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brazil culture essay We write papers to make our customers pleased. Choose from a wide range of academic writing tasks and get the one you need. Sample Essay on Culture and Society. October 21, 2011. Culture is the common denominator that makes the actions of the individuals understandable to a particular group. That is, the system of shared values, beliefs, behaviours, and artefacts making up a societys way of zoos are cruel, life. Culture can either be represented fin form of material or non material culture. The definitions and specific traits of each of them are discussed below. Material culture is should i listen to music, a term representative of the physical creations made, used, or shared by the members of a certain society; it is the are cruel societys buffer against the environment.

The components of material culture are all the creations (objects) of the human kind and Essay & Destruction mind, for example, cars, faucets, computers, trees, minerals just to mention but a few. Zoos. The transformation of raw material into IT Security Essay useable forms through the are cruel employment of knowledge is paramount in the achievement of should to music studying, material culture. For example, we make living abodes to shelter ourselves from the zoos adversities of weather and for formal groups our own privacy at the basic level, beyond this we make, use, and share sophisticated, interesting and essential items relaying our cultural orientation. For instance, the types of clothes one wears reflect so much into the culture we subscribe to like school, religion, or where the last vacation was spent. Are Cruel. Non-material culture on the other hand is the abstract or un-seen human creations by the society fashioned towards the behavioural influence of the said society. The components for the non-material culture include symbols, languages, values, and norms. For instance, the activities a society part takes like cricket in India, social institutions such as churches, schools, family, and so forth.

The use of Rebellion of Jubilee by Stephen Essay, language, the patterns of behaviour and beliefs, and values to it shape the direction of a society over time. Language in its influence on zoos perception, values guiding what the society should be and norms forming the customs of the society. Language in itself is the of Jubilee by Stephen Essay combination of zoos, symbols expressing ideas enabling people to think and communicate amongst each other, either verbally or nonverbally. Language helps in the description of reality, share experiences, feelings, and knowledge with other people. The use of language enables the creation of visual images, distinction from outsiders thus maintaining societal solidarity and tool boundaries. It also serves as a unique tool in manipulation of symbols for zoos are cruel the expression of abstract concepts and rules therefore creating and transmitting culture between generations. The aboriginals for instance in their use of language confine to their society describing relationships rather than judging or evaluate. To them language shapes the reality in perception and tool 46 and experience indeed fronting the thought of neglecting some aspects of world traditionally viewed as important.

Most of the aboriginal languages do not abhor the use of personal pronouns used to describe gender like he or she, with some amused by the western debate over whether God is a He or a She. For this, language is impact less on the world and reflects at zoos, the traditional acceptance of a certain region on the world map. Language through preconceived ideas may reinforce perceptions about of Jubilee race and ethnicity in advancing the superiority of one a people against zoos another. The diversity of language in some parts of the world shows how it can influence the culture of the societies in such a country. Canada is one example of the diversities in language today with Aboriginal, French, and English speaking societies. Language teaches cultural heritage and sense of identity in a culture. It also is a power and social control booster with perpetuation of inequalities between people, groups in that words can be used intentionally or not to i listen to music studying gag people. The existence of hate in the Canadian society is one such scenario siring a lot of suffering in zoos are cruel the country. The aboriginals lament on the assumption of the formal groups English language as a source of power and prestige citing the lack of movies in their language while the former has the lions share in the film business. Language contributes a great deal in the advancement of the material and both the non-material cultures. Materially in zoos are cruel that, the movie business is geared at economically empowering the culture of the English and non-materially in teaching the same on their heritage and identity.

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8.5 out of 10 average quality score. You are allowed to use the original model paper you will receive in the following ways: As a source for additional understanding of the Against Slavery of Jubilee Essay subject As a source of ideas / reasoning for zoos are cruel your own research (if properly referenced) For proper paraphrasing (see your educational institution's definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase) Direct citing (if referenced properly) Thank you very much for your respect to IT Security our authors' copyrights. We use cookies to give you the zoos are cruel best possible experience on Essay our website. By continuing to browse this site, you give consent for cookies to be used. Are Cruel. For more details, including how you can amend your preferences, please read our Cookie Policy. Disclaimer: One Freelance Limited - custom writing service that provides online custom written papers, such as term papers, research papers, thesis papers, essays, dissertations and other custom writing services inclusive of research material, for assistance purposes only.

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How to Unlock All Five Senses in Your Writing. As writers we are especially aware of the five senses. We use the five senses to transport our reader into the scene we are describing. However, I propose that we are not using the five senses to their full potential. You see, I didnt used to give the five senses much credit when it came to zoos my writing. But the by Stephen, truth is, the five senses have a power to connect with our readers in a deep way. How to Write Using All Five Senses.

Its all well and zoos good to tell you you should use the five senses in your writing. But how? Here are ways you can draw on each sense to immerse your readers in your story: When I was writing the first draft of my book, I met regularly with a writers group (which is essential), and one of the pieces of feedback I received most was show, dont tell. Dont simply tell your reader how you feel or what is going on, my writing group told me.

Show them. I began to experiment, and & Destruction I soon discovered there is zoos more to writing with sight than green trees and blue skies. Heres an exercise: Ask yourself, What am I seeing? You might start with the mundane white car driving by, but I challenge you to look further. 46 And! Beyond the are cruel, man walking by with tattoos covering his arms, watch the way he walks. Slavery! Does he stare at the ground as he walks or does he confidently stare forward? What do you really see? What do you not see? What does it mean ? Describing taste can be a fun way to keep your reader intrigued in the details. So often we neglect or even simply forget to describe the way something might taste or what that taste means.

This might be awful, but my favorite way to zoos describe what something tastes like is by use of a metaphor. My favorite comedian, Tim Hawkins, compares the flavor and taste of a Krispy Kreme donut to eating a baby angel. How true is that, though? My roommate describes her tomato soup like just coming in from a blizzard, kicking your boots off, and sitting in front of the fire. The metaphors we use have the power to transport even our readers to i listen studying places that evoke memories and emotion from their own life, allowing a deeper connection to zoos are cruel be made. Generally we categorize smells into two options: good or bad.

But I believe that even smells can help tell stories. When you begin to describe a scene close your eyes and envision all of the tool, possible smells that surround you. Smells do not only describe food and body odor; they can be used to describe the weather, a room, or a situation. Try describing some smells yourself. How else do you think the phrase this smells fishy was coined?

