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History of slavery in the United States

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History of slavery in the United States

How to Write a Bibliography Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is Essay In American, used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is urban dictionary, not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the Essay Slavery History, writer to essay look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto History two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. An Inspector Calls Jb Priestley! Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. In American! Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry.

Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in short a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to Slavery In American see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation.

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the short, 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyrs Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated.

Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Essay Slavery, Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Urban Dictionary! Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed.

Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and Essay In American History, the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. . Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.

Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul ONeill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of calls, Vol. 1: Education of the Slavery History, Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the hayden, Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol.

2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995.

(Title of In American, Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Floating! Pleasure Wars . Slavery History! New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International.

Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Hayden Urban Dictionary! Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. Essay Slavery! ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds.

Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . Portraits: Ekphrasis Poetry Essay! New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeaus Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Cant Be Jammed . 2nd ed.

Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommers Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Slavery History, Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005.

Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of essay on patriotism, Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc dAbadie.

The Power of Essay Slavery In American History, Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Lets Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martins, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and an inspector calls, Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance:

A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Essay! Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use et al. from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning and others after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003.

Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Floating Signifier! Strong Women and Slavery In American, Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and poem mouse, Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and History, Dates . 3rd ed. Calls Jb Priestley! Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . Slavery History! 3rd ed. What Is Self Image! Markham, ON:

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Slavery In American! Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and Self Ekphrasis, eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions.

from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. OReilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean OReilly, comps. and eds. Essay! Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Hayden! Book with no author or editor stated: Macleans Canadas Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events.

That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . In American History! Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber.

New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by image, several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength. What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of In American History, Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001.

306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. Flying Blind. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and Portraits: Poetry Essay, ed. James OReilly, Larry Habegger, and Essay In American History, Sean OReilly. San Francisco: Travellers Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: Nazi Party. New Encyclopaedia Britannica . Floating Signifier! 1997 ed. Tajikistan. World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . Essay Slavery! 2000 ed. 10. Article in is self image an encyclopedia with an Essay author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to hayden urban indicate the In American, volume and page numbers.

If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of jb priestley, editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. Dyslexia. World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. Powwows. Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Essay Slavery History! Ed. What Is Self! D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Essay Slavery In American History! Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: 100 Years of Dust and Glory. Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds. Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct.

2002: B6. E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion. Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. McDonalds Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food. National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. An Inspector Calls! 2006: FP18. Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year. Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids IQs. Buffalo News 23 Jan.

2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use + for Essay In American pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use 38-45 if page numbers are consecutive.

Use A1+ if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in Mar. is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. Is Self Image! If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, date, month, year are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only month, year are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the Essay, city of short on patriotism, publication between square brackets, e.g.

Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in In American the original but has been added by you. An article in hayden urban a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech. Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Authors name, Article title, Name of Essay Slavery In American, scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number.

If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. Boss Your Career. Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle. Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. Shaken and Stirred. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. Floating Signifier! 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. Women, Islam, and the New Iraq. Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb.

2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. Bird Flu Targeting the Young. Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. Essay Slavery In American History! Iranian President Defends Countrys Nuclear Ambitions. Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters. Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom. Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.

Mather, Victoria. Burns! In Tiger Country. Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and In American, Ray Jayawardhana. What! The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins. Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.

Petroski, Henry. Slavery! Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. Caremakers Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines. Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. Junk-Food Jihad. National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.

Thomas, Cathy Booth, and hayden dictionary, Tim Padgett. Life Among the Ruins. Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. Essay History! Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs. American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. What Is Self! Article from Essay Slavery In American History, SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS:

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite. Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Burns Poem Mouse! Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art.

20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.

IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Essay In American History! Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Portraits: Ekphrasis! Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Essay Slavery History! Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. Dictionary! (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. Crystallizing a Life in Science. Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The.

Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Slavery History! 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. Hanas Suitcase. Rev. of Hanas Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. Measured Deception. Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and hayden urban, Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. Chinese Torture at Five. Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn.

Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. Hucks Ironic Circle. Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of In American History, Mark Twains. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Poem To A! Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Essay In American, Within , comp.

and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. An Inspector Calls Jb Priestley! 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Hero. Rev. of Essay, Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by an inspector, Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan.

2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. A Life of Pain and Paint. Rev. of Frida , dir. Slavery! Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.

Redekop, Magdalene. Burns Poem To A! The Importance of Being Mennonite. Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. The Image Hunter. Rev. of Slavery In American History, Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by.

Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. Burns Poem To A Mouse! 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip.

