult's Plain Truth Essay ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for character analysis, determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of magi direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to aminata character analysis, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of importance a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at aminata analysis, international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Absorption Costing Examples! Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in aminata, the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of Review of Jodi Essay securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the character analysis issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of the gift risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.

It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the diallo character analysis firm is exposed to of brands, greater risks. Diallo! Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at speech examples, larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of aminata diallo adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of the gift symbolism foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to aminata diallo, faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.

It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to Essay, arrive at aminata diallo character analysis, a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of of Jodi Plain Truth production locations, higher level of control, and diallo character, gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in graduation speech examples, the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in character analysis, domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.

This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in of brands, consumer welfare. Increase in aminata character, domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to absorption costing examples, achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for aminata analysis, imports.

Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to the tell tale, evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the diallo character analysis rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to importance, foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:

The costs of inputs in diallo character analysis, the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of Dimension a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1).

India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to aminata diallo, India have been modest until recently. The US is the the gift of the magi only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and diallo character analysis, Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and examples, high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in character analysis, developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and the gift of the magi, automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and aminata character analysis, stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the on Structural crowding-out effect.

As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the aminata analysis host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and costing examples, software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.

Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in character analysis, India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). Graduation Examples! From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by aminata diallo character analysis Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of importance of brands Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and aminata character analysis, developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.

A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to Essay Dimension, either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of aminata diallo production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the the tell discovery value chain from sourcing raw materials to aminata diallo, manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).

Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by costing examples backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to character analysis, as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at Dimension, manufacturing products not manufactured by aminata character the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of importance of brands natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at aminata diallo character analysis, right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of of the magi symbolism raw material.

ii. Aminata Diallo Character! Complementary factors of magi symbolism production. iii. Analysis! Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and of the, necessary technical skills for aminata analysis, resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and costing, are able to aminata analysis, set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for importance, investing in developing countries.

Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is diallo analysis, also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by speech half for aminata diallo, chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the the gift of the magi country holds 60 per aminata diallo character, cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.

Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.

A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of examples process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of aminata diallo character analysis scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of examples inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.

iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in diallo analysis, creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the the tell heart discovery key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.

Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in aminata, capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is importance, viewed to aminata analysis, generate economic benefits.

In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is absorption examples, estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of aminata character analysis MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.

However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from Essay on Structural, US$9.5 billion in aminata character analysis, 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in importance of brands, 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the character same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and tale, Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of analysis Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).

The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the speech acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of aminata negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.

Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. Speech Examples! To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into diallo character analysis cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.

iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. Tale Heart Discovery! To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. Diallo Analysis! To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.

It is aimed to examples, serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of diallo analysis FDI is typically through MAs. Essay! Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for aminata diallo character analysis, export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of magi production and aminata diallo, distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is the gift of the magi symbolism, often the mode of entry in aminata, such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.

The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to speech, promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is aminata character analysis, Greenfield or merger or acquisition?

Whether the Essay Dimension investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the aminata character analysis investment. The firm has to the tell heart, carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode.

Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is aminata character analysis, likely to tale heart, be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on analysis the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of magi capital arbitrage is more suitable for aminata analysis, foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.

A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of absorption examples multiple factors influence the character analysis investment decision, besides higher rate of the gift of the magi symbolism return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to diallo character, providing a broad explanation of importance of brands FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the analysis examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to Essay Dimension, promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of analysis less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of importance all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and diallo character analysis, quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market.

This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in of Jodi Plain Essay, Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the aminata character analysis mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by Truth Essay way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in aminata character, order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the examples firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and aminata diallo analysis, licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into the tell tale discovery international markets by way of aminata investing in a foreign country in of Jodi Picoult's Plain Truth Essay, order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to aminata diallo, operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. Essay! The benefit possessed by character analysis the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is the gift of the, termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to diallo character, invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and absorption costing examples, licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in diallo analysis, physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.

A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of speech a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in aminata diallo, the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and tale discovery, starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.

As a result, the aminata diallo character products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about the tell discovery trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for diallo character, international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to absorption examples, industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.

The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to aminata diallo character, reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and importance of brands, marketing skills. ii.

Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from character analysis, diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and Review Essay, other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the aminata host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.

iii. Graduation Examples! Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to diallo character analysis, remain in of the symbolism, a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of diallo character analysis factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to the tell heart, promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.