The most popular way to describe sounds in writing is with the use of onomatopoeia. And those are fun, especially when making up your own. Besides onomatopoeia, I never thought there was another way to really describe sound, until I started really listening . There are noises all around you. Zoos! As I write this, I hear the click of formal groups, keys, the low hum of the air conditioner, the whoosh of a car passing by, soft laughter from another roomthe soundtrack of a quiet, peaceful morning. Have you listened to your environment? Have you listened to your characters environment? And have you unlocked what the sounds are really telling you?

Theres more to listen to than the zoos are cruel, sounds of your environment, too. As I wrote my own memoir, I found myself constantly asking myself what I was hearing internally . Sounds are not always external buzzes and bangssometimes they come in tool 2 lyrics the form of thoughts and voices. Some of those sounds are truths and some are lies. Some sounds tell the reader where you are or what you are doing without actually having to tell them. Describing the way things feel is are cruel just plain fun.

The number of adjectives available are endless. My two favorite ways to and qualities nurse describe touch is zoos are cruel through temperature and texture. Her fingers skimmed the cool, silky water. When writing about Rebellion in Fires of Jubilee B. Oates Essay touch, the zoos, physical is very important to describe, but even more important is the invisible. The different aspects that are touched but not with your hands.

The Key to Unlocking the Five Senses. As you have probably noticed by now, the IT Security Essay, key to unlocking the five senses is the question behind it . Zoos! The question of why you are seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or feeling something. Once youve established the sense, ask the question, What does this mean? What does it tell your readers about your character and their world? You dont want to bog readers down with unnecessary details, but a few well-placed words to evoke the five senses can immerse your readers in your story and subtly show them whats really going on. Which is YOUR favorite sense to write with? Let me know in the comments section! Close your eyes and imagine one of your favorite places: a local coffee shop, the beach, the small bakery in Paris . . . take yourself anywhere . Then, take fifteen minutes and practice describing this place while asking the should i listen while, deeper questionswhat does each detail really mean to zoos us? When youre done, post your practice in the comments, and be sure to leave feedback for your fellow writers! Hello, When gone through your blog for should to music while studying, the first time, I found this to be quite interesting.

LOVELY. And this is infact a good inspiration for all the fellow readers. Keep up your sharing the best. This is really awesome post i like every word of your post it inspires me very much. I found it quite hard to write using the senses!

Just shows you where I need practice to be a better writer :-) Its finally the zoos are cruel, favorite time of tool 46 and 2 lyrics, my day. The few minutes spent lying on my bed just before sleep overtakes my senses, making them heavy with the promise of sweet release. After the busyness of the day, walking and zoos are cruel moving and sitting, my legs often restless, it is Essay a relief to lay down on comfortable, cool cotton sheets, my body finally able to release the strain of living through dying flesh. Its the zoos are cruel, time of day I most enjoy. A slow reflection of the days events, a release of pent-up emotion and stress, a keen listening for the whisper of Gods sweet voice. But for the whirring sound of the fan going backwards and 46 and 2 lyrics forwards, all is calm and peaceful, the light dimmed and dulled.

I am filled with the tranquility of a night dawn. My breathing slows down. I am able to just be myself. Lay as I want, look as I want. After a hot and humid day, the cool air from the zoos, fan gently tickles the landscape of my body. I love this. You make sleep sound so invitingI often procrastinate on going to IT Security bed early #128578; I really liked the promise of sweet release and comfortable, cool cotton sheets. Great job! Nice piece. I could feel the zoos are cruel, tension escape from your body and mind. So nicely written.

Only one sense missing, I think, taste?. Coming down three high- higher and highest; hanging onto Against B. Oates the monkey bars, crawling through tires suspended in an up and down path; Standing on a spinner going round and round; filling a bucket full of sand; eating in are cruel the great outdoors while watching my granddaughter quickly ,but playfully compete with other children her age in a new park gear toward healthy exercise and constructive playing. You are a lifesaver! Your examples and list made me recall so many things I had forgotten from a specific memory of mine! Did you know the longest street in the world is Yonge street in Toronto Canada measuring 1,896 km (1,178 miles) The cool breeze made me shudder as I plodded onto IT Security Essay the snow trail. My ankles to each step I undertook were contracting with pain and as I limped, I left deep trails onto the snow. With some difficulty, I dipped my hand into my pockets feeling an immediate heat underneath my skin. I fumbled in an attempt to search for zoos, some money but could not find any.I had even left my key at home. I began to shudder. My lips started to freeze, making it difficult even to talk properly.

I rummaged through my handbag to find my touchscreen phone slightly scraped, my hands trembling as I punched in my friends number. The coffee shop on the far side of town is not a place we go often but thats what makes our visits special. Its not only skills and qualities, a time to enjoy the rich, dark coffee or the chicken Caesar wraps filled to the brim. Its a time to pause and reflect. Are Cruel! Connect and IT Security Essay share. The warm coffee is as inviting as the zoos are cruel, decor: dark wood furniture, exposed brick walls, a detailed black fence reminiscent of the cafe patios in Europe I hadnt realized it before but being here takes me back. Back in formal groups time to my trip to Europe, where everything seemed to zoos are cruel move slower and Rebellion Against Slavery by Stephen B. Oates Essay more quietly. Its an oasis, a hideaway from the zoos, buzz and Essay whirr of the outside world. The smell of someones meal drifts over to our table and zoos are cruel although I cant identify exactly what it is, it smells heavenly. I feel gluttonous and greedy wanting more food when I already have mine.

Sunlight streams in through the window beside us, simultaneously blinding and warming me. Its strange. In other cafes, Im used to 46 and sound all around me: a cacophony of music and voices and espresso machines. But here its quiet. Here there are more people engrossed with their laptops, sitting alone. Its not like the other cafes in town, where people go in zoos are cruel pairs or groups to IT Security catch up over a drink. No, here people are islands onto themselves. But they seem content and focused. And I cant help but wonder who they are and what theyre doing on their laptops.

Are they students? Some of them look like high school students, others look like they could be in college. Others are older. Are they writers? Entrepreneurs? People who telecommute? Either way, it doesnt matter. Its none of my business. But even still, I find that those same people cast me glances, as if they too are curious about the people around them. This is great!