A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Essay History! Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . Urban Dictionary! CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and In American History, Cameron MacKeen. Racism and the Landfill. Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. Short Essay! 1992: B1.

CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. History! Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Self Portraits: Ekphrasis Poetry Essay! Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19.

Computer service e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour? New York Times , Late Ed. Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065.

When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. Mug. Def. 2. The New Lexicon Websters Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. Essay In American History! (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. Mouse! May add other information as deemed pertinent between the Essay Slavery, title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in short the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir.

Tim Burton. Based on book by Slavery In American History, Roald Dahl. Perf. Self Portraits: Ekphrasis Essay! Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Essay Slavery History! Charlie and urban dictionary, the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on Essay Slavery book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.

Burton, Tim, dir. Short Essay On Patriotism! Charlie and Essay In American, the Chocolate Factory . Is Self Image! Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,

Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. In American History! Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.

Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.

Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.

The Tuxedo . Calls! Dir. Kevin Donovan. Essay In American History! Prod. On Patriotism! John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:

Canadas Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of In American History, Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. Hayden Dictionary! National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the History, U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the short, details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in Essay Slavery MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.

23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) Title of hayden urban dictionary, Article, Web page or site in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.

6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in Slavery In American History referencing a personal e-mail message where an individuals e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Self Essay! Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or less than and greater than signs at the end of the citation.

Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the In American History, address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. Short Essay! do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. History! Accuracy and clarity are essential.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an short essay on patriotism online database (e.g.

SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in Slavery In American PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. China to Formalize One-Child Policy. Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. Essay! 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. Review of Neuropsychology. SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and Slavery History, George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in to a mouse Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004.

10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest. 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters. Webmaster Tips.

Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. Essay Slavery In American! 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected. Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS.

Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.

Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. Heat Your Home with Biodiesel. Mother Earth News . Burns! 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. Heat Your Home with Biodiesel.

Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for Essay Slavery History an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. Ho Chi Minh. Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005.

Ho Chi Minh. Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an jb priestley online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: Childcare Industry Should Welcome Men. BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct.

2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and Slavery In American, the Abacus. BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech. Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map. Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003.

Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. Congratulations! Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. Hayden Urban! 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.

Schulz, Charles. Peanuts Collection Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock. Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. Woodhull, Victoria C. American History 102 Photo Gallery. Essay Slavery In American! 1997. State. Historical Society of what is self image, Wisconsin. 10 Oct. Essay Slavery In American History! 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. The Creatine Quandry. Bicycling Nov. Calls Jb Priestley! 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Essay Slavery In American History! Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. Re: Link to Musicals101.com. E-mail to is self I. Lee. 10 May 2003.

NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005. E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed. E-mail to Essay Slavery In American History John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. Short Essay! 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for Essay History an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. Keep Spreading the Word. Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,

Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On! Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index Prius Technical . 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct.

2005. http://www.madsci.org. OConnor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. John Wilkins. Feb. 2002. U of St. Portraits: Poetry! Andrews, Scotland. Essay Slavery! 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/

Officer, Lawrence H. Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999. Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. Jazz Age Biographies. The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. Search Engine Math. 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr.

2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. Floating! Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas? Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?

k. Internet citation for a software download: It is Slavery History, not essential to include the file size. Portraits: Essay! Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Slavery In American! Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. Short Essay On Patriotism! 12 Oct.

2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. The Gettysburg Address. 19 Nov. 1863. Essay Slavery History! The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955.

Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Self Ekphrasis Poetry Essay! Internet citation for a work translated and edited by Essay In American, another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Ministers Office. 31 May 2003. Hayden Urban! 13 Apr. Slavery History! 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Floating Signifier! Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. Marriage. Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. Slavery In American History! 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. Hello, He Must Be Going. Editorial. Macleans 26 Aug.

2002: 4. Lange, Rick. U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded. Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. Self Ekphrasis! Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet? Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan.

2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Essay Slavery! Toronto Star 29 Sept. Short On Patriotism! 2002: A1. A letter you received from In American, John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. Essay! 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. Banned in Concord. Letter to In American Charles L. Webster.

18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.

Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. Dallas TX. Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise.

Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in floating signifier lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op.

7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to Slavery the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined.

3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC].

Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.

Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is short on patriotism, house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. History! 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of urban dictionary, book. Essay In American History! 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. Hayden Dictionary! 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.

Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. Essay In American History! National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. Is Self! 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,

Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. Essay! The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.

A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. Hayden! 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. History! Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. Burns Poem! 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Essay In American History! Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . Signifier! New York:

Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. Slavery In American! 226. Sullivan, Louis.

Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan.

Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Hayden Urban! Chapel of Slavery In American History, St. John the Baptist . 1742-51.

Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Portraits: Ekphrasis Essay! Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes).

2) Name of person who took the Slavery In American History, photograph. What Image! 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on In American History CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).

2) Title of what is self, patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie. German Patent 3943917.

July 1996. Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds. US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. Transportation Vehicles and Methods. US Patent 5971091. 31. Slavery! Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disneys The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Self Portraits: Essay, Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir.

Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . Essay Slavery History! By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by calls jb priestley, James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of.

Canada. Essay History! Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Urban! 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto.

20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. History! Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate.

2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. Ekphrasis Poetry! 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn.

CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. New Threat from Osama? By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo.

New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein. By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. The Nightmare Drug. By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.

U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden. AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). Essay! 5) Edition, release, or version.

6) Place of dictionary, publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Essay Slavery In American, Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Floating Signifier! Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by.

The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Slavery In American! Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.

Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. What Is Self! Choirs dir. Slavery! Don and burns, Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.

Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: n.d. means no date available. [c. 1997] means circa 1997. McDonald, Michael. Essay Slavery History! No Lookin Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette.

Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the signifier, 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel.

by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austens Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir.

Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Essay In American History, Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Is Self! Based on Slavery History novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf.

Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of an inspector calls jb priestley, Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and Slavery History, the Munchkins.

MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California. BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use. Diss.

Columbia U, 1962.

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Advantages and Essay Slavery In American, Dis-Advantages of Co-Education. This article describes about the advantages and disadvantages of co education. Read to know the signifier, advantages and disadvantages of In American History co-education. Co-Education means the teaching of both boys and girls in the same school and an inspector calls, under the same roof. It also means imparting the same education to both the sexes without any distinction. This system of education aims at bringing boys and girls together.

It allows free mixing of Essay Slavery sexes without any inhibition. There are many advantages and hardly any disadvantages in the co-educational system of education. The first advantage is that if boys and girls are taught together, there will not be any need for opening separate schools for burns poem, boys and girls. Co-education is an economical system, because both boys and girls can study in same schools and they can be taught by the same staff. Essay Slavery History? Of course certain conservative people criticize the system of co-education. According to them, this system is against our tradition. They also fear that co-education will develop immoral relationships between boys and girls.

They believe that in floating signifier, this system both the boys and girls will be spoilt. But these arguments do not hold much water. How Education Related To The Development Of Our Country. Quality of Education in Slavery History, private technical institutes of India. New Zealand A Perfect Place For Higher Studies. Can privatization of education system and hayden urban, Right to Education Act go together? Right of children to free and compulsory education act 2009. Co-education in schools and Essay Slavery History, colleges give the boys and girls a good. chance for interaction. Nowadays, most families have only one child, either a boy or a girl.

When the child doesn't have any sibling it won't be knowing about the behavior of the other gender. Studying in a co-ed school helps the child to understand the opposite sex and adjust with them. It is a very good views and descriptions on advantages and disadvantages of co-education. Short Essay On Patriotism? But I personnel experienced that the opposite In American, sex friends is very much essential to understand the real life, to share the problems and happiness of an inspector jb priestley life. Apart from the reasons stated above already, co- ed brings about, is in sobering the boy's rash and errant behavior.When there is the Slavery History, presence of what is self fair sexes, the atmosphere remains at its soberest and Essay In American, the coolest best. Essay? Even corporate world is Essay In American applying the floating signifier, policy of employing more and Essay In American, more womens giving them incentives to keep their work places cool. importance of co- education is that children studying in a co-education school learn how to speak in-front of every one just by sending child to the all girls or all boys school we cannot minimize the contact between them . as i sad that there should be co-education because when the child study in co-education he / she will get confident day by day and will be able to speak everywhere .he / she will be able to overcome wrong things by saying it wrong on the other side child studying in all boys school or all girl school will not be able to say it wrong in-front of everyone and essay on patriotism, when the child will give exact answer to their opposite ones they will feel relax and In American History, will be start being confident . A girl or a boy studying in a co- education will have more and more friends as compared to those , those who are studying in non co-education school and burns poem to a, also dare to give back the Slavery, reply to their deffinder. I think that co-education is the best way to make someone educate. It not only educate a person but also vanishes the distance between boys and girls which is really necessary. Girls and boys do not feel shy later if they had taken co-education and this will help to improve their confidence. Co education was good we share our fellings to both boys amd girls.

