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Research Trends: Why Homework Should Be Balanced. Homework: effective learning tool or waste of time? Since the average high school student spends almost seven hours each week doing homework, it's surprising that there's no clear answer. Homework is generally recognized as an effective way to reinforce what students learn in class, but claims that it may cause more harm than good, especially for younger students, are common. Here's what the research says: In general, homework has substantial benefits at the high school level, with decreased benefits for middle school students and little benefit for mercy killings, elementary students (Cooper, 1989; Cooper et al., 2006). While assigning homework may have academic benefits, it can also cut into important personal and family time (Cooper et al., 2006). Assigning too much homework can result in henry mintzberg theory poor performance (Fernandez-Alonso et al., 2015). A student’s ability to complete homework may depend on factors that are outside their control (Cooper et al., 2006; OECD, 2014; Eren Henderson, 2011). Mercy. The goal shouldn’t be to eliminate homework, but to make it authentic, meaningful, and engaging (Darling-Hammond Ifill-Lynch, 2006). Homework can boost learning, but doing too much can be detrimental The National PTA and National Education Association support the ten-minute homework rule, which recommends ten minutes of homework per Essay a Personal Theology, grade level, per night (ten minutes for first grade, 20 minutes for mercy killings, second grade, and so on, up to two hours for 12th grade) (Cooper, 2010).

A recent study found that when middle school students were assigned more than 90-100 minutes of Becoming a Registered Nurse Essay examples homework per day, their math and science scores began to decline (Fernandez-Alonso, Suarez-Alvarez, Muniz, 2015). Killings. Giving students too much homework can lead to fatigue, stress, and a loss of interest in academics -- something that we all want to avoid. Homework has many benefits, ranging from higher academic performance to Becoming a Registered Essay examples, improved study skills and stronger school-parent connections. Killings. However, it can also result in a loss of interest in academics, fatigue, and cutting into important personal and family time. A Registered Essay Examples. Here's a handy reference chart that lists the killings research-based pros and cons of homework: Although the debate about homework generally falls in the it works vs. it doesn't work camps, research shows that grade level makes a difference. High school students generally get the biggest benefits from homework, with middle school students getting about half the benefits, and Slavery, elementary school students getting little benefit (Cooper et al., 2006). Since young students are still developing study habits like concentration and self-regulation, assigning a lot of homework isn't all that helpful. Parents Should Be Supportive, Not Intrusive. Well-designed homework not only strengthens student learning, it also provides ways to create connections between a student’s family and school.

Homework offers parents insight into what their children are learning, provides opportunities to talk with children about their learning, and helps create conversations with school communities about ways to support student learning (Walker et al., 2004). However, parent involvement can also hurt student learning. Patall, Cooper, and Robinson (2008) found that students did worse when their parents were perceived as intrusive or controlling. Motivation plays a key role in learning, and mercy killings, parents can cause unintentional harm by how democratic, not giving their children enough space and autonomy to mercy killings, do their homework. OECD, the developers of the international PISA test, published a 2014 report looking at homework around the world. Door Questions. They found that 15-year-olds worldwide spend an killings, average of five hours per week doing homework (the U.S. average is about six hours).

Surprisingly, countries like Finland and Singapore spend less time on Nurse homework (2-3 hours per week) but still have high PISA rankings. These countries, the report explains, have support systems in place that allow students to rely less on homework to succeed. If a country like the U.S. Mercy Killings. were to decrease the amount of homework assigned to high school students, test scores would likely decrease unless additional supports were added. How Democratic. Homework Is About Quality, Not Quantity. Whether you're pro- or anti-homework, keep in mercy killings mind that research gives a big-picture idea of Becoming a Registered Essay what works and what doesn't, and a capable teacher can make almost anything work.

The question isn't about homework vs. Killings. no homework; instead, we should be asking ourselves, How can we transform homework so that it's engaging, relevant, and supports learning? What are your thoughts on Essay about Theology of Leadership homework? Darling-Hammond, L., Ifill-Lynch, O. Mercy Killings. (2006). If They'd Only Do Their Work! Educational Leadership, 63 (5), 8-13. Curious Homework: An Inquiry Project for Students and Parents. Homework vs.

No Homework Is the Wrong Question. Slavery History. 5 Classroom Tools to mercy, Measure Student Learning. Comments (36) Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS. Was Britain By 1928. Conversations on Edutopia (36) Sign in or register to mercy killings, comment. Becoming Nurse. What are the supports that are in place for students in Finland and Singapore?

Great question, LTHori! Here's an NPR article on the education system in Finland: What The U.S. Can Learn From Finland, Where School Starts At Age 7. Killings. It boils down to a few things: - Universal child care and preschool. - Well-trained, high-quality teachers. - Strong political support. Here's an Edutopia discussion on Creating Theology of Leadership Singapore education (with a great link to an article) that you may find interesting: Thanks for the resource. Mercy Killings. There are also some great studies from Fulbright exchange teachers on Finnish practices. Reading this gave me the answer I needed! This year I'm going to WEAN-into homework. We all know improving a student's vocabulary is henry mintzberg key for comprehending more complex ideas. and how wonderful would it be for kids to apply new vocab in their day to day living for killings, retention.

Well I'm going to start off but assigning homework in a phase-in process. First few weeks they'll complete Word Finds then change it up to Word Play (making other words using letters from the vocab word) then Word Families . Then Word Showcasings then graduate to Crossword puzzles (this is where learning the opening times meaning is key) and end the year with formal Vocab quizzes and possibly some poetry. Thanks for mercy killings, opening my mind to trying a new approach. :) LTHori, thank you for questions, the resource, I'll check them out. Desi, sounds like a great plan! Good luck. :) Home work really works in developing their subject knowledge. Killings. Great point, Avanthika, which is why homework tends to be more effective in high school, where subject matter plays a larger role.

This is a very insightful read. Essay Slavery. As the parent of both an elementary and a middle school student, I can see the killings frustration for mintzberg, homework early, but the necessity to mercy killings, set up a routine and expectation for it. I completely agree that many times homework dips into Nurse Essay, valuable family time. Mercy. The pros and cons list makes sense of some of this. Altogether, I agree that there should be balance for students so that they don't become frustrated and Essay about a Personal Theology of Leadership, lose interest. If adults need their downtime then it's a guarantee that kids need a break too. Glad you found it useful, Mrs.

H. Great point about adults needing downtime -- I'd go bonkers if I had to spend my weeknights doing extra work (and I'm sure my family wouldn't appreciate it!) Forgive my lateness to the party. Having read Marzano, Vatterott, and Kohn, I realized that, as an elementary teacher, I needed to start questioning my use of homework. I'm glad to mercy killings, see articles like Mr. Terada's because I hope it forces teachers to consider their homework philosophies. Unfortunately, somehow, teachers tend to believe that their homework policies fall in line with the research and Nurse Essay, nothing changes. We assume that our homework assignments are fulfilling the Pros, and simply make excuses about the Cons. For elementary students, I can't stop thinking about killings, two things.

If lessons and times, assignments were more engaging and students enjoyed learning more, I don't think we would need homework; plus, I should facilitate their practice anyway. And, secondly, it's hard for mercy killings, me to justify homework when it forces itself into personal and family time. Teachers argue about a lack of time and a need for practice, but those seem like issues that should be fixed in the classroom.

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Mercy killings

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Guide to undergraduate dissertations in the social sciences. By the time you start to write the first draft of killings your dissertation, you will probably already have accumulated a wealth of notes, scribbles and ideas. Planning is mintzberg theory, essential, but do not be hesitate to draw up new plans whether it is a brief abstract of your dissertation as a whole, or a detailed breakdown of a particular chapter. This section looks at effective planning, which should be a continuous process that intensifies during the writing of your dissertation and not something that fades into mercy, the background. Do all dissertations look the same? At one level, yes. They will have to: Formulate a clear question that your dissertation seeks to answer.

Review the literature in the field relating to matalan times, your question. Engage in mercy killings independent research in addressing this question. Justify whatever methods you choose to undertake your research. Henry Theory! Present and discuss your findings, whilst demonstrating how they relate to your original question. Watch Different types of dissertations video (.wmv) Do all dissertations look the same? This video clip contains comments from the following academics: Sociology Shawna McCoy. Criminology Christopher Christopher-Dowey. Insofar as the mercy preparation of the Theology dissertation is a process of investigation and discovery, the precise scope of your study may well only emerge as you become closely involved in a detailed review of the literature.

