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Stereotypes / Characterization Frames. Originally published October 2003. Current Implications added in animal testing not be banned June, 2017. Uk A! Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and problematic in U.S. politics and culture these days. The left still sees the right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes.
The right likewise paints the animal should not be banned left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay, makers.)More. Should! Stereotypes (or characterizations) are generalizations or assumptions that people make about the characteristics of all members of a group, based on an image (often wrong) about what people in that group are like. Culture! For example, one study of stereotypes revealed that Americans are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and domineering. Asians, on the other hand, are expected to be shrewd and alert, but reserved. Clearly, not all Americans are friendly and testing should, generous; and not all Asians are reserved. But according to this study, others commonly perceive them this way. Stereotyping is especially prevalent -- and problematic -- in conflicts. Groups tend to define themselves according to Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, who they are and who they are not . And others, especially enemies or opponents are often viewed in very negative ways. The opponent is expected to be aggressive, self-serving, and deceitful, for example, while people in animal testing should one's own group are seen in generally positive ways. Similarly, if problems occur, blame is do spectrophotometers, often placed on animal the enemy, while one's own contribution to the problem is body modification culture, ignored.
For example, problems may be attributed to the opponent's lack of cooperativeness, not one's own; or the enemy's aggressiveness, not their fear of one's own aggressive stance. Even similarities between parties can be viewed differently: one's own competitiveness may be seen in a positive light as tough, effective negotiating, while the animal banned opponent's competitive actions are seen as hostile and deceptive. The Wars! Such stereotypes tend to be self-perpetuating. If one side assumes the other side is should not be banned, deceitful and aggressive, they will tend to respond deceitfully and aggressively themselves. The opponent will then develop a similar image of the first party and respond deceptively, thus confirming the initial stereotype.
The stereotypes may even grow worse, as communication shuts down and Evolution Essay, escalation heightens emotions and tension. Although stereotypes generally have negative implications, they aren't necessarily negative. Stereotypes are basically generalizations that are made about groups. Such generalizations are necessary: in order to be able to animal testing should not be banned, interact effectively, we must have some idea of modification, what people are likely to be like, which behaviors will be considered acceptable, and which not. For example, elsewhere in this system there is an essay about testing should banned high-context and low-context cultures. Signifier! People in low-context cultures are said to be more individualistic, their communication more overt, depending less on context and shared understandings. High-context cultures are more group-oriented.
Their communication is more contextually based, depending more on shared understandings and inferences. Animal! Such generalizations are, in essence, stereotypes. They allow us to put people into a category, according to the group they belong to, and make inferences about signifier how they will behave based on that grouping. There will still be differences between individuals from one culture, and animal testing should, with the do spectrophotometers same individual in different situations. But the stereotype is reasonably accurate, so it is useful. Stereotypes are only a problem when they are inaccurate, especially when those inaccuracies are negative and animal testing should not be, hostile. Body Modification! Additional insights into stereotypes and characterization frames are offered by testing should not be, Beyond Intractability project participants.
What Can Be Done to Deal with Negative Stereotypes: The key to reversing negative stereotypes is to contradict them, in floating signifier direct interactions between people, in testing should not be the media, and through education. Body Modification! Between Individuals . Once people get to know a person from the other side, they often will determine that the other is not nearly as bad as they originally had assumed. (Though sometimes they might find out they are just as bad -- or even worse!) More often, however, people really are much more reasonable than their stereotypes would suggest. In that case, getting to know people personally helps to break down negative images. This is especially true when people determine that they actually have things in common with people from the animal testing not be other side. Such things can range from enjoying the same music, hobbies, or sports, to Evolution of Social, having the same worries about testing children or aging parents. Even when people learn that they share fear or sadness, they can begin to understand each other more.
When they come to understand that the other is afraid of body culture, being hurt, or losing a loved one in war, just as they are, that brings people together. Such shared emotions make people seem human, while stereotypes typically dehumanize people. Likewise, shared emotions make empathy possible, which opens the door to new forms of animal not be banned, interaction and trust building, at least among the individuals involved. Depending on the context and signifier, other interactions, the image of the group as a whole may become more positive as well. Testing Not Be! (At other times, people rationalize that their one new acquaintance is not like the others.) But even learning that one person can deviate from the stereotype is a start. The challenge then is to expand such transformative experiences beyond the individuals involved to larger groups, communities, and eventually whole societies. Developing such mutual understanding is the goal of many intervention efforts in war-torn areas, and in places rocked by social unrest. Dialogue groups and problem-solving workshops are two common ways of doing this.
So are joint projects such as war-reconstruction efforts, children's programs, recreational programs, medical programs -- any kind of program that brings individuals from opposing groups together in a cooperative venture. Although they have additional goals beyond the breaking of floating, stereotypes, working together cooperatively can do much to break down negative images people hold of the enemy. In the Media. The media also plays an important role in both perpetuating and in breaking down stereotypes. If they characterize particular groups of people in certain ways, their viewers (or readers) are likely to testing should not be, do the same. So if a movie -- or the motion picture industry in general -- characterizes a group of Psychology, people negatively, they are likely to be perpetuating negative stereotypes and making conflicts worse. If they emphasize the positive aspects of groups that contradict prevalent stereotypes, they can have a significant role in building mutual understanding. In Education. Educational institutions and teaching materials also have the opportunity to affect stereotypes, and hence influence inter-group relations.
Efforts to teach about different cultures, and animal not be, the history of ceci pas une pomme, different racial or ethnic groups can help build inter-group understanding if it is done in an effective and sympathetic way. However, the opposite is also true. If textbooks teach about the treachery and villainous actions of the enemy, this, obviously, will only perpetuate stereotypes from one generation to the next, entrenching the conflict for many years to come. This does not mean that history should be ignored. The holocaust, for example, did occur and must be acknowledged. But it can be acknowledged as a grave mistake that is now recognized as a mistake, rather than painted as typical or acceptable behavior. What Individuals Can Do to animal should, Breakdown Negative Stereotypes. Changing stereotypes is largely the job of individuals. Each of us should examine the assumptions that we make about others and ask ourselves where those assumptions come from. Upon what information are they based?
Are they based on personal experiences with others? In what context? Might the other be different in different situations? Are your assumptions based on things you have heard from others? Learned from the TV or movies? Learned in school?
Is it possible that some of your negative images are wrong -- at least for some people? In most cases, the answer to that last question is floating signifier, likely to be yes. Even in the most escalated conflicts, not all of the enemy is not be, as vicious and immutable as they are often assumed to be. Most groups have moderates and extremists, people who are willing to listen and of Social Psychology, work with the testing should not be other side, and those who are not. Rather than assuming all of the enemy are evil and unwilling to hear your concerns, try to get to know people as individuals. Just as that will reduce the stereotypes you hold of others, it is also likely to reduce the stereotypes others hold of you. Steps the is the uk a democracy media can take to reduce stereotypes are dealt with elsewhere in this system, but fundamentally, it is important that the media paint as accurate a picture of both sides of a conflict as is possible. This generally means painting a complex picture.
While extremists tend to make the most noise and hence the testing not be banned most news, the ceci n est pomme media can do much to lessen conflict by focusing attention on moderates and animal testing, peacebuilders as well. Heartwarming stories of signifier, reconciliation can replace or at least stand side-by-side with heart-wrenching stories of not be, violence and loss. Showing that there is hope -- helping people visualize a better life in a better world -- is a service the media can do better than any other institution, at least on a large scale. What the Educational System Can Do. This, too, is floating, dealt with elsewhere in this system, but the educational system (teachers, schools, textbooks) needs to animal testing should, also try to paint a fair and accurate picture of the modification culture conflict and the different people involved, being aware that different sides of a conflict will view (frame) what is happening very differently. Through stories, discussions, and exercises, teachers can help students (of all ages and animal not be, levels) understand the complexity of the floating signifier conflicts that surround them, and develop age- and situation-appropriate responses to the current conflicts in their homes, communities, and nations. To the extent that classrooms contain students from both sides of the conflict, teachers can help students learn to understand and appreciate each other better, while protecting the testing should banned safety (physical and emotional) of those on both sides. If the classroom only contains one group, reaching such intergroup understandings is harder, but still worth the effort through books and modification, articles, discussions, TV and movies, and when available, online exercises (such as those provided in the links below). Animal Testing Should Not Be Banned! Stereotypes, particularly negative characterizations are extremely prevalent and signifier, problematic in U.S. politics and culture these days. The left still sees the right as corrupt, stupid, selfish, racist, sexist, homophobes.
The right likewise paints the left as corrupt, stupid, selfish, elitist, intolerant takers (as opposed to makers.) These stereotypes make it practically impossible to befriend, relate to, or understand the other side enough to work with them or live in harmony with them. The same dynamics appears in almost all escalated conflicts, and if allowed to go to testing not be, far, results in catastrophe. Before and during the Rwandan genocide, Tutsi's were referred to as cockroaches rats, and enemies. Jews, similarly, were seen as non-human or less than human enemies by the perpetrators of the Holocaust, so too were the Blacks who were captured in Africa and brought to the Americas as slaves seen as less than human. (Even the U.S. Constitution validated such beliefs by counting slaves as 3/5 people!) One hopes that the U.S. Of Social Psychology Essay! has not and should banned, would not go to such extremes again But we are currently seeing it happen with respect to Muslims who are, apparently, not deserving of the same rights as other people according to of Social Psychology, Trump and some of should banned, his followers. We saw it with respect to Mexicans during Trump's campaign, where he accused them of being criminals and rapists. Both groups now are under siege, Mexicans and other undocumented immigrants fearing deportation daily, and Muslims increasingly being attacked and even killed for their relgious beliefs. It's time to pas une pomme, turn this pathology around.
Both this article and the linked article on Enemy Images have suggestions about ways such negative stereotypes can be combatted. It is incumbent upon everyone who wants a safe, secure America to enact such measures wherever possible. --Heidi Burgess, June, 2017. Should Not Be!  Breslin, J. Signifier! William. 1991. Breaking Away from Subtle Biases in Negotiation Theory and Practice, eds. J. William Breslin and Jeffrey Rubin (Cambridge, Mass., U.S.: Program on Negotiation Books, 1991), 247-250. Use the following to cite this article: Burgess, Heidi. Stereotypes / Characterization Frames.
Beyond Intractability . Not Be Banned! Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: October 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/stereotypes. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site.
You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Ceci Pomme! Our inability to animal, constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out culture, about the problem and animal banned, how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. An extensive collection of resources covering the destructive dynamics of intractable conflict, strategies for Comparing and Contrasting the Wars, limiting those dynamics, and techniques for more wisely and equitably resolving disputes.
Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to animal should not be banned, promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to measure, explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Testing Should Not Be! Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to modification culture, these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and animal testing should, do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the do spectrophotometers measure Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Beyond Intractability Essay.
Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of animal testing should banned, Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Current Implications Sections. All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.
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Success in Law School - A Unique Perspective. Published August 2007, last updated February 2011. Foreword by Ken DeLeon, creator of Top-law-schools.com. This is a very candid and pragmatic guide to banned doing well in law school and getting excellent grades while allowing you time for other interests. As you will read, it is quite different from the democracy typical focus and study preparation that most first-year students fall into with a herd mentality. This guide to success in law school has a nontraditional emphasis, focusing upon success in the final exam, which is the animal sole determinant of your grade. Most study methods, which involve detailed briefing of cases, generally result in students getting lost in minutia and Evolution Psychology Essay, not being adequately prepared for the exam. As a result, most first-year law students generally fail to keep in sight the big picture each course seeks to present, and they do not comprehend how the animal should not be parts fit and relate together, until the very end of the Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay course, if even then. Conversely, this system is focused on the big picture. It prioritizes legal concepts instead of animal banned cases. Signifier? This study system begins with the end goal in sight: Success on law school final exams.
This primer also mentions study aids that will become familiar to you in law school, which are available at your local bookstore and not be banned, online at Amazon.com. You may want to begin buying and Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay, studying some of these materials before entering law school in order to animal should banned pave the way for success. The main reason you should consider the words of advice in this primer is because the “proof is in n est pas une pomme, the pudding.” This primer was written by a fellow Top-Law-Schools reader who just completed his first year at NYU Law School. He was able to party and socialize five nights a week yet get grades that placed him in the top 10% of should his class. Body Modification? This result was simply a matter of animal testing should not be studying efficiently and not just following the herd and landing in the middle of the pack. Through achieving these grades, he had several choices of body working for top law firms and making over animal testing not be $2800 a week during his first summer after law school. While this primer views law school with a slightly cynical perspective, it offers effective and do spectrophotometers measure, practical tips for success.
The tips suggested in this primer, such as doing flow charts for your outlines, were taught to me in testing should banned, my second year of body modification culture law school when a third-year student shared some of the secrets he learned after his first two years of law school. Once I learned this secret, my grades jumped, and I received several of the testing should not be top grades in my remaining classes at UC Berkeley/Boalt Hall. Thus, having been through law school myself, I immediately recognized the do spectrophotometers value of the advice in the primer below. Should Banned? Whatever study method you choose, I wish you great success in law school. Success in floating, Law School A Unique Perspective. In Law School nobody tells you what to animal should not be banned do to excel . If you only do the assigned readings and uk a, participate in class, you will not distinguish yourself enough to animal testing stand out from your peers. By doing what everyone else is doing you will most likely end up where everyone else does, in the middle of the pack.
Below is a description of the effective study techniques I utilized to rank in the top 10% a top-five law school. This was all done while having a great social life outside of law school. In short, this is a candid and “no bullshit” guide to succeeding in law school. Let me describe the typical law students’ first semester. They first buy their books. Then they do the assignments the Comparing Essay night before, as asked. They read the casebook and meticulously brief every case. They take detailed notes in class and should not be banned, feel they understand everything said by both students and the professor. They join a study group that reviews and discusses the what do spectrophotometers measure cases for the week.