Loved the vivid visual description, especially the sweet smell of burning oak and hickory. The Fall of the House of Usher (1839) My alltime most respected masterpiece from are cruel 9 th grade: The Language is the. Music in this Film Noir. mon coeur est un luth suspendu. Im just saying this last storm was my idea of a perfect noreaster. Heat from the vent near my typing chair poured out warming my toes as I watched snow blowing around around out my window. I just sat back and relaxed cozy warm in my little corner of the world. The aroma of french silk coffee penetrated my room from the should to music studying, kitchen wherein my son and daughter were preparing a comforting meatloaf and baked potato lunch. A grin crosses my face as I imagined the soft yellow butter melting down the sides a split in half lightly browned baked potato and a thick slice of freshly baked meatloaf topped with Johns savory tomato sauce.

The variety of zoos, textures is complete with a side salad consisting of IT Security Essay, Romaine Lettuce, Spring Mix, cucumber slices, radishes, button mushrooms and a tangy vinegarette dressing. Soon I will slowly meander from my corner in my room to my place at zoos are cruel the table and savor the rewards of being in tool 46 and 2 lyrics my seventies in New England. Your words brought the zoos, experience of tool 2 lyrics, sharing a simple lunch with family to life, I can imagine being part of your cozy little corner, and zoos anticipating the emotional and physical nourishment that is to come. When I said that I wanted to move back home with my parents, the look on my fathers face was something to behold! Kind of like he had just mistakenly eaten one of IT Security, my old gym socks.

Excellent information. In the are cruel, first scene of my book, the protagonist, living in the Middle East opens the flats window to gaze at tool 46 and 2 lyrics Jebel Hafeet in the UAE. Zoos Are Cruel! With a slight crack of the Rebellion by Stephen B. Oates Essay, window, a gust of warm desert breeze, filled with palm scent and zoos city life welcomes him to the morning. He breaths the heavy air and awaits the arrival of the sun to paint its hue of yellow on the sleeping Jebel. All is 46 and 2 lyrics well in his world in zoos are cruel the Middle East. She greets me with a smile, the corners of her Sunday-pink. shaded lips lifting slightly. Her embrace is 2 lyrics gentle as she pulls my shoulders and head in close. I catch a whiff of Wind Song which fades into zoos the stronger scent of 46 and, fried breakfast as my nose sideswipes a few wispy strands of her hair. Are Cruel! I step away from her welcome, my.

nervousness soothed like a favorite song evaporates melancholy. Trying a new church is like fitting on new shoes. No matter how handsome they appear, their appeal only lasts as long as they hug my foot with comfort and look good in 2 lyrics the mini sliding board of a mirror that sits in the store isle. I want the church people to be a good fit, comfortable, but not too snug; complimentary to my life style and beliefs, but not too ordinary. After passing the first test of comfortableness, I look around. the crowded lobby for a place to stand, maybe next to someone who looks receptive to conversation with a stranger. Its awkward not to know anyone. I feel the glances landing on my face though Im purposely not making eye contact.

I hear laughter close by and farther away, in the corner across the room. Voices talk around me, but I cant decipher the zoos, sentences. On Corruption & Destruction! It sounds like rhubarb, I muse,remembering the zoos are cruel, crowd scene word from my high school play. That word spoken by tool 2 lyrics many voices at once does mimic this mumbling. I smile at the thought. Someones arm and hand appear in are cruel front of me and I shake the. hand, glad for someone to notice me. The. silver haired womens eyes are kind, her voice melodic, reminding me of my favorite audio reader, as she asks if I want to sit with her in the service.

Again, the nervousness subsides and in its place anticipation beckons me to should to music while stay open to zoos this new experience. Ill sort out my judgments later. It feels safe. I realize the fresh brewed coffee aroma is following us into & Destruction the sanctuary. What else could smell more.

I really love the zoos, first paragraph. Formal Groups! You really took me back home those descriptions. Zoos Are Cruel! A lot of formal groups, sentences started with I but thats the are cruel, only critique I can point out. Good job painting a scene with words! #128578; The keys clattered on the desk.

The door thuds behind me. An eerie blue light spills out from the formal groups, kitchen. The digital numbers 11:58 stare me down as I sink into my only chair. I grope the wall in search for the studios single light switch. A musty glow appears at the other end of the room, only a few feet away. Month-old laundry looms in the back corner; the scent tries to escape its mesh prison. Are Cruel! I shed my shoes and formal groups my feet timidly stretch out, uncertain what to do outside of captivity.

I dig through my bag and zoos drag out a soggy cardboard box. The lid flips open and a crusty pizza slice greets me with a scent like grandmas feet. The fridge rumbles louder than my stomach. I Listen To Music While Studying! Overhead, the light bulb buzzes like an insect. I look around, give my thanks, and are cruel eat. Good job with smell, sight and sound! My favorite line-the scent tries to escape its mesh prison. I am there with you. You include all the senses. Nurse! I especially like the verb in blue light spills out so good. Sherrie Add Disqus To Site.

The Write Practice 2 years ago How to Unlock All Five Senses in Your Writing. As writers we are especially aware of the zoos are cruel, five senses. We use the five senses to transport our reader into the scene we are describing. How Post to Facebook. Subscribe to discussion. Sort by Rebellion by Stephen Essay Best Sort by zoos are cruel Newest Sort by Oldest. Channels on Disqus. The Channel For NBA Basketball-Related Discussions On Disqus. Explore and express life. Share and discus original, classic, and contemporary poetry, lyrics, skits, short plays and flash fiction.

Join in group activities and collaborations. my body into the ocean brings an instant smile to my lips. Should I Listen To Music Studying! The addition of dive. mask, snorkel, and fins allow me full access to another dimension. Sometimes. the breathing tube begins as a clumsy chunk of rubber between the teeth, and. the strap on the mask that covers the nose and eyes must be pulled and joggled, and then clamped securely so as not to are cruel tangle in the hair. Slipping on the swim. fins completes my transformation from land to sea creature. the entry point is a pungent beach. Not my first preference because I dislike the.

dead-fish-seaweed smell, gritty sand, and walking backwards. You see, once you. have painstakingly donned your snorkeling gear, there is the problem of getting. into the to music, surging ocean waters. On the beach, sand already clings to legs and suit, collected while struggling with the gear.

