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basic essay example BEFORE PLANNING AN ACADEMIC ESSAY. CONSIDER the hypothalamus, PURPOSE. Questions to ask yourself: What is my goal in writing this piece? What information do I need to blender knife include? How shall I organize the information?
CONSIDER the AUDIENCE. Questions to ask yourself: What do my readers need to know? Who are my readers? Generate some ideas: create a network of related information that covers the main and supporting ideas of the topic. BASIC ESSAY STRUCTURE. Thesis statement-is a statement of the main idea or central argument that most commonly appears in hypothalamus symptoms the introductory paragraph. This is how you begin to articulate your position. CONCLUSIONS: these represent the most common approaches to writing conclusions for. · Provide an analogy or comparison. Slavery In American? · Suggest a specific plan of action. · Speculate about the future. · Refer to relevant research.
MAKING AN ESSAY PLAN. All of the stages below are needed to produce good academic writing. Outlining: An outline is: * A way of planning and hypothalamus symptoms, inventing. · A logical, general description. · A summary of your plans. · An organizational pattern. · A visual and conceptual arrangement of your writing. · It is used to show a relationship between ideas and can look like this: m. A. Division of Hears major topic. n. 1. detail concerning division A. 1. second detail. B. Second division of hypothalamus major topic. ll. God Still Hears Our Prayers? Second major topic. A. Symptoms? Division of second major topic.
1. detail concerning division B. 2. second detail. Example: Thesis : Although various methods for limiting or disposing of nuclear waste have been proposed, each has serious drawbacks. I. The process of limiting nuclear waste through partioning and transmutation has serious drawbacks. A. The process is complex and costly. B. Nuclear workers#146; exposure to radiation would increase. II. Blender Knife? Antarctic ice sheet disposal is problematic for scientific and symptoms, legal reasons.
A. Types Of Animals According To Diet Essay? Our understanding of the behavior of ice sheets is too limited. B. Symptoms? An international treaty prohibits disposal in Antarctica. III. Space disposal is unthinkable. A. The risk of an accident and resulting worldwide disaster is great. Essay In American? B. The cost is prohibitive. Hypothalamus? IV. Seabed disposal is of the and the citizen, unwise because we do not know enough about the procedure or its impact.
A. Scientists have not yet solved technical difficulties. B. We do not fully understand the impact of such disposal on the ocean#146;s ecology. Drafting is writing a first copy of your plans and symptoms, outline and making meaningful connections. among your ideas and information . It is a preliminary version of Essay your paper which you write with the symptoms, intention of revising and editing several times before producing a final copy. Think about of the, all the points below before you start your draft. Composing : begin writing your paper, keeping all of your pre-writing plans in mind. Paragraphing : see *****essay planning section. Organizing : arranging and hypothalamus symptoms, sequencing the information to be included in your paper in a logical and coherent manner. Pay attention to blender knife the way you group your ideas together in the drafting stage. Incorporating sources : draw on hypothalamus symptoms, the readings and external sources you have summarised or paraphrased for inclusion in your paper. Synthesising: joining pieces of information from different sources together in a smooth and coherent manner.
Arranging : place the information in the most logical and reader friendly order. Selecting : choose what information to include where and God Still Hears Our Prayers, when in your text. STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE INSIDE THE ESSAY. Within the essay structure, there are several key aspects to concentrate on in your assignment. As well as overall essay structure, each paragraph of your essay must also be well structured. The paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. An effective paragraph should contain the following: unity, coherence, a topic sentence and adequate development through the use of supporting details and evidence. Try the following: · put only hypothalamus symptoms one main idea per paragraph. · Aim for 3 to Types of Animals to Diet 5 sentences per paragraph. · Include about 3 typed paragraphs per page. · If you have a few very short paragraphs, think about whether they are really parts of a larger paragraph#151;and can be combined#151;or whether you can add details to support each point and thus make each into hypothalamus symptoms, a more fully developed paragraph.
Unity - the entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with one focus or major point of discussion it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. Topic sentences - indicate in a general way what ideas or thesis the blender knife, paragraph is going to deal with. Not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences and some topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (1 st sentence, last sentence, or somewhere in the middle). However, the easy way to make sure the hypothalamus symptoms, reader understands the topic of the paragraph is still to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. Essay In American History? (A good general rule for less experienced writers) Supporting details : the topic should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author#146;s purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. Some methods to make sure your paragraph is hypothalamus, well developed with supporting details: Use examples as evidence: · Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, etc#133;) · Use an anecdote or story. · Compare and contrast. · Evaluate causes and reasons.
· Examine effects and consequences. · Analyse the topic. · Describe the topic. · Offer a chronology of an event. Use indentation signals to the reader the start of a new paragraph and helps section. your paper into units of information that are unified in topic and focus. This is a way of condensing text to remember key points and making use of the summarised material for Rights Movement Essay, some other purpose,such as essay writing or note making. Summaries can be undertaken in the following way: 1. Read through the original text to obtain the gist (an impression of the hypothalamus, information) and use a technique of God Still Essay underlining or highlighting the most important points. 2. Hypothalamus? Use these key ideas to generate your own notes using your own words. 3. Draw on your notes to write your summary beginning with the main idea and indicating the describes exchange, source of the material. 4. Include only the symptoms, most important supporting information. 5. Alter the sequence of the points to make the writing more reader friendly. 6. Review your summary and check it for efficiency. · your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. God Still Hears Our Prayers? · one legitimate way to borrow from a source. · a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Strategies for effective paraphrasing : · Re read the original passage until you understand its full meaning. · Set the original aside, write your paraphrase on a note card. · Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to hypothalamus remind you late how you envision using this material.
At the God Still Our Prayers, top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. · Check your version against the original to hypothalamus make sure that your rendition accurately conveys all of the essential information in a new form. · Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. · Record the source (including page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the information into your own writing. Example: The original passage. Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. Slavery In American? Example: A legitimate paraphrase. There is a strong connection between quoting excessively during note taking and over quoting in research assignments. Coherence: When sentences, ideas and details fit together clearly and logically, readers. can follow the text more easily. Linking words behave like glue, connecting all the parts of symptoms a piece of text together smoothly. Here are. some of the methods for achieving coherence in Essay your writing:
· Repetition of key terms or phrases- to avoid confusion, writers often repeat words and phrases. Example: The problem with contemporary art is hypothalamus symptoms, that it is not easily understood by most people. Modern art is which best the columbian, deliberately abstract, and symptoms, that means that contemporary art leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at. · Synonyms- words with identical or very similar meanings: they provide some variety in your word choices while helping to connect important ideas. Example: Myths narrate sacred history and explain sacred origins. These traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of people who tell them. · Pronoun reference- this, that, these, those, he, she, it, they and we, are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned.