Co-education is the good way of floating teaching, without the co-education we can't learn any thing. Nowadays the main life start from here and that is Essay History good thing according to my opinion because the floating signifier, girls and boys understand their who is Essay In American better for my life. Self Portraits:? Co-education is very important because it will help you to face the world in future without any fear. I think co education is most important in our life. In co-education we can work in a group. When boys and girls work in. a group they can work in a good manner. They both can express their ideas and can read in a good manner. It is a very good article Santhosh.

All the parents should read and send their children to Essay Slavery In American History, co education school. It gives challenge to floating, them to study more to defeat each other and also in games and other activities. This is interesting and more informative to understand easily. co-education is very useful to love each other sexes. Essay Slavery In American History? This is short essay on patriotism very good article and nice reading it. I strongly support to this statement.. because I feel nowadays its very important and essential part of our life. Co-education system is bad and spoils younger boys and girls now a days. I agree with this article because it helps students or kids to learn how to interact with opposite sex . I think co-education is very essential for both boys and girls because it minimizes the misunderstanding among them. They also start to understand each others personally. Slavery In American? Co-Education is more beneficial for the development of personality of a child. Having read this article on the advantages and disadvantages of co-education I feel that Co-Education is beneficial. I hold the opinion that coeducation must be there because it helps in abolishing the gender barrier.

Coeducation makes the boys understand that girls are also a crucial member of our society so we should respect them and do not harm the self esteem of a girl. Because of coeducation we are becoming extrovert we share our ideas, opinions knowledge between each other that will help in future life to have good bonding and understanding. Floating? At last yes, I must say that because of coeducation women are keeping pace with men. Co-Education is the only way to make mutual understanding between these Genders. It's up to us to Essay Slavery In American History, look at things in a positive or negative way. When we take things positively, the Self Portraits: Ekphrasis Poetry Essay, world really will change and there will be prosperity and In American History, happiness. According to my point of co-education is good for both boys and girls because in this time duration they interact to each other and share all ideas which improve their confidence level.

Co-education is also learn how can you live in personality and well discipline. I couldn't agree more with Coeducation but you didn't point out any disadvantages - you just stated why there are non-coed schools. Nice article about the pros and floating, cons of co-education. This article helped me to score high marks in my essay competition. Thank you. CO education must be made compulsory in India. For long, generations have evolved with misplaced notions about the other sex resulting in hyped up imaginations and skewed stereotyping.

Women are worst hit in this regard. It is mandatory that boys consider girls as equals and Essay Slavery History, vice versa. The tendency to typecast girls into rigid categories - God mother, glamour doll or passive servant - must go away immediately if women have semblance of chance to walk on equal terms in the society. Co education will go a long way in bringing up this mental shift among boys and men at large. Being the most popular educational website in poem to a mouse, India, we believe in providing quality content to our readers. If you have any questions or concerns regarding any content published here, feel free to contact us using the Contact link below.

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essay marcus borg Marcus Borg and the Language of the Slavery In American Bible. Reading the Bible Again for the First Time: Taking the Bible Seriously but not Literally. by Marcus J. Borg. Harper Collins, 321 pp. New Testament scholar Marcus Borg is short, a religious thinker who thinks in stages.

A period characterized by certain convictions finally proves inadequate to knowledge or experience and must give way to a new set of convictions. Unlike many modern scholars, however, Borg realizes that these new convictions need not be anti-religious. In an autobiographical essay , one reads of Slavery History his personal religious development as a progress through stages: he presents the nave belief of his youth, followed by a period of troubled atheism, developing in university into a quest to understand Jesus in relation to the political and social problems of image his day. For some years Borg has been working out the implications of a recent stage, a Christian faith one might call nascently postmodern. Is the stage he is now pursuing prelude to a new, more spiritually attuned Christianity--as he and Essay History likeminded liberal Christians believe--or is it herald rather to the demise of floating signifier Christianity? One may rightly ask this question.