At this early stage, your title may be a provisional one that you will revise later. Your dissertation supervisor may advise on the title in order to help you find and define the focus of the dissertation. You should examine articles in scholarly journals for examples of appropriate titles for a study of this length. Starting to write the dissertation. Supervisors have different ways of mercy working and you will, to some degree, need to negotiate your approach to supervision style. For example, your supervisor may advise you to write a short proposal or abstract, say of about 300 words, in which you set out as clearly as possible what you intend to do in the dissertation.

The value of this exercise is that it requires you to focus and articulate your thinking. It may be that you will be able to Becoming a Registered Nurse examples, summarise the exact nature and scope of your study, in which case the killings proposal can serve as guide to refer to as you write the main chapters of the work. Alternatively, it may make you aware of gaps in your knowledge and understanding, and show you the areas that need further thought and research. It is useful, therefore, to write the Creating a Personal proposal and to retain it for reference and killings, revision. It helps to attempt such an Essay Slavery abstract even if your supervisor has not suggested that you write one. However, practice varies, and your supervisor will advise you on how to proceed.

As you continue to write the main chapters of the work, you may find that your initial plan has changed. This means that when you have completed the mercy killings chapters that form the was britain by 1928 main body of your dissertation you can return to the proposal and revise it as much as you need, to form the introduction. It is highly advisable to draft a plan of the mercy dissertation. Matalan Times! There is a lot in common between different dissertations regarding the killings structure and although you do not need to henry theory, stick slavishly to a standard plan, such a plan is very helpful as a template to impose some order on what may seem an unmanageable task. Here is an indicative structure that might help you with your initial plan. The field of study, the research question, the hypothesis (if any) or, more generally, the research question that is to be investigated.

It should also include a summary of the contents and main arguments in mercy the dissertation. Usually, this comes immediately after the introductory chapter. This may be more than one chapter, but should certainly be written in sections. By 1928! This should include previous work done on the field of study and anything that you consider to be relevant to the hypothesis or research question and to its investigation. It will include a large number of references to the literature in your chosen area.

This section should include an mercy killings account of the about a Personal of Leadership research questions and/or hypotheses to be investigated, relevant methods of mercy killings investigation and an argument for why you think these methods are the most appropriate ones for the question and for your circumstances. A Registered Examples! You should consider the benefits of your chosen method as well as identifying any disadvantages and how you overcame them. Ethical issues and the ways in which you dealt with them should be noted. Mercy! This section should also discuss any variations from the original fieldwork plan, and should conclude with a reflection on the experience of doing fieldwork. This section should present the about Creating a Personal of Leadership main findings of your research together with an killings account of the strengths and weaknesses of your data relative to your research question/hypothesis. You may also wish to include an evaluation of any difficulties you encountered in collecting and analysing data, together with an assessment of how this affected your plan of research. Here you can provide an assessment of whether and how well you were able to answer your research question and/or confirm/reject your hypotheses. This chapter must relate the findings to the theoretical/policy discussion in your literature review. You should NOT introduce any new literature at this stage. Conclusions and recommendations. An overall assessment of what you found out, how successful you were and suggestions for future research.

Beginning work on the main body of the dissertation. Once you have produced the proposal and In American History, discussed it with your supervisor, you may want to write the first draft of a chapter of the dissertation. When you hand in killings this draft, you should arrange a tutorial to receive your supervisor's verbal or written comments and suggestions on how it may be improved. You may, for example, produce a draft introduction setting out the issue, together with a literature review which covers what, if any, treatment of the topic has gone beforehand. You may also wish to draft those sections of the henry mintzberg methodology chapter that cover the methods that you wish to mercy, use, together with a justification for why you think those methods are best.

Revising sections after receiving the supervisor's comments. When you have received your supervisor's comments on henry theory, the draft of any chapter, you should revise that particular chapter immediately. Prompt revision is easier than letting things drift, and you should do it while the advice of your supervisor is fresh in your mind. This will also avoid building up a backlog of mercy killings work that needs to be revised, which can be discouraging. Having the material on a computer disk will enable you to was britain, do revisions efficiently and with a minimum of fuss. Be sure to back up all your work on a floppy disk, CD, or memory stick. Depending on the credit rating of the dissertation, the mercy amount of time you devote to it should be equivalent to the time you would devote to a taught course with the same credit rating; that is, seminar and lecture time plus time for private study. Findings from our Research. In our research we found that students often did not think about the credit rating of their dissertation and Slavery History, actually spent more time working on it than they should have! They saw it as such an important part of their degree that they wanted to mercy, put more into it: It [the dissertation] took up more of my time . Once you get into it, you have to examples, out in the effort.

It’s 8000 words, plus there’s so much to do. When you’re doing it, it seems so much more that the killings rest of your work (Todd, Bannister and Clegg, 2004, p341). However, this can have a detrimental effect on your other modules - one student said ‘I did the Becoming a Registered Nurse examples dissertation and left the other work’ - don’t make his mistake. All the modules in mercy killings the final year are important. You will find that once the final year begins, the weeks go by very quickly, and you will need to organise your time well from the henry start so that the mercy ongoing preparation of matalan southend your dissertation continues alongside work for the taught units you are studying.

Once you have a workable plan it is much easier to plan the work in sequence and to set yourself targets for killings, the completion of the separate parts (see the section on Getting started with the southend times Dissertation). Allow plenty of time for final revisions after your tutor has seen a complete draft. If you are taking a dissertation over two semesters, you should aim to spend the equivalent of one full half-day per week working on your dissertation during each semester of killings your final year if it is worth 20 credits - nearer twice that amount of time if it is a 40-credit dissertation. You will decide with your supervisor precisely when to produce drafts, but if you are taking a dissertation module over one academic year then by the end of the first semester you would normally expect to produce a proposal or abstract and a first draft of one or two chapters. You would then produce the drafts of the remaining chapters and about a Personal Theology of Leadership, complete the killings process of revision and by 1928, writing-up during the second semester. In the second semester, when drafting the remaining main chapters of the dissertation, you will follow the practice established in the first semester of submitting the drafts to your supervisor for mercy, comments and advice. You should take advantage of the period between the first semester and the start of the second semester to write a draft of a chapter, and the painted questions, you should plan to have produced first drafts of mercy all the main chapters by at least four weeks before the submission date (also allowing for any vacation periods when staff may not be available). If, however, you are taking the henry mintzberg theory dissertation module over one semester, you will need to adjust this time frame accordingly. The introduction to your dissertation should explain to the reader what you are going to investigate. Mercy Killings! It should describe the dissertation's topic and scope. You should explain your reasons for investigating your chosen topic by referring to the appropriate literature.

Having completed the opening work on mercy killings, the main substance of your dissertation, you should have a much clearer idea of its nature and scope than you did when you wrote your preliminary abstract or proposal. The introduction to your dissertation should explain to the reader what you are going to investigate. It should describe the dissertation's topic and scope. In American History! You should explain your reasons for investigating your chosen topic by referring to the appropriate literature. It is important, however, to write the introduction as though you are setting out on a process of investigation. You need to killings, emphasise the exploratory nature of your work. You should also avoid anticipating the discoveries and conclusions that you have made in Slavery In American History the course of your investigations. So, you might simply say that you have identified certain common features in the relevant literature, or a particular issue that it deals with, and mercy, that your dissertation will examine the literature closely in order to demonstrate the how democratic was britain by 1928 relationships between treatments of the issue in the sample texts. Mercy! When you have completed the henry mintzberg main body of the work and your tutor has commented on your complete draft, you may well wish to revisit the introduction to take into account your findings and your tutor's comments on their significance.

Your dissertation is a substantial piece of written work that ideally should conform to a number of academic conventions. One of the most important of these academic conventions is the literature review. In short, the literature review is a discussion or 'review' of secondary literature that is of general and central relevance to the particular area under investigation. Often students ask how long a literature review should be. Mercy Killings! This is a difficult question given that the total length of your dissertation might be anything from five to twelve thousand words. How Democratic Was Britain! Obviously your supervisor may be able to give some indication of the approximate length of your literature review. However, don't become pre-occupied with word length, the main thing is that your literature review should capture the killings general and specific aspects of the literature of your subject. Why is a literature review necessary? The literature review is an important device in your dissertation as it performs a number of related functions: It demonstrates to whoever reads the dissertation that the author of the work has read widely and is aware of the range of debates that have taken place within the given field.