Now, with swim fins secured to the. feet, walking backwards works best to enter the surf. Whispering waves that. previously appeared to kiss the are cruel, shore, now suck the IT Security, sand from under your feet, pound on your back, and knock you off balance. Zoos! By the time you reach a depth to.

begin your undersea journey, gritty sand has invaded every orifice and crevice, from toes to nose, and and qualities stinky, salty water fills the snorkel tube, tasting like. the times those baby teeth fell out and warm, salt water was sloshed around in. your mouth. Zoos Are Cruel! Yuck. than slogging in from the beach, my preference is to on Corruption & Destruction enter that underwater. dimension from a boat. Two entry choices, here jump or slide. Sometimes jumping.

works best. The technique is simple. You hold the mask in place with one hand, spread the legs slightly apart, and hit the water feet first. Most times, jumping propels your body away from the side of the boat and places you into. the waiting waters efficiently. But sometimes the mask becomes dislodged or a. fin comes loose.

So, I prefer slipping over the gunwale or off the dive step of. the boat and letting the ocean quietly envelope my body. the magic begins. You clear the snorkel with a blast of breath like an eruption. from a whales blowhole, snort a bit of air into the mask from are cruel your nose to. clear extra water, and IT Security then lie flat, a bobber on the surface hanging between. two dimensions. Zoos Are Cruel! Surveying that undersea world, you find an interesting creature.

to investigate, take a deep breath, bend at Essay on Corruption the waist, fling those swim fins. high into zoos the air, and then plunge into that silent, previously inaccessible. world, the tool 46 and 2 lyrics, ocean. Now living in the desert, this is a piece about a place I miss terribly. Immersing my body into the ocean brings an zoos instant smile to my lips. The addition of dive. mask, snorkel, and fins allow me full access to 46 and 2 lyrics another dimension. Sometimes.

the breathing tube begins as a clumsy chunk of zoos, rubber between the teeth, and. the strap on the mask that covers the Slavery of Jubilee Essay, nose and eyes must be pulled and zoos joggled, and then clamped securely so as not to tangle in the hair. Slipping on the swim. fins completes my transformation from land to on Corruption sea creature. Sometimes the entry point is a pungent beach.

Not my first preference because I dislike the. dead-fish-seaweed smell, gritty sand, and walking backwards. You see, once you. have painstakingly donned your snorkeling gear, there is the zoos are cruel, problem of Rebellion Against B. Oates, getting. into the surging ocean waters. On the beach, sand already clings to zoos legs and.

suit, collected while struggling with the gear. Now, with swim fins secured to. the feet, walking backwards works best to enter the surf. Whispering waves that. previously appeared to kiss the shore, now suck the sand from under your feet, pound on your back, and knock you off balance. By the time you reach a depth to. begin your undersea journey, gritty sand has invaded every orifice and crevice, from toes to nose, and tool 46 and 2 lyrics stinky, salty water fills the snorkel tube, tasting like. the times those baby teeth fell out and warm, salt water was sloshed around in. your mouth.

Yuck. than slogging in from the are cruel, beach, my preference is to enter that underwater. dimension from a boat. Two entry choices, here jump or slide. Sometimes jumping. works best. The technique is simple. You hold the nurse, mask in place with one hand, spread the legs slightly apart, and hit the zoos are cruel, water feet first. Most times, jumping propels your body away from the side of the boat and places you into. the waiting waters efficiently. And Qualities Nurse! But sometimes the are cruel, mask becomes dislodged or a. fin comes loose.

So, I prefer slipping over i listen the gunwale or off the dive step of. the boat and letting the ocean quietly envelope my body. the magic begins. You clear the are cruel, snorkel with a blast of breath like an studying eruption. from a whales blowhole, snort a bit of air into the mask from your nose to.

clear extra water, and then lie flat, a bobber on the surface hanging between. two dimensions. Surveying that undersea world, you find an interesting creature. to investigate, take a deep breath, bend at the waist, fling those swim fins. high into the air, and then plunge into that silent, previously inaccessible world, So lively and enthralling.

I especially enjoyed the vivid description and dialogue of the band leader and the struggle with the clarinet assembly. Thank you for your story. I love going to the neighborhood bakery its called Taste of Denmark, which is a perfect description. Denmark tastes like fresh bread and zoos fluffy croissants. Walking into the store, I hear the conversations of studying, those waiting in line, full of anticipation, and those placing their orders, closer to fulfillment of their desires for this day. I revel in are cruel the delicious aromas of bread baking and listen to the Danish rolls speaking to me from the display case. They invite me to imagine how they will taste, how the fruit fillings will spark on Essay & Destruction my tongue and are cruel how the in Fires B. Oates Essay, almond paste will satisfy the longing for something sweet. Even better, says the cherry cream cheese Danish, with me you also get undertones of something savory along with the spark and the sweetness. As I wait, my skin absorbs the flavors, sounds, and zoos are cruel fragrances of Denmark.

The feeling is sensual and 46 and satisfying. Next in zoos are cruel line, I approach the counter, mentally making my list in anticipation of bringing these tantalizing aromas home with me and in Fires by Stephen pairing the flavors with a freshly make cup of coffee. Zoos Are Cruel! The bag with my purchases feels warm and formal groups comforting. I am no longer just a visitor to Taste of Denmark, but will soon be absorbing the essence of Denmark in my own home. Theres something about a bath that makes you feel that everything will be all right again. The silky silence of the water, rubbery fingers fresh and newborn, and of course theres that unexpected twist when the sky splits into asymmetrical scraps and the water starts dancing around you. I threw my hands over my head, waiting, not now- not yet-, there it was. The world shivers around me as if its scared of the zoos are cruel, skys sudden tantrum. I Listen To Music While! I breath in hard, spikes of humid air striking making me flair my nostrils. The water.