My focus here will not so much be such general questions as the question of how Borg reads the Bible. I approach Borg's methods of biblical interpretation by Essay In American, considering his book Reading the Bible Again for the First Time , where he offers readings of important biblical texts, including Genesis, the prophets, Job and Ecclesiastes, the gospels, Paul's letters and Revelation. For my concerns, the most interesting sections of the book come before the specific readings, so I will mainly take up his first chapters, in which he addresses the more general questions of biblical interpretation, i.e.: What kind of book is the Bible? How are we to interpret biblical texts? One can't deny that Borg makes persuasive arguments against the fundamentalists, those who call themselves Bible-believing Christians and who define their belief via the insistence that everything narrated in the Bible is literally, factually, historically true. Fundamentalists believe their argument for the inerrancy of the Bible is in line with traditional Christianity. Borg demonstrates that it is not: They typically see themselves as affirming the old-time religion--that is, Christianity as it was before the modern period. In fact, however, as we shall see, their approach itself is short on patriotism, modern, largely the product of a particular form of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Protestant theology. (5) As Borg explains it, Bible literalists, unbeknownst to themselves, have been made pawns of the very Enlightenment culture they struggle against.

How could this be? It is a result of the pervasiveness of Enlightenment views of Essay Slavery History reality and how we ground our knowledge of reality. All of us raised and educated in floating modern Western societies have, whether we like it or not, been indoctrinated with generally Enlightenment views. As Borg likes to put it, we are fact fundamentalists. Essay? We learn early on that statements of truth must be factually verifiable: any statement that doesn't correspond to the facts cannot be true. Poem Mouse? Not factually true, it is false, or, worse, simply nonsense. Our culture's deeply ingrained respect for facts is a result of the Essay Slavery success of Enlightenment science, which we credit with all the technological breakthroughs of the modern world. As Borg would point out, however, the pervasiveness of poem mouse science in our world has made us deaf to other sorts of truth than the merely factual or material. Specifically, we've lost the ability to Essay Slavery understand broadly metaphorical truths.

As fact fundamentalists, we assume that anyone intending to say something important will use a fact-based manner of presentation. This, after all, is how scientists and researchers state the truth, so it must be the way to state the truth. According to Borg, religious fundamentalists, who also live in the modern world, anachronistically impose this Enlightenment perspective on on patriotism, the Bible. They mistakenly assume the Essay Slavery writers of biblical times shared our fact-based understanding of how to communicate truth. Fundamentalists are thus led to insist on the factual inerrancy of the Bible because, as moderns, they tacitly believe anything not grounded in historical fact will lose its authority. Indeed, given their narrowly modern perspective, they assume it could never have had any authority to what is self image begin with.

In this way Borg shows that fundamentalists are duped by Essay In American, the very modernity they struggle against: insisting on the literal truth of the Bible, they risk shrinking the Bible down to the size of a high school science textbook. The problem is very clear: the Bible's manner of conveying truth is not and what never was that of a textbook. Biblical writers did not share our obsession with fact-based presentation: their palette was more varied, and their works wove history and metaphor with a boldness we no longer appreciate. Though Borg doubtless somewhat overstates his case, he is here generally persuasive. He shows throughout how biblical texts often contain internal cues as to their metaphorical intent. And he stresses that a literal reading was not necessarily the Essay Slavery normal way of approaching the Bible even in the early centuries of Church history. Consider the following quote on the Genesis narratives: What intelligent person can imagine that there was a first day, then a second and third day, evening and morning, without the sun, the moon, and the stars? [Sun, moon, and stars are created on the fourth day.] And that the first day--if it makes sense to call it such--existed even without a sky? [The sky is urban, created on the second day.] Who is foolish enough to believe that, like a human gardener, God planted a garden in Eden in the East and placed in it a tree of life, visible and physical, so that by biting into its fruit one would obtain life? And that by eating from another tree, one would come to Slavery In American know good and evil? And when it is said that God walked in the garden in the evening and that Adam hid himself behind a tree, I cannot imagine that anyone will doubt that these details point symbolically to short essay on patriotism spiritual meanings by using a historical narrative which did not literally happen. (70-1)

These words do not come from a modern liberal Christian seeking to water down the Bible's authority, but from the History distinguished 3rd century Church father Origen. To men and women who lived before modernity, a story didn't necessarily have to be factual to merit reverence. They recognized other modes of truth. Though Origen affirmed that he saw much of the Bible as historical, he also insisted many things were recorded as having occurred, but which did not literally take place, and calls that even the gospels themselves are filled with the same kind of narratives. Such statements may seem odd coming from one of the greatest of ancient Christian writers. But, according to Borg, it is In American, we moderns who have become odd. Floating Signifier? He writes:

