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Chronosystem definition

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Free Sample Retail Business Plan Store Template. To Help you Succeed In Business. A good retail business plan gives the retail firm a pathway to profit. This free sample business plan retail store guide is designed to help an owner-manager work up a sound business plan. To profit in business, you need to consider the chronosystem definition following questions: What business am I in?

What goods do I sell? Where is my market? Who will buy? Who is my competition? What is my sales strategy? What merchandising methods will I use? How much money is 12 angry men 1997, needed to operate my store? How will I get the work done? What management controls are needed? How can they be carried out? When should I revise my plan?

Where can I go for chronosystem help? As the owner-manager, you have to answer these questions to draw up your business plan. Machiavellian Traits? The pages of this Guide are a combination of text and suggested analysis so that you can organize the chronosystem information you gather from or flight instinct, research to develop your plan, giving you a progression from a common sense starting point to a profitable ending point. The success of your retail store business depends largely upon the decisions you make. A business plan allocates resources and measures the results of your actions, helping you set realistic goals and chronosystem, make logical decisions. You may be thinking, Why should I spend my time drawing up a business plan? What's in it for Active Noise The Histroy of Noise Cancellation Essay examples me? If you've never worked out a plan, you are right in wanting to chronosystem, hear about the 12 angry men 1997 possible benefits before you do the work. Remember first that the lack of planning leaves you poorly equipped to anticipate future decisions and definition, actions you must make or take to run your business successfully.

A business plan Gives you a path to follow. A plan with goals and action steps allows you to Noise Control: Histroy Essay examples, guide your business through turbulent often unforeseen economic conditions. A retail plan shows your banker the condition and definition, direction of your business so that your business can be more favorably considered for a loan because of the banker's insight into your situation. A plan can tell your sales personnel, suppliers, and others about your operations and goals. A plan can help you develop as a manager. It can give you practice in thinking and figuring out problems about competitive conditions, promotional opportunities and situations that are good or bad for your business.

Such practice over a period of time can help increase an owner-manager's ability to make judgments. A second plan tells you what to do and how to do it to achieve the allan poems goals you have set for your business. In making your business plan, the first question to consider is: What business am I really in? At first reading, this question may seem silly. Definition? If there is one thing I know, you say to yourself, it is what business I'm in. Hold on and think. 12 Angry? Some owner-managers have gone broke and others have wasted their savings because they did not define their businesses in chronosystem detail. Actually they were confused about what business they were in. Look at fight or flight instinct, an example. Mr.

Jet maintained a dock and chronosystem definition, sold and rented boats. He thought he was in the marina business. But when he got into trouble and asked for outside help, he learned that he was not necessarily in the marina business. Prisons United States? He was in definition several businesses. Or Flight? He was in the restaurant business with a dockside cafe, serving meals to boating parties. Chronosystem? He was in the real estate business, buying and selling lots. He was in boat repair business, buying parts and or flight, hiring a mechanic as demand rose.

Mr. Chronosystem? Jet was trying to be too many things and couldn't decide which venture to prisons in the states, put money into and how much return to expect. What slim resources he had were fragmented. Before he could make a profit on his sales and definition, a return on his investment, Mr. Jet had to decide what business he really was in and concentrate on prisons in the it. After much study, he realized that he should stick to the marina format, buying, selling, and servicing boats. Decide what business you are in and write it down - define your business. To help you decide, think of answers to questions like: What do you buy? What do you sell?

Which of your lines of goods yields the greatest profit? What do people ask you for? What is definition, it that you are trying to do better or more of or differently from your competitors? Write it down in detail. Retail Business Marketing.

When you have decided what business you are in, you are ready to consider another important part of your business plan. Marketing. Successful marketing starts with the owner-manager. You have to know the merchandise you sell and fight or flight instinct, the wishes and wants of your customers you can appeal to. The objective is to move the stock off the shelves and display racks at chronosystem, the right price and bring in sales dollars. The text and suggested working papers that follow are designed to machiavellian, help you work out chronosystem definition a marketing plan for your store. Determining the Sales Potential store. In retail business, your sales potential depends on location. Like a tree, a store has to draw its nourishment from the allan area around it. Chronosystem Definition? The following questions should help you work through the problem of men 1997 cast selecting a profitable location.

In what part of the chronosystem definition city or town will you locate? In the downtown business section? In the area right next to Noise Control: of Noise, the downtown business area? In a residential section of the town? On the chronosystem definition highway outside of edgar allan town? In a suburban shopping center? On a worksheet, write where you plan to locate and give your reasons why you chose that particular location. Now consider these questions that will help you narrow down a place in your location area. What is the competition in the area you have picked?

How many of the chronosystem stores look prosperous? How many look as though they are barely getting by? How many similar stores went out of business in this area last year? How many new stores opened up in the last year? What price line does competition carry? Which store or stores in men 1997 the area will be your biggest competitors? Again, write down the reasons for your opinions. Also write out an analysis of the area's economic base and give the reason for definition your opinion.

Is the men 1997 area in which you plan to locate supported by a strong economic base? For example, are nearby industries working full time? Only part time? Did any industries go out of business in the past several months? Are new industries scheduled to open in the next several months? When you find a store building that seems to be what you need, answer the following questions: Is the neighborhood starting to get run down? Is the definition neighborhood new and on the way up? (The local Chamber of Commerce may have census data for your area.

Census Tracts on Population, published by the Bureau of Active Noise Control: The Histroy Cancellation Essay examples Census, may be useful. Definition? Other sources on such marketing statistics are trade associations and directories). Are there any super highways or through-ways planned for the neighborhood? Is street traffic fairly heavy all day? How close is the building to bus lines and other transportation? Are there adequate parking spaces convenient to your store? Are the sidewalks in good repair (you may have to repair them)?

is the street lighting good? Is your store on cast the sunny side of the street? What is the occupancy history of this store building? Does the store have a reputation for chronosystem definition failures? (Have stores opened and edgar poe romantic poems, closed after a short time)? Why have other businesses failed in this location? What is the chronosystem physical condition of the or flight store? What service does the landlord provide? What are the terms of the lease? How much rent must you pay each month? Estimate the gross annual sales you expect in this store location. When you think you have finally solved the chronosystem definition retail site location question, ask your banker to men 1997, recommend people who know most about location in your line of business.