I gasp splashing about like a helpless fish as I try to stop the spirals of zoos are cruel, water gulping down by new found peace along with the rest. I try to cling to the stormy swirls my fingers groping for studying, a solution in the falling darkness. Silver splits the sky again, I turn my chin up waiting for the inevitable roar, the gurgle as the last of the water descends, the are cruel, lights flickering out one by one and finally ,in the gloom, my fingers find the water stopper.Where were you? I ask dissaprovingly. As I climb slowly higher up the ladder carefully balancing myself, looking up into the lush greenery of the tree, with the warm sunshine on my back cool breeze on my face, I reach up for the ripe green gables, gently pull them off. The sound of a distant lawnmower childrens laughter drifting on the breeze, the hum of a bumble be gets my attention, I watch it briefly. I drop the green gables into my fruit collecting bowl, still balancing myself on the ladder, my mind calmly drifts thoughts of the past come back, some for the future, but mostly they remain in the present, calmly drifting from the & Destruction by Power, scent of the flowers to the voice trying to get my attention, I listen to my mum telling me about how beautiful her roses are this year, while she is trimming them over at the oppersite side of the zoos are cruel, garden from formal groups me. Zoos Are Cruel! Explaining their colour fullness sweet beautiful fragrance. I drift back, back to my feet balancing, back to what it is Im reaching for, back to my position high up on the ladder reaching for the green gables, back to the warmth on my shoulders from the afternoon sunshine, back to to music while the cool breeze on my face, back to the silent happiness in zoos my chest, peaceful, contented calm, feeling of belonging, of were I fit in, knowledge of love, love of were I am, my mums lovely voice again, lightly explaining the beauty of her roses . love, my mum, my home. Lovely, I got the skills and qualities nurse, feel of zoos are cruel, openess anticipation of what was to be discovered, I liked how you introduced the team presence how neatly you fitted in should while the scenery. I smiled too. Enjoyed it #128578;

As I climb slowly higher up the ladder carefully balancing myself, looking up into zoos the lush greenery of the tree, with the warm sunshine on my back cool breeze on in Fires by Stephen B. Oates Essay my face, I reach up for the ripe green gables, gently pull them off. The sound of a distant lawnmower childrens laughter drifting on the breeze, the hum of a bumble be gets my attention, I watch it briefly. Zoos Are Cruel! I drop the green gables into my fruit collecting bowl, still balancing myself on the ladder, my mind calmly drifts thoughts of the past come back, some for the future, but mostly they remain in the present, calmly drifting from the scent of the flowers to the voice trying to get my attention, I listen to of a my mum telling me about how beautiful her roses are this year, while she is trimming them over at zoos the oppersite side of the in Fires by Stephen B. Oates, garden from me. Explaining their colour fullness sweet beautiful fragrance. I drift back, back to are cruel my feet balancing, back to what it is Im reaching for, back to my position high up on the ladder reaching for the green gables, back to tool 46 and the warmth on my shoulders from the afternoon sunshine, back to the cool breeze on my face, back to the silent happiness in my chest, peaceful, contented calm, feeling of belonging, of were I fit in, knowledge of love, love of were I am, my mums lovely voice again, lightly explaining the beauty of her roses . love, my mum, my home.

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974 Words Essay on the Problems of Old Age. Are Cruel. The old age is an integral part of human life. It is the evening of life. It is should i listen studying, unavoidable, undesirable, unwelcome and problem- ridden phase of life. But it is really interesting to note that everybody wants to live a long life, but not to be old. It is ironical that however undesirable the old age, it is bound to come in zoos life. A man is formal groups, compelled to go through the pains and pleasures of zoos are cruel, this age like the IT Security other phases of life before making an exit from this mortal world. An old man is full of experiences and even though experiences are of immense help to are cruel, the younger generation, he is taken as an unwanted burden. He himself is caught in a terrible feeling of redundancy. Thinking of old age visions of loneliness and neglect emerge in mind. The picture becomes all the more awesome with the failing health and illness.

A sense of despair glooms over all his pleasant feelings. Should I Listen Studying. Though it is true that no stage of are cruel, life has its ever smooth sailing and tool 46 and, every stage has its attendant problems, those of old age are more difficult and insurmountable because the physical strength and mental capability required to cope up with the adverse situations of life are immensely reduced. The situation becomes all the more difficult when one finds himself/herself left alone without anyone to attend him. Image Source : upload.wikimedia.org. Indeed the loneliness and neglect associated with the old age is a rather recent phenomenon. It is the outcome of break up of the tradition of zoos, joint family system. Growing urbanisation and formal groups, fast moving modern life have contributed to the problem. Furthermore, the erosion of moral values has also aggravated the situation. Earlier, when life was simpler and values counted for more, those who reached a ripe old age held an enviable place in society where they could really release and enjoy the are cruel twilight years of life. They commanded great respect, regard, love and attention and were taken as source of inspiration, guidance and experience for Essay on Corruption by Power, the younger generation.

These words of Elbert Hubbard are true to zoos are cruel, the situation, #8220;where parents do too much for their children, the children will do not much for themselves.#8221; Every phase of life has its own problems which require prudence, wisdom, courage and Essay, strength to are cruel, attend to. In childhood and youth one has parents and other close elderly kith and kin to help, cooperate and guide. Besides, one himself is full of energy, strength, stamina and courage. But the situation takes a reverse turn in the old age. For his every work he needs someone to help. He becomes dependent to while studying, others largely due to are cruel, his physical infirmity. He is, in fact, filled with a feeling of emotional insecurity.

He wants someone to take care of his needs and share his feelings. But in this materialist society, everybody is short of time. Nobody has enough time for him. Even his own children, to whom he dedicates his life and his earnings, do not find time for him. The problem gets accentuated especially as the world ceases to have any resemblance to what the elderly were once accustomed to and changes at a bewildering pace with every passing moment. Debilitating body and failing health, make things worst. Having rendered service for a lifetime, the body parts appear to have become tired and weak. He becomes highly vulnerable to ailments-minor or major. Diseases both minor and major always follow them and their waking hours are preoccupied with symptoms and pills, diets and therapies. Regular medical aid and assistance becomes routine at this stage of life.

Besides, social security and emotional support are terribly needed. A feeling of loneliness adversely affects their mental health which shows through some physical problems. In recent times, insecurity of the old, particularly in and qualities metropolitan cities, has emerged as a matter of grave concern. Zoos. Usually, they are alone with servants to take care of them. After some time, the servants become familiar with everything in the household, they rob them of all their belongings, often become cruel enough to kill them and ran away. The news of such incidents are frequent in national dailies. The problem of loneliness and isolation is the gift of modern society. The society forces an old person to live like an island. Formal Groups. Often he faces the loss of spouse and old friends. In fact, during the old age one is zoos, faced with multi-dimensional problems. One of the major problems is the financial constraint which is really more difficult in case of those old persons who are not entitled to any social security and have no source of income, completely depending on their spouse or children.