After Thanksgiving, they put together a voluminous outline of over fifty pages cobbled together from their class notes and reading notes. They review the animal testing not be banned outline until they feel they have achieved a solid comprehension of the information. They take a few practice tests in the week leading up to the test. The test is a typical open-book, three- or four-hour exam worth 100% of their grade. They come to signifier test day equipped solely with their giant fifty-page outline and their annotated casebook. They feel security from the weight of prepared materials.
The exam is intense, hectic, and testing should not be banned, difficult. They are continually flipping through their fifty-page outline and books for floating, little notes they know are somewhere, as valuable time slips away. They finish the exam in a bit of a time crunch and should not be, feel a little worried but somewhat satisfied. Grades come back in January. Now imagine a typical student that followed the crowd as outlined above. N Est Pas Une? She gets average grades of one B+, two Bs, and a pass grade in her writing skills class. She has never gotten a GPA so low before. What went wrong? The hypothetical student did not actually do badly; her grades were average for a top law school like NYU, where the grade distribution is animal should not be banned, usually less generous than it was in college.
For example, a typical grade allocation at democracy, NYU Law School is as follows: This is not made up or a guess about the grade distribution, this is approximately what the grade distribution was in not be banned, my Civil Procedure class, rounded to the nearest percent for clarity. It is important to note that getting an A in law school is somewhat like getting an culture A+ in college, for that grade is should banned, given to a much smaller percentage of the class. The hypothetical student did not do poorly; she just simply failed to distinguish herself from her peers. Because all those attending law school generally succeeded in college, getting average grades can be disconcerting and pas une, quite a blow to one’s ego. However, by effectively studying for law school, with the animal banned primary goal always being to succeed on the final exam, one can do very well while still living a balanced and fulfilling life in law school. II.
Focus on is the democracy, the Final Exam from the testing not be banned Beginning. The weaknesses in the typical student’s approach are numerous. Ceci Pas Une? I would estimate, based on the law students I know, that 75% or more of the first-year students in my class followed the road outlined above. Some extremely bright students follow this road and get A’s. This is a measure of testing should banned their brilliance, not a justification for their study system. I would wager that using a smarter system would allow them to what do spectrophotometers fare even better. The first major issue here is failure to respect an exam worth 100% of your grade. It is essential that you always budget enough time in your schedule for exam preparation. You should not be spending time doing things that do not contribute to an increase in your exam score until you have completed all of those things that do increase your exam score.
A professor may open a class and welcome you to law school and to her class. She may inform you about the lengthy readings and level of animal testing not be banned preparation she expects from you. She may inform you of the test at the end worth 100% of your grade, but tell you not to worry about it because it is too early. She may tell you to brief every case and not to read study guides. You need to what measure hear beyond her words, into the reality and implications of what she is saying. This is what I hear: “Welcome to Contracts; I am Professor Smith. Animal Testing Should Banned? I am going to talk about what I am interested in because this is my class and I am going to teach the is the way I want to. I am not going to advise you on not be, how to play tricky games to maximize your grades because when the end of the semester comes I am going to give out body, a fixed number of A’s, B’s, and C’s anyway. I care about animal not be, my research, not about how you guys fight it out amongst yourself for Psychology Essay, the 5 A and 15 A- grades I will be awarding. Animal Should Not Be Banned? I don’t want you to read study guides or for you to what do spectrophotometers measure practice tests all year long, even though doing so will get the select few of you that do it better test grades.
Reading these books and practicing sample tests may get you great at taking tests, but you are short-cutting past all of the hard work that will make you better suited for a career in legal academia in the long run.” Or sometimes this: “Welcome to animal testing not be banned Contracts; I am Professor Smith. I am completely out of touch with what it is like to be an is the uk a average law school student with typical abilities relative to my peers. When I was at Harvard Law School in not be banned, 1972 we used the Socratic Method, and I stand by that tradition. It doesn’t matter that I was a 178 LSAT and 3.98 student in of Social Psychology Essay, undergrad, with a 172 I.Q. and that I could have only studied ten hours a week and still have made Harvard Law Review. I am completely out of touch with what it would take for the typical law student to read or practice in testing should not be, order to do well on my exam.” The Law School Professor has no interest in what, helping you do well on his exam because his grades will be fixed anyway. He is concerned about teaching you what he wants to teach you, not helping you to be the one to get the A.
It is up to you to figure out a good system, since there will always be a trick to should excelling. In no way do I intend to disparage any law school professor at do spectrophotometers, my school or any other school. The law school professors I know and have known have been brilliant and professional while still remaining approachable and animal testing not be banned, helpful. However, in my opinion, many of Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay these law school professors have been out of school for so long that they have lost touch with the law school student’s perspective. When thinking about animal testing should not be, how to do well in school, I value the opinions of body culture those of similar intelligence and who have recently experienced law school. To excel in testing should, law school by definition, you must ace your final exam, which is the sole determinant of your grade. It is surprising to me that people do not start from the vantage point of exam preparation when choosing how they study and is the uk a, prepare for law school. Should Not Be? The road to success must lie in preparing in a way that optimizes your law school exam score. III.
Thinking Outside of the uk a democracy Box. It is a bad strategy to do exactly what everyone else is animal testing should banned, doing in terms of study and preparation. Students are afraid that if they vary from the pack, then they will end up falling to the bottom of the class. This is a valid concern, especially if the system you propose is poorly thought out. However, unless you are brilliant, following the pack by definition will get you average grades, which is generally a B. What Measure? If you are doing what everyone else is doing and are equally armed with the same weapons on test day, you must simply out-perform them on a level playing field. There is an animal should alternative. You can bring a gun to a knife fight. Psychology Essay? Every single tactic I recommend in this document will make you more armed for test day than your peers. Should Banned? If at culture, any point you cannot see or do not believe in a justification of how a proposed study strategy will improve your test score, then I would discourage adopting that method.
However, I stand by every part of my system and the explanations for how and why they improve your exam score. To quickly defend myself and my study system: I am not a lazy person. I can see how I could be misconstrued as one by a reader of this guide. In reality, I am the opposite of lazy. I value my time so much that I do not want to testing banned waste any minute of floating it doing things unimportant to not be my life. I plan to practice at a large law firm, and I am fully aware that it is do spectrophotometers, not the law review students who make partner at most law firms.
It is those with solid academic skills and superb social skills that make partner. I push myself to socialize and network as much as possible. These are the skills that are most important to me. Whether you value networking and socializing, or having time to exercise or pursue other interests, following this system efficiently allows you to do well in law school while having time to animal testing should not be banned allocate as you choose. I fully respect the law school tradition. However, the law school system is geared toward a career in academia. For someone with my objective of private law firm practice, I do not have to reread and spend hours studying and rereading Posner’s perspectives on uk a democracy, torts when an analysis of the animal should banned professors last fourteen exams indicate that he does not test and never will test on policy. IV. Exams, the Importance of Class Rank, and Introduction to Psychology My System. Have you ever looked at a law school exam before?
If you are just starting law school and haven’t yet, why haven’t you? I sometimes am amazed by how many students do not even look at a law school exam until deep into their first semester. You are graded 100% by your performance on this test; you must respect this test and know what you are facing. Everyone at animal testing should not be, law school is familiar with the law school admission process. Ceci Pas Une Pomme? There are many of you who did not get into your top schools because of either GPA or LSAT. Your amazing personal statement or your outstanding job performance meant nothing to the school that rejected you because your GPA and LSAT were too far outside of their target range.
A similar judgment will also be passed by animal should law firms, who base their employment decisions on where you rank amongst your classmates, not what you take out of law school. Although activities and intangibles will help your job prospects, the number one hiring criteria will be where you placed in your class (and of course which school you graduated from, but you cannot change that now, unless you plan to transfer, in which case grades are even more critical). Evolution Of Social Essay? This smacks of the same GPA/LSAT judgment that was applied against you when getting into law school. If the number one criterion you will be judged by is class rank, and this is determined solely by an aggregate of your 3- to 4-hour final exams, it only makes sense to study with the aim of maximizing your exam performance and scores. This leads to animal testing the most critical point. Since the entire legal world judges you on your grades, you must study exclusively for in Chechnya Essay, the exam, even if this means reading additional materials, skimming assigned readings in order to buy time to do other forms of animal should not be banned study, going against the advice of your professor, or taking some lumps in class because you are preparing for the test rather than to look good when you are called on. The most fundamental error a law school student can make is to uk a believe that by doing the assigned readings and animal testing should not be, preparing for class as expected will result in strong grades. This is analogous to the false claim that reading and studying golf will make one a good golfer. Democracy? The actual writing of quality law school exams is a completely different skill set than reading case books and learning in class by the Socratic Method. I like to think of the assigned readings, casebooks, and the Socratic Method as a suggestion by the professor as to a possible, traditional route to exam preparation. Testing Should Banned? What I hear is, “We learned to study for n est pas une pomme, these tests by the tradition of casebooks and the Socratic Method.
Times have progressed and vastly superior ways to exam preparation exist, but there is a beauty to sticking to a system that dates back to Greek antiquity.” When you open up a law school exam, you will most likely find a series of traditional fact pattern questions and animal not be, possibly a policy essay. The key to tackling these questions does not lie in the casebooks. A typical casebook is comprised of two things: (1) lots of cases filled with intricate facts and long opinions, and (2) endless questions. I just opened my property casebook to a random page. The case is six full pages, with another five pages of notes and squibs. There is a near infinite stream of questions, with no answers or even a discussion of the answers. Questions include, “Under what circumstances might a seller or purchaser want the contract to signifier include such a clause?” and “Why is animal testing not be banned, there so much resistance to a uniform approach to real estate transactions, given the striking success of the Uniform Commercial Code, dealing with goods (personal property) throughout the United States?”
Intricately reading these cases and answering these questions with no feedback on your response is n est pas une, a poor substitute for animal testing should not be banned, exam practice. Most law students who do not know any better spend their entire semester briefing each case and working in in Chechnya, study groups through these questions. In my opinion, this is one of the most inefficient study systems imaginable. It might take ten hours of study by this method to equal one hour of directed study toward the exam. Not Be? It also does not teach any of the skills related to applying your knowledge to a fact pattern, which is what the final exam requires. I see some strength in signifier, discussing the testing banned questions with a study group that is intelligent, terse, and efficient with their responses, but repeatedly reading those long cases and is the democracy, briefing them is an incredible time sink.
I do not recommend briefing cases. If I am assigned a fifty-page reading in contracts, I will treat it differently than the rest of the testing banned class. The rest of the class will go home and read all fifty pages. They will brief all cases, and spend a lot of time taking notes, highlighting, and writing in the margins. They will spend some time thinking about some of the proposed line of body modification culture questions. On the other hand, I will go home and take out animal testing not be banned, my Case Summary book keyed to my class. And Contrasting In Chechnya? I will also read the corresponding sections of the animal should not be Examples and Explanations book for the class that explains and then applies the material. I will also read the sections of the hornbook, which is a treatise on n est pomme, that subject, relevant to the material. Testing Should Not Be Banned? I will then read the assigned reading very quickly. Modification Culture? I will only carefully read the heart of the not be court’s analysis , which I can easily spot because the case summary book, hornbook, and Examples and Explanations book have all pointed me toward it.
The rest of the material will only get a quick read. My time is the Wars, spent thinking about how this case will be tested on an exam and testing banned, how it will fit on Psychology Essay, my dense outline. I see where the animal testing banned case fits in the scheme of body things because my system is big-picture focused. I will end up bumping into a fellow student the animal not be banned next day before class. When she comments upon how long the reading was last night, I will comment on uk a, how it wasn’t long for me because I read it very quickly, with the exception of the court’s analysis. She will call me a slacker and ask why I am wasting $200,000 on a law school education when I do not even do the reading properly. She will accuse me of disrespecting the school, the animal testing should professor, and the class.
She will smugly think to floating signifier herself how easy it will be to get good grades, because here is just another student she will have one-upped by her diligence and animal testing should banned, careful reading, rereading, and studying. To her, law school is about how well you listen in is the uk a democracy, class and how carefully you do the assignments and prepare for class. Testing Should? To me, law school is about how well you perform on the exam. When exam day comes, she will have all of her book notes, case briefs, and class notes. She will have a seventy-page outline that contains every important concept addressed in the class or in the textbook. Evolution Psychology? She will have all the animal testing not be banned information at body culture, her fingertips, but it will take her too long to access, and she will not know how or when to put it on the page. The result will be a clumsy fifteen-page essay that misses issues, fails to make leaps regarding questions on the boundaries of the class, and lacks legal restatements, rules, and case citations because she cannot access them quickly enough from her outline. After grades are posted, she will likely realize that my legal education was not being wasted but instead I was using my time studying in a different and more efficient way in order to maximize my grades, the primary criteria that perspective employers and fellow lawyers will judge me by. I come into animal testing not be each exam with a functional, no bullshit sixteen-page outline of flow charts, dense rules and Evolution of Social Essay, applicable case summaries. Nothing in my outline is explanatory or in the form of a narrative.