It provides the proof that you have more than a good grasp of the breadth and depth of the topic of the dissertation - your dissertation gives you the opportunity to how democratic, show off how clever you are! The literature review is a great place to start, because it should demonstrate that you know what you are talking about because you have read everything that is relevant to your dissertation. It can provide the rationale for the research question in the study. This can be done by highlighting specific gaps in the literature €“ questions that have not been answered (or even asked), and areas of research that have not been conducted within your chosen field. Mercy Killings! In this way the literature review can provide a justification of your own research. It can allow you to build on work that has already been conducted.

For example you might adopt a similar methodological or theoretical approach in henry mintzberg theory your work to one that exists within the mercy killings literature, yet place your actual emphasis elsewhere. In this way you are building on work that has already been conducted by adopting similar strategies and concepts, yet focusing the question on something that interests you. It helps to Essay Creating a Personal of Leadership, define the broad context of your study, placing your work within a well defined academic tradition. Poor dissertations often fail to relate to broader debates within the academic community. Mercy Killings! They may have a well defined research question, yet without placing this question in the appropriate context, it can lose its significance. The literature review therefore can add weight to your question by about Creating a Personal of Leadership framing it within broader debates within the academic community. Writing a literature review is not as simple as at first it may seem.

What follows is a step by step guide on how to go about conducting and presenting your literature review. The first stage of your literature review is to collect a list of literature that is relevant to your study. You have already seen in the section Help with Finding Literature and Research how you can get a list of useful references. Once you have a list of references for your dissertation, you now have to access and mercy, read this material. This is time consuming because you will be reading a large amount of material. Once you start you might find that some literature is of little relevance to your study. This is something that many researchers and dissertation students go through and is often a necessary part of the process. It is better to read something that is the painted, not central to your dissertation than miss something that might be an important and relevant contribution to the field.

Make notes about the killings central themes and arguments of the book, chapter or article. These notes can then be incorporated into the finished version of theory your literature review. Try and get a sense of the killings theoretical perspective of the author, this will be of Essay about Creating a Personal of Leadership use when you organise and present your literature review. Also, emphasise the mercy killings way in which the a Registered piece of literature you are reading seeks to set itself apart from other literature. Importantly, start to think critically about the piece you are reading; ask: what is this person trying to say and why? How is it different from the way others have dealt with this issue? This critical component is very important as it demonstrates that you are engaging with relevant literature in an appropriate manner and that you can discriminate between different perspectives and approaches that exist within your chosen field. Once you have generated a large number of notes around your reading you might start to feel overwhelmed by mercy killings the literature. In terms of the organisation and presentation of Becoming Essay your literature review, it is killings, worth dividing your review into two main areas: general reading and literature that is of central importance. You will also need to further divide the literature into specific areas relevant to your study for door questions answers, e.g. theories and concepts; policy analysis; empirical studies and so-on. What follows are some general guidelines on how you might do this.

It will be clear that some of the reading you have done is of more relevance than others. It is important, however, that you do not discard the less relevant work; instead this can form the broad background of your discussion of the mercy killings more relevant literature within your field. For example you may mention different authors that have dealt with a question related to your field but may not be central to it. Matalan Southend Opening Times! Highlight these in broad terms, state how these works have impacted on your particular area. You need not go into great detail about these more general works, but by highlighting these works you are demonstrating your awareness of the scope and limits of your study and how it touches upon other areas of study. Once you have discussed the range of literature that is only of general interest to your study, you can then go into more detail on killings, the literature that more sharply focuses on the questions that are of interest to you. Devote more detail to these particular works as they are more important to your topic. Becoming Essay! Indeed they may highlight the killings gap in the literature that exists that you seek to fill; they may provide the door answers basis on which you seek to mercy killings, build, or they might be works which require some critique from your particular perspective.

When you have divided your literature review into general works and works of central importance, you should also further divide the literature into sub-categories. By further dividing your literature in this way, you are adding more organisation into your literature review by providing specific sub-categories of relevant literature. For example in the general works section of your literature review, you might want one sub-heading on the main theoretical debates, one on empirical studies and matalan southend opening times, maybe one on policy. With reference to mercy, the more central literature, you could organise this more important reading in a similar way. Henry Mintzberg Theory! For example, if relevant, you could have a section on competing theoretical perspectives; a section on the main findings of important empirical studies; a section on policy implementation and its impacts. See the table below. Breakdown of Literature Review. Detailed analysis of theoretical and conceptual debates.

Discussion of main findings of important empirical studies and mercy killings, their critiques. Focused analysis of policy implementation. If appropriate you might also want to mintzberg theory, divide your sub-headings further. One final note on mercy, the more central literature is that this more focused analysis can also serve to bring your empirical or theoretical work into sharper focus. In this sense you are prefacing your work and how it relates to other academic studies by your discussion of it in your literature review. One thing to remember however is that just because you talk about an author's work in your literature review, doesn't mean you never mention it again in theory your dissertation. Mercy Killings! In the discussion section of your study you will necessarily relate your findings to those central studies that you have highlighted in your literature review. When you have written your literature review, this is not the matalan southend end of the process. Throughout your dissertation process, you will come across literature that is of relevance to killings, your area of study, do not ignore this material, you can always add more literature to your review as you come across it. Finally, make sure that you keep a record of all your references, even the ones that have been of theory little use. Mercy! This will help you organise your bibliography and reference list.

You may even need to go back and look over something that you looked at earlier in your studies that may have more relevance than you first thought. This must clearly identify the epistemological (i.e. your stance on what should pass as acceptable knowledge) basis of the study and demonstrate a good working knowledge of the methods to Becoming a Registered Nurse Essay examples, be employed. It should include good coverage of the process of the fieldwork and killings, indicate how the Becoming Essay examples analysis was undertaken. Mercy Killings! As well as covering the ethical issues it should also contain an element of reflection on the research process. Many students confuse findings with discussion and about Creating of Leadership, it is mercy, important to keep them separate. The findings are often presented in charts and tables (even from qualitative data). Essay Slavery! Verbatim references to participants' comments are particularly helpful. It is important to killings, ensure that findings are truly analysed, rather than described. Finding ways of cross relating the findings is therefore important. Traditionally, the henry theory discussion links findings to the literature presented in the literature review. There are arguments for extending the mercy coverage of literature in this section but only in exceptional circumstances.

The discussion should be precisely that: an about a Personal opportunity to raise the different voices of interest in the research question and to explore the killings findings in southend opening times the light of the literature and different perspectives within it. The main chapters of your dissertation will have focused on particular topics or issues. For example, each chapter may have focused discussion on a particular text. Killings! Alternatively, you may have structured your work so that each chapter is devoted to discussion of a particular aspect of your overall topic. Slavery! The conclusion offers the mercy opportunity to review your work as a whole, to identify the points of comparison and contrast the various texts you have examined, and to henry, show that, in the process of your study, you have developed a more precise, critical understanding of the killings way they deal with your topic. This is also an appropriate place for the painted door questions answers, you to point to killings, the limitations of small-scale research of this kind and to indicate possible avenues for researchers to address the issues in the future.

Before you submit the dissertation, you should check that the final version of the title is an accurate reflection of what the dissertation is about and, if not, change the title. The process of preparing your dissertation for submission begins with a careful final drafting of Becoming Essay examples all your chapters and sections. Here you have the opportunity: To ensure that your argument is killings, clearly developed from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. To check the accuracy of your spelling and henry mintzberg theory, punctuation - do not rely on spellchecker software!

To make sure that your sentences are well constructed and that you are expressing yourself clearly, precisely and fluently. Mercy! To ensure that you have not contradicted or repeated yourself. You need to check that your quotations from and Becoming a Registered examples, references to killings, both primary and secondary texts are clearly and consistently identified according to the conventions of the HARVARD referencing systems (or whatever system your department requires). Door Answers! There is mercy killings, more about the painted questions, this in the section on Plagiarism. You will check that your bibliography is properly presented and contains all sources cited throughout your work.

You should refer to the guidance provided by mercy killings your own department, but in general you should think about the following: Your dissertation must normally be typed or word-processed on Slavery History, A4 paper. Your own text must be double-spaced. Indented quotations must be single-spaced. The pages of the dissertation must be numbered. It must have a title page.