An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the analysis basis of economic gains. Essay On Structural Dimension! A firm may transfer its know- how to analysis, an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to Essay on Structural Dimension, its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.

Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to diallo analysis, their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.

MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for the gift of the symbolism, their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and diallo character analysis, horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to examples, expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the diallo analysis mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to examples, invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of aminata diallo character FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. Essay! It logically examines the aminata character reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.

Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in Review Truth Essay, order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.

If the investment is made by a foreign firm in character, a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is importance of brands, termed as stock of FDI. Aminata Diallo Analysis! FDI comprises equity capital and magi, re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in aminata diallo character analysis, 2004 to Review of Jodi Plain Truth, US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and analysis, 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to absorption costing examples, US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the diallo character analysis developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by the tell tale discovery Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and aminata diallo, Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).

The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and Essay on Structural Dimension, 3.1 per aminata diallo character analysis, cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of Essay Dimension FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to diallo character analysis, US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of Review of Jodi Picoult's 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in aminata character analysis, order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per absorption costing examples, cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the aminata analysis GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.

However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and the gift of the magi, firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. Diallo! FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in costing, 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the aminata character recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for Review of Jodi Truth, nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the aminata character year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of Review Picoult's Truth Essay strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:

The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to analysis, direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. The Gift Symbolism! Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the character analysis largest component. Costing! Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and aminata character analysis, re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.

The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the importance equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and aminata diallo character analysis, FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is Essay on Structural Dimension, a measure of the aminata character analysis extent to on Structural, which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in aminata diallo character, the i th country.

A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of costing examples natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and character, tech­nologies, to of brands, opportunities for aminata analysis, participating in importance of brands, privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of aminata analysis South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.

However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to Picoult's Truth Essay, the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in aminata diallo character, global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.

FDI i = The FDI outflows in graduation examples, the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in diallo character, the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and graduation speech, network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index.

It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by diallo character analysis their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the importance un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per aminata character, capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.

g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the character analysis US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against the gift symbolism its potential. Countries in aminata diallo character, the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.

Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of the gift of the magi under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.

The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to aminata character, continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and of brands, implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the analysis regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and Dimension, the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at diallo analysis, the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of heart discovery regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for character, FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of Dimension entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on aminata analysis privatization.

e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for Review Picoult's Plain Essay, FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Diallo Analysis! Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.

c. Credit guarantees. iv. Of Brands! Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the diallo analysis market to speech examples, further entry or granting of monopoly rights.

v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.

Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and aminata diallo character, Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Dimension Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. Aminata Character! There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in Dimension, incentive, in all the six countries.

iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and aminata, so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by on Structural the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):

The Department of Industrial Policy and diallo character analysis, Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into of the the country. It plays an active role in aminata diallo, investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the Review Picoult's Plain investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of aminata diallo Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Examples! Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of character analysis FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in on Structural Dimension, the early 1990s.

The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of aminata character analysis Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in Picoult's Plain, manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.

v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in aminata character analysis, Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Absorption Costing Examples! Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of aminata diallo character analysis news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. On Structural! Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the aminata diallo automatic route.

iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.

FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to symbolism, 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Aminata Diallo! Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and absorption, other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the character automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to Dimension, 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of items approved for aminata character, manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in absorption examples, favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to aminata character, 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

v. Mining and of the magi symbolism, mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.

Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Aminata Character! Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and speech examples, allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of aminata diallo character diamonds and speech examples, precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.

(b) Coal and diallo analysis, lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and Essay Dimension, rubber processing and character analysis, warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.

(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and graduation speech examples, power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Aminata Diallo! Industrial Parks. iii.

Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. The Gift Of The! Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for diallo character, NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.

i. The Gift! Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Aminata Diallo! Trading for speech examples, exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to aminata diallo character, prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in Dimension, India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and aminata character analysis, Fig. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. Importance! However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and aminata diallo character, thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.

The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per of the, cent, and other capital for analysis, 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. The Gift Of The Magi Symbolism! followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the analysis UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in graduation, Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.

Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from aminata diallo character, India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in importance of brands, 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in aminata diallo character, retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in speech examples, China. iii.

It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in aminata diallo character, retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of of Jodi Picoult's Truth Essay infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.

It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.

The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in diallo character, the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the importance game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in diallo character, the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.

Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of graduation speech examples global foreign culture. vii. Aminata Diallo Character Analysis! India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the the gift magi significance of FDI in character, development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and importance, strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Book review: The Book of Negroes | The Journal

How to Be a Successful Ghostwriter. I can still remember the first time I saw my byline in print. After years of writing articles, essays and short stories, I’d finally sold oneand had the magazine to prove it. When I started writing books, the thrill was even bigger. Aminata Analysis. I dreamt of the day when I’d fill an tale discovery, entire bookshelf with books with my name on them. I never considered ghostwriting.

Why would I spend months of my life toiling away on someone else’s book? No thanks. I only aminata analysis wanted to of Jodi write my own books, and that’s what I did. I soon found, however, that the diallo analysis, life of graduation speech examples, a book author wasn’t quite what I’d envisioned. I was working long hours, yet making less money than I had before, when I was writing only articles. The reason was simplethe time I spent promoting my books left me less time for my other writing projects, which cut into my income. Then, I had the good fortune of being approached by a nutrition expert about co-authoring her book. I found I enjoyed collaborating with her, but the real payoff came when we finished the manuscript. As the lead author, she now had to start promoting itbut I was all done! That was enough for aminata character, me. Examples. I decided to pursue co-authoring and ghostwriting, and aminata diallo, “my” next book was ghostwritten for a client. (Typically a “co-author” is identified on the cover, while a “ghostwriter” is never named or identified.) Today, most of my books are published under my clients’ namesand I’m making as much money working part-time hours as I did as a full-time freelancer.

You probably know that many celebrities and politicians use ghostwriters to pen their books. What you might not know is Picoult's Plain Truth that most authors who hire ghostwriters aren’t big egos or household names. Instead, they’re professionals (think physicians, attorneys, financial advisers) who want to publish books to attract clients and establish themselves as experts in their fieldbut who lack the time and/or ability to actually write the aminata diallo character, manuscripts. They’re willing to Essay Dimension pay, and often pay well, to get “their” books in print. In the last couple of years, my ghosting projects have paid: $20,000 for character, a 60,000-word health book. $15,000 for a 40,000-word business book.

$12,000 for a 55,000-word memoir (The book had been written but needed reworking.) $25,000 for an 80,000-word nutrition/fitness book of which my client wrote about one-third of the manuscript and importance, I wrote the rest. These numbers may not be huge, but remember that I’m being paid to write the book, not promote it as well. Once it’s completed, which typically takes four to six months, I’m done. I can ghostwrite two or three books a year in addition to aminata analysis writing my own books and Review Picoult's Essay, articles, which makes for a comfortable income. An informal survey of other writers reveals similar fees. One established ghostwriter averages $15,00025,000 for books of 50,00075,000 words. Another just made $12,000 for a 30,000-word book. A third was paid $22,500 for a 65,000-word book, while another very successful collaborator typically makes $30,00050,000 per book. Aminata Analysis. So it’s not surprising that smart book authors are adding ghostwriting to their repertoires. Graduation Speech. “I ghostwrite for diallo analysis, a number of reasons, not the least of which is the the gift of the magi, steady stream of revenue,” Marcia Layton Turner says. “I [also] find that, in most cases, ghostwriting is diallo character analysis easier than authoring a book myself, because there is less research to be done: The client/author is generally responsible for providing background material or for pointing me in the right direction. In the the tell, end, the hourly rate I can earn by ghostwriting is typically higher than with some other types of writing work.”

And despite the perception of the writer toiling away in character analysis his lonely garret, many ghosts enjoy working as a team. “Writing tends to be such a solitary endeavor that ghostwriting allows me to collaborate with someone else and help them to bring their book dreams to fruition,” Melanie Votaw says. “I also learn a great deal about Essay, subjects I would otherwise know nothing about.” As I hinted at earlier, another plus to analysis ghosting, especially today, is that you needn’t worry about the size of your platform, or your ability to sell a book once it’s published. If your client is pitching a traditional publisher, only his platform mattersbecause as the author, he’ll be the one selling the title. Want to know more about Essay on Structural Dimension, this lucrative field? Read on for a closer look at the skills you need to succeed as a ghostwriterand at how to break in.

You’ll also learn how to market those skills, what to diallo ask potential clients, how to set fees and importance, how to develop an efficient process for completing each project successfully. The first key to analysis success as a ghostwriter is a clear understanding of of the, your role in the process. Whether you get cover credit or not, you’re writing someone else’s book. That means being able to collaborate, and to set aside your own ideas about how to approach the book if your client disagrees with them. That’s why successful ghostwriters keep their egos in aminata character check. You may be writing the words, but the book itself is your client’s. And that means your client has the of brands, final say. In addition to a collaborative spirit, you’ll need management skills.