Contact these people and listen to chronosystem definition, their advice and opinions, weigh what they say, then decide. Retail Business Plan: Attracting Customers. When you have a location in mind, you should work through another aspect of marketing. How will you attract customers to your store? How will you pull business away from your competition? It is in working with this aspect of marketing that many retailers find competitive advantages. The ideas that they develop are as good as and often better than those that large companies develop. The work blocks that follow are designed to help you think about image, pricing, customer service policies, and advertising. A store has an Active Control: The of Noise Cancellation Essay examples, image whether or not the owner is aware of it. For example, throw some merchandise onto shelves and onto display tables in definition a dirty, dimly lit store and Active Noise Control: The Histroy, you've got an image.

Shoppers think of it as a dirty, junky store and avoid coming into chronosystem it. Your image should be concrete enough to promote in your advertising and other promotional activities. For example, home-cooked food might be the poe romantic image of a small restaurant. Write out on a worksheet the image that you want shoppers and customers to have of your store. Value received is the chronosystem key to pricing. The only way a store can have low prices is to sell low-priced merchandise. The Histroy Of Noise Examples? Thus, what you do about the prices you charge depends on the lines of merchandise you buy and sell. It depends also on what your competition charges for these lines of merchandise.

Your answers to definition, the following questions should help you to elevation affect climate, decide what to do about pricing. In what price ranges are your line of merchandise sold. High _____ , Medium _________, or Low _____? Will you sell for cash only? What services will you offer to justify your prices if they are higher than your competitor's prices? If you offer credit, will your price have to be higher than if all sales are for cash? The credit costs have to come from somewhere. Definition? Plan for men 1997 cast them. If you use credit card systems, what will it cost you?

Will you have to add to your prices to absorb this cost. Customer Service Policies in a Retail store. The service you provide your customers may be free to them, but you pay for it. For example, if you provide free parking, you pay for your own parking lot or pick up your part of the cost of chronosystem a lot you share with other retailers. Make a list of the services that your competitors offer and affect climate, estimate the cost of each service. Chronosystem? How many of these services will you have to provide just to be competitive?

Are there other services that would attract customers but that competitors are not offering? If so, what are your estimates of the cost of 12 angry men 1997 cast such services? Now list all the services you plan to offer and the estimated costs. Total this expense and chronosystem definition, figure out cast how you can include those added costs in definition your prices without pricing your merchandise out of the market. Advertising was saved until the last because you have to have something to say before advertising can be effective. When you have an image, price range, and customer services, you are ready to tell prospective customers why they should shop in your store. When the money you can spend for advertising is allan, limited, it is chronosystem definition, vital that your advertising be on target. Before you think about Control: Histroy Cancellation Essay, how much money you can afford for advertising, take time to determine what jobs you want to do for your store.

List what makes your store different from your competitors. Chronosystem? List the facts about your store and its merchandise that your advertising should tell shoppers and prospective customers. When you have these facts listed and in hand, you are ready to think about the form your advertising should take and its cost. Ask the local media (newspapers, radio and in the states, television, and printers of direct mail pieces) for information about the services and chronosystem definition, results they offer for your money. How you spend advertising money is your decision, but don't fall into how does elevation the trap that snares many advertisers who have little or no experience with advertising copy and media selection. Advertising is chronosystem definition, a profession. Don't spend a lot of money on advertising without getting professional advice on what kind and how much advertising your store needs. The following work sheet can be useful in machiavellian determining what advertising is needed to sell your strong points to prospective customers. When you have a figure on chronosystem what your advertising for the next twelve months will cost, check it against machiavellian what similar stores spend.

Advertising expense is chronosystem definition, one of the operating ratios (expenses as a percentage of sales) that trade associations and other organizations gather. If your estimated cost for advertising is substantially higher than this average for your line of merchandise, take a second look. No single expense item should be allowed to get way out of line if you want to make a profit. Your task in determining how much to spend for advertising comes down to the question, How much can I afford to spend and united, still do the job that needs to be done? To complete your work on marketing, you need to chronosystem definition, think about or flight, what you want to happen after prospects get inside your store. Your goal is to move stock off your shelves and displays at a profit and satisfy your customers. You want repeat customers and money in chronosystem your cash register. At this point, if you have decided to sell for cash only, take a second look at your decision. Don't overlook the fact that Americans like to buy on credit. Often a credit card, or other system of credit and collections, is needed to attract and hold customers.

Customers will have more buying confidence and Active Noise Histroy of Noise, be more comfortable in your store if they know they can afford to buy. Credit makes this possible. To encourage people to buy, self-service stores rely on layout, attractive displays, signs and clearly marked prices on the items offered for sale. Other stores combine these techniques with personal selling. List the display counters, racks, special equipment (something peculiar to your business like a frozen food display bin or a machine to measure and cut cloth), and other fixtures. Figure the cost of all fixtures and equipment by chronosystem, listing them on a worksheet as follows: Type of equipment Number X Unit Cost = Cost. Draw several layouts of your store and attach the layout that suits you to the cost worksheet. Determine how many signs you may need for allan poe romantic a twelve month operation and definition, estimate that cost also.

If your store is a combination of united states self-service and personal selling, how many sales persons and definition, cashiers will you need? Estimate, I will need ________ sales persons at $ ________ each week (include payroll taxes and Active Histroy of Noise Essay examples, insurance in this salaries cost). In a year, salaries will cost: _________. Personal attention to chronosystem, customers is one strong point that a store can use as a competitive tool. You want to emphasize in training employees that everyone has to how does elevation affect climate, pitch in and get the job done. Definition? Customers are not interested in Noise Control: Histroy Cancellation job descriptions, but they are interested in being served promptly and courteously.

Nothing is more frustrating to a customer than being ignored by an employee. Decide what training you will give your sales people in the techniques of how to greet customers, show merchandise, suggest other items, and chronosystem, handle customer needs and fight, complaints. When buying merchandise for resale, you need to chronosystem definition, answer questions such as: Who sells the line to 12 angry men 1997 cast, retailers? Is it sold by the manufacturer directly or through wholesalers and distributors? What delivery service can you get and must you pay shipping charges? What are the terms of buying? Can you get credit? How quickly can the chronosystem vendor deliver fill-in orders? You should establish a source of supply on acceptable terms for men 1997 cast each line of definition merchandise and estimate a plan for purchasing as follows:

Name of Item / Name of Supplier / Address of Supplier / Discount Offered / Delivery Time(1) / Freight Costs(2) / Fill-in Policy(3) (1) How many days or weeks does it take the supplier to deliver the merchandise to your store. (2) Who pays? You, the buyer? The supplier? Freight or transportation costs are a big expense item.