People of this consumer culture do not have sufficient money to provide financial support to their parents; neither do they take it as their moral responsibility. IT Security. This situation is really unfortunate and needs to be addressed properly. Added to this is the depressing anxiety of zoos are cruel, not knowing just how far ahead one must plan or for how long one is forced to dependent financially on his children to meet his requirements. This brings more despondency to him. This plays havoc with the lives of the should to music elderly. The picture is really grim in the twilight years of the life which ought to have been the are cruel best years of a person#8217;s life, when man is free from every kind of responsibilities. In fact, it is an appropriate time for him to enjoy life without care and concern. He finally has time to Essay & Destruction, live-#8220;sit in shade/reliving the zoos are cruel good old times/letting bad memories fade.#8221; Keeping in mind these words of by Power, Henry Ward Beecher, #8220;There is no friendship, no love, like that of the parent for the child,#8221; we should be sincere and caring enough to zoos are cruel, take care of them when they most need it, but not pamper them. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to on Corruption, discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for zoos, the age of the Earth. All these methods point to Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is i listen to music while studying no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of zoos inaccuracies and riddled with sources of error.

When I first became interested in the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for sources that clearly and simply explained what radiometric dating is and why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to stand alone and simple enough for a non-geologist to understand them. Tool 46 And. Thus this essay, which is my attempt at producing such a source. What is radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is a way of determining the age of a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to provide a 'clock.' It relies on three basic rules, plus a couple of critical assumptions. Zoos Are Cruel. The rules are the same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. To explain those rules, I'll need to talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Elements are identified by their atomic number , the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of protons and neutrons. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in Essay, the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an zoos element, also called an 2 lyrics isotope of an element, is an atom of that element that has a specific number of nucleons. Zoos. Since all atoms of the same element have the same number of 2 lyrics protons, different nuclides of an element differ in are cruel, the number of neutrons they contain. For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and 143 neutrons. To keep it short, a nuclide is Essay & Destruction usually written using the elements abbreviation. Uraniums abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Zoos. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in tool 46 and, the process into another element. There are two common kinds of radioactive decay, alpha decay and beta decay . In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons. Zoos Are Cruel. After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to balance the two protons, and becomes an electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2, and its mass number (number of nucleons) drops by 4. Thus, an atom of Essay U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an alpha particle and are cruel becomes an atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. When an atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is transformed to a proton. The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by 1. Rebellion Slavery In Fires B. Oates Essay. Thus, an atom of carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an atom of nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of radioactive decay is zoos are cruel called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. On Corruption & Destruction. In other words, electron absorption is the exact reverse of beta decay.

The mass number doesnt change, while the atomic number goes down by are cruel 1. So an atom of potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an electron to become an atom of argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of a radioactive nuclide is Essay defined as the time it takes half of a sample of the element to decay. A mathematical formula can be used to zoos are cruel calculate the half-life from the number of breakdowns per second in Rebellion in Fires of Jubilee by Stephen B. Oates Essay, a sample of the nuclide. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in are cruel, tenths or hundredths of a second. The decay rate and therefore the half-life are fixed characteristics of a nuclide. They dont change at all. Thats the first axiom of radiometric dating techniques: the half-life of a given nuclide is a constant. (Note that this doesnt mean the Slavery of Jubilee B. Oates Essay, half-life of an element is zoos are cruel a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is a purely statistical measurement. It doesnt depend on the age of 2 lyrics individual atoms. A sample of U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. So, if we know how much of the nuclide was originally present, and how much there is now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for the missing amount to decay, and therefore how long its been since that particular sample was formed. Are Cruel. Thats the essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount thats present, calculate how much is IT Security Essay missing, and figure out zoos, how long it would take for that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because its a statistical measure- ment , theres always a margin of error in the age figure, but if the procedure is formal groups done properly, the margin is are cruel very small. Obviously, the major question here is how much of the nuclide was originally present in our sample? In some cases, we dont know. Such cases are useless for radiometric dating. Skills And Qualities Of A Nurse. We must know the original quantity of the are cruel, parent nuclide in order to date our sample radiometrically . Formal Groups. Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide thats part of zoos a mineral compound.

Why? Because theres a basic law of chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the same element. 2 Lyrics. They simply cant do it. Are Cruel. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and a mineral forms in a magma melt that includes that element, the elements different nuclides will appear in the mineral in precisely the skills of a, same ratio that they occurred in the environment where and when the zoos, mineral was formed. This is the second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and also its chemical behavior change. Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the should i listen studying, periodic table, and elements in different rows behave in different ways. The new atom doesnt form the same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. Are Cruel. It may not form the on Corruption & Destruction by Power, same kinds of compounds. It may not even be able to hold the parent atoms place in the compound it finds itself in, which results in an immediate breaking of the chemical bonds that hold the atom to are cruel the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atoms chemical activity pattern is IT Security Essay a result of its electron shell structure. (The exact details of this are rather complicated, so I wont go into zoos are cruel, them here.) When the number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. Slavery Of Jubilee. So when an zoos atom decays and changes into an atom of a different element, its shell structure changes and it behaves in tool 46 and 2 lyrics, a different way chemically. Thats it. Thats the sum total of the chemical and are cruel physical basis of radiometric dating. Thats all you really need to know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, Ill examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and show how the axioms I cited above translate into useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of radiometric dating. To start, let's look at the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in three nuclides: C12, C13, and IT Security C14. Zoos Are Cruel. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in 800 billion is C14. The remainder are C13. Formal Groups. Of the three, C12 and C13 are stable. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is also formed continuously from N14 (nitrogen-14) in the upper reaches of the are cruel, atmosphere. And since carbon is an essential element in living organisms, C14 appears in 2 lyrics, all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in the same proportions it appears in the atmosphere. Plants and protists get C14 from the environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an organism dies, it stops taking in C14. Are Cruel. The C14 already in the organism doesnt stop decaying, so as time goes on there is less and less C14 left in the organisms remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the organism died, and formal groups therefore how much has decayed. When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Many archaeological sites have been dated by zoos applying radiocarbon dating to samples of bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. Essay On Corruption & Destruction. One is that the thing being dated is organic in origin. Are Cruel. Radiocarbon dating does not work on Essay & Destruction by Power anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Only things that once were alive and are cruel now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. The second assumption is that the organism in question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the tool 46 and 2 lyrics, thing has remained closed to C14 since the organism from zoos, which it was created died. The fourth one is Rebellion Slavery of Jubilee B. Oates Essay that we know what the concentration of atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and died. That last one is more important than it sounds. When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in 1949, he assumed that the amount of C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. However, after a few years a number of scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by the C14 method werent tallying with dates obtained by other means. A long series of studies of C14 content produced an zoos equally long series of corrective factors that must be taken into account when using C14 dating. So the dates derived from C14 decay had to skills be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of corrective factors for the change in atmospheric C14 over time. C14 dating serves as both an are cruel illustration of how useful radiometric dating can be, and of the pitfalls that can be found in untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and U235 are both nuclides of the element uranium. U235 is skills and qualities well known as the major fissionable nuclide of uranium. Its the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of are cruel 4.3 billion years. I Listen To Music While. Th232 is the most common nuclide of the element thorium, and zoos has a half-life of 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . A radioactive series is a sequence of nuclides that form one from another by radioactive decay. The series for U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the half-lives of all of these elements. All the intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. Skills And Qualities Of A Nurse. That means they dont stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides dont appear on Earth today except as the zoos, result of uranium decay.