The modern preoccupation with factuality has had a pervasive and distorting effect on how we see the Bible and Christianity. Essay Slavery In American History? . . . Christianity in an inspector the modern period became preoccupied with the dynamic of believing or not believing. For many people, believing iffy claims to be true became the central meaning of Christian faith. It is an odd notion--as if what God most wants from us is believing highly problematic statements to be factually true. And if one can't believe them, then one doesn't have faith and isn't a Christian. (16) For Borg the In American Bible is neither infallible nor somehow a transcription, written down by dictation, of the words of God. Rather it records the experiences of God of the ancient Israelites and the early Christian movement. The Bible is thus a record made by human beings, a human product, but one that nevertheless communicates a reality. According to signifier Borg, God is not a fiction or a lie but a real presence known in human experience: To see the Bible as a human product does not in any way deny the reality of Essay In American History God. Indeed, one of the central premises of this book is that God is real and can be experienced.

I have put that as simply as I know how. At the risk of short essay on patriotism repetition, I mean that God (or the Essay Slavery History sacred or Spirit, terms that I use synonymously) is a reality known in human experience, and short essay not simply a human creation or projection. That God is real, however, does not mean that there can be any perfect human explanation of God or God's will. And this includes the Bible. Of course, whatever we say about the Essay Slavery sacred is a human creation.

We cannot talk about God (or anything else) except with the words, symbols, stories, concepts, and categories known to us, for they are the only language we have. Nevertheless, we also have experiences of the holy, the numinous, the sacred. These experiences go beyond language, shatter it, relativize it. (22) For Borg, the sacred is mainly to be found in these experiences of God. If any scripture results from such experiences, that is necessarily a secondary phenomenon. Hayden Dictionary? If the Bible is sacred, then, it not because it is the Word of God in the sense of Essay a Word that came directly from God, but rather because it is recognized as sacred by the community of calls Christian believers. Slavery In American? The sacred character of the Bible is an inspector calls jb priestley, grounded in its status as record of the History ancient experiences of God most valued by the Christian community. The Christian community, in is self turn, is Slavery In American History, constituted by the Bible through constant dialogue with its texts, which dialogue Borg understands as one of the central sacraments of Christian faith. To put all this another way, one might say that the Bible is not sacred in origin (it is not a direct product of what is self divine composition) but only in Essay In American status (it is a crucial ground of Christian experience of the sacred).

Borg writes: The older, conventional way of seeing the Bible grounded scripture's authority in its origin: the is self image Bible was sacred because it came from God. Slavery? The result was a monarchical model of an inspector biblical authority. Slavery In American History? Like an ancient monarch, the Bible stands over us, telling us what to believe and do. But seeing the calls Bible as sacred in its status leads to a different model of biblical authority. . Essay In American? . Floating Signifier? . The result: the monarchical model of biblical authority is Slavery In American, replaced by a dialogical model of biblical authority. In other words, the biblical canon names the primary collection of ancient documents with which Christians are to be in an inspector jb priestley continuing dialogue. This continuing conversation is definitive and History constitutive of Christian identity. . Portraits: Ekphrasis Essay? . . Yet because the Bible is a human product as well as sacred scripture, the continuing dialogue needs to be a critical conversation. There are parts of the Bible that we will decide need not or should not be honored, either because we discern that they were relevant to ancient times but not to our own, or because we discern that they were never the will of God.

To be Christian means to Slavery In American History live within the world created by the Bible. Borg elaborates on what such living entails in what is self his discussion of the Bible as a sacrament: a vehicle by which God becomes present, a means through which the Spirit is experienced. History? (30-1) Borg's arguments are powerful and well thought out, particularly as regards the blindess induced in modern Christians by hayden urban, our fact-obsessed modernity. Slavery? Though there are directions in which I wouldn't follow Borg, I agree with him on much. Still, I believe in this work he has not adequately addressed the issue of language and essay on patriotism the divine. For Borg--it is a point to which he returns repeatedly--the language of the Bible is human : both its glories and limitations come from its being a human product. As educated Christians, we admire the brilliance of biblical writers even as we recognize their (sometimes obsolete) culturally determined prejudices. According to Borg, humanity most quintessentially encounters the divine in experiences of God, which are understood to be somehow separate from the language in which they are (later?) recorded. In American History? Thus the hayden urban biblical writers' strictly human language is Essay Slavery, placed on one side as an instrument used to record what is seen, on the other, as the more essential experience. There are various problems raised by this model.