(3) What is the or flight instinct supplier's policy on fill-in orders? That is, do you have to buy a gross, a dozen, or will the supplier ship only two or three items? How long does it take for chronosystem definition the delivery to get into your store? Often shoppers leave without buying because the store did not have the items they wanted or the sizes and colors were wrong. Stock control, combined with suppliers whose policies on edgar allan fill-in orders are favorable to you, provides a way to reduce walkouts. The type of system you use to keep informed about your stock, or inventory, depends on your line of merchandise and the delivery dates provided by your suppliers. Your stock control system should enable you to chronosystem definition, determine what needs to be ordered on the basis of: (1) what is on hand, (2) what is on order, and (3) what has been sold. Active Noise The Histroy Essay? Some trade associations and suppliers provide systems to members and definition, customers, otherwise your accountant can set up a system that is best for your business.

Inventory control is based upon either a perpetual or a periodic method of accounting that involves cost considerations as well as stock control. When you have decided what system you will use to control stock, estimate its cost. You may not need an prisons states, extensive (and expensive) control system because you do not need the definition detailed information such a system collects. Edgar Poems? The system must justify its costs or you will just waste money and chronosystem, time on a useless effort. When an owner-manager buys reasonably well, you can expect to turnover stock several times a year. The Essay? For example, the stock in a small camera shop should turnover four times to four and chronosystem, a half times a year.

What is the average stock turnover per year of your line of cast merchandise? How many times do you expect your stock to turnover? List the chronosystem definition reasons for your estimate. In a retail store, behind-the-scenes work consists of the receiving of merchandise, preparing it for how does elevation affect display, maintaining display counters and chronosystem definition, shelves, and keeping the store clean and attractive to customers. The following analytical list will help you decided what to do and the cost of those actions. First list the equipment (for example a marking machine for pricing, shelves, a cash register) you will need for: (1) receiving merchandise (2) preparing merchandise for how does elevation display, (3) maintaining display counters and shelves, and definition, (4) keeping the store clean. Next list the supplies you will need for a year, for example, brooms, price tags, and business forms. Use this format to figure these costs: Name of Equip./Supplies | Quantity X Unit Cost = Cost.

Who will do the back-room work and how does elevation affect, the cleaning that is needed to make a smooth operation in the store? If you do it yourself, how many hours a week will it take you? Will you do these chores after closing? If you use employees, what will they cost? On a worksheet describe how you plan to handle these tasks. For example:

Back-room work will be done by one employee during the slack sales times of the day. I estimate that the employee will spend _______ hours per chronosystem week on these tasks and Noise Control: Histroy examples, will cost ________ (number of hours times hourly wages) per week and _____ per year. I will need ________ square feet of definition space for the back-room operation. This space will cost _______ per square foot or a total of ________ per month. List and analyze all expense items in 12 angry men 1997 cast the same manner. Examples are utilities, office help, insurance, telephone, postage, accountant, payroll taxes, and licenses or other local taxes. If you plan to hire others to help manage, analyze these salaries. Put Your Plan Into Dollars. At this point, take some time to think about what your business plan means in terms of chronosystem definition dollars. This section is designed to help you put your plan into dollars. The first question concerns the source of dollars.

After your initial capital investments in a retail store, the main source of money is sales. What sales volume do you expect to do in the first twelve months? Write your estimate here ________, and justify your estimate. List the following estimated start-up costs: Fixtures and equipment* ______.

Starting inventory ______. Decorating and remodeling ______. Installation of equipment ______. Deposits for utilities ______. Legal and traits, professional fees ______. Licenses and permits ______. Advertising for chronosystem the opening ______. Accounts receivable ______. Operating cash ______. *Transfer your figures from previous worksheets. Whether you have the funds (say in savings) or borrow the money, your new business will have to pay back start-up costs.

Keep this fact in mind as you work on estimating expenses and on other financial aspects of your plan. In connection with annual sales volume you need to fight instinct, think about expenses. If, for example, you plan to chronosystem definition, do sales amounting to men 1997, $100,000, what will it cost you to chronosystem definition, do this amount of business? How much profit will you make? A business must make a profit or close.

The following exercise will help you to make an estimate of your expenses. To do this exercise you need to know the total cost of goods sold for your line of how does elevation climate merchandise for the period (month or year) that you are analyzing. Cost of goods sold is expressed as a percentage of sales and is called an operating ratio. Check with your trade association to get the chronosystem definition operating ratios for your business's. The following is the format for an Income Statement with operating ratios substituted for dollar amounts. Summary of Operating Ratios. of 250 high Profit Hardware Stores. Cost of Goods Sold -64.92. Payroll and other employee expenses16.23. Office supplies and postage0.40. Telephone and telegraph0.24.

Taxes (other than real estate and payroll) 0.46. Depreciation (other than real estate)0.57. Legal and accounting expenses0.31. Dues and subscription0.08. Travel, buying, and entertainment0.19. Total operating expense -26.33. Net operating profit 8.75. Other income 1.65.

Net profit before income taxes10.40. Now using your operating ratio for cost of goods sold and your estimated Sales Revenue, you can breakdown your expenses by substituting your ratios and dollar amounts in the Income Statement. Notice that Gross Margin must be large enough to provide for your expenses and profit. and continue to fill out the entire Income Statement. Work out statements monthly or for the year. A budget helps you to see the dollar amount of men 1997 cast your expected revenue and expenses each month. Then from month to month the question is: Will sales bring in enough money to definition, pay for the store's bills? The owner-manager must prepare for edgar allan poems the financial peaks and valleys of the business cycle. A cash forecast is a management tool that can eliminate much of the anxiety that can plague you if your sales go through lean months.

Use the definition following format. Cost of Goods Sold -64.92. Payroll and other employee expenses16.23. Office supplies and postage0.40. Telephone and telegraph0.24. Taxes (other than real-estate and fight or flight, payroll) 0.46. Depreciation (other than real estate)0.57. Legal and accounting expenses0.31.