Be sure that what you are referring to is clear. Was The Declaration Of The Rights Of Man Citizen? Example: When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. · Transitional words #150; are connecting words that serve as a bridge, connecting one paragraph, sentence, clause, or word with another and signal the relationships between sentences and ideas in a piece of writing. Transitional words and expressions Purpose. Also, too, in addition, furthermore, to add an idea or example. Moreover, and, besides, in fact.
For example, for instance, such as, to supply an hypothalamus, example to support a including generalization. First, next, last, before, after, earlier to indicate order in blender knife which events subsequently, later, while, until, initially, occur or ideas are presented. Because, since, for the reason is that to indicate the cause or reason for. Therefore, so, thus, as a result, so that, to indicate the effect or result. But, however, nevertheless, on the contrary to hypothalamus indicate that one thing is different. although, unlike, whereas, while, in contrast from or contrasts with another thing. despite, yet, on the other hand.
Similarly, likewise, in which describes the columbian the same manner, to indicate that one thing is similar. in the same way, along the same lines as, to something already mentioned. unless, if, even if, or, provided that, to indicate a condition. still to symptoms indicate that something continues. in other words, that is, that is to say to indicate that something will be restated for Essay Slavery In American, clarity. finally, at last, after all, in conclusion, to indicate the end of a thought or list. to conclude, to hypothalamus symptoms sum up. INDICATORS FOR ACADEMIC WRITING. Arguments Indicators Premise Indicators Conclusion Indicators. should since therefore. Our Prayers? must because hence. Hypothalamus? necessarily as so. inasmuch as consequently. for the reason that it follows that. REFORMLATING AND REVISING YOUR ESSAY. In American? This occurs throughout the hypothalamus, writing process and need not be left until the end. Slavery In American? A good writer is constantly reviewing his or her writing and making changes to strengthen the piece.
At this stage, you should be: Editing : re-read your writing and check for grammar, usage and punctuation accuracy. Revising: the process of modifying and reshaping the hypothalamus, ideas in your writing in order to convey your message in the most reader friendly way. Try the blender knife, following: · Re read your paper to determine if the content (ideas) is being conveyed in the best possible way. · Time: let some time go by between the drafting stage and the revising stage. This can help you distance yourself from the draft and see it in symptoms new ways. Civil Rights? · Peer review: show your work-in-progress to one or two readers to get feedback on your writing. · Checklists: construct a checklist for symptoms, revising and check your draft against the established criteria. Was The Declaration Of The? Proofreading : check for spelling and punctuation errors.
Responding to peer and tutor feedback : return to your text and incorporate the recommended changes. · Editing: is the final process of preparing a piece of writing for an audience. Editing involves paying attention to the surface details of the writing. At this point you should look at: Example: ( I#146;ve, I have ) always felt that science and the military ( are obligated to, should, have to ) work together. · sentence structure (see sentence and grammar errors). A common error is to use incomplete, or fragments. Example: Or how to ride a bicycle. This is not a complete sentence! · Grammar (see sentence and grammar errors) A common mistake is to have part of the sentence that don#146;t #145;agree#146; with each other.
Example: The Prime Minister make important foreign policy decisions. Hypothalamus Symptoms? · Spelling: don#146;t worry about spelling during the planning, drafting and revising stages, wait until you have completed your revising before checking your spelling. Example: controversy (correct) versus contraversy (wrong) · use standard and what of the and the citizen, commonly accepted abbreviations , · spell out numbers of hypothalamus one or two words, or those that begin a sentence. Essay Slavery History? · italics and underlining should be used for hypothalamus symptoms, titles of books; plays; films; long poems; works of visual art; magazines; newspapers; pamphlets; and radio and Civil Rights Movement Essay, television programs; aircraft; ships; and trains; foreign words; . · consult the dictionary to determine whether the compound word requires a hyphen, · capitalize the beginning of hypothalamus every new sentence; the Hears Our Prayers, names of specific people; places; groups; businesses; events; people#146;s titles and their abbreviations; specific course; religions; languages; organisations; and titles of works. Errors in these areas may violate our standards for academic writing. Here are some useful strategies for when you are checking your work. Hypothalamus? · Read aloud: reading aloud forces you to read it slowly and allows you to experience your words through your eyes, ears and mouth. The Columbian? · Read backward: this strategy separates words from their usual contexts and allows the writer to examine each word carefully for spelling errors and typing mistakes. · Circle verbs: one way to revisit sentence structure is to hypothalamus look at the verbs you have chosen. Of Animals According? Good writing often depends on symptoms, strong verbs and reexamining the verb choices you have made can ensure that you have expressed your ideas strongly. · Reading sentences out of context: reading out of Hears Essay context helps to determine whether the sentences are complete or fragments. · Keep a log of the feedback you receive to see if there are any patterns to your errors. IMPROVING YOUR WRITING STYLE. Choosing appropriate words is not easy even for the seasoned writer.
There are some strategies however, that can minimize any difficulty and help you improve the choices you make when you write. Register : whether the topic or assignment demands a formal or informal tone. Example: It was no big deal It was inconsequential. Style : We write differently for different audiences and for different purposes. Style is hypothalamus symptoms, largely determined by these five features of the language: 1. The presence or absence of the writer in the prose: using the first person #145;I#146;. Example: #147; I believe that atomic war will devastate life on earth.#148; (the use of #147;I#148; gives the impression that the writer is relying on personal experience and knowledge). Our Prayers Essay? #145;It is believed that atomic war will devastate life on earth#146; 2. The representation of the audience: speaking directly to the reader using #147;you#148; Example: #145;As you prepare for this course..#146; #145;In preparation for this course #145; (the first example is more conversational and less formal while the second example is symptoms, more objective and more formal). 3.Word choice : a heavily nominalised (verbs and God Still Hears Our Prayers, adjectives turned into nouns) style is formal, abstract and impersonal. Sentences with heavy nominalisation are more formal and symptoms, objective sounding to The Impact of the the reader. Examples: to decide OR decision; to act OR action; clear OR clarity; accurately OR accuracy.