Everything on the page is an applicable tool aimed at gaining points when the professor grades my test from a point-awarding checklist. I have associated key ideas with a set of visually distinguishable slides, and when I close my eyes, I know exactly what page and spatially where the material is on animal, the outline. I have printed my outline on both sides of the paper and uk a democracy, carefully chosen flow charts that are on should, opposing sides of an outline that resembles a small pamphlet because it is stapled at the spine and opens like a book. I rarely have to flip pages because each major topic is modification, set out on a carefully grouped set of testing should not be banned pages that is designed for minimal page flipping. I type continuously because by practice and with my outline design, I am able to do this. I do not miss any issues because I have practiced countless exams and have honed my issue spotting skills by practice. I know what a good argument looks like and floating signifier, how to animal should write one because I have done it so many times. When the uk a democracy professor tests issues at the margins of the class, I make difficult leaps that impress the professor. The professor does not know that I have mastered the hornbook and therefore have a comprehensive survey of the entire branch of law.
I know what the students who have not read the hornbook don’t: that in reality, a certain question is animal testing should not be banned, a well-debated and discussed point in academia. Of Social Psychology? For me the leap was easy, even though it was on animal testing banned, the fringe of the is the uk a class. Animal Should? My exam is twenty-two pages and is loaded with case and rule citations that make my arguments convincing. My essay does not ramble; it cites equally as many, or more, issues with analysis per page as my peers. The efficiency came from practice, familiarizing myself with the big picture, and a usable outline for test day. The teacher grades the two exams along with the floating other ninety-eight over the winter break. Using a point checklist, the teacher scans through the papers and awards points. The points are totaled, and the grades are awarded. The fifteen-page paper from the first student is average, and the professor ends up awarding 150 points, which works out in the end to testing should not be banned be a B, narrowly missing the B+ cut-off. When the professor encounters my paper, he appreciates the citations of rules and cases which make it both easier to modification culture understand and easier to award points. Banned? The essay misses few issues and has a solid analysis based on n est, hardened practice.
The professor is impressed when I make a difficult jump and not be banned, appreciates the fact that I listened to the subtle points that he was alluding to in class (he does not know that a hornbook turned those subtle points into fully discussed and n est pas une pomme, addressed points). I score 230 points, and I am awarded an animal A-. The paper was one of the better in n est pas une pomme, the class, but not on par with the animal not be banned 5 that were awarded an A. Those A grades went to students who were strong admits at Harvard and Yale and instead took a scholarship at NYU. They generally had a limited social life and solely focused on their studies. Pas Une? They have read the casebook, answered the study questions, read the hornbooks, conducted independent research, and animal testing banned, sacrificed personal and social relationships to get an floating A. Their hard work was rewarded, as it should be. Occasionally I will also land in the A pile, when I make a particularly great argument that impresses the teacher in a highly subjective sense. Occasionally I will also land in should banned, the B+ pile, when I make a mistake on a big issue or the measure subject is animal testing should banned, highly subjective and the teacher is not impressed by my approach. In general, the measure B+’s and A’s are canceling and I am getting mostly A- grades, placing me at about a 3.7, which is approximately the top 5-10% of the class.
Doors are open at all firms upon graduation, 1L big firm internships that pay $2,800 a week become available, Law Review is a possibility if I make a solid showing in the writing competition (admittance to Law Review being a combination of grades and the writing competition), and transferring to Harvard is a possible consideration. V. Testing Not Be? The Essential External Materials. For every class you need to buy three external books, and in some cases, four. The sum total of cost of these books is a real concern, but dwarfed by the tangible gain received by finishing high in your class. Since you have likely sunk well over $120,000 into modification law school, the additional cost of about $120 per class is worth it. Hornbooks typically are $60, while Examples Explanations (EE) are $30, and the case briefs are $30. Animal Testing Should Not Be Banned? If you are have trouble with these costs, socialize less or get used or older editions.
Links to the Examples Explanations book series and what, hornbooks can be found below. Hornbooks are typically 800 to 1200 pages. Should Banned? They are your real textbook for the course. A casebook is a maze in which the reader is floating signifier, somehow expected to testing should be able parse through in order to obtain both rules and the big picture. It does not work.
While other students read a 1000-page casebook, I only quickly read the body culture casebook and instead focus my time on reading a 1000-page hornbook. Animal Testing Not Be Banned? We both invest the Comparing the Wars same amount of time, but the hornbook is about answers or a set of debatable answers and not about questions. Testing Should? By reading the hornbook, you will get a summary of the entire area of law and not just a set of sampled points that your professor chooses. If the professor were only to test on material directly covered in class, there would be no problem skipping these hornbook sections. The reality is, however, that a professor will quickly touch on a lot of things and expect you to ceci n est pas une pomme have made connections and leaps from his comments.
Sometimes, this would be nearly impossible to do so given the materials discussed in class. However, the should not be banned hornbook likely covered the is the democracy material in more depth. Also, sometimes professors will model a test question on animal testing should, a somewhat famous case that has been academically debated that is do spectrophotometers measure, not in your casebook. He is should, testing how you extend the modification tools he taught in class to a new situation, although you, as a reader of a hornbook that covered that case, have seen the court’s actual reasoning. The other book that is your co-textbook is any rule book that the teacher relies on. For example, in Civil Procedure, you must know the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
Along with the hornbook, this is your true textbook. Too many students don’t pay attention to the restatement or rule book because the teacher doesn’t spend a lot of time on animal banned, this in class. Often they will be surprised when the Civil Procedure test is nothing but a test on how well you can apply the Federal Rules of what do spectrophotometers measure Civil Procedure or the related statutes. You need to look at testing should, former tests from each of Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay your professors and see what is going to be needed. In all classes I have had so far, knowledge of something like the Uniform Commercial Code, a Restatement, or the animal testing not be banned Federal Rules of Civil Procedure has been a major key to exam success. The extracted rules of cases and the rule book or restatement are the weapons for test day; the n est hornbook teaches you how these weapons are used and what they are, and doing practice tests teaches you how to use these weapons. Do not forget that the rule book is a weapon for test day that is equal to or exceeds the utility of testing should banned rules from do spectrophotometers, cases. EE books are an essential supplement. They are simple quick summary guides that give you a big picture of the should banned class and have some problems to test your understanding. I find this to what measure be an essential tool, if only for the questions alone.
I find going through the entire EE book before classes start or early in the semester to testing should be extremely helpful to get a picture of the entire course as quickly as possible. Floating Signifier? Without this big picture, you get less out of reading the hornbook, which is very detailed. The case summary book is a fast guide to your casebook. As pointed out earlier, your casebook, in my opinion, aids you minimally in animal testing should banned, test preparation. What Do Spectrophotometers Measure? However, the central rule of a case is an essential weapon for use on the test. The case summary book is to be used as a guide to help you understand why the casebook has included that case and as a guide so that you won’t embarrass yourself in class when you are inevitably called on. However, if you are reading the court opinions like I suggest, it should only be some factual nuance that should trip you up in class. You should not be wasting time perfecting factual nuances for recital in class. A fourth book, a policy book, is essential in classes that are heavily policy-focused and have a policy essay or expect policy commentary while answering a classic fact pattern. In the later case, I will often throw policy in animal testing not be banned, the conclusion of an measure argument to determine which way an issue will be resolved when the testing should not be banned analysis otherwise does not clearly point to resolving the issue in and Contrasting, a specific way.
For example, in Contracts, we were informed that a policy essay would be on the exam. Most students used the basic policy tools taught in animal testing should not be banned, class to piece together a reasonable answer to the question. The very brightest students likely used these tools better than anyone else and got an A or A- level essay for this portion of the exam. Instead, I located a non-required policy book by the author of our casebook. In this policy book were a series of signifier law review articles and banned, scholarly pieces covering policy analysis on all areas of contracts.
In my outline I summarized this book as a series of arguments with pros and cons to each situation. As expected, on test day, I got a question involving policy analysis of standard form contracts that required some critical thinking. Using both my own ideas and ideas from body, two of the should not be essays from the book, I was able to modification culture write a very strong policy essay. Two groups of people wrote A and animal testing, A- essays that day. The first group included those select brilliant few, who by virtue of modification their cunning, came up with persuasive arguments on the fly of A or A- quality. Animal Should Not Be? The second group by careful preparation had stocked policy essays that had ideas that could be sampled from on test day.
From the perspective of the teacher, this second group was either a highly motivated group of over-achievers who had worked above and beyond what was required, or they were so smart as to come up with arguments similar to uk a democracy the brightest in the field, on the fly, on a four hour exam. Testing Should Not Be Banned? In either case, the teacher is highly impressed which results in large point awards. I would argue that most teachers couldn’t distinguish which A and A- papers were in each of those two categories. I am generally opposed to the concept of casebooks. I do not mean to disparage any particular professor’s case book. Reading case books is likely very helpful training tools for those entering academia, but, in my opinion, they are not very useful as aids in preparing for the exam. I consider spending an inordinate amount of time reading case books to be a distraction from real study. Floating Signifier? Be careful not to be fooled into animal testing not be banned thinking you are on track because you are up to date on the casebook readings. VI. Selecting a Class for Early Test Taking. By their third year, law students are accomplished test takers.
They have enough experience to what measure no longer fear the exam in should not be, any way. You will succeed on your customary first-year exams if you can master the art of exam taking without requiring three years of experience. Floating Signifier? Thus, it is critical for an incoming law student to have as much exam practice as possible before exam day. In particular, an entering 1L needs to truly know what a law school exam is so that he or she can make the modifications necessary to his or her test preparation plan well in testing banned, advance. I can’t tell you how many students regret so much of their work first semester because they realize, in uk a democracy, hindsight , how much work they did was completely useless. This is oftentimes due to bad advice they received. For example, one of my TAs kept reassuring us not to worry about the exam. He explained that he had started his outline for that class after Thanksgiving, took his first exam shortly after, and testing should not be banned, still got a good grade (probably an A-). I laugh when I hear advice like this. You can’t base a strategy on exceptions, because there are always exceptional cases from is the uk a, exceptional or lucky people. It was immediately clear to me that I needed to use one class as a trial, in which I would work ahead, so that I could take a real law school exam and ascertain what it is testing should not be, was like.
Additionally, this taught me about the mechanics of writing a good law school test. I found I needed to do things such as the following: train my mind to write answers to fact pattern questions, learn how to pace myself on ceci n est pas une pomme, a four-hour exam, learn how to decipher fact patterns and spot legal issues, learn what it is I should truly be getting out of the cases I am reading, learn what an A essay consists of, and learn what I should be doing to develop the animal not be banned skills necessary to write an floating A essay. The lack of test taking experience by your fellow first semester 1L’s gives you an opportunity to distinguish yourself from your peers. If you are taking your first exam after Thanksgiving, you have waited too long. Do not base your strategy on the basis of one success story that has no basis in why or how it works. The TA’s suggestion of not to banned worry was more of is the democracy a way to calm the growing test day tensions and not a system to excel on the test (how can starting late and testing should not be, not worrying result in high grades?). By telling students that by starting late and not worrying it was still possible to get an A-, he conveyed the mistaken notion to many that starting late and not worrying was not a factor in who gets an A-. By the uk a democracy middle of the semester, I was taking generic torts exams. (Torts is the required first-year class that focuses upon negligent and animal testing not be banned, intentional harms done to body culture another person. Examples of a tort include someone slipping and falling due to another’s negligence or someone intentionally hitting another, which is the tort of battery). I had worked through the torts Examples Explanations, hornbook, and had worked out a basic course outline. I then spent time on the section of the back of Glannon’s Torts EE book, titled “Taking a Torts Essay Exam.” In this section, Glannon gives a masterful introduction to test taking and includes comments on IRAC, common exam writing style mistakes, and not be, general test taking wisdom.
In this text, there are many of the gems of wisdom I have already passed on. For example, “Most students spend inordinate amounts of time learning more and more about rules, and very little time practicing the skill of applying the fundamental rules to new facts. You would be wiser to spend less time memorizing rules and more time applying them.” Glannon is in Chechnya Essay, speaking out against the typical law school student’s strategy in the introduction to this document. Animal Testing Should? Around the middle of the semester, I also paid for a one-day law school test-taking seminar, which was an excellent experience, if only to confirm several of my suspicions about law school. By the pas une pomme middle of the semester, I knew what a law school exam was. Just like you can’t learn how to apply law only by reading about it, neither can you know what a law school exam truly is without doing one. Even if I could lecture to you on animal testing should, what a law school exam is, it is signifier, so much easierand I can only be sure you truly understand what it isif you actually are somewhat prepared for one and take it. When you arrive at law school, stay afloat in all of your classes. However, pick one class (not Civil Procedure or Property, the animal should not be most technically complex two classes) to be your test vehicle.
Your auxiliary study should be aimed at pushing forward to the end of the class. You must learn as soon as possible what a law school exam truly is so that you can adjust your study habits in floating, all classes in a way so as to redirect work and optimize exam success. Additionally, this class can be used as a basis for doing practice tests early and often, so that you can learn how to animal testing not be apply an IRAC based system, create an outline, and do spectrophotometers, other general test taking mechanics. You should aim to be taking these tests in animal testing not be banned, this special class before or around the middle of the semester. VII. What to Do the Summer Before. I did nothing the summer before in preparation for law school and mainly focused on preparing for and passing the Patent Bar Exam. During law school, I placed a high priority on a lot of other things (mostly social) inside and outside of ceci n est pas une law school.
Although I like to be smart about what and how I study, I cut corners in areas like casebook reading and preparing for class in order to banned open up time for other things. By managing my time wisely, I was able to uk a democracy go out 5+ nights a week to social events (cutting back severely during the 4 weeks leading up to finals) in order to network and develop interpersonal skills and yet still do well in school. A gunner, in contrast, will cut all areas of animal testing should their life in exchange for high grades. They spend their time reading hornbooks, supplementary books, going to office hours, studying in n est pomme, groups, preparing for testing should banned, class, reading the floating signifier casebook, etc. It is testing not be banned, very easy to do well in school if you are willing to wholesale the rest of your life for success in school.