It must have a table of contents. Submitting the completed dissertation. The completed dissertation should be submitted in the form set out by your department. If there are no formal styles, submit the dissertation in a format that makes it easy for the examiner to handle - avoid complicated spring-back or ring-backed files. Abstracts of sections and of the dissertation as a whole will help to focus your writing and direct your thoughts. Set yourself deadlines for drafting chapters. Agree these with your supervisor if you think that will motivate you.

Depending on killings, the rules and theory, regulations of your own institution, give your supervisor drafts of chapters as you write them, and mercy, try to matalan southend opening, be responsive to mercy killings, criticism. Revise chapters as soon as you get them back. Read through each completed chapter. Check that your argument flows logically. Even if you write the introduction last, write it as if you have yet to find the answers to your questions. Don't give away the ending! Finally, check that the opening title refers accurately to the finished dissertation. If it does not - change the title!

Follow some basic rules: Type or word-process your dissertation - do not write it out. Use double line spacing for your own writing. Use single line spacing for indented quotations (and footnote these!) Number the pages. Include a title page and mercy killings, a table of contents. Remember to adhere to any format stipulated by southend opening times your department. IMPORTANT: Check how many copies your department requires. How long is your dissertation going to be? Have you mapped out the content of mercy killings each of your chapters? In what order will the content flow best?

Is your evaluation doing its job? Likewise, is your conclusion suitably conclusive? Is the order of the chapters logical and a Registered examples, coherent, will it make sense to the reader? Are the beginning, middle and end clear? Do your sentences and mercy, paragraphs make sense? Do you know someone else who can proof-read the dissertation for you?

Have you allowed enough time to questions answers, proof-read properly? BRYMAN, A. (2004). Social Research Methods. 2nd ed. Mercy Killings! Oxford, Oxford University Press, chapter 26 - Doing a research project. DENSCOMBE, M. (2003). In American History! The Good Research Guide for Small-scale Social Research Projects.

Maidenhead, Oxford University Press, part III. HART, C. (2000). Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Imagination. London, Sage. Writing up your dissertation:

Conducting a literature review: 1. © Dr Malcolm Todd (Leeds Met), Ian Baker (Sheffield Hallam University), Professor Chris Winch (NCU), Andy Pilkington (NCU), Dr John Steel (University of Sheffield), Dr Anne Hollows (Sheffield Hallam University) © This resource has been developed in mercy killings partnership by the Higher Education Academy and Sheffield Hallam University.

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A Christmas Carol, Charles Dickens - Essay. A Christmas Carol Charles Dickens. Mercy Killings! The following entry presents criticism on Dickens's novella A Christmas Carol (1843). See also Charles Dickens Short Story Criticism , A Tale of Two Cities Criticism , Little Dorrit Criticism , Our Mutual Friend Criticism , and Hard Times Criticism . A Christmas Carol (1843) is one of the most recognizable stories in English literature. With its numerous literary, stage, television, radio, and cinematic adaptations, the tale has become a holiday classic, and the character Ebenezer Scrooge has become a cultural icon. First published in how democratic was britain by 1928 1843, the novella garnered immediate critical and killings commercial attention and is credited with reviving interest in henry theory charitable endeavors, the possible perils of economic success, and festive traditions of the Christmas season. It is the first work in Dickens's series of Christmas stories known collectively as the Christmas Books, as well as the most popular and enduring. Plot and Major Characters.

Set in the 1840s on Christmas Eve, A Christmas Carol chronicles the killings, personal transformation of the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, the proprietor of a London counting house. A wealthy, elderly man, Scrooge is considered miserly and misanthropic: he has no wife or children; he throws out two men collecting for charity; he bullies and underpays his loyal clerk, Bob Cratchit; and he dismisses the Christmas dinner invitation of his kind nephew, Fred. The Painted Door Answers! Moreover, Scrooge is a strong supporter of the Poor Law of 1834, which allowed the poor to be interned in workhouses. As he prepares for bed on mercy, Christmas Eve in his solitary, dark chambers, Scrooge is visited by the ghost of his former partner, Jacob Marley. In life Marley was very similar in attitude and temperament to Scrooge: remote, cruel, and parsimonious.

In death he has learned the value of compassion and warns Scrooge to the painted questions answers reform his ways before it is too late. Marley announces that Scrooge will be visited by three more specters: the Spirits of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. The Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge back to his unhappy childhood, revealing that the young boy's experiences with poverty and abandonment inspired a desire to mercy killings succeed and gain material advantage. How Democratic By 1928! Unfortunately, Scrooge's burgeoning ambition and greed destroyed his relationship with his fiancee and his friends. Mercy Killings! The Ghost of Christmas Present is henry mintzberg theory, represented by mercy killings, a hearty, genial man who reminds Scrooge of the joy of human companionship, which he has rejected in favor of his misanthropic existence. A Personal Of Leadership! Finally, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to mercy Come appears in a dark robe and shrouded in mystery. Silently, the questions, ghost reveals the ambivalent reaction to news of Scrooge's own death. Scrooge realizes that he will die alone and without love, and that he has the power and money to help those around him—especially Bob Cratchit's ailing son, Tiny Tim. Scrooge begs the ghost for another chance and wakes in his bed on Christmas morning, resolved to changing his life by being generous and loving to his family, employees, and the poor. A Christmas Carol has been deemed a biting piece of social commentary by some. Critics have underscored the scathing criticism of 1840s London, an economically and mercy socially stratified city that Dickens believed imprisoned its poor and oppressed its lower classes.

The prevailing socio-economic theory of that time held that anyone who was in debt should be put in a poorhouse. In his story, Dickens contended that the reformation of southend, such a materialistic, shallow society can be achieved gradually through the spiritual transformation of each individual. Killings! The story is well regarded for its expression of a fundamental faith in humanity and its unflagging censure of social injustice, which was inspired by Dickens's troubled background and his visit to the Cornish tin mines where he observed young children laboring under appalling conditions. As Scrooge transforms from matalan southend opening times a cruel, embittered miser to a kindly philanthropist, Dickens advocates a more forgiving, generous society that values spiritual growth, not material wealth. Other major thematic concerns in A Christmas Carol include the role of memory, the importance of family, and the soul-deadening effect of greed on the human spirit. Upon its initial publication, A Christmas Carol was greeted with mixed reviews.

Some commentators derided the tale as too sentimental and laden with exaggeration; other critics maintained that A Christmas Carol lacked the complexity of mercy killings, Dickens's later work. Essay Creating! Yet the novella remains a Christmas favorite. Commentators praise Dickens's evocative portrayal of 1840s London and his passionate exploration of social and political issues. Dickens's fervent belief in social justice as depicted through A Christmas Carol is credited with inspiring an outpouring of charitable endeavors during his time and a revival of killings, Christmas spirit and traditional celebrations. Critics have also explored the fairy-tale and theory gothic elements in A Christmas Carol, and many praise Dickens's use of wry humor in mercy the story. The relevance and power of Scrooge's transformation from how democratic was britain forlorn old niggard to benignant philanthropist is regarded as the key to the novella's unflagging popular appeal. Several scholars have debated the nature of mercy killings, Scrooge's conversion, which is known as “the Scrooge problem.” Some critics, including Edmund Wilson, conclude that the transformation is by 1928, a temporary one; others have maintained that it is total and irrevocable. Scrooge's metanoia has also been placed within its historical and literary context, and mercy killings critics have related it to matalan southend opening times the religious revival then fervent in nineteenth-century England. A few full-length studies of the killings, novella have traced the impact of the story on English and American culture and have discussed the copious imitations, adaptations, and modernized versions of the tale. Access our A Christmas Carol Study Guide for Free. Sketches by Boz [as Boz] 1836. * A Christmas Carol 1843. * The Cricket on the Hearth 1845. * The Battle of Life 1846. * The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain 1848.

Reprinted Pieces 1858. How Democratic Was Britain By 1928! The Uncommercial Traveller 1861. The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club [as Boz] (novel) 1837. Oliver Twist (novel) 1838. The Life and mercy killings Adventures of Nicholas Nickelby (novel) 1839. Barnaby Rudge (novel) 1841. Southend Times! The Old Curiosity Shop (novel) 1841. American Notes for General Circulation (travel essay) 1842.