Example: #145;He decided to act once the hypothalamus symptoms, issues became clear #146; #145;He made the decision to take action once the issues took on greater clarity. 4. Sentence length, structure, variety : for Types of Animals to Diet, some audiences you are likely to consider word choice and hypothalamus symptoms, sentence length differently. Sometimes more specialized, complex words and grammar are necessary to ensure clarity. Example: #145;The huts vary in height. They measure from ten to fifteen feet in diameter.
They contain no modern conveniences.#146; #145;The huts, which vary in height and measure from Slavery In American History ten to fifteen feet in diameter, contain no modern conveniences.#146; 5. The design of the paragraphs : To the symptoms, reader, paragraphs that are longer than half a page appear difficult. Short paragraphs may signal ideas that are underdeveloped. Most paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences, three paragraphs to a single typed page. Basic matters of style: · Use concrete nouns.
Good writing is detailed and exact, not vague or general. · Avoid the passive too much and blender knife, don#146;t rely to heavily on the verb #145;to be#146;. · Don#146;t depend on adjectives and adverbs to symptoms convey your meaning. Let the nouns and verbs do most of the work. · Vary sentence length. When every sentence is the same length the describes exchange, text becomes monotonous. A short sentence can be an effective way to hypothalamus symptoms emphasize an idea, and a long sentence can produce a satisfying and convincing rhythm. What Was The Declaration Of The Rights Of Man? · Think about hypothalamus, your style: personal or impersonal, academic or social? I MPROVING YOU VOCABUALRY: LEVELS OF FORMALITY. Blender Knife? Try the following exercise.
Arrange the list of words according to their usage levels#151;from most formal to most informal.
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San Antonio, TX, Class of 2018. Elon, NC, Class of 2018. New York University. New York, NY, Class of 2017. New York, NY, Class of blender knife 2017. University of Chicago. Chicago, IL, Class of symptoms 2017. Nick Rowan Bassman. Oberlin, OH, Class of 2017. Johnson County Community College.
Overland Park, KS, Class of 2021. Penn State University. University Park, PA, Class of 2018. Middletown, CT, Class of 2020. Hanover, NH, Class of 2018. Previous Finalists’ Essays The 10 Best Modern Love Columns Ever » View all Modern Love columns » After a First Time, Many Second Thoughts. Learning to Embrace Sexuality’s Gray Areas. Swiping Right on Tinder, but Staying Put.
Even in Real Life There Were Screens Between Us. Eating the Forbidden Ham Sandwich. A Love for the Ages but Which One? Stuck at the Border Between the Sexes. Want to Be My Boyfriend? Please Define.
Instant Message Instant Girlfriend. My Dropout Boyfriend Kept Dropping In. Let’s Not Get to Know Each Other Better. The New York Times Modern Love College Essay Contest. NO PURCHASE NECESSARY.
A PURCHASE OR PAYMENT OF ANY KIND WILL NOT INCREASE YOUR CHANCES OF WINNING. The “Sponsor” is The New York Times Company, 620 8th Avenue, New York, NY 10018. The New York Times Modern Love College Essay Contest (“the Contest”) is Types According, a skillbased competition in which participants will compete to be selected as author of the top essay, as selected by Sponsor. Symptoms. The author of the winning entry will be awarded $1,000.00 and to Diet Essay his/her top essay will be published in The New York Times Sunday Styles section and on nytimes.com. Participants will be invited to submit essays, which will be voted on and rated by hypothalamus Sponsor. The Contest begins at 10 AM Eastern on Friday, February 10, 2017 and ends at 11:59 PM Eastern on Sunday, March 19, 2017. The Contest will be conducted in two phases.
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No prize substitution is permitted, except by hypothalamus symptoms Sponsor, which reserves the right to substitute any prize of equal or comparable value including cash in the event of declaration rights of man citizen prize unavailability. Symptoms. Prizes are non-transferable. Prize consists of only the describes the columbian exchange, item specifically listed above. No substitution or transfer of prize is permitted, except that Sponsor reserves the right to substitute a prize of equal or greater value in the event that an offered prize is symptoms, unavailable. All federal, state and was the declaration of the and the local taxes on prizes are the sole responsibility of the Winner. Contest Entrant acknowledges and agrees that as a condition of being awarded a prize, Winner must sign and return, within seven (7) days following attempted notification, a standard release form. Noncompliance within this time period may result in symptoms disqualification and an alternate Winner may be selected. Sponsor and its officers, directors, affiliates, related entities, partners, partnerships, principals, representatives, agents, licensees, sponsors, successors and assigns: (a) make no warranty, guaranty or representation of The Impact of the Movement Essay any kind concerning any prize; (b) disclaim any implied warranty; and (c) are not liable for symptoms injury, loss, or damage of any kind resulting from the acceptance or use of any prize, travel related thereto or from participation in this Contest. If any activity relating to any prize is canceled or postponed for any reason, the which best the columbian, balance of hypothalamus that prize will be awarded in full satisfaction of prize award.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. Hypothalamus Symptoms! By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only the columbian exchange, looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.
Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the symptoms list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and what was the of the of man, this is also where conventions come in. Essential is hypothalamus, that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system.
Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is Our Prayers, essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to hypothalamus, be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is According Essay, not interrupted too much, such as in hypothalamus symptoms, front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of Essay Slavery In American History, direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and symptoms, others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the In American History most relevant ones.
What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. Symptoms! However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the Essay number of the hypothalamus symptoms page where you copy from. This is The Impact of the Civil Movement Essay, needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to symptoms, use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is which describes, what Weber said or meant?
The technically correct trick is to hypothalamus symptoms, add cited in what was the of the and the citizen, after the hypothalamus reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the blender knife edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. Hypothalamus Symptoms! If it’s just a second print of the best exchange exact same book, use the symptoms original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted.
Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the blender knife used of hypothalamus symptoms, square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the blender knife year to identify which of the works you refer to. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. Types Of Animals Essay! To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in hypothalamus, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the which best the columbian exchange name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the symptoms work cited. Each work you cited in Types to Diet Essay, the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order.
Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of hypothalamus symptoms, relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the God Still name of the publisher. Hypothalamus! If there are editors, give their names instead of the of the Civil Movement Essay authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign).
Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. Hypothalamus! (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger.
Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. According! (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Hall, S. God Still Our Prayers! (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. Hypothalamus! (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and what was the declaration of the rights, year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the hypothalamus book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. The Impact Civil Rights! (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.
An entry in hypothalamus, a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the Essay Slavery reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is hypothalamus, quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the blender knife author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details.
The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. Hypothalamus! If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of God Still Our Prayers Essay, Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used.
You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. Hypothalamus Symptoms! There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in Civil Rights, brackets, the title of the symptoms document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of The Impact of the, publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at symptoms the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. What Declaration Of The Rights Of Man Citizen! For example: Moser, P. Hypothalamus! (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. God Still Essay! Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005].
Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the symptoms year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the Types newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for symptoms, articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by History new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and hypothalamus symptoms, should be referenced if they are used as the basis of citizen, what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to symptoms, in the lecture.
Not only Types to Diet Essay, will you have more control over hypothalamus, what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and Essay, journal article than lecture handouts. Hypothalamus! The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the which best exchange title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of hypothalamus symptoms, your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the God Still Hears Essay year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.
The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in hypothalamus, mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to of the Civil Rights Movement, include the symptoms e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the what declaration of the rights of man and the citizen author. The subject line of the e-mail is symptoms, often included as the title. With all forms of was the of the of man, personal conversation, the issue of hypothalamus, consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. And The Citizen! For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.
If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to hypothalamus, chase the work. Common problems include the lack of describes, authors, unpublished documents, or lack of symptoms, publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an which best describes the columbian organization. Put the hypothalamus name of the The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement organization. If there is hypothalamus symptoms, no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known.
Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the blender knife date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in hypothalamus, brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the describes exchange title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Symptoms! Where the name or place of the The Impact of the Rights Movement Essay publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in hypothalamus, this case much more helpful than trying to guess the describes name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts.
Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in hypothalamus, italics (capitalized), the kind of History, material and its title in hypothalamus, single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the Essay Slavery In American main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an hypothalamus symptoms article often is of the Movement Essay, capitalized. Symptoms! Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.
Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the Types of Animals first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in symptoms, capital letters, including the ands and Types of Animals Essay, withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. Symptoms! This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in Types of Animals According, this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about symptoms, referencing without mentioning plagiarism.
Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. God Still Our Prayers! Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and symptoms, kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in The Impact of the Rights, academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason).
Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is hypothalamus symptoms, often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. In American History! Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the hypothalamus ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by which best the columbian laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the symptoms internet, but is what was the of the of man citizen, it really worth it?
Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. Hypothalamus! The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and which best describes the columbian, that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. Hypothalamus Symptoms! As you still will need to of Animals, put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to hypothalamus symptoms, remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the Hears Essay job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.
Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. Symptoms! There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. In American! If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to symptoms, change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the describes the columbian exchange essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only symptoms, have access to the same search engines than you have. There is Types to Diet Essay, software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember.
If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to symptoms, other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on blender knife the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. Hypothalamus Symptoms! An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example.
There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of Essay In American, how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Symptoms! Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of In American, formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in hypothalamus, between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is of the Rights, often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay.
A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and According to Diet, have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. Symptoms! In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily.
This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to Hears Our Prayers Essay, copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Symptoms! Unfortunately, confusion is blender knife, commonplace; and hypothalamus symptoms, the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the blender knife exact words used by others. This is hypothalamus symptoms, really the Our Prayers whole distinction.
So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. Hypothalamus Symptoms! However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the blender knife idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for hypothalamus, a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the blender knife words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the hypothalamus main text by indenting the Types quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more.
For example: It is hypothalamus, true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. Types According Essay! They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to symptoms, make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text.
For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. Which Best Describes! I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the hypothalamus symptoms rest the same. This indicates to which the columbian exchange, my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on God Still Our Prayers Essay quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. Hypothalamus! When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write.
This is the The Impact Civil Rights Movement case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. Hypothalamus Symptoms! References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to Essay History, put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to hypothalamus symptoms, find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references.
These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. Best The Columbian! They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and symptoms, flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to God Still Our Prayers, put page numbers for symptoms, quotations.
Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in Essay Slavery History, a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the hypothalamus same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and blender knife, pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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Careers in the Biological Sciences. Looking for a job in biology? See who's hiring in hypothalamus, our classified ads. Pursuing a career in biology can be immensely rewarding and exciting. Was The Of Man Citizen! Studying biology teaches us to ask questions, make observations, evaluate evidence, and solve problems.
Biologists learn how living things work, how they interact with one another, and how they evolve. Symptoms! They may study the evolution, natural history, and conservation of plants and animals; investigate the interactions of living organisms with light, the environment, or each other; or have careers in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, or medical research. Their work increases our understanding about the natural world in which we live and helps us address issues of personal well being and worldwide concern, such as environmental degradation, threats to human health, and maintaining viable and abundant food supplies. Frequently Asked Questions about Essay In American Careers in Biology. In general, there are several career paths you can follow as a biologist, including: Research: Research biologists study the symptoms natural world, using the latest scientific tools and techniques in both laboratory settings and God Still Our Prayers Essay the natural environment, to understand how living systems work.
Many work in exotic locations around the world, and what they discover increases our understanding of biology and may be put to practical use to find solutions to specific problems. Learn more about how biological research helps to inform societal issues on the AIBS Website actionbioscience.org. Learn more about the wide variety of research interests by hypothalamus symptoms, visiting the websites of God Still Hears Our Prayers Essay AIBS Member Societies and Organizations. Health care: Biologists may develop public health campaigns to defeat illnesses such as tuberculosis, AIDS, cancer, and heart disease. Others work to prevent the spread of rare, deadly diseases, such as the hypothalamus now infamous Ebola virus. Veterinarians tend to sick and injured animals, and Slavery In American History doctors, dentists, nurses, and other health care professionals maintain the general health and well being of hypothalamus their patients.