This is probably what you must do if you want to go into academia, although I strongly question this road for those planning to practice in a law firm. You can be like me and do nothing before starting school and you can still do well (although it may be harder). If you want to do some work, but not an body modification outrageous amount, I would start by reading the Examples Explanations books before school. Start with torts or one of the easier subjects, since this may be your first introduction to law. I think it is very valuable to get an overview of a course in advance, and you are cutting out work that you are going to have to do anyway. If you are a gunner, and value nothing other than school, I would probably recommend reading all EE books and hornbooks before class. I would begin to should banned really work into the statutes like the UCC and Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. I would make a sample outline for Evolution Psychology Essay, one class, and begin with practice tests in should not be, that area. If you were to do this before law school, and then continue with gunner tendencies throughout the semester, I could not see how you would fail to Essay get nearly all A's (a few scattered A-s are probably unavoidable because there is some subjective judgment in picking the A's from the A-'s). Animal Testing Banned? If you cannot make law review after doing all of that, the floating issue lies with you and not your diligence.
VIII. What You Are Doing at School. Before every class, you must have read the EE sections corresponding to the material in class. I like to get the EE books finished and out of the way very early. Animal Testing Not Be? I also read the hornbook section before class. In between classes I am extremely efficient with my time and am working. I will not be spending a lot of time reading the casebook, as mentioned earlier. Most of my time will be spent doing the EE books, pushing forward in the hornbook, and studying the set of rules or statutes for the class (like the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or the and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay UCC). In the end, I actually end up reading the hornbook and EE books twice, although in the second pass, certain areas may be skipped. For a general class, I read the EE book from cover to cover first.
I am not smart enough to understand everything after the first pass, but I have a general view of things and a basic understanding of the course and a few of the big cases and animal banned, what they mean. Next, I read the hornbook as the course progresses, being careful to always be ahead of the course. I spend a huge amount of time getting to know the actual statutes and ceci n est, rules associated with the animal testing should not be class. I can flip to any Federal Rule of Civil Procedure or any provision of the Uniform Commercial Code. I do not memorize these rules, but rather work to understand why the rule was written and how it fits into the law as a whole. In class, I don’t know the body modification facts of the case very well and don’t do that well when called on. Animal Should Banned? Some people actually prepare to look good in pomme, class, but this is a waste of time. I am preparing for the test. My peers would never guess that I am smart. When gunners are sizing up their competition in order to determine where they will place on the exam, I am one of the wildcards they didn’t take into account.
I am not taking endless notes on everything said. I am noting only the important ideas that I have not already thought about or are not completely obvious to not be me. I am thinking about how this case fits in the big picture and body modification, how it might show up on an exam in the context of statutes and the other cases. By middle of the animal should not be semester all of the EE books will be finished. I will still be working through the hornbooks and staying ahead of the casebook with these. By middle of the semester I will begin constructing my dense outlines (see outlining section ahead). When the signifier four weeks leading up to finals come around, I will no longer be going out any more than once a week. I will be studying continuously, like everyone else. After completing the outline for each course, I will review it until I feel comfortable with it. I will then redo all of the EE problems. I will likely reread most of the animal testing banned hornbook sections with the aim of finding hornbook gems to add to my outline.
I will review class notes. This is an active process, resulting in modifications to my dense outline. I develop an incredible familiarity with my outline and do spectrophotometers, where information is located on it. Four weeks before exams I will have at least one class where the outlining process is completed. I will be taking many exams with this outline.
I will hopefully have many practice tests with answers, from either my professor or other professors with similar tests. If practice answers are not available, I will form a study group solely for discussing exam answers. Actively checking your answers with the professor’s answers is an essential part to taking and mastering the final exams. To summarize, the general procedure early in the semester is: Read EE from cover to cover early for every class (get a solid overview, quickly) Stay in front of the class with your hornbook reading Don’t spend a lot of time with the casebook (I know you are going to animal testing should banned hesitate and not believe me on pas une, this one) Have fun and network in law school. The general procedure for animal testing banned, the middle of the semester is: Begin and complete constructing dense outlines for each class Make sure all EE books are complete Continue to signifier have fun and network in law school. The general procedure for the last four weeks of the semester is:
Stop going out and study all day, every day; an hour of study now is worth more than four hours of study in the first week of school Start taking practice tests (nearly one daily), and use sample test answers to iteratively correct your outline Go through the EE questions again (you should be acing these and adding to your outline if the questions find a hole in your knowledge) Review the most relevant sections of the hornbook, incorporating essential details into your outline Now would be the time to read and outline a policy essay book, if applicable. My study techniques are common for a third-year law school student, but are almost never done by during a 1L’s first semester. It is studying effectively that is a huge advantage in animal, your first-year grades, which are by far the most important in determining employment opportunities. For if you do well in your first year of what law school, getting a great law firm job during your summer is quite easy. Should Not Be? The jobs are both high-paying and generally lead to Comparing and Contrasting offers of permanent employment. Thus, success on your first-year exams is crucial and paves the way for a great law school experience. For the first semester, you have the additional work of pushing ahead in one class to get a crude outline together that allows you to take a few practice tests. Testing Should Not Be Banned? This is signifier, essential for not be banned, you to what do spectrophotometers understand your target goal so that you can do your work properly in preparation for it. Aim for at least five practice tests in each class. Spend particular time on the test you are going to testing not be banned take last. Comparing In Chechnya? Many students burn out or never get around to testing should not be banned fully studying for Evolution of Social Psychology Essay, their last test.
This class may be your best shot at an A-. If you have a poor teacher, this is also a great chance to go for the A-. Your peers are unprepared, from bad lectures while you are stocked with hornbook knowledge which provides a comprehensive and solid overview of the class. The outline you bring to the exam is essential to you doing well on the exam. I recommend a completely unorthodox outline unlike anything else that is commonly done. The test taking process, hornbook review, and answering the EE questions will produce many revisions to your outline. It is a good time to discuss outlines at this point.
Many students fall prey to the mistaken notion that bigger is better when it comes to outlines. You can write a 50+-page outline that summarizes your class (I have seen outlines that are more than 70 pages). This will likely help you review everything in testing should banned, the class and by putting it together on one document it may help you to remember it. As useful as such an instrument is for review, it is virtually worthless for test day. My outlines for my classes were 11, 13, and Psychology, 16 pages respectively. I also had large outlines, but these were accessed at most once or twice on testing should not be banned, test day. They were based on uk a democracy, the fundamental premise that it is not feasible to flip pages constantly. The idea of an open-book exam may be appealing to some. They think that they will have time to look up cases and research cases on a four-hour exam (four hours is a very long time, right?). This idea is testing should not be banned, fundamentally wrong.
This is just another immediate realization that will come to you when you do your first real exam (which is and Contrasting Essay, why I so strongly insist you get to test taking immediately for animal testing should banned, you to see and believe this for n est pas une, yourself). A simple refutation lies in comparing a large outline system to mine. In particular, one will spend an absurd amount of time flipping through a seventy-page outline while I will be typing continuously. The few extra points a voluminous outline contains will not compensate for the extra 25% I will write more than others. If my writing has as many points per page as others do, I will score 25% more points off the checklist and excel past others on the test by a large margin. The 11, 13, and animal should banned, 15 page outlines are near the same length for a reason.
The fundamental assumption I used in body culture, construction my outlines is that I must never be required to animal testing not be flip a page while addressing one single, major topic. There are only so many major topics per course, so you will naturally find your outline length to be somewhat near mine. Although I may have time to flip to a single page in my outline from time to ceci pas une pomme time, generally I must be able to testing be able to continuously type while only glancing at my outline for specific rules, cases, or tests. While I incur ten minutes of overhead in body modification culture, accessing and scanning for information from animal not be, my outline, those with long outlines will incur upwards of ceci pomme forty minutes to an hour looking for and finding the same information. I only testing should banned, realized the utility of the succinct and dense outline from my experiments with test taking. I encourage you to do the same. I now include four pages (download printable pdf file of the four pages). Pas Une? First, I show you a flow chart. Second, there are two pages on animal testing should not be banned, class actions (a Civil Procedure subject).
My outline must be printed on two-sided paper, and the two pages on class actions open like a book; thus, I will not be required to flip a page while writing on class actions. Of Social? The final page is animal testing should banned, a sample page from a typical civil procedure outline. It is extremely inefficient for practical exam writing, and I will later explain why. Must satisfy both FRCP 23(a) and FRCP 23(b) FRCP 23(a) prerequisites, must satisfy all: (1) is there an identifiable class? Every member need not be identified or identifiable (2) are those purporting to represent that class members of it? (3) class is so numerous that joinder of all members is impracticable (1) the nature and complexity of the action (2) the size of the individual claims (3) the geographic distribution of members of the class (4) questions of law or fact common to the class All questions of law or fact need not be common. (5) the claims or defenses of the representative are typical of those of the class Typicality only denied when representatives claim is markedly different (6) the of Social Essay representative parties will fairly and adequately protect the interests of the absent class members Due process dimension. Need not have explicit authority by class. Basic objective is court is certain representative will prosecute the action with forthrightness and vigor.
FRCP 23(g) requires adequate class counsel. Animal Banned? Court considers: Work counsel has done in finding/investigating potential claims Counsel’s experience in class-actions and of this type of claims Counsel’s knowledge of applicable law Resources Counsel will commit to representing the class FRCP 23(b) categories of class actions FRCP 23(b)(1) “anti-prejudice” class action; individual actions would result in prejudice to class members or the party opposing the class (1) Prosecution of separate actions might result in inconsistent or varying adjudications that would establish incompatible standards of what conduct for the party opposing the class Not just liability to some claimants and testing, not others. When entity is required by law or practical necessity to measure act in the same manner to each class member and separate cases might force D to violate its legal duty to some class members. or (2) Individual litigation might result in judgments that would be dispositive of the interests of other members of the testing not be banned class who are not parties to those individual actions e.g., common fund may be gone before some class members litigate FRCP 23(b)(2) “injunction” or “declaratory judgment” class action (1) the party opposing the class has acted or refuse to act on uk a, grounds generally applicable to animal not be banned the class as a whole and (2) the is the class representatives are seeking final injunctive relief or corresponding declaratory relief (not preliminary injunctions). Damage claim does not stop certification as long as it is only incidental FRCP 23(b)(3) “common question” or “damage” class action (1) common questions of testing law or fact predominate over questions that affect only individual class members and is the democracy, (2) the animal testing class-action procedure must be superior to Comparing Essay the other means of adjudicating the controversy Possibility of separate actions Extent and nature of any litigation already commenced. Testing? Desirability of concentrating the litigation in this forum. Difficulties to be encountered in managing the Comparing in Chechnya Essay class action. Amchem common issues concerning the health consequences of asbestos exposure was outweighed by individual questions posed concerning class members with varying levels of should not be exposure from different products, over signifier different time periods, as well as those who suffered unique injuries or no injuries at all. Different state law exacerbated the problem. and (3) the animal testing not be best notice practicable must be given to the class members of the institution and nature of the action and of their right to exclude themselves from the class FRCP 23(f) - allows appeal of denial of class action certification. Shutts it is not necessary to satisfy the minimum contacts standard normally applied to Ds to bind out-of-state, absent Ps.
Applies only to money claims. Allstate / Shutts - Which law to apply in a multi-state class action? No problem if laws aren’t in conflict. Due Process and Essay, Full Faith and Credit Clause provide the testing not be modest restriction that choice of substantial law must be selected in a Constitutionally permissive manner, State must have significant contact or aggregate of contacts, creating state interests, such that the modification culture choice of law is neither arbitrary of fundamentally unfair. Animal Testing Should Not Be? Only citizenship of the n est pomme representative is testing banned, used in determining diversity. Allapattah overruled Zahn now we follow 1367(b).
Zahn each class member must satisfy amount in controversy requirement unless they assert a common and undivided interest. FRCP 23(c)(4)(A) court may maintain class suit only with regard to particular issues or as to certain parties or it may divide class into subclasses with separate counsel. FRCP 23(d) orders judge may issue (1) orders to determine course of proceeding and to prevent repetition or confusion in the presentation of what evidence or argument. (2) can order notice to some or all members of the class or order class members to testing signify whether they consider the representation fair and adequate, to intervene to present claims or defenses, or to otherwise come into the action (3) impose orders on class representative or intervenors (4) may order all allegations as to the representative suit stricken from the pleadings and the suit to proceed as an individual action. (5) other orders dealing with similar procedural matters FRCP 23(c)(2) notice Court may direct notice to FRCP 23(b)(1) or (2) classes Court must direct the best practicable notice to FRCP 23(b)(3) members, including individual notice to all members who can be identified through reasonable effort . Notice must state in plain language six elements listed. Notice does not have to meet personal service standards. FRCP 23(e) - Court must approve any settlement, voluntary dismissal, or compromise of the claims, issues, or defenses of a certified class. FRCP 23(e)(1)(C) standard is “fair, reasonable, or adequate.” (1) extend to which class members object to what measure the settlement (2) likelihood of class ultimately succeeding in litigation (3) complexity of factual and animal not be, legal issues in the case (4) amount of settlement compared to what might be recovered (5) costs incurred if the action went forward (6) the uk a democracy plan for distributing the settlement and animal should, its likeliness to measure succeed (7) whether absent class members have been notified properly FRCP 23(e)(2) requires a filing of a statement identifying any agreement made in connection with the proposed settlement, voluntary dismissal, or compromise. FRCP 23(e)(1)(B) requires notice of animal should settlement to class members. The class action judgment will be binding on of Social Essay, all class members unless the representation was inadequate or the notice was insufficient.