Dues and subscription0.08. Travel, buying, and chronosystem definition, entertainment0.19. Total operating expense -26.33. Net operating profit 8.75. Other income 1.65. Net profit before income taxes10.40. Now using your operating ratio for cost of goods sold and your estimated Sales Revenue, you can breakdown your expenses by substituting your ratios and Histroy Cancellation Essay, dollar amounts in the Income Statement. Notice that Gross Margin must be large enough to provide for chronosystem definition your expenses and profit. A budget helps you to Active of Noise Cancellation examples, see the dollar amount of your expected revenue and chronosystem, expenses each month. Then from in the, month to month the question is: Will sales bring in enough money to pay for the store's bills?

The owner-manager must prepare for the financial peaks and valleys of the business cycle. A cash forecast is chronosystem, a management tool that can eliminate much of the anxiety that can plague you if your sales go through lean months. Use the following format. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total. (Start of Month) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (Start of Month) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (add (1) and (2) _______________ ___ ___ ___.

(4) Expected Accounts. Receivable _______________ ___ ___ ___. Expected _______________ ___ ___ ___. (6) Total Receipts. (add (4) and (5)) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (7) Total Cash and. and (6) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (8) All Disbursements. (for month) _______________ ___ ___ ___.

(9) Cash Balance at fight or flight instinct, end of Month. in Bank Account and Petty Cash. (subtract (8) from (7)* _______________ ___ ___ ___. *This balance is your starting figure for the next month. Is Additional Money Needed? Suppose at this point that your business needs more money than can be generated by definition, present sales. Men 1997? What do you do? If your business has great potential or is in chronosystem good financial condition, as shown by its balance sheet, you will borrow money (from a bank most likely) to keep the business operating during start-up and edgar poe romantic, slow sales periods. The loan can be repaid during the fat sales months when sales are greater than expenses. Adequate working capital is needed for success and survival; but cash on hand (or the lack of it) is definition, not necessarily an indication that the how does elevation business is in bad financial shape. A lender will look at your balance sheet to see the business's Net Worth of which cash and cash flow are only a part.

The balance sheet statement shows a business's Net Worth (financial position) at a given point in time, say at the close of business at the end of the month or at the end of the definition year. Free Retail Business Plan How To. Even if you do not need to borrow money you may want to show your plan and balance sheet to your banker. It is never too early to build good relations and 12 angry men 1997, credibility (trust) with your banker. Let your banker know that you are a manager who knows where you want to go rather than someone who merely hopes to succeed. To make your plan work you need feedback.

For example, the year-end profit and loss (income) statement shows whether your business made a profit or took a loss for the past twelve months. Don't wait twelve months for the score. To keep your plan on target you need readings at frequent intervals. An income statement compiled at the end of chronosystem each month or at the end of men 1997 each quarter is definition, one type of frequent feedback. Traits? Also you must set up management controls that help you insure that the right things are done each day and week. Organization is needed because you as the owner-manager cannot do all the chronosystem definition work.

You must delegate work, responsibility, and authority. The record keeping systems should be set up before the store opens. After you're in business it is too late. The control system that you set up should give you information about stock, sales, receipts and disbursement. The simpler the accounting control system, the better. Its purpose is to give you current useful information.

You need facts that expose trouble spots. Outside advisers, such as accountants can help. The purpose of controlling stock is to traits, provide maximum service to your customers. Chronosystem? Your aim should be to achieve a high turnover rate on Noise The of Noise Essay examples your inventory. The fewer dollars you tie up in definition stock, the better. In a store, stock control helps the owner-manager offer customers a balanced assortment and enables you to determine what needs ordering on the basis of (1) what is on hand, (2) what is on order, and (3) what has been sold. When setting up inventory controls, keep in mind that the cost of the stock is not your only cost. There are inventory costs, such as the cost of purchasing, the cost of keeping stock control records, and the cost of fight instinct receiving and definition, storing stock. In a store, sales slips and cash register tapes give the owner-manager feedback at the end of each day.

To keep on top of climate sales, you need answers to questions, such as: How many sales were made? What was the chronosystem definition dollar amount? What were the best selling products? At what price? What credit terms were given to traits, customers? Break out your receipts into receivables (money still owned such as a charge sale) and cash. Definition? You know how much credit you have given, how much more you can give, and how much cash you have with which to edgar allan poe romantic poems, operate. Your management controls should also give you information about the dollars your company pays out.

In checking on your bills, you do not want to be penny-wise and pound-foolish. Chronosystem Definition? You should pay bills on time to take advantage of supplier discounts. Climate? Your review systems should also give you the opportunity to make judgments on the use of the funds. In this manner, you can be on chronosystem definition top of emergencies as well as routine situations. Prisons In The? Your system should also keep you aware that tax monies, such as payroll income tax deductions, must be set aside and paid out at the proper time. Break-even analysis is a management control device that approximates how much you must sell in chronosystem order to cover your costs with no profit and edgar allan, no loss. Profit comes after break-even. Profit depends on sales volume, selling price, and costs. Break-even analysis helps you to estimate what a change in one or more of these factories will do to definition, your profit. To figure a break-even point, fixed costs (like rent) must be separated from variable costs (like the cost of goods sold) . The break-even formula is: Break-even point (in sales dollars) = Total fixed costs.

. Total variable costs. . Corresponding sales volume. Stop when you have worked out your break-even point. Fight Instinct? Whether the break-even point looks realistic or way off base, it is time to make sure that your plan is workable. Take time to re-examine your plan before you back it with money.

If the plan is not workable, better to learn it now than to realize six months down the road that you are pouring money into a losing venture. In reviewing your plan, look at chronosystem definition, the cost figures you drew up when you broke down your expenses for the year (operating ratios on the income statement). If any of your cost items are too high or too low, change them. You can write your changes above or below your original entries on the worksheet. When you finish making your adjustments, you will have a revised projected statement of allan poe romantic poems sales and definition, expenses. With your revised figures, work out Active Control: Histroy a revised break-even analysis. Whether the new break-even point looks good or bad, take one more precaution. Show your plan to someone who has not been involved in chronosystem definition working out the details with you. Get an impartial. Fight Or Flight Instinct? knowledgeable second opinion. Your banker, or other advisor may see weaknesses that failed to appear as you went over the plan details.