One is that it simplifies how biblical texts came to be written. For instance, we cannot really say that the writer of the Gospel of John experienced the content of his gospel one day and then wrote it down the next, as if taking belated notes on a meeting he'd had earlier. I would argue instead that the floating signifier interplay between experience and language is much more complex--even that language itself is in Slavery In American many cases a bridge to experience. Borg's model underestimates both the power and centrality of language: he puts language too exclusively on the human side of a divide between God and humanity. I myself believe (and of course I know it is not a widely shared belief) that our linguistic faculty is itself already partly divine. Through language, and particularly at certain privileged moments, the divine speaks in us. Is Self? This is how the biblical prophets experienced language, and it explains, in my own understanding, a crucial part of the meaning of Christ as the Essay In American Word made Flesh. The Bible is dictionary, not entirely a human product; to some degree, the language of the Essay Slavery Bible came about across a bridge between God and ourselves. Though sharing much with other species, we human beings are endowed, very mysteriously, with the power of language.

Neither does any other species have anything approaching the floating signifier complexity and power of human language, nor does any human community have a language that is less than fully developed: i.e., there is no such thing as a human group with a simple or primitive language. Language, in all its complexity, is Essay Slavery, part of the human makeup. And with the dictionary power of language come other characteristics unique to History our species, such as self-consciousness, reasoning ability, and religious sense. But where did our linguistic faculty itself come from, or, in to a mouse evolutionary terms, how did it develop? Linguists, anthropologists, geneticists and In American History brain scientists have struggled to answer this question, but a satisfying answer remains elusive. I would insist that this extraordinary faculty is the sign of some fundamental difference between us and other species, and that it is in Self Portraits: Ekphrasis Poetry Essay this faculty, more than in our apelike shape, that we should see the meaning of the line in Genesis: So God created man in his image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. (Gen. 1:27) For me, to be created in the image of God is to be created as linguistic, thinking beings. (NB: Although I use the Slavery language of creation here, I do not reject the essay theory of evolution.

On the contrary, evolution is the most compelling explanation of the physical origin of species, including our own. But evolution is not necessarily the Essay most compelling explanation of everything that concerns the universe and image life. Creation in my thinking was an Slavery History, oblique event: we are the species evolved to a point at which the linguistic and spiritual bridge to God opens. That this opening may be in short on patriotism part the result of a multitude of chance mutations does not mean there is no God or no creation; it only means that the Essay In American material universe was set to throwing the dice until such an an inspector jb priestley, opening should be made. After which. . . .) Our religious tradition, its understanding of God, forefronts language like no other. According to the first chapters of Essay Slavery In American History Genesis, creation itself was effected through language: And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. (Gen. 1:3) The God who created through language is subsequently shown ordering the human world through it.

The first human beings were expelled from the Garden of Eden because they ignored God's express verbal command (and it was the verbal wiles of the serpent that undid them); the Tower of Babel story shows human pride defeated through a newly instituted multiplicity of languages; the patriarch Abraham is not given a kingdom or some special power but is rather made party to a covenant (a verbal agreement); both Mosaic law and the prophets are a matter of getting the correct verbal expressions of God's will for humanity. In the New Testament, Jesus comes teaching like the prophets, and is called the Word made Flesh. His common refrain is: He who has ears to hear, let him hear. At one point in his presentation, Borg argues against seeing the Bible as a part-human, part-divine product: [A]ffirming that the dictionary Bible is both divine and human leads to the attempt to separate the divine parts from the Essay Slavery In American History human parts--as if some of it comes from God and hayden urban some is a human product. The parts that come from God are then given authority, and the others are not. But the In American parts that we think come from God are normally the parts we see as important, and thus we simply confer divine authority on what matters to burns poem to a us, whether we be conservatives or liberals. (27) I agree that this will happen. Nonetheless the Essay Slavery Bible is an inspector calls, certainly such a divine/human product: the text is both shot through with divine formulations--expressions the Spirit forged in the crucible of the human mind--and inflected throughout by Essay History, the dross of human mania and error. There is doubtless no single section of the Bible that is not in this way an floating, admixture of the divine and In American History human. Yet though we recognize the Bible is such a work, we will still be forever unable to separate out what comes from poem to a God and what is merely our own prejudice about God. This, however, is an Essay, attendant part of the human condition: we see though a glass darkly.

The closest Borg comes to my own view of biblical language is in a discussion of the Bible as the poem to a World of God, where he writes: Word is being used in a metaphorical and nonliteral sense. As with metaphors generally, this one resonates with more than one nuance of meaning. In American? A word is a means of communication, involving both speaking and essay on patriotism hearing. A word is a means of disclosure; we disclose or reveal ourselves through words. Words bridge the distance between ourselves and others: we commune and become intimate through words.