1332(d)(2) district courts shall have jurisdiction over class actions with amount in controversy over $5mil and minimal diversity is met. 1332(d)(3) outlines when district courts may decline jurisdiction and testing, 1332(d)(4) outlines when they must decline jurisdiction. Erie R. Co. v Tompkins , p. 364, US Supreme Court, 1938. § Tompkins (PA) hit by protrusion from Erie train (NY) and lost arm. RR liability is question of substantive law should state law or federal general common law apply? § SC struck down Swift v. Tyson and ruled state substantive law applies to body modification culture Diversity cases. Swift ruling unconstitutional since power to create federal general common law was never given to banned Court in Constitution Article 10: all non-specified powers to states.
§ Also said Congress has no power to declare substantive rules of Evolution Essay common law applicable in a state whether they be local in animal testing, nature or general. § Rules of measure Decision Act (1789) state law must be applied when there is no federal law on point. Guaranty Trust Co. v. York , p. Animal Testing? 372, US Supreme Court, 1945. § How to determine statute of limitations state law or federal practice of laches? § Statute of limitations defines the longevity of a right so considered substantive law. Thus federal courts must adhere to state statute of limitations standards . Act like a state court. Avoid forum shopping federal court may allow a case when state won’t. Avoid inequitable application of the law out-of-state advantage since can remove to federal court where case may be adjudicated more favorably to that party. § Emphasis on culture, outcome determination in deciding which type of law applies. Ragan v. merchants Transfer Warehouse, Co. , US Supreme Court, 1949.
§ P filed complaint for Diversity Suit in Sept, but marshal didn’t serve D until Dec, after state SOL passed. § SC held that Rule 3 was not intended to govern questions concerning the tolling of should not be banned SOL’s, and therefore state law would determine in Evolution Psychology Essay, diversity when statute was tolled. Reinforced York, outcome determinative. § Decision caused lots of anger (appeared unjust to P as well) Byrd v. Clue Ridge Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc. , p. 379, US Supreme Court, 1958.
§ Primary issue for testing should banned, SC is whether a judge (state) or jury (federal) should decide if P a statutory employee. South Carolina lets judges decide; Feds allow jury to decide facts in civil trials. § SC used balancing test rather than saying Byrd has Const. right to jury trial. State interest procedural, not very important. Federal interest significant, since “influence is Comparing and Contrasting the Wars in Chechnya, not the command” of animal should banned 7 th amendment upholds jury.
Likelihood of the Wars in Chechnya Essay outcome determination not inevitable based on animal should not be, judge/jury decision. § Case is a slight retreat / adjustment from Erie and York. Hanna v. What? Plumer , p. 385, US Supreme Court, 1965. § Service of animal testing should banned process according to federal or state practice? § Like Byrd , Hanna holds that if there is a federal interest, Federal Rule trumps State Rule. § To control, a Federal Rule must be. (1) applicable on point and in is the democracy, direct conflict with state rule. (2) valid doesn’t violate RDA (procedural, doesn’t abridge, enlarge or modify substantive right) (3) Constitutional none found un-Constitutional so far.
§ Conflict with federal practice , see if outcome-determinative by twin-aims of Erie: prevent forum shopping. prevent inequitable administration of the animal not be banned laws. §1652 Rules of Decision Act (Erie/York substance/procedure; measures state created rights) Based on Evolution of Social Psychology, Supremacy Clause of Constitution. Let us begin by looking at the flow chart. The flow chart does not contain everything you need to know about venue to do well on an exam. In fact, you know a lot more about venue that what is on the chart, but what is on the chart is the kind of stuff you would likely need on testing not be banned, exam day . There are specific references to federal rules and statutes that will be highly useful to throw in on the exam.
There are lots of rules and tests that are outlined by numbers and Evolution of Social Essay, structured and organized in testing not be banned, a way that allows you to easily find what you are looking for. This is not an explanation of ceci n est pomme what venue is. This is a supplement to the difficult venue knowledge and a graphical representation of what to address when handling a venue problem. Let us move on to the two pages on class actions. Notice, once again, that one topic (class actions) is contained on two pages that oppose each other on two different sheets of animal should paper (when printed on double sided pages). If I were handling a class action question or sub-question I would simply need to flip to this page (which is easy to find in a fifteen-page outline) and begin typing.
Everything that is in the outline is what is important. I have included nothing but actual rules and tests. For example, look at the seven key points for of Social, FRCP 23(e)(1)(C). Now that is something that is animal should, useful for a test. Or, for example, look at modification culture, how FRCP 23(b)(3) is organized. In particular, if I were considering class certification under FRCP 23(b)(3), I could scan the animal testing should not be page and start with each element of the test. Floating? I then would encounter the case Allapatah , where a very brief but precise holding for animal should banned, the case is presented. I, in fact, know more about Allapatah than what is presented here, but I am not going to spoil my outline by making it too long and having a half-page case brief on Allapatah . Evolution? If you were in my class, you would realize that this two-page outline contains information above and beyond what was presented in class, but is animal should not be banned, theoretically derivable from a study of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or good intuition (for example, the n est pas une pomme FRCP 23(a) test was not discussed at this level in class, but can be derived from the rule). It is these kinds of extras that come from the hornbook that really make me stand out.
The professor may test on this peripheral area on exam day, and he will assume I extracted the test on the fly from the Federal Rules themselves or that I am a general over-achiever, and he will reward me for it. Compare this to a typical page of a long outline (which is the fourth sheet). You will often see a laundry list of cases with lengthy descriptions with the rule buried inside. Animal Not Be? Notice that in my class action outline, we arrived at Allapatah only after traveling through rule FRCP 23(b)(3). The lengthy outline contains plenty of information and facts, but it is organized in a manner that requires a lot of time to find what you are looking for.
It also contains information that you should know, but that doesn’t belong on democracy, your test day outline . For example, under Ragan , the outline states: “the decision caused lots of anger (appeared unjust to P as well).” This is not be banned, arguably important information, and I remember when this was discussed in class. However, this is going to net zero exam points and does not belong on a test day outline. A comprehensive outline can be in any format and be in any length. Body Modification? It is meant to be a review tool to help you assemble the knowledge you acquired over testing should not be the semester. I fully encourage you to write such an outline, but bear in mind that this is virtually useless for an in-class essay. An in-class essay’s outline should be bare bones and contain the Evolution detailed information or principles of testing banned law that will be difficult to is the uk a democracy recall from memory. It should contain only the rule from the case, not a laundry list of animal should banned background facts. Comparing The Wars? That is the animal not be banned very nature of a functional test day outline.
All of my classes were open-book and open-outline. I never cracked my book and exclusively used my outline. If your test is closed everything, I still recommend writing a short ten- to fifteen-page outline that you will memorize. I do not write of ceci my system so that you can copy it to the letter. In fact, this would be a bad idea since I am sure there are nuances at animal testing should, your school that will require you to adjust your plan accordingly. I also concede that some people learn differently and that this system would be inappropriate for their learning style. The bottom line is that law school is about grades, and grades are about tests. Whatever strategy you develop, it should focus on maximizing your test score. Your employers and your peers will respect you far more for ranking high in your class than for democracy, any other academic endeavor you are involved in at law school.
A lot of people are disgusted by my decision to study for the exam, rather than for the law school experience or for some other abstract principle. I think they miss the true point of law school. In law, it is often said that the animal testing should banned case is signifier, won long before trial, in animal testing should, the preparation . The students that can sort through the casebooks and endless questions and manage to prepare the Evolution Psychology Essay best for an exam, are the same future lawyers I would want preparing my case. When that student is working for me, they are not going to be told what to do to win a case, and similarly, they will have to parse through endless bullshit to testing should not be banned get to the heart of the matter and measure, find the animal not be banned real issues. I think the entire law school system is designed to body culture sort and rank students in their ability to handle a simulated trial preparation.
The exam is the trial, and the semester is the preparation. It is interesting to animal should banned note that I know of one person that did better than me first semester. There are, in is the, total, about four of animal should not be these in my 100-student section and about twenty in my 400-student class, but I do not know who they are. I assume many of them are the gunners, but I do not know for sure. It is modification, interesting to testing banned see what approach my neighbor with the is the democracy 3.8 GPA took in law school. I had the very fortunate experience of knowing her, having her in my lawyering group and sitting next to her in a class, both of testing not be which allowed me some insight into uk a her study habits. She was smart, pretty and shy, but witty when she did talk. She took the best class notes I have ever seen.
I would not be surprised if she captured 100% of the ideas in class, without exception. They put my notes to shame, because I listen in class but I am a very poor in-class note taker. While in animal, class she did not indulge in instant messaging or in Evolution of Social, internet browsing like many of our peers. She was extremely thorough with all casebook and testing, class readings, and body modification, she explicitly criticized my use of external books on multiple occasions. We would often make comments to each other during class about the topic being discussed, and should, her comments were always excellent. She was always extremely busy with study, attended social occasions rarely, and body modification culture, was very serious about class assignments. I know she did not read hornbooks or practice to improve her test taking skills. I saw her once with an old edition of the Examples Explanations for Civil Procedure, and when I asked her about it she said she used it for the examples, and not the animal testing should banned explanations.
She openly criticized the use of the Contracts policy book that I was kind enough to share with our small legal research and writing class. Her basic stance on that book was that the signifier professor had taught us everything we need to testing should know to do well on the exam, and the book was not needed. Her system was completely opposite mine, and she did very well (a bit better than me). Her strategy is interesting and deserves comment. When I think about ceci pas une, everything I know about her and have seen her do, her basic idea was to explore fully 100% of every corner and turn of the material presented in class and in animal testing should banned, the assignments. While I tried to floating signifier use external guides to look at the big maze from an aerial view, she decided instead to actually work through every possible turn of the maze. She had an acute eye for detail that the reader must not discount. She literally worked through every possible branch of the complex tree of possibilities presented by the class. An example is needed to distinguish my system, her system, and the typical “system” used by animal not be the average law school student. Imagine a question on a Civil Procedure exam.
In the fact pattern, a very specific nuance of the legal doctrine of attachment is floating, being tested. I notice the nuance because I have a very good overall view of the maze of Civil Procedure . Testing Should Banned? I know attachment in general very well, including this specific nuance. I detect the issue and identify and analyze it on the exam and Evolution of Social Psychology, do well. She, on testing should banned, the other hand, is familiar with every single avenue and is the uk a democracy, turn that our particular Civil Procedure class took. She spots the nuance of banned attachment from a reference to it buried in the dissenting opinion of one of body modification our cases. 80% of the class brushed over this nuance when they read and re-read the case, but she did not.
She had spotted the nuance, pondered it, and worked out an answer to testing should banned it somewhere in Evolution Psychology Essay, her notes. She has explored every possible avenue that the class has addressed or touched on in any way and is prepared to write on these matters. Law School is like the process of taking a walk through a poorly planned downtown maze of some old European city. The law is the maze of not be city streets, and your professor is your guide. Is The Uk A Democracy? While on the walk, the animal testing majority of the class did not see a side street or did not explore it out of laziness. In class, they were chatting or instant messaging and completely missed the professor make some subtle point (a side-street now lost). They don’t know where this small side-street goes or where it ends up.
I saw the side-street because I have been studying street atlases of the downtown for the entire semester with a particular eye for detail along the route the professor was traveling. To be honest, I probably missed the subtle reference the professor made to it in class. The girl next to me is a superstar and came in measure, with the plan of not letting a single side-street off the path our professor led us on go unexplored . By the animal testing should banned most diligent preparation and attention to detail in Comparing and Contrasting Essay, class, she did not allow a single issue to be left untouched off our class route. Testing Should Banned? I mentally explored few avenues and side-streets but studied the atlas, which informed me what was on the street and ceci pas une pomme, where it was located. During practice tests I filled in the streets off the professor’s path absent in my atlas or those I had forgotten about. She did not study the animal not be banned atlas but literally went down every side-street off the n est pas une path our professor guided us through and carefully recorded where it went and where it was located. Our strategies are opposites, but both vastly superior to should not be banned the plan of mindless walking, knowing some streets well and others not at all, with no plan or direction. Body? That is the approach the typical law school student takes, and it is why they do not excel. I do not concede my study system to hers, because she put in likely double the animal study time to slightly improve her GPA. I came up with the best study plan I could come up with, given my study budget. What? It would be interesting to know what GPA I would have achieved if I were to redirect the time I used networking and should not be banned, socializing (5+ nights a week) into study.
I do not make the claim that I would have been a 4.0 student at NYU Law School if I had studied more. Law School is a bit like poker, and even if you do everything right, you can still lose on a bad draw. The subjective discretion of the professor makes some A- grades nearly inevitable, even for body, the best students. I think our study systems are likely objectively equal, but require different personality types and time commitments to implement. Whatever plan you choose to animal banned follow, I hope this guide has made you question what goes into excelling in law school.
Good luck in body modification, your first year. All of the books that are recommended in the primer for succeeding on not be, law school exams can be found below, and you may also find some helpful books in this list of subject-specific law books.
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10 Essential Tips for animal testing, Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to body, send out to employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to two pages or less. What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for animal not be banned, 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to pas une pomme, your future employer.
1. Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at the beginning. I am not a fan of the objective, and neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Generally, an animal testing should objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary.
This is is the one to three sentences at the beginning of should your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. Comparing And Contrasting The Wars! It is much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from animal testing should banned, a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and Evolution Essay professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in testing banned medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Recently relocated to Georgia. Do Spectrophotometers! 2. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Really?
Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about your experience. For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the place you need to testing should banned, brag about the Wars, what an amazing professional you are. Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the testing should not be reader of what do spectrophotometers measure your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Not Be Banned! Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of is the uk a therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to clients. DO: Provide group and testing banned individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in ceci n est pas une a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager.
Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the relapse rate in your agency?
Did you save your organization money by coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is animal should banned your field placement, you should be able to list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to is the uk a, know more. Animal Banned! DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms.
Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%. N Est Pas Une! 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Numbers aren’t just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the crowd. How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DON’T: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for animal testing should banned, Health, resulting in doubling the number of children served in group counseling from 120 children to 240 children, and increasing the percentage of body modification minority children served from 20% to 50% of the total child population in group therapy.
5. Tailor your resume to should not be banned, the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and Evolution Psychology it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at animal should not be all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and ceci n est pomme university systems use online applicant tracking systems to animal, review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is do spectrophotometers when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to testing should not be banned, describe the ceci n est pomme clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the same client populations, used the same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in testing should banned your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into matching your experience with their open position.
DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and signifier family, agency, and home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes.
The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and animal testing not be banned might move on to the rest of the resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to floating, include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for autism evaluations. Animal Testing Should Not Be Banned! DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to look for the experience that will fit the position they are trying to floating, fill. Write your resume in not be such a way that it is easy to scan and find the keywords in what do spectrophotometers 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to describe your experience and accomplishments. 8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended.
Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and animal testing participate in continuing education relevant to and Contrasting Essay, social work practice and social work ethics.” It is testing great to show your reader that you are up to date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to is the, the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. You just don’t need to list them all on your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here. Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the animal testing banned following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different.
You don’t need 10 categories on Evolution Essay, your resume. Professional Experience and Education are musts. Animal Should! but after that, limit the measure places hiring managers need to animal should not be, search to find the signifier information that will help them decide to banned, interview you. Of Social Psychology! Only put the animal should information that is most relevant to the job to which you are applying. 10. Your references should always be available upon Comparing and Contrasting the Wars request and animal testing banned not on your resume. If the is the democracy last line on your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. It is not necessary to tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in animal testing not be the interview process, they will ask you for your references. Have them listed in what do spectrophotometers measure a separate document.
Only send the references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and should banned always send them a copy of the job description and floating signifier your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to animal testing, me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. Essay! It is great to get a heads-up and should not be banned a reminder of what the body modification person did under my supervision. And don’t forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the job! DON’T: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: email@example.comJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to work with diverse communities, and my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and animal testing not be promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Of Social! Remember, your resume is testing should your tool to get an interview. Measure! It doesn’t need to animal testing banned, include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking.
During the body modification interview, you can go into should not be banned more detail about what do spectrophotometers measure, your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the National Association of Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the should University of Minnesota and currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out a lot. Thank you so much for this article. I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an ceci n est immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Emerald Reese 107 days ago. Thank you for the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 138 days ago.
Thank you so much for all the animal banned information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 153 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Uk A! Dana 181 days ago. I would have made all the should listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 197 days ago.
Many thanks for the information! Always nice to find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 237 days ago. Featured Jobs at. Copyright 2017 White Hat Communications.
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essay edge wiki Edge 183 — May 30, 2006. The hive mind is for the most part stupid and boring. Animal Not Be? Why pay attention to floating it? The problem is in the way the animal not be, Wikipedia has come to be regarded and Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya, used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly.
And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is animal not be desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the signifier, most verity and force. This is different from animal testing representative democracy, or meritocracy. Floating? This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon not be banned us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous. The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism [5.30.06] By Jaron Lanier. Responses to culture Lanier's essay from Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold [click here] In Digital Maosim, an original essay written for Edge, computer scientist and digital visionary Jaron Lanier finds fault with what he terms the new online collectivism. He cites as an example the banned, Wikipedia, noting that reading a Wikipedia entry is like reading the bible closely. There are faint traces of the voices of various anonymous authors and editors, though it is impossible to be sure.
His problem is not with the unfolding experiment of the n est pas une pomme, Wikipedia itself, but the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. Banned? And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the ceci pomme, idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in banned, a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon uk a democracy us from the extreme Right or the testing should banned, extreme Left in and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay, various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous. And he notes that the banned, Wikipedia is far from uk a being the only online fetish site for foolish collectivism.
There's a frantic race taking place online to become the most Meta site, to be the should not be, highest level aggregator, subsuming the identity of all other sites. Where is this leading? Lanier calls attention to the so-called 'Artificial Intelligence' and the race to erase personality and be most Meta. In each case, there's a presumption that something like a distinct kin to individual human intelligence is either about to appear any minute, or has already appeared. The problem with that presumption is that people are all too willing to lower standards in order to make the the Wars, purported newcomer appear smart. Just as people are willing to bend over backwards and make themselves stupid in order to make an animal should, AI interface appear smart (as happens when someone can interact with the notorious Microsoft paper clip,) so are they willing to become uncritical and dim in order to make Meta-aggregator sites appear to be coherent.
Read on as Jaron Lanier throwns a lit Molotov cocktail down towards Palo Alto from up in the Berkeley Hills. (JARON LANIER:) My Wikipedia entry identifies me (at least this week) as a film director. It is true I made one experimental short film about body a decade and a half ago. The concept was awful: I tried to imagine what Maya Deren would have done with morphing. It was shown once at a film festival and was never distributed and I would be most comfortable if no one ever sees it again. Twice in the past several weeks, reporters have asked me about my filmmaking career.
The fantasies of the goblins have entered that portion of the world that is attempting to remain real. I know I've gotten off easy. Animal Testing Not Be Banned? The errors in my Wikipedia bio have been (at least prior to the publication of this article) charming and even flattering. Reading a Wikipedia entry is like reading the bible closely. Signifier? There are faint traces of the voices of various anonymous authors and editors, though it is impossible to be sure. In my particular case, it appears that the goblins are probably members or descendants of the rather sweet old Mondo 2000 culture linking psychedelic experimentation with computers.
They seem to testing place great importance on relating my ideas to those of the psychedelic luminaries of old (and in ways that I happen to find sloppy and incorrect.) Edits deviating from this set of do spectrophotometers measure, odd ideas that are important to should not be this one particular small subculture are immediately removed. Body Modification Culture? This makes sense. Who else would volunteer to pay that much attention and do all that work? The problem I am concerned with here is not the Wikipedia in itself. It's been criticized quite a lot, especially in the last year, but the Wikipedia is just one experiment that still has room to change and grow. Should Not Be? At the Evolution, very least it's a success at revealing what the animal testing, online people with the pomme, most determination and time on animal testing should not be banned, their hands are thinking, and that's actually interesting information. No, the problem is in the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. Signifier? And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of animal not be, a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the culture, collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is different from animal testing not be representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon floating signifier us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in animal testing should, many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous.
There was a well-publicized study in Nature last year comparing the Psychology Essay, accuracy of the Wikipedia to Encyclopedia Britannica. The results were a toss up. While there is a lingering debate about the testing not be banned, validity of the is the, study. Should Not Be Banned? The items selected for the comparison were just the sort that Wikipedia would do well on: Science topics that the collective at large doesn't care much about. Culture? Kinetic isotope effect or Vesalius, Andreas are examples of topics that make the Britannica hard to maintain, because it takes work to find the right authors to research and animal not be, review a multitude of diverse topics. But they are perfect for the Wikipedia. There is is the uk a little controversy around these items, plus the Net provides ready access to a reasonably small number of competent specialist graduate student types possessing the manic motivation of youth. A core belief of the testing should, wiki world is that whatever problems exist in the wiki will be incrementally corrected as the ceci pas une pomme, process unfolds. This is analogous to the claims of Hyper-Libertarians who put infinite faith in a free market, or the Hyper-Lefties who are somehow able to sit through consensus decision-making processes.
In all these cases, it seems to me that empirical evidence has yielded mixed results. Sometimes loosely structured collective activities yield continuous improvements and sometimes they don't. Often we don't live long enough to find out. Later in this essay I'll point out what constraints make a collective smart. But first, it's important to not lose sight of values just because the question of whether a collective can be smart is so fascinating. Accuracy in a text is not enough. A desirable text is more than a collection of accurate references. It is also an expression of personality. For instance, most of the technical or scientific information that is in the Wikipedia was already on the Web before the Wikipedia was started. You could always use Google or other search services to find information about items that are now wikified.
In some cases I have noticed specific texts get cloned from original sites at universities or labs onto wiki pages. Animal Not Be Banned? And when that happens, each text loses part of its value. Since search engines are now more likely to point you to the wikified versions, the Web has lost some of its flavor in casual use. When you see the context in which something was written and you know who the author was beyond just a name, you learn so much more than when you find the culture, same text placed in the anonymous, faux-authoritative, anti-contextual brew of the animal should banned, Wikipedia. The question isn't just one of authentication and accountability, though those are important, but something more subtle. A voice should be sensed as a whole. You have to have a chance to sense personality in order for language to have its full meaning. Personal Web pages do that, as do journals and Psychology Essay, books. Even Britannica has an animal, editorial voice, which some people have criticized as being vaguely too Dead White Men. If an ironic Web site devoted to destroying cinema claimed that I was a filmmaker, it would suddenly make sense. That would be an authentic piece of text.
But placed out of context in the Wikipedia, it becomes drivel. Myspace is another recent experiment that has become even more influential than the Wikipedia. Like the Wikipedia, it adds just a little to the powers already present on the Web in order to inspire a dramatic shift in use. Myspace is all about modification culture authorship, but it doesn't pretend to animal testing be all-wise. You can always tell at least a little about the character of the person who made a Myspace page. Evolution Of Social? But it is very rare indeed that a Myspace page inspires even the slightest confidence that the author is a trustworthy authority. Hurray for Myspace on that count! Myspace is a richer, multi-layered, source of information than the Wikipedia, although the animal testing should banned, topics the two services cover barely overlap.
If you want to research a TV show in terms of what people think of it, Myspace will reveal more to you than the analogous and uk a, enormous entries in the Wikipedia. The Wikipedia is far from being the testing, only online fetish site for democracy, foolish collectivism. There's a frantic race taking place online to become the most Meta site, to be the highest level aggregator, subsuming the identity of testing should banned, all other sites. The race began innocently enough with the notion of creating directories of online destinations, such as the early incarnations of Yahoo. Body Modification? Then came AltaVista, where one could search using an inverted database of the content of the whole Web. Then came Google, which added page rank algorithms. Then came the blogs, which varied greatly in animal should not be, terms of what do spectrophotometers measure, quality and importance.
This lead to Meta-blogs such as Boing Boing, run by identified humans, which served to aggregate blogs. In all of these formulations, real people were still in charge. An individual or individuals were presenting a personality and taking responsibility. These Web-based designs assumed that value would flow from people. Testing Should Banned? It was still clear, in all such designs, that the measure, Web was made of animal not be banned, people, and n est, that ultimately value always came from connecting with real humans.
Even Google by itself (as it stands today) isn't Meta enough to be a problem. One layer of page ranking is animal should not be hardly a threat to the Wars Essay authorship, but an accumulation of many layers can create a meaningless murk, and that is another matter. In the last year or two the animal should not be, trend has been to body remove the scent of people, so as to come as close as possible to simulating the appearance of content emerging out of the Web as if it were speaking to animal not be us as a supernatural oracle. This is where the use of the Internet crosses the line into delusion. Kevin Kelly, the is the, former editor of Whole Earth Review and the founding Executive Editor of Wired , is a friend and someone who has been thinking about what he and others call the Hive Mind.
He runs a Website called Cool Tools that's a cross between a blog and the old Whole Earth Catalog . On Cool Tools , the animal testing should not be, contributors, including me, are not a hive because we are identified. In March, Kelly reviewed a variety of Consensus Web filters such as Digg and Reddit that assemble material every day from what do spectrophotometers measure all the myriad of other aggregating sites. Such sites intend to be more Meta than the sites they aggregate. There is animal testing no person taking responsibility for what appears on them, only an measure, algorithm. The hope seems to be that the most Meta site will become the mother of all bottlenecks and receive infinite funding.
That new magnitude of Meta-ness lasted only a month. In April, Kelly reviewed a site called popurls that aggregates consensus Web filtering sites. and testing should not be, there was a new most Meta. We now are reading what a collectivity algorithm derives from of Social Psychology what other collectivity algorithms derived from what collectives chose from what a population of mostly amateur writers wrote anonymously. Is popurls any good? I am writing this on May 27, 2006.
In the last few days an experimental approach to animal testing should banned diabetes management has been announced that might prevent nerve damage. N Est Pas Une Pomme? That's huge news for tens of millions of should not be, Americans. It is not mentioned on popurls. Popurls does clue us in to this news: Student sets simultaneous world ice cream-eating record, worst ever ice cream headache. Mainstream news sources all lead today with a serious earthquake in Java. Popurls includes a few mentions of the event, but they are buried within the aggregation of aggregate news sites like Google News.
The reason the quake appears on popurls at all can be discovered only measure, if you dig through all the aggregating layers to find the original sources, which are those rare entries actually created by testing banned, professional writers and editors who sign their names. Culture? But at the layer of should banned, popurls, the ice cream story and the Javanese earthquake are at best equals, without context or authorship. Kevin Kelly says of the popurls site, There's no better way to watch the hive mind. Floating? But the testing should banned, hive mind is for the most part stupid and boring. Body Modification? Why pay attention to it? Readers of my previous rants will notice a parallel between my discomfort with so-called Artificial Intelligence and the race to animal testing should erase personality and be most Meta. In each case, there's a presumption that something like a distinct kin to individual human intelligence is either about to Comparing Essay appear any minute, or has already appeared. The problem with that presumption is that people are all too willing to lower standards in order to make the purported newcomer appear smart. Just as people are willing to bend over backwards and make themselves stupid in order to testing should banned make an AI interface appear smart (as happens when someone can interact with the notorious Microsoft paper clip,) so are they willing to become uncritical and uk a, dim in order to make Meta-aggregator sites appear to be coherent.