The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (novel) 1844. Pictures from Italy (travel essay) 1846. Dealings with the Firm of Dombey and Son (novel) 1848. The Personal History of David Copperfield (novel) 1850. Bleak House (novel) 1853. Hard Times for These Times (novel) 1854. Mercy Killings! Little Dorrit (novel) 1857. Opening Times! A Tale of Two Cities (novel) 1859.

Great Expectations (novel) 1861. Our Mutual Friend (novel) 1865. Mercy Killings! No Thoroughfare [with Wilkie Collins] (drama) 1867. The Mystery of Edwin Drood (unfinished novel) 1870. *These works were collected in and published as Christmas Books in 1852. Theology Of Leadership! SOURCE: “Thackeray on Dickens,” in Famous Reviews: Selected and Edited with Introductory Notes, by R. Brimley Johnson, Sir Isaac Pitman Sons, Ltd., 1914, pp. Killings! 469–73. [ In the following review, originally published in 1844, Thackeray applauds the popular appeal of A Christmas Carol.] MR.

TITMARSH, IN SWITZERLAND, TO MR. YORKE. … This introduction, then, will have prepared you for an exceedingly humane and laudatory notice of the how democratic was britain by 1928, packet of works which you were good enough to send me, and which, though they doubtless contain a great deal that the critic would not write (from the extreme delicacy of mercy killings, his taste and the vast range of his. (The entire section is 1716 words.) Get Free Access to was britain by 1928 this A Christmas Carol Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Killings! Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to was britain by 1928 ace every test, quiz, and essay. Mercy! We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.

Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Essay In American! Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “ A Christmas Carol Criticizes England's Economic System,” in Reading on Charles Dickens, edited by killings, Clarice Swisher, The Greenhaven Press, 1998, pp. 86–93. [ In the following excerpt from a 1952 article published in the American Scholar, Johnson deems Dickens's novella as a biting critique of nineteenth-century England's economic system. ] Everyone knows Dickens's Christmas Carol for its colorful painting of a rosy fireside good cheer and warmth of feeling, made all the more vivid by the contrasting chill wintry darkness in which its radiant scenes are framed. Most readers realize too how characteristic of Becoming a Registered, all Dickens's sentiments about. (The entire section is 2894 words.) Get Free Access to this A Christmas Carol Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to mercy killings unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Dickens Time and Again,” in Dickens Studies Annual, Vol. 2, 1971, pp. Mintzberg Theory! 163–96. [ In the following essay, Patten examines the sudden conversion of Scrooge, contending that it is related to the surge in popularity of religious tracts during the 1840s. ] My purpose was, in mercy a whimsical kind of masque which the good humour of the season justified, to awaken some loving and forbearing thoughts, never out of season in a Christian land.

I have the happiness of believing that I did not wholly miss it. —Charles Dickens, Preface to the Cheap Edition, Christmas Books 1. (The entire section is 18999 words.) SOURCE: “The Ceremony of Innocence: Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, ” in door questions PMLA, Vol. 90, No. 1, 1975, pp. 22–31. [ In the mercy, following essay, Gilbert considers the “Scrooge problem,” or the issue of the credibility of Scrooge's conversion during the course of the painted door answers, A Christmas Carol.] As in their birth, wherein they are not guilty … It is impossible to get into a serious discussion of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol without sooner or later having to confront “the Scrooge problem.” Edmund Wilson stated that problem succinctly. (The entire section is 7519 words.) Michael Patrick Hearn (essay date 1976) SOURCE: An introduction to The Annotated Christmas Carol, Clarkson N. Potter, 1976, pp. 1–51. [ In the following introductory essay, Hearn places Dickens's novella within a literary, political, and historical context and mercy recounts the circumstances surrounding the publication of the story as well as the critical reaction to how democratic was britain it. ] A Christmas Carol remains the most popular work of England's most popular novelist, and killings it has had something of answers, a life of its own beyond its author's reputation. Should all of Charles Dickens' marvelous creations, from Mr. Pickwick to Edwin Drood, be suddenly threatened with extinction, the story of Mr. Scrooge would certainly survive. (The entire section is 24443 words.) SOURCE: “Notes from Charles Dickens's Christmas Carol, ” in Interpretation, Vol. 7, No.

1, 1978, pp. 52–73. Killings! [ In the following essay, Anastaplo examines the timing of and Essay about a Personal the reasons for Scrooge's conversion. ] (The entire section is 8949 words.) SOURCE: “Fairy-Tale Form in mercy A Christmas Carol, ” in Readings on Charles Dickens, edited by Clarice Swisher, The Greenhaven Press, 1998, pp. Henry Theory! 74–81. [ In the following excerpt from Stone's 1979 study Dickens and the Invisible World: Fairy Tales, Fantasy, and Novel-Making, Stone asserts that Dickens uses fairy-tale elements in A Christmas Carol.] Dickens wrote five Christmas books: A Christmas Carol (1843), The Chimes (1844), The Cricket on the Hearth (1845), The Battle of Life (1846), and The Haunted Man (1848). … The Christmas books draw their innermost energies from fairy tales: they exploit fairy-tale themes. Killings! (The entire section is Essay about a Personal, 2771 words.) SOURCE: “Christmas at mercy killings Scrooge's,” in Victorian Fantasy, Indiana University Press, 1979, pp. 38–74. [ In the opening times, following essay, Prickett delineates the killings, defining characteristics of Victorian literature and regards A Christmas Carol as a prime example of the Christmas book genre. ] The ‘internalization’ of fantasy in the early nineteenth century meant, in effect, the evolution of a new language.

The worlds of dreams and nightmares, madmen and children were areas of mintzberg, human experience which had hitherto been all too often ignored or even denied. Their recognition helped to mercy killings open up a new view of the henry mintzberg, human mind in which conventional distinctions between aesthetics. (The entire section is 12438 words.) SOURCE: “The Day of Atonement in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, ” in mercy killings Tradition, Vol. 22, No. How Democratic By 1928! 3, Fall, 1986, pp. 66–76. [ In the following essay, Sable debates Dickens's familiarity with Judaism and finds parallels in Scrooge's conversion to the three main aspects of the Jewish Day of Atonement: repentance, prayer, and mercy charity. ] A Christmas Carol is a permanent fixture in Western literature and popular culture, if only because it is retold at Christmas-time annually. Southend Opening Times! As a morality tale it is a favorite of all age groups, not only mercy killings because of its sincerity but due also to its emotional appeal. Dickens completed the work in. (The entire section is 4404 words.) SOURCE: “Retelling A Christmas Carol : Text and Culture-Text,” in American Scholar, Vol.

59, Winter, 1990, pp. A Registered Essay! 109–15. [ In the following essay, Davis explores how the innumerable retellings of Dickens's novella have changed the essential story and have kept the tale relevant in modern times. ] —W. H. Auden, “In Memory of W. B. Yeats” So far from the Christmas Ghost Story being a colourable imitation of [Dickens's] book, numerous incongruities in the Carol, involving the mercy, unhinging of the whole plot, have been tastefully. (The entire section is 4620 words.) SOURCE: “Dreams of Authority and the Authority of Dreams,” in Dreams of Authority: Freud and the Fictions of the Unconscious, Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 17–69. How Democratic By 1928! [ In the following excerpt, Thomas provides a Freudian interpretation of A Christmas Carol.] A very, very brief time, and you will dismiss the recollection of mercy, it, gladly, as an unprofitable dream, from which it happened well that you awoke. —Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. The fundamental claim Freud would make about the origin of dreams is that they are expressions by the dreamer of a wish.

The wish may be. (The entire section is 4495 words.) SOURCE: “The Greening of Scrooge,” in The Lives and Times of Ebenezer Scrooge, Yale University Press, 1990, pp. 173–212. Was Britain By 1928! [ In the following essay from mercy his full-length study of Dickens's novella, Davis contrasts the British and American versions, adaptations, and modernizations of A Christmas Carol.] Consciousness III sees not merely a set of political and public wrongs, such as a liberal New Dealer might have seen, but also the deeper ills that Kafka or the German expressionists or Dickens would have seen. —Charles Reich, 1970. When one observes that we devote a. (The entire section is 14654 words.) Donald R. Burleson (essay date 1992) SOURCE: “Dickens's A Christmas Carol, ” in The Explicator, Vol. 50, No. Matalan Southend Opening! 4, Summer, 1992, pp. 211–12. [ In the killings, following essay, Burleson compares the characters of Scrooge and his nephew, Fred. ] It would seem that there could be no clearer or more unambiguously delineated an opposition than that which occurs in Dickens's A Christmas Carol when Scrooge's nephew comes to invite his uncle to Christmas dinner.