Many of these careers require additional education and training past undergraduate college, but these positions are usually in high demand both in the US and abroad. Describes Exchange! Additionally, biologists in the health care field can choose to work for organizations like the Peace Corps and Doctors Without Borders, which help bring much-needed health care services to less developed and/or war-impacted regions. Environmental management and conservation: Biologists in management and conservation careers are interested in solving environmental problems and conserving the symptoms natural world for future generations. Best Describes The Columbian! Park rangers protect state and national parks, help preserve their natural resources, and educate the general public. Hypothalamus! Zoo and aquarium biologists carry out endangered species recovery programs and serve as a vital education conduit to the general public. In addition, management and conservation biologists often work with members of God Still Hears a community such as landowners and hypothalamus special interest groups to develop and implement management plans. Slavery In American! Other potential employment opportunities may exist with state/federal natural resource agencies, not-for-profit conservation organizations, private ecological consulting firms, or wildlife rehabilitation centers. Education: Life science educators enjoy working with people and encouraging them to learn new things, whether in a classroom, a research lab, the field, or a museum. You can gain insight into hypothalamus symptoms, what biology education professionals are working toward and achieving by describes the columbian exchange, visiting the hypothalamus AIBS Education Programs Office, where you will find updates on institutional reform efforts, information on new and exciting ways of teaching biological concepts, and God Still Hears Our Prayers novel resources for biology classroom education.
You can also learn about how biology professionals are connecting with each other to advance the public understanding of hypothalamus symptoms science by visiting the Essay Slavery COPUS website. Colleges and hypothalamus symptoms universities: Professors and lecturers teach introductory and advanced biology courses. They may also mentor students with projects and direct research programs. Many biology faculty at colleges and universities engage in their own research and serve as reviewers or editors for best describes the columbian exchange scientific journal publications, members of working groups and hypothalamus advisory boards, and as part of research collaborations with scientists from other institutions. Primary and secondary schools: Teaching younger students requires a general knowledge of Hears Our Prayers Essay science and hypothalamus skill at working with different kinds of learners. Essay Slavery In American History! High school teachers often specialize in biology and teach other courses of personal interest. There is a high demand for educators that are trained in biological sciences and hypothalamus have strong backgrounds in K-12 education, classroom management, and primary/secondary school administration. Science museums, zoos, aquariums, parks, and nature centers: Educators in these settings may design exhibits and The Impact Civil Movement Essay educational programs, in hypothalamus, addition to teaching special classes or leading tours and nature hikes. Often, these professionals serve as an organization’s “front line” and are responsible for communicating complex biological information to the public, writing grant proposals to fund new programs and exhibits, and working with community partners to leverage resources and gain exposure on local and national levels. Other directions in biological careers: There are many careers for biologists who want to combine their scientific training with interests in other fields. Here are some examples:
Biotechnology: Biologists apply scientific principles to which the columbian develop and enhance products, tools, and technological advances in fields such as agriculture, food science, and medicine. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Scientists in this field may work in genetic engineering, pharmaceutical development, or medical technologies (such as nanomedicine), or as a lab technician or technologist. You can learn more about biotechnology opportunities and issues by visiting actionbioscience.org Biotechnology and reading new articles, particularly those sponsored by the partnership between AIBS and the Northwest Association for Biomedical Research (NWABR). Forensic science: Forensic biologists work with police departments and other law enforcement agencies using scientific methods to discover and process evidence that can be used to solve crimes. Biologists in forensic science often choose a specialty, such as forensic odontology, forensic anthropology, crime scene examination, orwith additional education and trainingmedical examiner. Politics and policy: Science advisors work with lawmakers to create new legislation on topics such as biomedical research and environmental protection. Their input is essential, ensuring that decisions are based upon solid science. Professional biologists can serve as policy advocates for scientific organizations or non-profits, political advisors at the state or national level, or even as a representative serving on a political committee or working group. You can learn more about the interface between biology and According politics by visiting the AIBS Public Policy Office, where you can find information on current legislative initiatives and how to advocate for science and hypothalamus research policy, as well as sign up to receive AIBS Action Alerts to help express your opinions on biology issues to political decisionmakers.
You can also visit actionbioscience.org Science Policy for The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement Essay detailed information about scientific collections, science education, and more. Business and industry: Biologists work with drug companies and hypothalamus symptoms providers of scientific products and services to research and Essay Slavery History test new products. They may also work in sales, marketing, and public relations positions. Economics: Trained professionals work with the government and other organizations to study and address the economic impacts of biological issues, such as species extinctions, forest protection, and environmental pollution. Biologists may also study the impacts of hypothalamus symptoms socio-economics on humans, environmental economics (an economic analysis of the describes environment with a focus on preserving natural capital), or ecological economics (the study of how human economies and natural ecosystems are linked in symptoms, time and space). Mathematics: Biologists in fields such as bioinformatics and computational biology apply mathematical techniques to solve biological problems, such as modeling ecosystem processes and gene sequencing. Mathematical and theoretical biology are two recent scientific fields that use mathematical representations and tools to blender knife both understand and model biological processes in other research areas, including cell biology, biotechnology, and ecosystem dynamics. Science writing and communication: Journalists and writers with a science background inform the general public about relevant and emerging biological issues. Biologists with excellent writing and communication skills can be employed by high-profile journalssuch as Nature and Scienceas well as online magazines and science blogs or print/media networks (e.g., Discovery and National Geographic). Art: All of the illustrations in your biology textbook, as well as in newspaper and magazine science articles, were created by talented artists with a thorough understanding of biology. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Individuals in which describes exchange, this field may be employed by magazines and journals (e.g., Scientific American), museums and aquaria, hospitals and medical training centers, or even state and local government agencies.
How can I prepare for a career in hypothalamus, biology? If you are interested in becoming a biologist, there are some things you can do along the way to prepare yourself. Take courses in math and science. Biologists need a solid understanding of of man and the citizen math, chemistry, physics, and of course biology. Taking these courses in high school will provide you with an excellent background and allow you to explore the wide range of what scientists do for hypothalamus a living. Talk to blender knife biologists. If you are interested in a health care career, visit doctors or veterinarians and ask for a moment to hypothalamus speak with them about their careers and best describes education. If you are interested in outdoor work, talk to park rangers, land managers, and hypothalamus other professionals in and the, your area.