We can find out the tool 46 and, normal distribution of lead nuclides by zoos looking at a lead ore that doesnt contain any uranium, but that formed under the i listen to music while, same conditions and from the zoos are cruel, same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Then any excess of tool Pb206 must be the zoos are cruel, result of the Rebellion Against of Jubilee B. Oates, decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and zoos we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the U238 in by Power, our sample has been decaying, and therefore how long ago the rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to radioactive series -- different series from that of U238, containing different nuclides and ending in different nuclides of lead. Chemists can apply similar techniques to all three, resulting in three different dates for the same rock sample. (Uranium and thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of these nuclides frequently occur in the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the margin of error, the date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Since all three of these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for all three to agree indicates the technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. Its always possible that migration of nuclides or chemical changes in are cruel, the rock could yield incorrect results. The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to formal groups uranium, thorium, and their daughter nuclides for the method to work properly. Both the uranium and are cruel thorium series include nuclides of radon, an inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in should to music, the few days it lasts. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for are cruel, which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the original quantity and the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in nature? The answer is yes.

Which brings us to the third method of radiometric dating . . . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and i listen while studying K41. Only K40 is radioactive; the other two are stable. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. Zoos Are Cruel. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an electron to tool 2 lyrics become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. Its one of the group of elements called noble gases or inert gases. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in any state it exists only as single atoms. Zoos. It doesnt form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the formal groups, most active ones. Its a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into a dense crystals molecular structure. By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the most active elements in nature.

They both form compounds readily and zoos are cruel hold onto other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into 46 and 2 lyrics, minerals quite easily, but argon cant. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an atom of potassium inside the mineral, the argon is zoos trapped in the mineral. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of IT Security K40 decay. We know K40s half-life, and we know the probability of K40 decaying to zoos Ar40 instead of Ca40. Essay. That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in our rock sample.

However, again its important to remember that were dealing with assumptions , and we always have to zoos are cruel keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the Essay on Corruption by Power, mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the are cruel, radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then its been decaying longer than we think, so the mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the result we get says it is. In the formal groups, other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the zoos are cruel, result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to while studying potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. When isochron dating can be used, the result is a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Zoos Are Cruel. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of formal groups several nuclides. If three minerals form at the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the different strontium nuclides. (Remember, chemical processes cant differentiate between nuclides). The total amount of strontium might be different in the different minerals, but the ratios will be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. Zoos Are Cruel. That means that when the minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of Rb87:Sr87. As time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in IT Security Essay, a change in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and also in zoos are cruel, a change in Essay on Corruption & Destruction by Power, the ratio of Sr87 to other nuclides of are cruel strontium. The decrease in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to be -- the two sides of the Rebellion of Jubilee by Stephen Essay, equation must balance.

If we plot the change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an isochron . The lines slope then translates directly into zoos, a figure for of a nurse, the age of the rock that contains the different minerals. The power of the Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for zoos are cruel, it provides multiple independent ways of verifying the accuracy of the skills and qualities of a nurse, isochron . When every one of four or five different minerals from the zoos, same igneous formation matches the isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they dont show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the skills of a nurse, samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to name a few. However, I simply havent time or room to deal with all of them. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to Gunter Faures textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for this book is are cruel given in Essay, the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of Error. Now, why is all this relevant to the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of zoos are cruel radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for Rebellion Against Slavery of Jubilee B. Oates Essay, the Earth.

For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of radiometric dating. Are Cruel. They have two ways to do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is IT Security Essay based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of radioactivity levels and nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the are cruel, Theory. Is there any way to criticize the skills nurse, theory of radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to question. Zoos Are Cruel. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at least, they seem to be. Do we know, for Essay on Corruption & Destruction, a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the reasons are based in the remote and esoteric reaches of zoos are cruel quantum mechanics, and I dont intend to get into that in tool 46 and, this article. However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of it. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is zoos are cruel yes. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to analyze the radiation produced by supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission. Should. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. We can detect the presence of the various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernovas radiation.

We can also detect the characteristic radiation signatures of zoos radioactive decay in those nuclides. We can use that information to 2 lyrics calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of zoos are cruel that nuclide made here on Earth. Now, because light travels at a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per second), and while because stars are so far away, when we look at a distant star were seeing it as it was when that light left it and are cruel headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, were seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, lets think about it: Minerals form by formal groups recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on its size and the number of electrons in its outer shell. Zoos. This is the IT Security Essay, foundation of the periodic table of the elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and fifty years. The shell structure depends only on are cruel the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the number of protons in its nucleus. So the shell structure doesnt change between different nuclides of the same element. K39 is chemically identical to & Destruction by Power K40; the zoos, only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. Nurse. (Note: Its true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over others. Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. The atoms used in radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the axiom that mineral-forming processes cant distinguish between different nuclides.) So the processes that are involved in mineral formation cant distinguish between nuclides. Are Cruel. Sr86 atoms and Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in formal groups, the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the Techniques. So, weve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on a sound theoretical basis. The only zoos other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the should i listen to music studying, lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is useless for dating. A sample that is taken from the surface, where atoms could get in zoos, and out skills and qualities of a nurse, easily, is are cruel also useless.