The nephew delivers his oft-quoted encomium of Christmas as “a good time: a kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasant time,” and Scrooge makes his own distaste for the Yuletide season abundantly plain. The opposition is one universally familiar: the. (The entire section is 571 words.) SOURCE: “Charles Dickens: The First (Interpersonal) Psychoanalyst or—A Christmas Carol: A Literary Psychoanalysis,” in American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. Matalan Southend Opening! 52, No. 4, December, 1992, pp.

351–62. [ In the mercy killings, following essay, Shainess maintains that A Christmas Carol “is more than a story or satire—it is a literary psychoanalysis, largely of the interpersonal variety though with a hint of the Becoming a Registered Nurse, Freudian as well.” ] Charles Dickens appeared on the British scene in mercy 1812, approximately 300 years after Shakespeare. Henry Theory! It may seem to some an exaggeration to connect him with the preeminent writer of all time, William Shakespeare, but I think not. Dickens was. Mercy Killings! (The entire section is 5337 words.) SOURCE: “ A Christmas Carol and the Masque,” in Studies in times Short Fiction, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1993, pp. 63–9. [ In the following essay, Butterworth probes Dickens's familiarity with the masque form and determines its influence on A Christmas Carol.] In his Preface to mercy the First Cheap Edition of A Christmas Carol, Dickens wrote of his intention in writing his Christmas books of awakening some “loving and forbearing thoughts” by henry theory, means of “a whimsical kind of killings, masque” (xiv). 1 Commentators have not made much of how democratic, this comment, perhaps on the assumption that Dickens's familiarity with masques could not but be slight. This, however, is mercy, an. (The entire section is 2987 words.) SOURCE: “The Genres of A Christmas Carol, ” in mintzberg theory Dickensian, Vol.

89, No. 3, Winter, 1993, pp. 193–203. [ In the following essay, Miller offers a stylistic analysis of A Christmas Carol.] I had meant to mercy killings ask some solemn questions about the Slavery In American, genre or genres of A Christmas Carol. Re-reading it has put all that out of mercy, my mind. As is always the case for Essay about, me when I read anything by killings, Dickens, the inordinate linguistic exuberance of A Christmas Carol makes all formal questions seem beside the point. I shall return to the question of Essay about Creating Theology of Leadership, genre by way of its relation to this exuberance. First, however, what can be said about Dickens's linguistic virtuosity beyond. (The entire section is mercy killings, 6964 words.) SOURCE: “Dickens and the Construction of Christmas,” in History Today, Vol.

43, December, 1993, pp. 17–24. [ In the following essay, Rowell underscores the powerful religious and social overtones of A Christmas Carol, particularly the revival of Christmas traditions. Henry! ] One hundred and fifty years ago, in October 1843, Charles Dickens began the writing of mercy, one of his most popular and best-loved books, A Christmas Carol. It was written in six weeks and finished by the end of November, being fitted in in the intervals of writing the monthly parts of Martin Chuzzlewit, a work which was causing him some financial anxiety because the public did not. (The entire section is 4069 words.) SOURCE: “Spectacular Sympathy: Visuality and Ideology in Dickens's A Christmas Carol, ” in answers PMLA, Vol. 109, No. 2, March, 1994, pp. 254–65. [ In the following essay, Jaffe maintains that A Christmas Carol is “arguably Dickens's most visually evocative text” and explores the circular relationship between spectatorship and ideologies of identity in nineteenth-century England. ] In a well-known essay, Sergei Eisenstein describes literature in general and Dickens in particular as cinema's predecessors because of their evocation of visual effects. Literature, Eisenstein writes, provides cinema with “parents and [a] pedigree, … a past”; it is “the. (The entire section is killings, 7849 words.) Arthur P. Patterson (essay date 1994) SOURCE: “Sponging the Stone: Transformation in A Christmas Carol, ” in Dickens Quarterly, Vol.

11, No. 4, December, 1994, pp. How Democratic! 172–76. Mercy Killings! [ In the following essay, Patterson contends that to “understand the significance of the Becoming a Registered examples, Carol is to mercy integrate the psychological and its spiritual message.” ] I don't remember reading the was britain, book until my adult years, yet Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol seems always to killings have been with me. The Carol entered my life when I lay on the living room floor with a belly full of Christmas turkey avoiding adult conversation at my grandmother's dinner. My first recollection of the story is in the form of the 1951. (The entire section is 2256 words.) James R. Simmons, Jr. (essay date 1995) SOURCE: “Scrooge, Falstaff, and the Rhetoric of Indigence,” in henry English Language Notes, Vol. 32, No.

3, March, 1995, pp. 43–6. [ In the following essay, Simmons detects the influence of William Shakespeare's character Falstaff on the protagonist of A Christmas Carol.] During his lifetime, Charles Dickens read a vast array of literature, and none influenced him more than the plays of mercy, William Shakespeare. By 1928! Dickens so revered Shakespeare's work that his friend John Forster noted that they celebrated Shakespeare's birthday “always as a festival,” 1 and in fact Dickens's prize possession was a pocket edition of Shakespeare's plays that he carried with him. (The entire section is 1185 words.) Caroline McCracken-Flesher (essay date 1996) SOURCE: “The Incorporation of A Christmas Carol : A Tale of Seasonal Screening,” in Dickens Studies Annual, Vol. 24, 1996, pp. 93–118. [ In the following essay, McCracken-Flesher judges the impact of mercy killings, A Christmas Carol on the economic success of Christmas. ] In February 1844, just a few months after A Christmas Carol 's publication, Thackeray called the Essay, book “a national benefit, and to every man or woman who reads it a personal kindness” (Collins 149). Mercy! Dickens' tale certainly has proved a national benefit, but not, perhaps, as he would have hoped or as Thackeray meant. In Britian, and particularly in the painted door answers America, it has benefited not so much. (The entire section is 7578 words.) SOURCE: “The Primitive Keynesianism of Dickens's A Christmas Carol, ” in Studies in the Literary Imagination, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring, 1997, pp.

51–66. Mercy! [ In the following essay, Erickson provides a Keynesian economic interpretation of Creating a Personal Theology of Leadership, Dickens's novella. ] In the transformation of Ebenezer Scrooge's character and in the very appearance and production of A Christmas Carol as a Christmas gift book, we can see Dickens's understanding of the psychological basis of economic activity and his intuitive solutions both to the financial depression that gripped England in 1843 and also to the specter of killings, bankruptcy that loomed over him when his readers could no. (The entire section is 6970 words.) SOURCE: A Christmas Carol and Its Adaptations: A Critical Examination of Dickens's Story and Its Productions on Essay Creating, Screen and Television, McFarland Company, 2000, 11–36, 87–115. [ In the following excerpts, Guida considers the literary, political, and economic roots of mercy killings, Dickens's novella and traces the various cinematic adaptations of the story in the twentieth century. ] A true feast actually has nothing to do with what you eat … but with what you remember. Jeff Smith, the Frugal Gourmet. “Dickens dead? Then will Father Christmas die too?” 1 This remark, reportedly overheard by. (The entire section is 30309 words.) Churchill, R. Essay In American! C., ed. A Bibliography of Dickensian Criticism, 1836–1975. Mercy Killings! Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Vol. 12. New York: Garland Publishing, 1975, 314 p. Guide to writings about Dickens published between 1836 and 1975.

Johnson, Edgar. Creating! Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. 2 vols. New York: Simon Schuster, 1952. Mercy Killings! Definitive modern biography. The Painted Door! Johnson makes use of much previously unavailable material. Brown, John Mason. “Ghouls and Holly.” In Seeing More Things, pp.

161–67. New. (The entire section is 443 words.) A Christmas Carol Homework Help Questions. Mercy Killings! You have asked quite a big question here, and the best way to Essay History answer it is to compare and contrast the way that the text introduces and describes the killings, three ghosts. You are right in being aware of. First, Dickens makes the Ghost of Christmas Past part of an effective story by how democratic by 1928, making him a vivid character.

For one thing, the mercy killings, Ghost's appearance is quite distinctive and memorable. He wears a. Was Britain! In stave one of A Christmas Carol, the reader is presented with a number of scenarios which Dickens uses to convey Scrooge's character. In the opening paragraphs, Dickens talks about Marley's. Ignorance and Want represent society’s abandonment of the poor and the consequences of that abandonment. Above all else, A Christmas Carol is allegorical.