. . . . The Bible is a means of divine self-disclosure. (33-4) By evoking speaking, hearing and a distance to be bridged, Borg is Essay In American, getting close to contradicting himself. Hayden Urban Dictionary? According to his repeatedly stated principle, it is not God we hear in Essay In American the Bible, but men speaking of Portraits: Poetry Essay God. In American History? How then is the Bible a means of divine self-disclosure? Though I find Borg's solution to Portraits: the problem of the origin of the Bible to be unsatisfactory, his chapter on basic reading approaches, in which he explains the historical-metaphorical method, is excellent. Many of his points here have long been understood by readers, going back even to ancient times, but in our world of atheist materialists on the one hand and biblical literalists on the other, such ideas need the kind of clear presentation Borg gives. He concludes the chapter by presenting three stages Bible readers may go through: precritical naivete ; critical thinking ; postcritical naivete . I believe his stages are roughly right for many modern Christians, but think he'd be better served calling the third stage postcritical belief . Perhaps he doesn't because of his stress on the experiential and sacramental over the, for him, more fraught term belief . In any case, for me a postcritical belief would imply a belief in the sacred character and central importance of the Bible, not a belief that all its narratives were factually true. As Borg points out, many pre-Englightenment cultures accepted that factually untrue stories could nonetheless be profoundly true:

Postcritical naivete is the ability to Slavery History hear the biblical stories once again as true stories, even as one knows that they may not be factually true and that their truth does not depend upon their factuality. This way of hearing sacred stories is what is self image, widespread in premodern cultures. Essay In American History? In Arabia, traditional storytellers begin their stories with This was, and this was not. . Floating Signifier? . . A favorite of mine is the way a Native American storyteller begins telling his tribe's story of Essay In American creation: Now I don't know if it happened this way or not, but I know this story is true. If you can get your mind around that statement, then you know what postcritical naivete is. (50) There are many aspects of Borg's book I haven't addressed. Most obviously, I haven't referred to any of essay his readings of biblical texts. As stated above, the bulk of Slavery In American History Reading the Bible Again for burns poem mouse, the First Time is given to explicating important biblical books in terms of his historical-metaphorical method. Much of Essay In American it is well worth reading, especially the chapters on the Pentateuch, the poem to a mouse gospels, and his well-balanced poetic defense of Revelation. In an epilogue, Borg writes: [This] book reflects my personal perceptions.

I do not have an objective vantage point outside of my own history. History? . . . For me, this book comes down to what I have been able to see thus far about how to Portraits: Ekphrasis Poetry Essay read the Bible. Essay? (297) Such disarming statements are ultimately true, of course, but they are also somewhat belied by the amount of scholarship behind Borg's readings. After all, he has decades of study shaping his perceptions of the Bible; his personal interpretations are, to no small degree, a matter of what modern scholarship has allowed him to see. Portraits:? Borg struggles to Slavery be responsible both to short on patriotism his Christian faith and to Essay Slavery History what modernity has revealed to him. Whether he has been successful in this double allegiance is up to the reader to decide. Borg himself might argue, of course, that it is not a double allegiance and that it is not up to floating signifier the reader to decide in any case. He might insist that success or failure here is a matter to be worked out in his personal relationship with God, in his own experience of the Christian tradition as a multifaceted sacrament. According to Slavery In American such a vision of the signifier Christian life, this--and not forced adherence to any creed--would be the truth of Christianity for the (post)modern faithful.

Many discard the Slavery History lot of Borg's perceptions, some embrace him as a brother in the Spirit; others, like myself, toss back some of Borg's catch, but keep a few fine fish. NB: An excellent book for further pursuing Borg's thinking--and in which one can read some. very pointed criticism of that thinking--is The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions. Floating Signifier? Borg co-authors the. book with N.T. Wright, Bishop of Durham for the Church of England and Slavery a leading conservative Jesus scholar.

The liberal Borg and the conservative Wright take turns penning chapters on. crucial elements of the biblical Jesus traditions from the messianic vocation to the resurrection. Both are cutting-edge scholars, and each, in poem mouse my judgment, wins certain parts of their extended debate. For newcomers to Essay Slavery History these two writers, I'd recommend first taking up Reading the Bible. Again for the First Time , then going on to The Meaning of Jesus .