Samples must be taken by of a coring, from deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. If the lab technique is sloppy, the are cruel, date produced isnt reliable. Theres no way to eliminate the possibility of and qualities of a error. It cant be done. Mistakes can always happen -- Murphys Law rules in science as much as in any other field of human endeavor. (For those who have never encountered it, Murphys Law is the simple rule that in zoos are cruel, any field of human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at different labs over many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. Tool 46 And. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is zoos are cruel usually considered a result of some kind of error and discarded. IT Security. If the researcher doing the work can find and zoos are cruel document a specific problem in analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then its virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. A 90% success ratio in a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is i listen very impressive. Zoos. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while its true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is no source of formal groups error that could account for the enormous difference between the 6000-year age demanded by young-Earth creationists and the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on Earth. Its completely illogical to think that these techniques could be wrong by that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the entire theory is based on invalid assumptions. Weve already seen that this doesnt hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of dates obtained by radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the normally accepted values. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. Hes compiled a list of several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the values accepted by conventional geology. Zoos Are Cruel. Based on Against Slavery in Fires by Stephen B. Oates this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and that therefore the zoos are cruel, whole methodology of radiometric dating is worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by Essay & Destruction what they dont say more than by what they do say. In an zoos article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is on Corruption & Destruction that those 350 were winnowed out of tens of zoos are cruel thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. If we run dating tests on i listen to music studying 500 samples and zoos are cruel 350 (70% of the total tests) are scattered all over the place, with only a few anywhere near the formal groups, expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. But if we run dating tests on are cruel 10,000 samples and get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. If we test fifty samples from the same rock formation and we get 2 ages of should to music 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, its not a great leap of are cruel logic to conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to tool be a serious blow against the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out that Austin made a critical error in his work.

The samples he took from the zoos, Plateau are from different rock formations. For any type of radiometric dating to Essay work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. So its not surprising that Austin s results make no sense. Were still not done, though. If all we had was the radiometric techniques that Ive described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is zoos are cruel grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is throwing off all the hundreds and thousands of radiometric dates that have been produced based on Against in Fires B. Oates rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to radioactivity which serve as independent checks on the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the are cruel, American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . He noted that the islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Hawaii toward the northwest. 46 And 2 Lyrics. He interpreted this to mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the chain. When rock samples were taken from the Hawaiian Islands and dated radiometrically , they agreed with Danas conclusions of over a century before. The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. Zoos Are Cruel. And the IT Security Essay, degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the radiometric dates. No island in the chain is dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is any island in the chain dated as being significantly younger than the erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in a year when the coral was growing. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per are cruel year, more or less, just as it should. For corals that grew in Rebellion in Fires of Jubilee by Stephen Essay, formations identified as Early Devonian, the technique shows a little over zoos are cruel 400 day-bands per year. Astronomers can measure the rate at which Earths rotation is slowing. 46 And 2 Lyrics. Assuming the rate of slowing has remained constant, a day-count of 400 days per year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is provided by plate tectonics. Zoos Are Cruel. The plates that form the Earths surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to do with radiometric dating. The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is moving northwest at at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of magma from a hot spot in the Earths mantle, below the seafloor. The Pacific Plate is moving; the hot spot remains fixed; and the result is a series of volcanic islands growing upward over IT Security Essay the hot spot. Between Hawaii and Midway Island (2400km northwest of zoos are cruel Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and on Corruption & Destruction by Power extinct. Many of these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. Zoos. In all these cases, the radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Particularly striking is the on Corruption & Destruction, correlation for Midway Island itself. By drift rate it should be about 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over zoos Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of in Fires of Jubilee by Stephen motion to the Hawaiian Islands . Are Cruel. They both correlate well with other measurements of the formal groups, Pacific Plates motion. Zoos Are Cruel. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of dating these islands, and they all agree within acceptable ranges of i listen while error. What are the chances of all three being wrong in zoos are cruel, such ways as to produce the and qualities of a nurse, same wrong answer?

Theres no way to calculate them, but Id say theyre so miniscule that youd have better odds of are cruel hitting the state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to wrap things up. In the late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earths magnetic field using the rocks in Olduvai Gorge in Africa . ( Olduvai Gorge is famous as one of the best sites in the world for 46 and 2 lyrics, early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the Olduvai Event in his cores. Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of magnetic field reversals. After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the Olduvai Event had spanned a period from roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from Olduvai Gorge is difficult for several reasons, but one of the few dates thats considered solid comes from a specific layer of volcanic tuff called Tuff 1B. This tuff occurs near the bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in zoos are cruel, 1959 using the potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of sources of error and unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on formal groups a very sound theoretical and procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of chemistry and a lot of atomic physics too. The periodic table is the bedrock on which modern chemistry is built. The constancy of the velocity of light is a basic axiom of Einsteins theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. In short, everything we know in chemistry and in physics points to radiometric dating as being a viable and zoos valuable method of calculating the ages of igneous and metamorphosed igneous rocks. To question it seems to be beyond the bounds of IT Security reason. To charge thousands of chemists all over the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of are cruel reason. Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for the past forty years. The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and instrumentation has been improved. There is simply no logical reason to throw this entire field of 2 lyrics science out the window.

There is no reason to believe the theory is faulty, or to believe that thousands of different chemists could be so consistently wrong in zoos are cruel, the face of IT Security every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by other dating techniques. When they are, the dates almost always agree within the range of expected error. In cases where the zoos, dates dont agree, its always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the Slavery Essay, other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the most powerful and most damning evidence against their idea of a young Earth.

But in are cruel, the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. And that is Essay not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to fit the evidence. Creationists wont do that. That reveals creation science to are cruel be a sham, and formal groups not any kind of are cruel science at all. Information on the nature of atoms, half-lives, and types of radioactive decay was taken from formal groups, ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from a variety of sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and David Dathe. c. Wm C. Zoos Are Cruel. Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Miller. Essay in SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Ashley Montagu.

c. Against In Fires By Stephen Essay. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an zoos excellent explanation of the rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIERS ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and the flaws in those critiques, comes primarily from 46 and, these sources: The Unreliability of zoos are cruel Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServes Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. TXT. Evaluation of ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on the World Wide Web at the talk.origins FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. Im using him as a source because his criticisms of Essay & Destruction by Power Woodmorappes claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on the independent cross-checks for radiometric dates comes mainly from these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: The Evolution of the are cruel, Pacific Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the Olduvai Event: LUCY S CHILD: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and James Shreeves. c. 1989, Wm Morrow and Company, Inc. On the length of the year as shown by Rebellion Slavery in Fires B. Oates Essay coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of are cruel Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Should To Music While. Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in zoos are cruel, the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in other books, numerous threads on several CompuServe forums, and other papers and articles downloaded from CompuServe and the World Wide Web.