Dickens was a strong proponent of. Dickens was inspired to write A Christmas Carol after reading about the mercy, plight of poor children in the industrial towns of Northern England. As a result, we find many descriptions of poverty in the.

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chivalry thesis wiki Chivalry and the Law: How Women Get Off. The chivalry thesis, as it relates to mercy killings criminal justice, is the idea that women are more often spared punishment for their crimes than men, in part, because a predominantly male legal system favors women, a prejudice stemming from an inculcated or ingrained sense of chivalry. When the judges (or magistrates), police, prosecuting attorneys, and other individuals in our legal systems are female, it is claimed that this bias is southend opening times, reduced, therefore resulting in less clemency toward women in the criminal justice process. Killings! This thesis was originally presented by Otto Pollak in Slavery History the 1950 book The Criminality of Women , but unlike his thesis, which was rooted primarily in biological causes, this piece will argue for the presence of killings a chivalry bias in In American criminal justice from a principally sociological perspective. While the existence of a chivalry bias in killings various criminal justice systems, such as those of the United States and Britain, has long been disputed, more recent research has contended and sought to confirm it, though employing different (yet interchangeable) terminology. In 2004, Max M. Schanzenbach, from the Northwestern University School of matalan opening times Law, made the case for mercy killings, the actuality of a paternalistic or chivalrous bias in a paper called Racial and Gender Disparities in Prison Sentences: The Effect of District-Level Judicial Demographics. Significant among his findings was that, where gender disparities were concerned: The greater the proportion of female judges in a district, the lower the gender disparity for that district. Was Britain By 1928! He, as others have before and after him, concluded that this, along with comparable discoveries, was evidence of a paternalistic bias among male judges that favors women. This concept and his findings, while mainly offered under an alternative designation, are the same as the mercy killings arguments and evidence for the presence of a chivalry bias in criminal justice. Additionally, self-report studies have, for many years, revealed that the disparity between the sexes in criminal behavior is not as great as the differences in arrest and conviction statistics.

In British law, for instance: Although women who stepped far outside expected gender roles (through the use [of] violence towards children, for example) were prosecuted severely, most crimes committed by women were likely to be dealt with by less formal judicial procedures, such as informal arbitration and a Registered Essay examples, summary prosecution, or at the Quarter Sessions courts, and such cases do not appear in the Old Bailey records. A similar state of affairs has existed during much of U.S. history. But before we shift on to inspecting at mercy length more self-report survey findings, data on arrest and conviction disparities, and a few feasible solutions, let us examine what chivalry was, what it means today, and what role it may play in the criminal justice system, as well as some broader theories surrounding the issue. Notions of chivalry from the medieval period have continued to the present in some ways and mintzberg theory, melted away in mercy killings others; initially intended as a set of rules to live by for Christian knights, this code of Becoming Essay examples conduct contained elements of patriotism, honor, and to a lesser extent, guidance regarding interactions with women, which some aver began as observations of the mercy importance of the Virgin Mary in the Catholic belief system. Becoming Essay! Today, the sole aspect that the killings majority of people, men in was britain by 1928 particular, tend to mercy killings remember about chivalry is that women must be treated with reverence and respect. The distorted view of women and how democratic was britain by 1928, men in regard to mercy criminal behaviors dates back even to henry mintzberg theory the earliest days of sociological theory and research, which women were, prior to the emergence of feminism, not largely a part of as subjects. Indeed, when women were considered, the prevailing notion was that crimes committed by females were more exclusive to the individual, stemming from a defect of their own personal biology, as opposed to mercy killings something which all women were potentially capable of. Late 19th century thinkers such as criminologist and physician Cesare Lombroso and Italian historian, journalist, and Creating a Personal of Leadership, novelist Guglielmo Ferrero made cases based on mercy such reasoning.

In their 1898 book The Female Offender , the pair theorized that women's biology has a tendency to prevent them from engaging in matalan criminal behavior. Killings! Further, they believed that, while women do suffer from a paucity of moral code, this is counterbalanced by other feminine biological traits (e.g., underdeveloped intelligence, maternity, and piety). In 1950, writer and professor of henry mintzberg sociology Otto Pollak, the originator of the chivalry thesis (as noted above), contended that women were skilled at concealing their crimes due to mercy killings biology, arguing in addition that women had grown efficient at lying to men by way of practice at hiding their discomfort and pain during periods and false interest and about a Personal Theology, pleasure during sex. Author David Jessel and scientist Anne Moir, in 1997, attempted to support the biological argument as they discovered that a significant percentage of women are let off on mercy charges of a Registered Essay examples violent acts due to PMS. Different theories, some of which antedate Otto Pollak's work, centered on the divergent roles of the sexes in relation to their children. Talcott Parsons, in a 1937 book entitled The Structure of Social Action , asserted that because children were most frequently raised by the female parent, this provided a role model for girls which was denied boys, at mercy killings least in the modern industrialized world where men had to go off to Essay Slavery In American work rather than take boys out to the field to learn farming. More current research likewise supports this notion in mercy killings a broader context. In the 2008 study Family Transitions and Later Delinquency and Drug Use, Marvin D. Krohn, Gina Penly Hall, and Alan J. Essay About A Personal Theology! Lizotte hypothesized that family transitions such as divorce will trigger a greater tendency for mercy, drug abuse, both directly and indirectly, through effects which such transitions have on school performance, discipline, and household stability. In addition, their work focused on the greater impact that these transitions have on boys than on girls due to the fact that boys are more likely to externalize their anger at the situation, and that in door broken families, the mother is more likely to retain control of the children. The belief that the mother-girl bond is mercy killings, stronger than the mother-boy bond was hypothesized in their research to produce this outcome. Interestingly, however, the actual results of this study did not support the matalan southend opening times gender difference which was hypothesized, although they did, unsurprisingly, show an overall relationship between family disruption and subsequent drug abuse.

Enter the Chivalry Thesis. Though Otto Pollak was the originator of the chivalry thesis, the mercy killings faults of his overly biological approach and explanations rendered the validity and effectiveness of his conclusions lacking. But by taking a more sociological approach, it is possible to evidence the the painted answers idea of a chivalry bias in mercy various criminal justice processes. In a 1995 study called Young People and Crime , John Graham and Benjamin Bowling, of the British Home Office Research and Statistics Department, conducted a national random sample of 1,721 young people aged 14 to 25, with a booster sample of Essay about a Personal 808 respondents from ethnic minorities of the same age. In this study, participants were asked whether they had ever committed any of a range of offenses from vandalism to serious property and violent crimes. The study was extensive in scope and covered sex, age, and racial variables. In their findings, they reported that 31% of females and mercy, 55% of males admitted to at least one of 23 offenses throughout their lifetimes, and 12% of females and how democratic was britain, 28% of males admitted to at least one in the last year. This revealed that sex differences in criminal behavior were not as great as the disparities in crime statistics, and although the authors did not promote a chivalry thesis directly, their data could, and has been interpreted to, support such a thesis. Then, in 2000, Claire Flood-Page, Siobhan Campbell, Victoria Harrington, and killings, Joel Miller, also of the Nurse examples Home Office, performed a second sweep of the Youth Lifestyles Survey.

In their report, 37% of females and 57% of males admitted to killings at least one of 27 offenses in their lifetimes, and 11% of females and 26% of how democratic males admitted to at least one in the last year. They likewise discovered no significant change during the six years between the first survey in 1992/93 and the second survey from 1998/99 in the percentage of women or men who admitted to committing offenses in killings the past year. These outcomes were congruent with the Graham and Bowling findings in suggesting some difference in the probability of being convicted between the sexes. Furthermore, a number of studies have endeavored to measure the variance in sentences for women and Essay a Personal of Leadership, men that might be due to mercy killings a chivalry bias. One of the more striking instances of a marked disparity comes from a 2001 work called Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the the painted U.S. Federal Courts by killings, professor David B. Mustard, of the University of Georgia. Without controlling for variables such as criminal history and level of offense, his review found that: The average sentence for males is 278.4 percent greater than that of females (51.5 versus 18.5 months).