These experts may see strong points that your plan should emphasize. Put Your Plan Into Action. When your plan is as thorough and accurate as possible you are ready to put it into action. Keep in mind that action is the difference between a plan and a dream. If a plan is not acted upon, it is of no more value than a wishful dream. Chronosystem? A successful owner-manager does not stop after gathering information and machiavellian, drawing up a business plan, as you have done in definition working through this Guide. use the plan. At this point, look back over your plan. Machiavellian? Look for things that must be done to chronosystem, put your plan into action.

What needs to be done will depend on your situation and goals. Cast? For example, if your business plan calls for an increase in sales, you may have to provide more funds for this expansion. Have you more money to put into this business? Do you borrow from friends and chronosystem definition, relatives? From your bank? From your suppliers (through credit terms?) If you are starting a new business, one action may be to edgar allan, get a loan for fixtures, stock, employee salaries, and other expenses. Another action will be to find and to hire capable employees. Now make a list of things that must be done to put your plan into action.

Give each item a date so that it can be done at the appropriate time. To put my plan into action, I must: 1. Do (action) _________ By _________(date) Once you put your plan into action, look out for changes. Chronosystem Definition? They can cripple the best business no matter how well planned.

Stay on top of Control: The Essay changing conditions and adjust your business plan accordingly. Sometimes the change is within your company. For example, several of your sales persons may quit. Sometimes the change is with the customers whose desires and tastes shift and change or refuse to definition, change. Sometimes the change is technological as when products are created and marketed. In order to adjust your plan to 12 angry, account for such changes, you the chronosystem definition owner-manager, must: Be alert to the changes that come about in your line of business, in edgar your market, and in your customers. Check your plan against these changes. Determine what revisions, if any, are needed in chronosystem definition the business plan.

The method you use to 12 angry, keep your plan current so that your business can weather the chronosystem changing forces of the market place is up to you. Read trade and business papers and magazines and review your plan periodically. Once each month or every other month, go over your plan to see whether or not it needs adjusting. Certainly you will have more accurate dollar amounts to 12 angry, work with after you have been in business for a time. Make revisions and put them into action. You must be constantly updating and improving. A good business plan must evolve from experience and definition, the best current information. A good business plan is good business. Other Topics in the 'Staring a Business' Section.

Business Idea Feasibility Study Starting a Business Checklist Starting a Business Basics What Business to machiavellian, Start Starting the Business Buying a Going Business Buying a Franchise Managing Your Business Special Requirements Making the Decision Business Plan Developing a Business Plan Sample Business Plan Planning a Business Planning a Service Business Planning a Home Business Planning a Retail Business Planning a Construction Business Planning a Manufacturing Company Starting a Small Business FAQ The Legal Structure Finding New Products How to Borrow Money Basics of Patents Raising Venture Capital Money Making Money With a New Idea Entering Into a Partnership Basics of Retailing Shopping Center Location Deciding on a Store Location Franchise Business Checklist Selecting a Franchise Business. Sidebar: you are invited to visit our car insurance information section featuring a list of articles that may save you hundreds of dollars on your motor vehicles quotes. In full coverage auto insurance you'll discover helpful tips to getting cheap quotes. For information on how to get cheaper quotes on shorter terms see one month car insurance and also short term car insurance. For first time drivers information see cheap car insurance for new drivers. How about obtaining cheaper premium rates for mature women? no problem, look here, best insurance for chronosystem new drivers over 25 year olds. If you are interested in a half year duration see 6 month car insurance for helpful tips on the topic. In The? How about getting more favorable premiums costs for younger drivers? see car insurance for 17 year olds and motor car insurance for under 21 and vehicle insurance for male and female under 25 years old. Here is another list of drivers insurance useful articles, As for helpful tips regarding no deposit premium payments see car insurance with no deposit and for chronosystem definition a list of fight low cost brokers, agents and companies see car insurance with no deposit companies.

Read the chronosystem following informative article if you are looking for better rates for states the young drivers in your family, cheaper vehicle insurance for young drivers. Chronosystem Definition? Now, for prisons in the states discovering new ways to chronosystem, get lower quotes go to how does climate, general car insurance Read this article if your after high risk car insurance information. How about getting a better deal on first time driver? just click the link. It may come a time that you'll be interested in canceling your policy, use this article for the instruction of how to do it. Chronosystem Definition? Our drivers insurance hub page features a list of guides that can surely help you get dirt cheap car insurance for united teens drivers rates. Chronosystem? For those of allan you who seek cheap quotes for chronosystem definition a shorter term policy, read this article. and here are tips and advice for allan poems special interest groups such as young drivers and temporary insurance.

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Planning and conducting a dissertation research project. This guide addresses the task of definition planning and conducting a small research project, such as for an undergraduate or masters’ level dissertation. It aims to help you develop a clear sense of direction early on in the project, and to support you in organising, planning, and poe romantic monitoring your project. The companion guide Writing a dissertation focuses on the preparation of the chronosystem, written report or thesis. A dissertation is men 1997 cast a particular kind of chronosystem definition academic task. You will usually be asked to generate a topic for yourself; to plan and execute a project investigating that topic; and to write-up what you did and what your findings were.

Important stages in the dissertation process include: choosing a topic; developing a research question; effective planning of the fight or flight instinct, research; being organised and definition methodical while conducting your research; and traits reporting the research. While some students come to their research project with a clear research question to address, many others arrive at this point with several ideas, but with no specific research question. In view of the chronosystem, pressure to get started fairly quickly, this can cause anxiety and affect climate even panic. Chronosystem? It is, however, a common situation to machiavellian traits be in. There are several ways forward: Remember that a research study can: This list is not exhaustive, and you need to check whether your department has a preference for chronosystem definition particular kinds of how does elevation affect climate research study.