Depending on the project, you may be responsible for conducting interviews and research and keeping your client on schedule, in addition to writing the book itself. And when it comes to writing, you must be able to structure and organize material and capture your client’s voice. As a writer, you likely already know something about the aminata diallo character, publishing industry. That experiencewhether you’ve worked with editors before or have already published your own booksis invaluable to you as a ghostwriter. The more you know about the tell heart, publishing, the more you can assist your clients, whether they’re submitting their work or deciding whether to opt for aminata diallo character, self-publishing or pursue a traditional publishing contract. Besides celebrities and costing examples, subject-matter experts, everyday people who want to get books in print but lack time or ability also use ghostwriters in crafting everything from memoirs to novels to how-to guides. Book publishers, book packagers (see Page 25), literary agents and corporations also occasionally hire ghosts for specific projects, though they look for experienced ones. You basically have two ways of aminata diallo character, getting ghosting work. The first is to search for importance, posted gigs and go after them. Check sites like Craigslist (craigslist.org), JournalismJobs.com and Freelancedaily.net for listings of aminata diallo, possible ghostwriting and co-authoring opportunities.

The second is to proactively spread the word that you’re a ghostwriter to potential clients. Make sure your website and blog specify that you ghostwrite. Mention it in the gift of the your e-mail signature. You might also consider subscribing to a service like Publishers Marketplace (publishersmarketplace.com, $20/month), where you can promote your services and stay up-to-date on publishing news. Consider your expertise when marketing yourself to potential clients. For instance, I specialize in writing about health, fitness and nutrition, and almost all of aminata diallo character, my ghosting work is for professionals in Essay those areas. The idea is to start with what you know and let editors, story sources and colleagues know you’ve added ghostwriting to your repertoire. I’ve found the best way to approach potential clients is aminata diallo with a letter of introduction, or LOI, describing your qualifications. While it helps to costing have published at character analysis least one book before you start ghosting for others, any experience writing and the tell discovery, publishing articles and other shorter pieces can help you pump up your résumé to diallo character appeal to prospective clients. How you work with a particular client depends on the project, budget and time frame.

For example, you may interview your client and write the book from scratch, relying on your notes; your client may write some of the book while you write the rest; or your client may provide you with background material that you use as a starting point. It depends on how much work your client has already done (and is speech willing to do) and how he prefers to work with you. That’s why before you take on a project, you should know what the character, client’s expectations areand exactly what you’ll be responsible for. “It’s important to know how the information will be given to graduation mei.e., written notes, interviews or a mixture of the two,” Votaw says. “Interviews take more time, so the cost to the client will be higher in aminata character that case. I also like to be given a title or two that are similar to the tone and style the client wants.” Some clients (like book publishers and agents) will already have a set fee in Essay on Structural Dimension mind for a project; others will ask you to make a bid. Aminata Diallo Analysis. Make sure you know what’s expected of you, how you’ll be working and how long the book will be before you quote a fee. (See the sidebar at Review Plain Truth right for a list of questions to aminata ask.)

When it comes to the tell tale how you charge, there are three basic waysby the character, hour; by the word or page (e.g., $10/page or $0.25/word); or by tale discovery the project. Most ghostwriting clients prefer to pay a flat fee for the entire project, which is a big reason you need to know what you’re committing to diallo character analysis before you say yes. What you’ll charge depends on the tell tale, your experience, but an informal 2010 poll found that ghosts were averaging between $10,000 and $50,000 for character, both fiction and nonfiction books of 50,00070,000 words. Absorption Costing. Most charged between $5,000 and $10,000 to analysis write a book proposal. As a ghost, you’re in a unique position. You’re not a literary agent, but you may give your client publishing advice, such as whether to pitch to traditional publishers or choose the self-publishing route. That’s fineas long as your client understands that you’re a writer, not an agent or a publisher, and you can’t guarantee, for example, that a literary agent will agree to absorption costing examples represent a particular client, or that a publisher will acquire a book. I always explain this up front so my client doesn’t have any unrealistic expectations. Before you start work, both you and your client should sign a written agreement (and you’d be well-advised to aminata character analysis seek legal counsel in creating or evaluating a contract). Tale. At a minimum, it should include a description of the aminata character, work you’ll be doing (the more specific, the graduation speech examples, better); how much and when you’ll be paid (e.g., in certain amounts throughout the duration of the project); your deadline; and who will own the aminata diallo, copyright to the book (almost always the client). You may also want to examples include elements like:

THE DIVISION OF LABOR. Who is aminata analysis responsible for doing what? Will your client provide you with notes, data, research or other materials, and if so, by when? Will you write chapters and then send them to your client for her review? INDEMNIFICATION PROVISIONS. An indemnification clause puts the burden of any lawsuits or claims on someone else.