There is a pedagogical connection between the culture of Artificial Intelligence and the strange allure of anonymous collectivism online. Animal? Google's vast servers and the Wikipedia are both mentioned frequently as being the startup memory for Artificial Intelligences to come. Larry Page is quoted via a link presented to me by popurls this morning (who knows if it's accurate) as speculating that an AI might appear within Google within a few years. George Dyson has wondered if such an entity already exists on the Net, perhaps perched within Google. My point here is not to argue about the existence of Metaphysical entities, but just to emphasize how premature and dangerous it is to lower the expectations we hold for modification culture, individual human intellects.
The beauty of the Internet is animal that it connects people. The value is in the other people. If we start to believe the Internet itself is an entity that has something to say, we're devaluing those people and making ourselves into idiots. Compounding the floating signifier, problem is that new business models for people who think and write have not appeared as quickly as we all hoped. Testing Not Be? Newspapers, for instance, are on is the democracy, the whole facing a grim decline as the Internet takes over the feeding of the curious eyes that hover over morning coffee and, even worse, classified ads. In the new environment, Google News is for the moment better funded and enjoys a more secure future than most of the rather small number of fine reporters around the world who ultimately create most of its content. The aggregator is richer than the aggregated. The question of new business models for animal should not be banned, content creators on of Social, the Internet is a profound and difficult topic in itself, but it must at least be pointed out that writing professionally and well takes time and that most authors need to be paid to take that time. In this regard, blogging is not writing.
For example, it's easy to be loved as a blogger. All you have to do is animal not be play to signifier the crowd. Or you can flame the animal testing should not be banned, crowd to get attention. Nothing is wrong with either of those activities. What I think of as real writing, however, writing meant to last, is something else.
It involves articulating a perspective that is what measure not just reactive to yesterday's moves in animal, a conversation. The artificial elevation of of Social Essay, all things Meta is not confined to not be online culture. Of Social Psychology Essay? It is having a profound influence on how decisions are made in America. What we are witnessing today is the alarming rise of the fallacy of the animal banned, infallible collective. Numerous elite organizations have been swept off their feet by the idea.
They are inspired by the rise of the Wikipedia, by the wealth of Google, and by the rush of entrepreneurs to be the most Meta. Government agencies, top corporate planning departments, and major universities have all gotten the uk a, bug. As a consultant, I used to be asked to test an idea or propose a new one to solve a problem. In the should not be, last couple of years I've often been asked to Comparing work quite differently. You might find me and banned, the other consultants filling out survey forms or tweaking edits to a collective essay. I'm saying and doing much less than I used to, even though I'm still being paid the same amount. Maybe I shouldn't complain, but the actions of big institutions do matter, and it's time to speak out against Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya, the collectivity fad that is upon testing not be banned us.
It's not hard to see why the fallacy of and Contrasting Essay, collectivism has become so popular in big organizations: If the principle is correct, then individuals should not be required to take on risks or responsibilities. We live in times of tremendous uncertainties coupled with infinite liability phobia, and we must function within institutions that are loyal to no executive, much less to any lower level member. Every individual who is afraid to say the wrong thing within his or her organization is safer when hiding behind a wiki or some other Meta aggregation ritual. I've participated in not be banned, a number of elite, well-paid wikis and Meta-surveys lately and have had a chance to observe the results. I have even been part of a wiki about wikis. What I've seen is a loss of body, insight and subtlety, a disregard for the nuances of considered opinions, and an increased tendency to enshrine the official or normative beliefs of an organization. Why isn't everyone screaming about the animal testing should not be banned, recent epidemic of inappropriate uses of the collective? It seems to me the democracy, reason is should not be that bad old ideas look confusingly fresh when they are packaged as technology. The collective rises around us in multifarious ways.
What afflicts big institutions also afflicts pop culture. For instance, it has become notoriously difficult to modification culture introduce a new pop star in the music business. Even the most successful entrants have hardly ever made it past the first album in the last decade or so. The exception is American Idol. As with the Wikipedia, there's nothing wrong with it. The problem is its centrality. More people appear to vote in this pop competition than in presidential elections, and one reason why is the instant convenience of information technology. The collective can vote by animal should not be banned, phone or by texting, and some vote more than once.
The collective is flattered and it responds. The winners are likable, almost by Essay, definition. But John Lennon wouldn't have won. He wouldn't have made it to the finals. Testing Banned? Or if he had, he would have ended up a different sort of person and artist. The same could be said about Jimi Hendrix, Elvis, Joni Mitchell, Duke Ellington, David Byrne, Grandmaster Flash, Bob Dylan (please!), and almost anyone else who has been vastly influential in creating pop music. As below, so above. The New York Times , of all places, has recently published op-ed pieces supporting the pseudo-idea of intelligent design. This is astonishing. The Times has become the paper of averaging opinions. Something is lost when American Idol becomes a leader instead of a follower of pop music.
But when intelligent design shares the body, stage with real science in testing banned, the paper of record, everything is lost. How could the Times have fallen so far? I don't know, but I would imagine the measure, process was similar to what I've seen in the consulting world of late. It's safer to be the testing should not be banned, aggregator of the collective. You get to include all sorts of material without committing to n est pas une anything. You can be superficially interesting without having to worry about the possibility of being wrong. Except when intelligent thought really matters. In that case the average idea can be quite wrong, and only the best ideas have lasting value. Science is animal not be banned like that.
The collective isn't always stupid. In some special cases the collective can be brilliant. For instance, there's a demonstrative ritual often presented to incoming students at business schools. In one version of the ritual, a large jar of Comparing and Contrasting in Chechnya Essay, jellybeans is placed in testing should, the front of a classroom. Each student guesses how many beans there are. While the guesses vary widely, the average is usually accurate to an uncanny degree.
This is an example of the special kind of intelligence offered by a collective. It is that peculiar trait that has been celebrated as the Wisdom of Crowds, though I think the word wisdom is misleading. It is part of what makes Adam Smith's Invisible Hand clever, and is connected to the reasons Google's page rank algorithms work. It was long ago adapted to futurism, where it was known as the Delphi technique. The phenomenon is real, and immensely useful. But it is not infinitely useful.
The collective can be stupid, too. Witness tulip crazes and n est pomme, stock bubbles. Hysteria over fictitious satanic cult child abductions. Y2K mania. What makes a market work, for instance, is the marriage of collective and individual intelligence. A marketplace can't exist only on the basis of having prices determined by competition. It also needs entrepreneurs to come up with the products that are competing in the first place. In other words, clever individuals, the heroes of the marketplace, ask the questions which are answered by collective behavior.
They put the jellybeans in the jar. There are certain types of answers that ought not be provided by animal not be, an individual. When a government bureaucrat sets a price, for instance, the result is often inferior to the answer that would come from a reasonably informed collective that is reasonably free of manipulation or runaway internal resonances. But when a collective designs a product, you get design by committee, which is a derogatory expression for what do spectrophotometers measure, a reason. Here I must take a moment to comment on Linux and similar efforts. The various formulations of open or free software are different from the Wikipedia and the race to be most Meta in important ways.
Linux programmers are not anonymous and in fact personal glory is part of the animal testing not be banned, motivational engine that keeps such enterprises in motion. But there are similarities, and the lack of a coherent voice or design sensibility in an esthetic sense is one negative quality of both open source software and the Wikipedia. These movements are at their most efficient while building hidden information plumbing layers, such as Web servers. What Do Spectrophotometers Measure? They are hopeless when it comes to producing fine user interfaces or user experiences. If the code that ran the Wikipedia user interface were as open as the contents of the entries, it would churn itself into animal testing should not be, impenetrable muck almost immediately.
The collective is good at solving problems which demand results that can be evaluated by uncontroversial performance parameters, but bad when taste and judgment matter. Collectives can be just as stupid as any individual, and in important cases, stupider. What Measure? The interesting question is whether it's possible to map out where the one is smarter than the many. There is not be banned a lot of history to this topic, and varied disciplines have lots to say. Here is a quick pass at where I think the body modification culture, boundary between effective collective thought and nonsense lies: The collective is testing more likely to be smart when it isn't defining its own questions, when the goodness of an ceci n est, answer can be evaluated by animal testing should not be banned, a simple result (such as a single numeric value,) and when the information system which informs the collective is filtered by a quality control mechanism that relies on individuals to Comparing and Contrasting Essay a high degree. Testing Banned? Under those circumstances, a collective can be smarter than a person.
Break any one of those conditions and the collective becomes unreliable or worse. Meanwhile, an individual best achieves optimal stupidity on those rare occasions when one is both given substantial powers and insulated from the results of his or her actions. If the n est pomme, above criteria have any merit, then there is an unfortunate convergence. The setup for the most stupid collective is also the setup for the most stupid individuals. Every authentic example of collective intelligence that I am aware of also shows how that collective was guided or inspired by well-meaning individuals. Testing Banned? These people focused the collective and in some cases also corrected for some of the body culture, common hive mind failure modes.
The balancing of influence between people and collectives is the heart of the design of democracies, scientific communities, and many other long-standing projects. There's a lot of animal testing, experience out there to work with. A few of these old ideas provide interesting new ways to of Social approach the question of how to best use the hive mind. The pre-Internet world provides some great examples of how personality-based quality control can improve collective intelligence. Animal Testing Should? For instance, an independent press provides tasty news about politicians by reporters with strong voices and reputations, like the Watergate reporting of Woodward and Bernstein. Other writers provide product reviews, such as Walt Mossberg in The Wall Street Journal and David Pogue in The New York Times . Such journalists inform the collective's determination of election results and pricing. Without an independent press, composed of heroic voices, the collective becomes stupid and unreliable, as has been demonstrated in body modification culture, many historical instances. Animal Should Not Be Banned? (Recent events in America have reflected the weakening of the press, in my opinion.) Scientific communities likewise achieve quality through a cooperative process that includes checks and balances, and ultimately rests on a foundation of goodwill and Evolution Psychology, blind elitism blind in the sense that ideally anyone can gain entry, but only on testing should not be banned, the basis of a meritocracy. The tenure system and many other aspects of the academy are designed to support the idea that individual scholars matter, not just the process or the collective.
Another example: Entrepreneurs aren't the only heroes of a marketplace. Is The Democracy? The role of a central bank in an economy is not the same as that of a communist party official in a centrally planned economy. Even though setting an interest rate sounds like the answering of a question, it is really more like the animal testing should not be, asking of a question. The Fed asks the market to signifier answer the question of how to best optimize for lowering inflation, for instance. While that might not be the question everyone would want to have asked, it is at least coherent. Yes, there have been plenty of scandals in government, the academy and in the press. Testing Should? No mechanism is perfect, but still here we are, having benefited from all of these institutions. There certainly have been plenty of bad reporters, self-deluded academic scientists, incompetent bureaucrats, and of Social, so on. Can the hive mind help keep them in check? The answer provided by experiments in the pre-Internet world is yes, but only provided some signal processing is placed in the loop. Some of the animal not be banned, regulating mechanisms for collectives that have been most successful in the pre-Internet world can be understood in part as modulating the time domain.
For instance, what if a collective moves too readily and quickly, jittering instead of settling down to provide a single answer? This happens on the most active Wikipedia entries, for example, and has also been seen in body culture, some speculation frenzies in should banned, open markets. One service performed by the Wars, representative democracy is low-pass filtering. Imagine the jittery shifts that would take place if a wiki were put in testing should not be banned, charge of writing laws. Do Spectrophotometers? It's a terrifying thing to consider. Super-energized people would be struggling to shift the not be banned, wording of the tax-code on a frantic, never-ending basis. The Internet would be swamped.
Such chaos can be avoided in the same way it already is, albeit imperfectly, by the slower processes of ceci pas une, elections and court proceedings. The calming effect of orderly democracy achieves more than just the smoothing out of peripatetic struggles for consensus. Banned? It also reduces the floating signifier, potential for the collective to suddenly jump into an over-excited state when too many rapid changes to answers coincide in such a way that they don't cancel each other out. (Technical readers will recognize familiar principles in signal processing.) The Wikipedia has recently slapped a crude low pass filter on the jitteriest entries, such as President George W. Bush. There's now a limit to how often a particular person can remove someone else's text fragments. I suspect that this will eventually have to evolve into an approximate mirror of democracy as it was before the Internet arrived. The reverse problem can also appear. The hive mind can be on the right track, but moving too slowly.
Sometimes collectives would yield brilliant results given enough time but there isn't enough time. A problem like global warming would automatically be addressed eventually if the animal banned, market had enough time to respond to it, for instance. Insurance rates would climb, and democracy, so on. Alas, in this case there isn't enough time, because the animal should banned, market conversation is what measure slowed down by the legacy effect of existing investments. Therefore some other process has to intervene, such as politics invoked by individuals.
Another example of the slow hive problem: There was a lot of technology developed slowly in the millennia before there was a clear idea of how to be empirical, how to have a peer reviewed technical literature and an education based on animal testing should, it, and before there was an efficient market to determine the value of inventions. What is crucial to notice about modernity is that structure and constraints were part of what sped up the process of the Wars, technological development, not just pure openness and concessions to testing should not be the collective. Let's suppose that the Wikipedia will indeed become better in some ways, as is claimed by ceci pas une pomme, the faithful, over a period of time. We might still need something better sooner. Some wikitopians explicitly hope to see education subsumed by wikis.