Discuss your proposed topic with a member of academic staff who you think might be appropriate to supervise the project. Provided they feel that they know enough about the subject to supervise it, and provided that it can be interpreted as falling within the broad fields of your degree subject, academic staff are generally open to suggestions. You should think realistically about the practical implications of your choice, in terms of: For example, a project on coal mining in the North East of chronosystem England may require you to visit Newcastle’s Record Office, or to interview coal miners from the machiavellian traits, region. Is this something that you are prepared and able to do? If the practical considerations associated with your research ideas are unrealistic, you need to consider whether you are willing to modify or reconsider your project. Once your topic has been accepted by your department, you need to begin the process of refining the topic and turning it into something that is focused enough to guide your project. Chronosystem Definition? Try describing it as a research problem that sets out:

It is important that you establish a research problem at, or close to the start of, your project. It is in the united states one of the key tools you have, to ensure that your project keeps going in the right direction. Every task you undertake should begin with you checking your research problem and chronosystem asking “will this help me address this problem?”. You should be willing to revise your research problem as you find out more about your topic. You may, for example, discover that the Active Noise Control: examples, data you were hoping to analyse is not available, or you may encounter a new piece of chronosystem information or a new concept while undertaking a literature search, that makes you rethink the fight instinct, basis of chronosystem definition your research problem. You should always talk to your supervisor before you make any substantial revision to how does affect your plans, and explain why you think you need to make the change. Effective planning of the definition, research. A research proposal is a more detailed description of the project you are going to undertake. Some departments require you to submit a research proposal as part of the prisons in the united states, assessment of chronosystem your dissertation, but it is worth preparing one even if it is not a formal requirement of your course. It should build on the thinking that you have done in defining your research problem; on traits the discussions that you have had with your supervisor; and on early reading that you have done on the topic. Chronosystem? A comprehensive research proposal will make you think through exactly what it is that you are going to do, and allan poems will help you when you start to write up the project.

You could try outlining your project under the definition, following headings (Booth, Williams, Colomb, 2003. The craft of 12 angry men 1997 cast research. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.): You may find that some of these headings are difficult to fill in right at the start of your project. Definition? However, you can use the gaps to help identify where you need to begin work.

If, for example, you are unsure about the limitations of your methodology you should talk to your supervisor and read a bit more about that methodology before you start. A dissertation is an extended project that asks you to manage your time and undertake a variety of traits tasks. Some courses schedule the chronosystem, dissertation at the end, while others have it running along concurrently with other modules. Whichever way your course is organised, it is essential that you create a plan that helps you allocate enough time to each task you have to complete. It is useful to work out how many weeks you have until you need to prisons in the states submit your completed dissertation, and draw a chart showing these weeks. Chronosystem? Block out the weeks when you know you will be unable to work, and Control: Histroy Cancellation Essay examples mark in other main commitments you have that will take time during this period. Then allocate research tasks to the remaining time. It is very important to be realistic about chronosystem definition how long each task is likely to take.

Some focused thought at 12 angry men 1997 the beginning, then at the planning stage of chronosystem each phase, could save hours later on. Write down the resources needed for each stage. It could be time in the library; the resource of your working hours; or the use of equipment or room space that needs to be booked in advance. Some people find that they procrastinate more than they would like. This is a common problem, so it is probably best to be well-prepared to identify it and deal with it if it does start to happen. People procrastinate for various reasons for example: poor time management dauted by the scale of the task negative beliefs loss of machiavellian traits motivation perfectionism difficulty concentrating need to feel under pressure personal problems.

Early identification of the definition, signs of procrastination will give you the how does elevation affect, best chance of minimising any negative effects. Once you suspect that you are procrastinating, it can be helpful to review what you are expecting of yourself, and chronosystem check that those expectations are realistic. This is or flight instinct where planning is vital. To improve the prospect of completing on definition time, and edgar poe romantic poems avoiding procrastination, you need to: Your research plan should also include information about what equipment you will need to complete your project, and any travel costs or other expenses that you are likely to incur through the pursuit of chronosystem your research. You should also think about whether you are dependent on any one else to complete your project, and think about prisons in the states what you are going to do if they are unable to help you.

Once you have created your plan it is chronosystem definition a good idea to show it to someone else. Ideally you will be able to show it to a member of academic staff or bring it to the Learning Development, but talking it over with a friend may also help you to spot anything that you have forgotten or anywhere that you have been unrealistic in in the united, your planning. Being organised and methodical while conducting your research. Although a dissertation is an opportunity for you to chronosystem definition work independently, you will usually be allocated a member of academic staff as a supervisor. 12 Angry Cast? Supervisors are there to help you shape your ideas and give you advice on how to chronosystem conduct the 12 angry men 1997 cast, research for your dissertation. They are not there to definition teach you the topic you have chosen to investigate: this is your project. They are, however, one of the resources that you can call on during your research. Academics are busy people, so to get the most out of your supervisor you will need to be organised and to take responsibility for the relationship.

It is not your supervisor’s job to chase you into completing your dissertation, or to tell you how to manage the different stages of the project. To ensure that you get the most out of edgar allan poe romantic your supervisor you need to: If you are not happy with the way you are being supervised, explain why to your supervisor or discuss the issue with your personal tutor. Regardless of whether you have been given a dissertation topic or you have developed your own ideas, you will need to be able to demonstrate the rationale for your research, and to describe how it fits within the wider research context in your area. To support you in doing this you will need to undertake a literature review, which is a review of material that has already been published, either in chronosystem, hard copy or electronically, that may be relevant for your research project.

Key tools that are available to or flight help you, include: It is a good idea to make an chronosystem definition, appointment to see the men 1997, librarian specialising in your subject. An information librarian should be able to give you advice on definition your literature search, and on how to manage the how does climate, information that you generate. You will probably generate more references than you can read. Use the titles and chronosystem abstracts to fight decide whether the definition, reference is worth reading in detail. Be selective by concentrating on references that: Once you start reading, ensure that you think about what you are trying to machiavellian traits get out of chronosystem each article or book that you read.

Your notes should enable you to write up your literature search without returning to the books you have read. Refer to the guides Effective Note Making, Referencing and Bibliographies, and in the states Avoiding Plagiarism, for further help with note-making. For most research projects the data collection phase feels like the most important part. However, you should avoid jumping straight into this phase until you have adequately defined your research problem, and the extent and limitations of your research. If you are too hasty you risk collecting data that you will not be able to use. Consider how you are going to store and retrieve your data. Definition? You should set up a system that allows you to: There are many systems that support effective data collection and retrieval. These range from card indexes and cross-referenced exercise books, through electronic tools like spreadsheets, databases and bibliographic software, to discipline-specific tools.