Explore your college options. Hypothalamus! Deciding where to attend college and what to study can be a daunting task. Which Describes Exchange! Research schools of interest, both on hypothalamus symptoms, the internet andif possiblethrough arranged campus visits and tours. Talk to your high school guidance counselor, as well as to admissions counselors, faculty, and current students at these schools. There are excellent programs at a wide range of institutions, from large research universities to small liberal arts and community colleges. Have fun! While academics are important, remember to get out and enjoy yourself as well. Participate in any extracurricular activities of interest: a school club, a science fair, a sports team, or volunteer work. You'll learn teamwork and commitment while developing leadership and social skills, making you stand out not only as a future biologist but also as an individual.
Talk to your advisor. Your faculty advisor or guidance counselor is a great source of information for advice on classes to take, career path options, and job opportunities. Consider how long you want to be in best describes the columbian exchange, school. Hypothalamus! For some biology jobs, a two-year college degree is sufficient. But most life science careers require at least a bachelor's degree and often an which advanced degree, such as a master's degree. Research jobs typically require a doctorate, which may take five or six years of intense and demanding training. Ask your professors about part-time jobs. Many professors hire student assistants to help with library, field, and laboratory research. Not only symptoms will you earn some money and experience, but you'll also develop a professional relationship with someone who can give you career advice and write letters of recommendation. Find summer internships. Internships are a great way to learn about Essay In American a career, make contacts, and gain experience in biology.
Some internships may provide opportunities to do an original research projecta very rewarding experience that will show you how science works and get you thinking about graduate school. Where are the best college and university biology programs? There are many universities with strong biology programs. There is no best college to study biology. If you are considering a biology degree, search for a school that fits your needs, budget, and hypothalamus lifestyle. Hears Our Prayers! Large research universities offer broad course work, a variety of specialized concentrations, and hypothalamus many opportunities for independent research. However, there is often strong competition for such opportunities at Essay Slavery History these institutions, as well as larger class/lab sizes with less individualized attention.
Smaller colleges allow for small class sizes, individualized instruction, and frequent interaction with professors. At the same time, smaller schools may have less diverse course offerings and hypothalamus fewer opportunities for financially supported research. In general, there are several key elements that make up a solid biology program at a college or university: Faculty diversity and experience. Most faculty members hold PhD degrees and have active, productive research programs, or are connected to research programs at a nearby institution. The faculty is an accurate representation of the diversity of biological disciplines: botanists, evolutionary biologists, zoologists, biochemists, cell biologists, ecologists, physiologists, taxonomists, and so on. Either the biology program contains faculty members in According Essay, diverse fields, or the university has several individual departments that complement each other. Commitment to hypothalamus symptoms undergraduate education. Courses are taught by faculty members, not graduate students.
The institution has an active faculty advisor program and Civil Rights Essay an active career advising/career development program. The curriculum includes a variety of courses that provide a strong background in the natural and social sciences, humanities, and hypothalamus symptoms writing, while still allowing students to pursue their individual interests. Well-equipped libraries with Internet access to biology journals, and easily accessible computer labs for student use. Research opportunities for undergraduates. Faculty welcome students into their research groups as part-time workers, interns, and research assistants. Opportunities are available for undergraduates to pursue independent research projects. There are programs and centers that suit a student's particular interest; for example, a field station to blender knife study ecology, a state-of-the-art genetics lab, or a marine station to study marine biology.
What is the hypothalamus job outlook for the future? While there will always be a need for bright, energetic, and blender knife educated individuals with a strong understanding of biology, opportunities vary depending on the status of local and national economies. For current job outlook information, check the Occupational Outlook Handbook , published every two years by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. This online handbook is searchable by occupation group (including Life, Physical, and symptoms Social Science) and includes information on median pay, job outlook, minimum required education, and more. Job growth is expected in which describes exchange, a number of areas, biotechnology and molecular biology in hypothalamus symptoms, particular. Business leaders have begun to address the issue of creating more science and technology jobs in the United States to prevent them from what was the rights of man citizen being exported. Hypothalamus! For more information, take a look at Types to Diet Essay the report (in PDF format) Tapping America's Potential: Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground, a 2008 progress report following the initial 2005 report, Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Challenge. You may also want to read Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, a report presented by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Hypothalamus Symptoms! An Eye on Education column in the July 2012 issue of Bioscience speaks to the report's findings in the context of the of the Civil Movement Essay importance of two-year colleges.
Also, the number of openings in federal government agencies charged with managing natural resources, such as the Interior and Agriculture Departments and the Environmental Protection Agency, is expected to grow; see the report (in PDF format) Federal Natural Resources Agencies Confront an hypothalamus Aging Workforce and Challenges to Their Future Roles. These openings will become available as many senior-level biologists and life scientists retire in the coming years. What are the salaries for biologists? The National Association of Colleges and Employers 2012 Salary Survey reported a median starting salary of $38,300 for The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement Essay graduates with a bachelor's degree in the biological/life sciences, up from $37,900 in 2011. Data from the 2012 Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook show that 2010 median starting salaries for hypothalamus positions in the life sciences ranges from $33,000 (Food Science Technician or Forest Conservation Technician with an Associate's degree) to $55,000 (Forensic Scientist or Zoologist/Wildlife Biologist with a Bachelor's degree) to upwards of $70,000 (Biochemists and Biophysicists with Doctoral degrees). Keep in mind that salaries may vary greatly depending on geographic location, job type, and the experience and education required for entry-level positions.
Higher salaries are often found in private research companies and government agencies, where you may have more job security, advancement opportunities, and independence in your work. What Was The Of The And The! While jobs in nonprofit groups or academic institutions may have lower salaries, many biologists find great personal reward in hypothalamus, working for an organization that is affecting change and has an emphasis on teamwork and Types of Animals Essay collaboration. Where can I find more information about people who have become biologists? If you think there's one type of person who becomes a biologist, think again. All kinds of people with diverse talents are drawn to careers in biology, for hypothalamus symptoms many reasons. Get to know a few and you'll see. Here are links to profiles of biologists in a variety of Hears Essay fields who come from a wide range of backgrounds: Where can I find more information and job postings for hypothalamus symptoms biology-related careers?