As a ghostwriter, you should be indemnified from any libelous or plagiarized material your client provides. COVER CREDITOR NOT. Are you truly working as a ghostwriter, or as a co-author? For the latter, you should get cover credit. TERMINATION PROVISIONS. Picoult's Plain. What happens if one of you wants to back out before the character, book or project. EXPENSES AND HOW THEY’LL BE SHARED. What if you have to travel to meet with the client in person?

Who will pay for that? Who is the tell heart responsible for other expenses? A CONFIDENTIALITY CLAUSE. Analysis. Many clients will ask for a nondisclosure agreement. With signed contract in hand, you’re ready to get to work. If your client hasn’t created an outline already, that’s your first step. Once she approves it, you’ll start researching and costing, writing the character analysis, book itself. How you proceed depends on the project and the client. “In most cases, especially if we’re starting from examples scratch, I have found that the client prefers as much face time with me as possible as we ‘talk out’ their story and get it on tape or paper,” says Ed Robertson, a ghostwriter and aminata diallo, collaborative writer. “Once the of Jodi Plain Truth, story is character analysis ‘out of their head,’ so to speak, and I start the ‘sitting down and writing’ part, follow-up correspondence via phone or e-mail is usually sufficient.” But everyone is different. I usually don’t meet my ghostwriting clients in person. We speak by of Jodi Picoult's phone, and aminata diallo character analysis, then work through e-mail.

I ask my client for Essay on Structural, his thoughts about the upcoming chapter, do any necessary research, and then send the chapter to my client for his review. The Track Changes function in Microsoft Word enables me to review the client’s edits or comments when he returns it to me. “TK,” a publishing term that means “to come,” can be another timesaver. Aminata Analysis. When I have a question in the textsay I need more information from the client, or want him to confirm that I’ve described something correctlyI put a “TK” there. That’s an easy way to draw attention to the relevant section, and I instruct clients to Plain do the aminata character, same thing with edits they want me to importance double-check.

You then can use your word processor’s Find function to search for “TK” and locate all the unresolved issues at once. Work with your client to develop a process that works well for both of you. Once you begin writing, you’ll need to work hard on capturing the client’s voice. You have your own style as a writer, but as a ghost, your book should sound like your client wrote it, not you. “I see myself as the vessel through which the author or expert tells his or her story in the way they would like it told,” Robertson says. Aminata Diallo Analysis. “For me, that begins and ends with listening.” As you listen, note the words and phrases your client uses frequently.

Does he speak in short, abrupt sentences or longer, more complex ones? Does he pepper his speech with industry jargon or tell “war stories”? If your client provides you with written material, use that as a guide as well. Your relationship with your client is integral to the success of the project. I suggest you have your client approve chapters as you write them. If he requests minor changes, you can simply make them and move on.

If the client wants substantial or numerous changes, however, I suggest scheduling a phone conference to discuss them. That will let you talk about what isn’t working for him, and discuss how to speech examples change and improve it. What happens if your client is diallo unhappy with much of what you’ve written or wants to take a different approach? “How I handle it depends entirely on the gift magi symbolism, the seriousness of the disagreement,” Votaw says. “I have occasionally cautioned clients against using certain ideas, structures or styles, but it’s always ultimately the client’s decision.” Once all of the chapters are completed (or the aminata analysis, sections of the book proposal are written) and approved, create one “master” document that includes everythingthe final draftand send it to your client for one last review. After she signs off on the manuscript and sends your last check, you’re doneunless you’re working with a traditional publisher. Then you’ll likely stay on board to of Jodi Picoult's handle any edits until the editor and client sign off. And then, when the aminata analysis, book is published, your client’s real work as an author begins. But as a ghostwriter, your work is completewhich frees you up to start on your next writing project. Not sure how to get your ghostwriting career started?

Consider: 4 thoughts on “ How to Be a Successful Ghostwriter ” Thanks for writing this. I am just starting to freelance and Essay, this has some good detailed and character analysis, useful information about ghostwriting. Importance. Bookmarked! This is exceptionally instructive substance and composed well for a change.

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