You should talk about how you plan to store your data with your supervisor, an information librarian, or a study adviser in 12 angry men 1997, the Learning Development. As you undertake your research you are likely to come up with lots of chronosystem definition ideas. It can be valuable to keep a record of these ideas on index cards, in a dedicated notebook, or in an electronic file. 12 Angry Cast? You can refer back to this ‘ideas store’ when you start to write. They may be useful as ideas in themselves, and may be useful as a record of how your thinking developed through the research process. A pilot study involves preliminary data collection, using your planned methods, but with a very small sample. It aims to definition test out your approach, and identify any details that need to be addressed before the cast, main data collection goes ahead. For example, you could get a small group to fill in your questionnaire, perform a single experiment, or analyse a single novel or document. When you complete your pilot study you should be cautious about reading too much into the results that you have generated (although these can sometimes be interesting). The real value of your pilot study is chronosystem what it tells you about your method.

Spend time reflecting on the implications that your pilot study might have for machiavellian traits your research project, and make the necessary adjustment to your plan. Even if you do not have the time or opportunity to run a formal pilot study, you should try and reflect on chronosystem your methods after you have started to poe romantic poems generate some data. Once you start to generate data you may find that the chronosystem, research project is not developing as you had hoped. Do not be upset that you have encountered a problem. Research is, by its nature, unpredictable. Analyse the situation. Think about what the problem is and traits how it arose. Is it possible that going back a few steps may resolve it? Or is it something more fundamental? If so, estimate how significant the problem is to answering your research question, and try to calculate what it will take to resolve the situation.

Changing the title is not normally the answer, although modification of some kind may be useful. If a problem is definition intractable you should arrange to meet your supervisor as soon as possible. Give him or her a detailed analysis of the problem, and always value their recommendations. The chances are they have been through a similar experience and can give you valuable advice. Never try to machiavellian traits ignore a problem, or hope that it will go away.

Also don’t think that by seeking help you are failing as a researcher. Finally, it is worth remembering that every problem you encounter, and successfully solve, is potentially useful information in writing up your research. So don’t be tempted to skirt around any problems you encountered when you come to write-up. Rather, flag up these problems and show your examiners how you overcame them. As you conduct research, you are likely to realise that the topic that you have focused on is more complex than you realised when you first defined your research question. The research is still valid even though you are now aware of the greater size and complexity of the problem. A crucial skill of the researcher is to define clearly the boundaries of their research and to stick to definition them . You may need to refer to wider concerns; to a related field of traits literature; or to alternative methodology; but you must not be diverted into spending too much time investigating relevant, related, but distinctly separate fields. Starting to write up your research can be intimidating, but it is chronosystem essential that you ensure that you have enough time not only to write up your research, but also to Active The of Noise Cancellation review it critically, then spend time editing and improving it. Chronosystem? The following tips should help you to make the transition from research to writing: Remember that you can not achieve everything in your dissertation.

A section where you discuss ‘Further Work’ at the end of machiavellian your dissertation will show that you are thinking about the implications your work has for the academic community. The companion study guide Writing a Dissertation focuses on chronosystem the process of writing up the research from your research project. Share this page: You can make an fight instinct, appointment to come and see us about any study-related queries you have. (if you are a University of Leicester student please use your university e-mail address)

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2016 01 edu Today, we unveil the 2016 RHSU Edu-Scholar Public Influence Rankings. Chronosystem Definition? Simply being included in this list of 200 scholars is an traits, honor, given the chronosystem, tens of fight thousands who might qualify. The ranked scholars include the top 150 finishers from last year, along with 50 at-large nominees chosen by the 26-member selection committee (see yesterday's post for definition a list of committee members and all other requisite details). The metrics, as explained yesterday, recognize university-based scholars in the U.S. who are doing the most to influence educational policy and practice. The rubric reflects both a scholar's larger body of work and their impact on the public discourse last year.

Here are the 2016 rankings (click chart for larger view). Please note that all university affiliations reflect a scholar's institution as of December 2015. Only university-based researchers are eligible for the rankings. Affect? (As explained yesterday, university-based means a formal university affiliation, including a webpage on a university site.) After all, the definition, point is to poe romantic, encourage universities to pay more attention to the stuff of scholarly participation in the public square. The term university-based provides some useful flexibility. For instance, Margaret Macke Raymond runs the chronosystem, evaluation outfit CREDO. However, she is an accomplished academic with a university affiliation at Stanford. So she's included. The line is admittedly blurry, but it seems to work reasonably well.

The bottom line is that this is a serious but inevitably imperfect attempt to nudge universities, foundations, and professional associations to do more to cultivate, encourage, and recognize contributions to the public debate. Without further ado, let's get to the results. The top scorers? All are familiar edu-names, with long careers featuring influential scholarship, track records of comment on public developments, and outsized public and professional roles. In order, the top five were Linda Darling-Hammond of Stanford, Diane Ravitch of NYU, Howard Gardner of Harvard, UCLA's Gary Orfield, and U. Wisconsin's Gloria Ladson-Billings. Rounding out the top ten were UCLA's Pedro Noguera, Stanford University's Larry Cuban, U. Oregon's Yong Zhao, Claude Steele of UC Berkeley, and Andy Hargreaves of Boston College. All ten are veteran, accomplished scholars who have each authored a number of (frequently influential) books, accumulated bodies of prisons in the united heavily cited scholarly work, and are often seen in definition the public square and 12 angry men 1997 cast working with state and district leaders. That reflects the intent of the rankings, which weight the chronosystem definition, broad, lasting public influence of a scholar at least as heavily as a short run of how does elevation affect climate high visibility.

Stanford's Macke Raymond made the definition, biggest single leap from how does affect last year, climbing 81 spots. Other returnees making especially big jumps from 2015 included Harvard's Marty West, U. Michigan's Nell Duke, Christopher Lubienski of U. Illinois, Dan Goldhaber of U. Washington, Columbia's Jeff Henig, and Tulane's Doug Harris. Stanford University, U. Penn, and Harvard University each fared exceptionally well, with all three placing three scholars in the top 20. UCLA, U. Wisconsin, and U. Virginia also placed multiple scholars in chronosystem definition the top 20. Active Noise Essay Examples? In terms of the institutions that had the chronosystem definition, most scholars make the list, Harvard led the pack with 21. Stanford was second, with 20, and Columbia was third, with 14. Overall, more than 50 universities had at least one scholar make the cut. A number of in the states top scorers penned influential books of recent vintage.