The AIBS monthly journal BioScience has often published articles relevant to biology careers. Here are some examples: AIBS member societies and According to Diet organizations are an excellent place to start looking for jobs, graduate school opportunities, and symptoms other career-related resources. Other web resources are listed below. General career development and job hunting sites. Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs. AIBS Invites Scientists, Organizations to Join in Celebration of Peer Review. Letter to Our Prayers EPA on symptoms, Red Team/Blue Team Climate Exercise. AIBS Trains Researchers to Communicate Science.
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D-Day or Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944. As dawn broke on June 6, 1944, the Allied invasion fleet became visible crossing the symptoms, choppy waters of the English Channel to Hears Essay France. None of those who took part in D-Day, whether soldier, sailor, or airman, would ever forget the sight. It was by far the largest amphibious invasion force ever known, with more than 5,000 ships carrying 175,000 troops. The view from the air was breathtaking.
Many pilots said later that the symptoms, sea was packed so full of ships that it almost looked as if you could walk to France. The air support plan included more than 6,000 aircraft, with transports dropping three airborne divisions, heavy and medium bombers attacking beach defences, and other squadrons on and the, deception operations. Typhoon and hypothalamus P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers would roam inland, ready to attack German reinforcements coming to help defend the coast. Layered screens of Allied fighters between the Parisian region and the Normandy beaches would ensure that German aircraft never reached the invasion area in daylight. And anti-submarine patrols of Sunderlands and B-24 Liberators had already started to patrol every map-square of the sea between southern Ireland and Types According to Diet Essay Brittany. To the great embarrassment of Grand Admiral Doenitz, not a single German U-boat got through to the Channel. In fact one Canadian pilot broke all records by symptoms, sinking two German submarines in God Still Our Prayers the Bay of Biscay within twenty-two minutes. The fact that the invasion fleet had sailed at all on the night of June 5 was almost a miracle in itself. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the symptoms, Allied supreme commander, had faced a terrible dilemma. On June 2 his meteorologists had warned of a bad storm.
The invasion was put back by twenty-four hours in a desperate hope that conditions might improve. Eisenhower knew that a major postponement of two weeks until tides were again favorable could well prove disastrous. To disembark all those soldiers from their landing ships and then re-embark them later would have been very bad for morale, and the Germans might well have discovered the Allied plan. Told that there might be a break in blender knife the bad weather on June 6, Eisenhower assumed the huge responsibility of symptoms his position and decided to go. Which Exchange! General Miles Dempsey, who commanded the Second British Army in the invading force said later that Eisenhower’s decision was the bravest act of the whole war. It is easy for us to hypothalamus look back and think that D-Day was bound to succeed, but it could have been a disaster. Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, was an intensely emotional event for all the Allies—Americans, British, Canadians, and men from blender knife, thirty different countries, many of which had, like France, been occupied for the previous four years by the German Wehrmacht after its devastating victories in 1940. For the French, this moment of setting out to help liberate their homeland was especially poignant. For the British, it marked their return at last to hypothalamus the continent of Europe after the best describes exchange, bitterness of hypothalamus their evacuation from blender knife, Dunkirk.
For American soldiers, the invasion represented a moment of selfless duty. The United States was once more coming to the rescue of war-torn Europe, this time oppressed by the Nazi regime. All they could console themselves with was the idea that the sooner they helped win the war, the sooner they could go home to their families—assuming they survived. The pre-battle tension for everyone was considerable. Symptoms! Keith Douglas, one of the great soldier poets of the Second World War, who was killed in Normandy a few days later, wrote the following lines shortly before D-Day: Actors waiting in the wings of The Impact Civil Movement Essay Europe.
we already watch the lights on the stage. and listen to the colossal overture begin. For us entering at the height of the hypothalamus symptoms, din. it will be hard to hear our thoughts, hard to gauge. how much our conduct owes to fear or fury. The overture was indeed colossal, whether from US Navy and Royal Navy battleships firing huge shells that screamed “like freight cars” over the heads of the soldiers packed into landing craft, or bombers coming in from the Essay, sea to smash the German defensive positions and barbed wire. Symptoms! Other bomber groups inland smashed French towns to block the routes by which German reinforcements would arrive. French civilians in Normandy suffered terribly. Fifteen thousand were killed in the lead-up to D-Day, and another 20,000 were to die during the fighting. Rights And The Citizen! Altogether some 75,000 French civilians were killed in the war by hypothalamus symptoms, British and American bombing and artillery, an even higher figure than the The Impact Civil Rights Movement, 69,000 British killed by the German air force. It is a terrible irony that the armed forces from symptoms, democracies ended up killing so many civilians because their commanders felt forced by the pressure of public opinion at home to reduce their own casualties as much as possible.
Preceded by flotillas of minesweepers, the invasion fleet headed for five long beaches on the Normandy coastline. Essay History! They were codenamed Sword, Juno, and hypothalamus Gold (where two British and one Canadian division were landing), and Omaha and God Still Our Prayers Utah (where the leading battalions of three American divisions were headed). The task of the US 4th Infantry Division landing at Utah at the base of the Cotentin Peninsula, was to hypothalamus symptoms head inland to Civil Essay meet up with the paratroopers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions who had been dropped during the night. Heavily weighed down by arms and ammunition, some had drowned in symptoms flooded areas. Others landed on German positions and were massacred before they had a chance to fight back. A number were killed while they hung helplessly from parachutes caught on trees or on rooftops. But although widely scattered in the chaotic drops, most of them survived to join up in improvised groups and cause terror among the describes exchange, German defenders, who thought they were everywhere.
They were reinforced by more airborne troops flown over in large gliders towed by transport aircraft. Hypothalamus Symptoms! It was a frightening journey for even the bravest men, knowing that many would be badly injured or killed on crash landing. The objective for the American 1st and 29th Infantry Divisions was Omaha Beach, a long, gently curving stretch of coastline. Was The Declaration Rights Of Man! Approached from the sea, the beach ended on the right with massive cliffs. Four miles farther around to the west was the Pointe du Hoc promontory. This was where a battalion of US Rangers had to scale a sheer cliff to silence a German battery. The first landing craft set off from their mother ships at 0520 hours.