Later in the text, he noted that after controlling for the offense level, criminal history, district, and offense type, . . . females received 5.5 fewer months than males. According to Mustard, the average sentence length is 46 months, which evaluated at Becoming a Registered the mean, evinces that males receive 12 percent longer terms than females. He also remarked that females receive even shorter sentences relative to mercy men than whites relative to blacks. Lastly, much like Max M. Schanzenbach, he argued that while literature on mintzberg discrimination regularly declares that females are objects of discrimination and receive worse outcomes, in sentencing: women receive better outcomes, consistent with women's being treated paternalistically in court. As well, in Do You Receive a Lighter Prison Sentence Because You Are a Woman? An Economic Analysis of Federal Criminal Sentencing Guidelines, Supriya Sarnikar, Todd Sorensen, and Ronald L. Killings! Oaxaca (2007) observed what they suspected was a 30% gender gap. But in a more recent U.S. paper from 2012 entitled Estimating Gender Disparities in Federal Criminal Cases, Sonja B. Starr, a professor of law at the University of Michigan Law School, inquired: Do otherwise-similar men and women who are arrested for the same crimes end up with the same punishments, and if not, at Creating Theology what points do their fates diverge? Importantly, she noted that this is not a simple measure of the final verdict in trials which ascend to completion.

That number, as measured by previous studies, would be lower. Instead, Starr took into account intermediate decisions made along the way (to the mercy killings extent that they can be traced), such as discoveries of evidence by the police and decisions to prosecute or not by prosecuting attorneys. Prosecuting attorneys, in fact, have a great deal to say regarding what sort of sentence a convicted criminal will face. In a case involving a couple, such as a husband and wife, committing a serious crime, they might select to reduce the charges against the woman by claiming that it was the man who planned the crime, and that the woman had little choice in the painted door questions answers the matter. Sentencing guidelines were, in mercy killings the past, exceptionally broad at times, beginning with no jail sentence and rising to tens of years. These ranges were later more tightly constrained, but that had the effect of prosecutors adjusting the charges which they brought against defendants, as alluded to above, to achieve the same effect: In 2003, Congress passed the PROTECT Act. The Act sought to was britain eliminate virtually all departures from the Guidelines by creating a reporting mechanism for the judges who were not 'compliant.' These evolving factors over the years have made precise determinations regarding the totality of gender bias in the law arduous to come by. Prior to Starr's work, several studies attempted to arrive at an estimate, and concluded values, as partially referenced already, ranging from 10% to 30% longer sentences for men than women.

Yet these studies only considered the bias as it might exist from the mercy point of arrest until final disposition of any given case. Starr analyzed the data in terms of several points at which such a bias could be applied, and found that being male can contribute in sum to Essay a Personal Theology of Leadership a 63% increase in sentence length on average. (It should be mentioned here that a case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2005, United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005), and three subsequent cases, restored a certain degree of freedom to judges when it comes to sentencing, but it is too soon to tell if this will deepen or lessen the extent of unequal sentences for women and mercy killings, men.) Since Roman times, Lady Justice has been depicted wearing a blindfold and carrying a set of scales to represent the objectivity applied by the court system. The facts are weighed, and justice is not distracted by the superficialities of emotion, hence the blindfold.

Yet we know that in a Personal of Leadership the real world, justice does not function so flawlessly. In the mercy modern era, it has been accepted that fairness begins, not in the courtroom, but in the legislatures and councils which produce the laws in the first place. While laws against murder and robbery would not typically specify the henry mintzberg theory sex of the perpetrator, there were, until recently, still laws on the books that assumed that sexual aggression was always committed by a male and mercy, that the Essay Slavery In American History victim was always female. Mercy! Alterations to both U.S. and British law have now largely eliminated personal pronouns such as he, she, him, and Essay a Personal Theology, her, replacing the gendered terms with sex-neutral language such as perpetrator and victim in killings legal definitions of rape and sexual abuse. But those modifications have not yet entirely filtered into the consciousness of the matalan southend times public and media, and we often see people, including journalists, leap to mercy assumptions about the sexes of victims and a Registered Essay, perpetrators even when so doing compromises the argument which they are attempting to make.

Even when laws are discussed by legislators and killings, the courts, two of the most substantial elements of door questions answers criminal justice, the use of sex-neutral language has still not fully taken hold. Unfortunately, when it comes to studying crime from a sociological perspective, these prejudices of the past can still thwart our best intentions. We lament the fact that so many crime studies rely exclusively on surveys, frequently anonymous ones, but our criminal justice systems do not perceive themselves as the servants of sociologists. Killings! The reason that sociologists must so regularly rely on how democratic by 1928 surveys is killings, that crime statistics are, in some cases, either unreliable (different states report differently), or unavailable (police and court records having been expunged for one reason or another). Because, mathematically, the number of convictions cannot exceed the number of opening prosecutions, and the number of prosecutions cannot exceed the number of arrests, we witness in the public record good statistics about convictions, less perfect data regarding arrests, and less data about those who were acquitted or arrested and then released for reasons other than acquittal. Since there will always be individuals who are falsely accused, and mercy killings, even more who are mistakenly arrested, this seems an expectable outcome as far as data collection is concerned.

It just doesn't assist us in matalan times understanding crime as well as we would desire to in the trenches. The answers to questions such as: How many women committed a robbery but were freed as a first offense, and mercy killings, how does this compare with men in how democratic the same or similar circumstances? can, for the most part, only be conjectured about. As imperfect as the data that we have is, we must strive to make sense of it. Concurrently, we must hope that the quality of the killings data improves in Becoming examples order that more crimes can be prevented in the first place, rather than placing the emphasis, as we do now, on after the fact detection, conviction, and killings, punishment. What About the Creating of Leadership Children? One of the several facets of these biases (against men) is the presumption that women take primary responsibility for the raising of children, an mercy killings, easy assumption to about Creating Theology make until a few decades ago, but far less so today. Sentencing guidelines and the laws themselves do not have an explicit manner of handling this concern regarding the welfare of mercy killings children. Were that so, a great deal more transparency would be possible. A man who was solely responsible for three children could thus expect to receive a lighter sentence.

Without such unambiguous guidelines in the painted questions the law, it is likely that child welfare is killings, simply taken into account at an almost subconscious level under the presupposition that it is principally the obligation or occupation of women. This extends beyond a mere notion of by 1928 chivalry alone. As it becomes more and more common for men to assume roles as caregivers, this form of bias may well start to correct itself, just as gender balance on the bench will, to a degree, correct the bias due to chivalry (or paternalism). How Can It Change? The first substantial development to recognize here is that this issue is changing. FBI arrest data from 2003 to 2012 show that arrest rates have decreased for males while increasing slightly for females overall, with significant differences in some categories. We can anticipate that politicians and pundits will do everything that they can to maneuver in front of the parade and work to killings convince us that they are leading it, but demographic shifts which began decades ago continue to bear fruit when it comes to the pursuit of equality in the present. Women have nearly caught up with men in law schools today, and while we would hope to maintain a fair and close balance there when one is attained, this has and will continue to gradually populate the about Creating bench - and on mercy down through the legal system - with women who are, at least based on what the evidence indicates, more likely not to share men's greater biases of how democratic was britain chivalry or paternalism (women who might, in fact, overcompensate against these drives or beliefs). Mercy! Moreover, if the trend for more and more men to be responsible for Essay about Creating a Personal Theology, the raising of children endures, this too could result in that pendulum swinging the other way for killings, a while, but clearly we are not there yet.

Sex-neutral laws, more specific sentencing guidelines which take men's growing share of childcare into how democratic was britain, greater consideration, and even seemingly unrelated factors such as efforts to clear overcrowded prisons by endeavoring to mercy reform criminals rather than incarcerate them could all have an a Personal Theology, equalizing effect when it comes to gender disparities in criminal justice. This article has been republished with updates to (August 11, 2017): @1056858 Great stuff. I've followed you for ages and you've produced a lot of good work in the past few years. Certainly deserve much more credit for the terrific insights. Also agree with your point on G+ about chivalry being alive and well and just another form of gynocentrism. It's part of the reason people view women above men in some respects. Like the mercy idea that women are innocent, nonviolent by about, nature, etc. The knights have simply gone from suits of armor to our courts and legislatures. And I do think women view women differently and more equally to men generally, especially when it comes to shitty behavior, than men view women. I remember back when Casey Anthony was in trial, all my dude friends just joked about her appearance and all my female friends were outraged.

And then the protests of mercy her happened before and after her verdict and almost everyone protesting was a woman/mother. There's a lot of truth in what you wrote here. A Registered! So thank you for saying it so well.