It is at least possible that in the fairly near future enough communication and education will take place through anonymous Internet aggregation that we could become vulnerable to a sudden dangerous empowering of the hive mind. History has shown us again and again that a hive mind is a cruel idiot when it runs on autopilot. Nasty hive mind outbursts have been flavored Maoist, Fascist, and testing should, religious, and these are only a small sampling. I don't see why there couldn't be future social disasters that appear suddenly under the uk a democracy, cover of technological utopianism. If wikis are to gain any more influence they ought to be improved by mechanisms like the ones that have worked tolerably well in the pre-Internet world. The hive mind should be thought of as a tool.
Empowering the animal testing should banned, collective does not empower individuals just the reverse is true. There can be useful feedback loops set up between individuals and ceci pomme, the hive mind, but the hive mind is too chaotic to be fed back into animal testing banned, itself. These are just a few ideas about is the uk a how to train a potentially dangerous collective and not let it get out testing should not be of the what do spectrophotometers measure, yard. When there's a problem, you want it to animal testing should banned bark but not bite you. The illusion that what we already have is close to good enough, or that it is alive and will fix itself, is the most dangerous illusion of all. By avoiding that nonsense, it ought to be possible to find a humanistic and practical way to maximize value of the collective on the Web without turning ourselves into idiots.
The best guiding principle is to always cherish individuals first. Jaron Lanier is a film director. He writes a monthly column for Discover Magazine. Responses to Lanier's essay from Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold [click here]
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Essay About Family Life Education. They may differ in their views and actions about how a child should be brought up or disciplined , rewarded or punished etc essay about banned, family life education . Reviews indicate that marriage enrichment programs are effective , although their effects appear to diminish over and Contrasting the Wars in Chechnya, time Stahmann and Salts 1993. There has been little systematic evaluation of these programs McKenry , Clark , and Stone 1999 , but exit questionnaires suggest that participant satisfaction is high Geasler and Blaisure 1998. The skills and not be banned, knowledge needed for floating, healthy functioning are widely known strong communication skills , knowledge of typical human development , good decisionmaking skills , positive selfesteem , and healthy interpersonal relationships. Adolescents have special issues that need the help of animal testing should, parents and this stage can be very crucial for modification, them and their children. The importance of a balanced perspective The environments of man. There may , however , be informal assignments , often by animal not be, mutual consent and items of needed work concerning the floating signifier, family.
Graduates of NCFRapproved programs complete an Abbreviated Application process to receive Provisional Certification. 15 Nov 2011. Testing Banned? Meaning of Comparing, Family Life Education Family life education is a broad comprehensive and flexible field. Anything which contributes to animal should not be banned the . What? Family life education focuses on healthy family functioning within a family systems perspective and provides a primarily preventive approach. Animal Testing Should Not Be Banned? The skills and . Definition of Family Life Education Our online dictionary has Family Life Education information from International Encyclopedia of Marriage and floating signifier, Family . Family Life Education ( FLE) is the effort made by American professional organizations , universities , and individuals to strengthen families through social science . Free Essay: Education is a social problem that is very prominent in the world today. Education affects not only animal should not be, children currently attending school , but what.
Free Essay: 4. How does a family function to support the in Chechnya, children’s education? In order to. Grandparents and animal testing not be banned, their Role in a Child’s Life Essay. 482 Words | 2 . Interest in the family and in family life education has become widespread and multifaceted during the past few decades. This interest , however , is not a new . This integrative essay seeks analyze four exemplary sclrcol-based education. Or intended outcomes of family life education as well as subject matter oultent.
It should be borne in mind that every event in the different stages of family life drains the family resources. A college or university family studies program must be accredited by one of the before applying for NCFRs approval. And , as seen at the beginning of the twentyfirst century , resolving the AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome crisis in do spectrophotometers, Africa and elsewhere will not only not be banned, require adequate family education and culture, governmental support to animal make this education widely available but also political decisions that will ensure that medications are available to those who need it at a reasonable cost. Body? Family LIfe educators in animal should not be banned, 1984 to deliver classes throughout the world on behalf of the organizations mission to signifier teach those attitudes , emotional understandings , and behaviors that nurture and sustain healthy relationships and to make this knowledge broadly available on behalf of animal should, a safer , saner , more loving world. Family Life Education moved into do spectrophotometers widespread public awareness in the early 20th century by offering gardening , home canning and , and other social issues of animal testing not be, that time. Approval can be issued to individuals or academic programs , via either governmental public policy or by nongovernmental organizations. Floating Signifier? Family life education professionals consider societal issues economics , education , workfamily issues , parenting , sexuality , gender and more within the context of the family.
The Internet and the World Wide Web present new challenges for family life education. Animal Banned? Originally , marriage preparation was provided primarily for young adult couples however , variations of these programs have been developed for couples marrying for the second time , for those marrying during later years , and for those in committed relationships other than marriage. Originally , marriage preparation was provided primarily for young adult couples however , variations of these programs have been developed for couples marrying for ceci, the second time , for those marrying during later years , and for those in animal testing banned, committed relationships other than marriage. Although citizenship is a statutory subject , each individual school will determine how the content is to be taught and by whom. An understanding of the Essay, stress and strains experienced at each stage of the cycle paves the way for better understanding and cooperation among family members. Testing Should? Important family life content includes understanding ones self and others building selfesteem making choices about sexuality forming , maintaining , and ending relationships taking responsibility for ones actions understanding family roles and responsibilities and improving communication skills Hennon and Arcus 1993. Curriculum guidelines were recognized as guidelines only Comparing the Wars in Chechnya Essay, , with the specific content to be taught subject to local school interpretation and animal testing should not be banned, teacher modification. It is often referred to as The empty nest syndrome. Textbooks approved by what, the Ministry of animal testing not be banned, Education typically focus on what, normative family needs and A review of policies and practices in Human Relations in banned, Australian schools found that most of the human relations content at the primary school level was integrated into in Chechnya Health or Social Studies units Wolcott 1987 , including topics such as selfesteem , interpersonal relationships , family life , family roles in child care , different family types , malefemale differences , and aspects of physical growth. Testing Should Not Be? Developing community support A first step toward a school sex education program. It is the responsibility of all members of a family to fulfill family functions although parents generally shoulder a larger share of these functions.
During this time , there were a number of related social , economic , and body modification, scientific forces that inevitably impacted on the functions of the home and the family and led toward an testing should not be banned, increased interest in is the democracy, the problems of modern family life in the 1920s. In India , the testing banned, minimum age at marriage is floating, 21 and 18 for boys and girls respectively. Parents who respond property to their partners personal needs , are in effect reducing if not , eliminating the animal should banned, probability of modification culture, their ever becoming estranged. Implications of the White House Conference on Families for family life education. An underlying assumption of family life education is animal testing not be banned, that it is relevant to individuals of all ages and to all families whatever their structure , stage of the life course , or special circumstances Arcus , Schvaneveldt , and Moss 1993. For the most part , however , individuals learn about family living in the family setting itself as they observe and participate in family activities and interactions in their own and other families.
Then , copy and paste the do spectrophotometers, text into your bibliography or works cited list. Animal Testing Not Be Banned? Misunderstanding between the couple may also result if too much or too little attention is given to the children. PAIRS Foundation requires rigorous training , annual licensure , and adherence to ethical standards practices for all of its instructors. For any family to exist happily there are certain tasks , which must be performed by family members. Preretirement programs typically focus on financial planning Riker and Myers 1990 , but they may not include important topics such as laterlife transitions and changes in family roles essay about family life education . As most adolescents have not yet selected a marital partner , anticipatory education for of Social, marriage emphasizes acquiring knowledge about marriage and intimate relationships , improving relationship skills , and exploring personal attitudes and values regarding marriage , marital expectations , and marital roles Stahmann and Salts 1993. Animal Testing Should Not Be? Most of the values related to family life education are deeply rooted in the sociocultural milieu of the people. There is no evidence that these programs increase childrens fears or damage their relationships with parents or other significant adults , but in the absence of positive sexuality education , it is of concern that children may learn only negative messages about sexuality.
The development of new knowledge , advances in uk a, technology , and changing social and economic conditions create situations where the teachings of previous generations are no longer appropriate or sufficient. Not Be Banned? Because transportation and n est, mobility may be issues for older adults , innovative approaches such as a correspondence course in human sexuality Engel 1983 and disseminating gerontological information through interactive television Riekse , Holstege , and Faber 2000 have promise for laterlife family life education. Testing Should Not Be? Parents should provide their children with guidance and direction so that they develop and inculcate the right values as they approach adulthood. Evaluation of a sex education course for young adolescents. Since then , different marriage education programs have been developed to Comparing provide premarital couples with opportunities to gain knowledge about and discuss the critical issues and tasks of marriage , to testing should banned acquire behavioral skills and problemsolving strategies to enhance their relationships , and to evaluate their relationships , including any romanticism , untested assumptions , andor unrealistic expectations Stahmann and Salts 1993. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article , Encyclopedia. In 1996 the National Council on Family Relations began reviewing and what, approving family degree programs for inclusion of coursework that could lead to Provisional Certification as a Certified Family Life EducatorCFLE. Information technologies make it possible to provide familyrelated information twentyfour hours a day , every day , and may help facilitate the preparation of professionals through online courses and chatrooms Hughes , Ehata , and Dollahite 1999. An important outcome of the CFLE program has been its influence on the content of the collegeuniversity programs that prepare family life educators. A comparative study of family life education , sex education , and animal testing not be banned, human sexuality conducted by UNESCO identified the pomme, need to broaden traditional population education to animal testing should not be banned include topics such as reproductive health , the status and empowerment of women , intergenerational relationships , and problemsolving skills in order to ceci pas une pomme improve family and social welfare Blanchard 1995. Currently , there are more than 130 CFLEapproved academic programs through NCFR.
One of these new ways is In North America , family life education developed as an educational specialty around the turn of the twentieth century in response to the changing social conditions of the time LewisRowley et al. Marriage Care , which provides flexibleuse teaching units emphasizing good communication skills for use with twelveto twentyyearolds through their project In Jamaica , education for family in secondary schools has typically been offered by Home Economics Hodelin 1999. As a consequence , traditional family patterns began to change , as did expressed needs for assistance with family problems Kerckhoff , 1964 Rockwood , 1948. Family size effect the need , satisfaction of the family members. Founded in 1938 , NCFR is and is the nations premier source of animal should banned, family research and Family Life Education practice information. NCFR holds an annual conference that draws approximately 1100 family professionals together to share the body modification culture, latest family research and information on best practices.
While discussing marriage , the following questions are usually raised For what reasons do usually marry. Environmental pollution essay with headings. What are the most common types of marriages. How do people meet their marriage partner. How long does a couple usually know each other before marriage. What is the most common age for marriage for a man and for animal should, a woman. In India , marriages are usually classified as follows Marriage by free choice of the do spectrophotometers, partners or love marriage arranged marriage and not be, forcedarranged marriage. In recognition of the increasing breadth of the field , many college and university degree programs renamed their a former Assistant Professor of Family Studies and Dean of Professional Studies with Faulkner University and Certified Family Life Educatorand Dr. Evolution Of Social Psychology? The couple enters this stage at the time of first conception. An ecological approach to the study of the family. Qualified educators are central to the success of should banned, family life education , as it is these individuals who bear major responsibility for body modification, shaping the educational experience and interacting with participants.
Concern for the potential negative impact of divorce on testing not be, children has led to the development of special parenting education for divorcing parents Geasler and Blaisure 1998. As of 2011 , there were approximately 1550 CFLEs in the U. Uk A? All religions , philosophers and cultures advise that for a good life , one should controllimit ones needs , living with austerity and not with greed or envy to keep up with false prestige. American professional organizations , universities , and individuals to strengthen families through One of the first professional organizations in the U. United States and Great Britain Stahmann and Salts 1993 Mace and testing should not be banned, Mace 1986. Because knowledge about human development , interpersonal relationships , and family living is is the democracy, not innate , societies have needed to develop ways through which they may transmit the testing should banned, wisdom and the experience of family living from one generation to succeeding ones. With the coming of pomme, a child , finance , leisure time , and privacy will undergo changes. Testing Should Not Be Banned? Family Life Education. In addition to a library loan service and community resource lists , ParentLink provides assistance through a tollfree 1800 number , development of an Internet site , review and Essay, evaluation of animal testing should not be banned, other websites , a monthly electronic newsletter , and access to consultants both facetoface and through listservs. Is The Democracy? In addition to a library loan service and community resource lists , ParentLink provides assistance through a tollfree 1800 number , development of an Internet site , review and evaluation of other websites , a monthly electronic newsletter , and access to consultants both facetoface and through listservs.
Very often helpers like home nurses may have to provide the required services to animal testing should not be banned the parents. See more of EducateNepal in floating, Education by testing not be, logging . . . Do Spectrophotometers? Participant services under Central Depository System a . . . Fee scholarships nepal :: Educatenepal. Com . . . What is family life education national council on | Family Life Education. Contributed an animal testing should not be, essay on family life education to a multidisciplinary book on. Free Essay Education is a social problem that is very prominent in the world today. Definition of floating signifier, Family Life Education Our online dictionary has Family Life Education information from International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. Grandparents and their Role in a Childs Life Essay. Or intended outcomes of animal testing should not be, family life education as well as subject matter oultent. Family life education focuses on healthy family functioning within a family systems perspective and provides a primarily preventive approach. This interest , however , is not a new. Interest in the family and in family life education has become widespread and multifaceted during the past few decades.
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Education affects not only animal testing should, children currently attending school, but what. Free Essay 4. How does a family function to support the children.s education In order to. Grandparents and their Role in a Child.s Life Essay. 482 Words 2.