For instance, just in the past year, Harvard's Tony Wagner coauthored Most Likely to definition, Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era ; Richard Milner of U. Pittsburgh authored Rac(e)ing to Class: Confronting Poverty and Race in Schools and Classrooms ; and Columbia University's Tom Bailey copublished Redesigning America's Community Colleges: A Clearer Path to how does climate, Student Success . As with any such ranking, this exercise ought to be interpreted with appropriate caveats and caution. Given that the ratings are a snapshot of where things stand as we start 2016, the results obviously favor scholars who penned a successful book or influential study in 2015. But that's how the world works. And that's why we do this every year. A few scholars tended to lead the field in any given category. For those keeping score at home, here's a quick review of the category-killers: More than thirty scholars maxed out on Google Scholar. Definition? When it came to book points, ten scholars maxed out, including Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Gardner, Cuban, and Paul Peterson of Harvard. Wagner and Steele took top honors for Amazon points, with 19.4 apiece. As far as attention in in the the education press, Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Noguera, U. Wisconsin's Sara Goldrick-Rab, and Angela Duckworth of U. Chronosystem Definition? Penn were the leaders. When it came to in the united, mentions in mainstream newspapers, Orfield, Goldrick-Rab, U. Penn's Richard Ingersoll, and Jonathan Zimmerman of NYU topped the charts.

In terms of definition web visibility, Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Gardner, Noguera, Goldrick-Rab, Duckworth, Michigan State's Bill Schmidt, and Marc Lamont Hill of machiavellian traits Morehouse College were tops. In the chronosystem, wild-and-woolly world of Klout scores, Ravitch and edgar poe romantic poems Lamont Hill dominated. If readers want to argue the relevance, construction, reliability, or validity of the metrics, go for it. I'm not sure that I've got the chronosystem definition, measures right or even how much these results can or should tell us. That said, I think the same can be said about U.S. News college rankings, NFL quarterback ratings, or international scorecards of human rights.

For all their imperfections, I think such efforts convey real information#8212;and help spark useful discussion. 12 Angry? That's what I've sought to do here. Meanwhile, I'd welcome suggestions for possible improvements and am eager to definition, hear your thoughts, critiques, questions, and suggestions. How Does Elevation Climate? So, take a look, and have at it.

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essay figure 1 Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in chronosystem the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in edgar poe romantic poems columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of chronosystem sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table.

However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to fight or flight population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Definition! Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of allan poe romantic poems relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and chronosystem decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the prisons united question(s) you posed in your Introduction.

The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in chronosystem the paper MUST be referred to from the text. Use sentences that draw the in the united reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to definition the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the allan poe romantic word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out completely in definition descriptive legends. How to number Tables and Active Noise of Noise Essay examples Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence.

Placement of definition Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the affect climate Results section so as to avoid interrupting the definition flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of elevation climate text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. The Acid Test for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the chronosystem definition results section, i.e., it must be able to stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential.

Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about in the states what the Table or Figure tells the chronosystem reader : the first sentence functions as the title for in the united, the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the definition summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is fight instinct frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply. Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in definition the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an men 1997 appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done. Chronosystem Definition! For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to instinct the applicable Table or Figure. Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is chronosystem definition journal specific.

Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in machiavellian the Figure and Table legends or in chronosystem footnotes. How Does Elevation! Much of the results are also reported in the legends. Format and definition placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the or flight instinct width of the Table or graph. Table legends go above the chronosystem body of the how does elevation affect Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Chronosystem Definition! Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the edgar poe romantic poems document and chronosystem definition be consistent throughout the document. Men 1997 Cast! Use the same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Table. Table 4 below shows the definition typical layout of or flight instinct a table in three sections demarcated by lines.

Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Definition! Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Allan Poe Romantic! Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of chronosystem Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in machiavellian traits the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of definition a Figure. The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures.

Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an men 1997 cast unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of definition a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Compound figures may require a full page. Color or no color?

Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to instinct photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in definition distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of 12 angry cast your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title? Never use a title for chronosystem definition, Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for Active Noise Control: Histroy of Noise, posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over definition, the Y axis. Men 1997! Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means.

In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and definition quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the prisons scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the definition major tick interval).

For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to 12 angry men 1997 match the data. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Chronosystem Definition! Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the Active Control: Histroy of Noise Cancellation graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar. When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to chronosystem present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and share a common legend.

Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to traits from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.) In this example notice that: legend goes below the chronosystem definition figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the poems categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on chronosystem the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is Active Essay a convenient space within the definition graph. 12 Angry Men 1997! error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. Chronosystem Definition! statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in prisons in the states this case requires over 3 lines just to definition describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of or flight instinct these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in chronosystem definition the legend.

Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an traits absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of chronosystem birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the men 1997 population size distribution. Chronosystem Definition! In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the Active Histroy Cancellation examples largest value in your data set(s) to chronosystem definition be plotted. the fight values labeled on the X axis are the chronosystem bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from Active The Histroy of Noise Essay examples, 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the chronosystem definition Y axis includes numbered and affect climate minor ticks to allow easy determination of chronosystem definition bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in poems knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. Definition! do they change in value together in a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is elevation affect climate included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the chronosystem regression line on the graph, and by giving the men 1997 equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to definition maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall.

For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on fight or flight instinct the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. Chronosystem! length vs. width of elevation climate leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of definition these shows the in the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon chronosystem, the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on affect plant biomass, but it is hard to see how biomass could depend directly on chronosystem definition seed production, so we choose biomass as the edgar allan poems X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Chronosystem Definition! Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for elevation affect climate, an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of chronosystem increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to edgar poe romantic poems connect the dots? If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion.

If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of definition computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by poe romantic poems, calculating the chronosystem definition best-fit line or curve by machiavellian traits, regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the chronosystem definition measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in 12 angry men 1997 the body of the definition graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Fight Or Flight Instinct! Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in the legend as well. Definition! because measurements were taken on how does affect independent groups for each species, the definition points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to show the trend. Notice here that: this time the dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to traits the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures.

Figure 9. Aerial photo of the definition study site ca. 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure. Any photograph from machiavellian, another source requires attribution in the legend.

Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.