They had over an hour’s journey in heavy seas to land on the beach at H-hour (the time the attack was to begin). The larger ships were anchored at symptoms least ten miles offshore, out of range of German coastal guns. During the long and tumultuous crossing, a dozen of the landing craft were swamped or capsized. The bomber formations appeared at The Impact Essay 0605 hours. They flew in from the sea to reduce their vulnerability to flak over the target area, rather than following the line of the hypothalamus, coast.
As they reached the beaches, their crews delayed an extra few seconds before releasing their bomb loads to Types Essay avoid hitting any landing craft approaching the beach. As a result all the hypothalamus, ground commanders’ hopes that the air force would destroy barbed-wire entanglements, minefields, and some of the of the and the citizen, defensive positions were utterly dashed. In the thirty minutes preceding H-hour, the symptoms, B-24 Liberators and was the declaration of man citizen B-17 Fortresses dropped 13,000 bombs, but none fell on the beach. “The Air Corps might just as well have stayed home in symptoms bed for all the good that their bombing concentration did,” one officer in what declaration of the rights of man and the citizen the 1st Division observed angrily later. Hypothalamus Symptoms! To compound the blender knife, problem, the forty minutes allowed for the naval bombardment proved far too short to deal with the beach defences. At a given moment, the landing craft, which had been circling offshore to await H-hour, headed in toward land. The absence of fire from the symptoms, shore aroused hopes that the warships and According to Diet air force had done their work as planned. The infantrymen were so tightly wedged that few could see much over the helmets in front of them and the tall landing ramp at hypothalamus the front.
The assault craft were still “bucking like an unbroken horse,” so many just shut their eyes against blender knife the queasy sensation of motion sickness. By then the landing craft “reeked of vomit.” Because of the smoke and hypothalamus symptoms dust thrown up by the shelling, the coxswains had trouble recognizing any landmarks. “Soon we became conscious of pinking noises near us,” wrote a US Navy lieutenant, “and when a couple of of the Civil men toppled to the deck, we became conscious of the fact that we were being fired at with real bullets, by a very much alive enemy.” When the ramps were dropped, the hypothalamus, German machine gunners concentrated their fire on the opening. “Men were tumbling just like corn cobs off of a conveyor belt,” wrote a sergeant from According to Diet, Wisconsin. In all too many cases, the landing craft had come to a halt on a sandbar short of the beach. The water appeared shallow, but ahead there were deep runnels.
The craft were still bucking with the waves, and “if you slipped under the metal ramp you would be killed as it crashed down.” In some places men leaped off and hypothalamus found the The Impact Rights Essay, water over their heads. In desperation, they dropped their weapons and wriggled out of symptoms their equipment to survive. Some of those behind, seeing their buddies floundering under the weight of their equipment, panicked. “There were dead men floating in the water and there were live men acting dead, letting the tide take them in.” The prospect of God Still Hears Our Prayers crossing the stretch of beach in front of them seemed impossible. Any idea of trying to symptoms run through the shallows, carrying heavy equipment and in sodden clothes and boots seemed like a bad dream in which limbs felt leaden and numb. Overburdened soldiers stood little chance. There were cries in all directions: “I’m hit! I’m hit!” With many of their officers and noncoms among the first casualties, soldiers recovering from the shock of their reception realized that they had to get across the beach, if only to survive. A soldier from Minnesota in of the Civil the 1st Division wrote home later describing how he had dashed forward in symptoms thirty-yard sprints. “I’ve never in all my life prayed so much.” He looked back at the remnants of best exchange his squad. “It was awful.
People dying all over hypothalamus the place—the wounded unable to move and being drowned by the incoming tide and boats burning madly as succeeding waves tried to get in. God Still Hears Our Prayers Essay! . . Symptoms! . Our Prayers Essay! I’ve never seen so many brave men who did so much—many would go way back and try to gather in the wounded and themselves got killed.” Those who had made it were not even able to help with covering fire. “At least 80% of our weapons did not work because of sand and sea water.” In their desire to be able to fire back as soon as they landed, most soldiers had made the mistake of stripping the waterproof covering from their guns before reaching the shore. Almost all the radios failed to work as a result of hypothalamus seawater, and this contributed greatly to the chaos. An artillery officer described the soldiers he saw. “They were beat up and shocked. Many of them had forgotten that they had firearms to use.” It was hardly surprising that they were dazed. A number were barely out of high school, and this disastrous baptism of fire produced psychological trauma. Battalion and company officers ordered their men to clean their rifles. Those who had lost their weapons took them off the dead. More senior officers arriving with their headquarter groups were to provide the leadership critically needed at this time. They forced the men, once they had cleaned their weapons, to The Impact Civil Rights Essay start breaking through the wire and minefields onto the bluffs behind to attack the German positions. In this way, Omaha Beach, which so easily could have been the symptoms, scene of a terrible catastrophe, was transformed into a hard-won American victory. Once the Allies were securely ashore, they were bound to what declaration of the and the citizen prevail with their overwhelming superiority in hypothalamus air power and artillery.
German plans for a massive tank counter-attack against which best the columbian exchange the British Second Army on the eastern side came to nothing when the Germans were hammered by the heavy guns of the hypothalamus symptoms, US Navy and the Royal Navy off the coast. God Still Hears Our Prayers! But the success of hypothalamus D-Day was not enough. According Essay! American, British, and Canadian troops faced another two-and-a-half months of vicious fighting ahead in the Norman countryside before the German forces were ground down. Normandy was martyred in its suffering, but this terrible concentration of fighting at least saved Paris and the rest of the country from hypothalamus, destruction. Every year on the anniversary of D-Day, Allied veterans are welcomed back in memory of their comrades’ sacrifice. Antony Beevor served as a regular officer in the 11th Hussars in Germany. He is the author of Crete: The Battle and the Resistance , which won a Runciman Prize; Paris after the Liberation, 1944–1949 (written with his wife, Artemis Cooper); Stalingrad , which won the Samuel Johnson Prize, the Wolfson Prize for History, and the Hawthornden Prize for blender knife, Literature; Berlin: The Downfall , which received the hypothalamus symptoms, first Longman–History Today Award; The Battle for Spain ; and, most recently, D-Day , which received the RUSI Westminster Medal. His books have appeared in thirty languages and sold just over five million copies. A former chairman of the Society of Authors, he has received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Kent and Bath and is a visiting professor at Birkbeck College and the University of Kent.
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