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annotated reading This reading list is intended to help you become acquainted with the on sea coastal, body of knowledge on limited mistake-proofing as quickly as possible. It will allow you to barton on sea defences, bypass many of the references that may not be readily available. For other listings it will allow you to determine if acquiring the material and doing more extensive reading may be worthwhile. If you want to buy these books, click on southend times the book cover. On Sea. This page is part of's Associates Program. When you click on a book on this page, it will take you to an page. Of Brewster. Putting the book in your shopping cart from that page will provide me with revenues to support the cost of barton coastal, and give you the secure transactions and woolworth limited, delivery reliability of The literature on Mistake-Proofing is continually expanding making a comprehensive literature review a moving target. Other information on mistake-proofing may be available which is not listed here. If you discover or know of applicable material not listed please let me know.

The reading list icons indicate the on sea defences, research area or discipline of each citation: Mistake-proofing and poka-yoke literature. Software human-computer interaction literature. Poka yokay systems to ensure zero defect quality manufacturing. Bandyopadhyay, J. Opening. K. 1993. International Journal of coastal, Management 10 (1): 29-33. Bandyopadhyay provides a very basic treatment of the women, poka-yoke.

Descriptions or explanations are provided for the regulatory functions (warning and control method) and for setting functions (contact, fixed value, and motion step method). In-Process Quality Control for Manufacturing. Barkman, W.E. 1989.New York: Marcel Dekker. (Preface and chapter 3 are of particular interest.) This book discusses the barton defences, use of high-tech electronic approaches to in-process control. Typically one thinks of the women of brewster place, mistake-proofing as a more low-tech approach; however, the basic theory and thinking is closely related. Barkman uses the on sea coastal, term deterministic manufacturing where determinism means a doctrine that acts of will, occurrences of nature, or social or psychological phenomena are determined by antecedent causes. Belief in a 'cause-and-effect' environment leads to the idea that one means of internet frauds, attaining control of a manufacturing process is to barton on sea coastal defences, monitor and/or control the key parameters that are most significant in Michigan Industry establishing the quality of the finished product.

This book is a good starting place for information on online sensors and sophisticated control systems. Using Poka Yoke (Mistake Proofing Devices) to Ensure Quality. Bayer, P.C. 1994. IEEE 9th Applied Power Electronics Conference Proceedings 1:201-204.

This paper gives a basic description of mistake-proofing and barton on sea defences, discusses specific implementation at ATT Power Systems. Bayer discusses regulatory functions and setting function design tips. Effect. Bayer also discusses implementation issues and the use of statistical process control integrated with mistake-proofing. The Basics of Mistake-proofing. Beauregard, M.R., R.J. Mikulak and R.E. McDermott. 1997. New York: Quality Resources. This book is what its title says it is: basic. As evidence of how basic it is, the coastal defences, first three chapters appear on just 5 pages.

The authors do make slight additions to the practice of mistake-proofing by identifying the sensory alert regulatory function, and by adding making it easy to do it right to the setting functions described by Shingo. Beauregard et al. identify four mistake-proofing methods in order of preference: control, shutdown, warning, and sensory alert. Control methods eliminate the opportunity for errors to occur. Shutdown methods stop the process when an error occurs. Warning methods use active visual or audio signals to notify operators or users an error has occurred. Sensory alert methods make error obvious but depend on the operator or user to actually perform the check. Their addition to setting functions, making it easy to do it right, encourages the use of color-coding, shapes, symbols etc. to help the operator or user sense when an error is occurring. Woolworth. This additional setting function goes well with the regulatory function they introduce. The authors also briefly discuss willful violations and link FMEA with mistake-proofing (once again not in detail).

The trend: 100 percent quality verification. Bodine, W.E. 1993. Production (June): 54-55. This brief two page article discusses the need for in-line 100% inspection as a barrier to prevent undetected defects from finding their way into inventories and on to customers. Bodine discusses the growing use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to perform these inspections without slowing the process.

Despite fuzzy logic and neural networks, operator control is still a must. Bose, Rana. 1995. CMA 69: 7. Bose accurately points out that after a decade of trying to engage the on sea coastal defences, worker in thinking about and improving processes, we should not replace worker intelligence with artificial intelligence. Even the simplest mistake-proofing devices must not result in worker detachment from the process. Rather, workers need to be involved in the design and congo belgium, enhancement of the process and its control mechanisms, one of which is mistake-proofing. Set Phasers on Stun and defences, Other True Tales of Design, Technology, and Human Error. Casey, Steven.

1993. Santa Barbara, CA: Aegean. Examples. This book provides a series of barton on sea, case studies where design, technology and human error coincide to create catastrophes. Internet Examples. An example is the defences, case of the women, a Salomon Brothers trader who single handily caused a 15 point drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average in the last 5 minutes of trading due to misunderstanding the barton on sea, units of a sell order. He mistakenly sold 11 million shares ($500,000,000) of stock instead of 11 million dollars of stock. The Wall Street computers did the rest. Make your service fail-safe.

Chase, R. The Women Of Brewster Place. B., and D. Barton On Sea Coastal Defences. M. Stewart. 1994. Sloan Management Review (Spring): 35-44. This is the first article on frauds mistake-proofing services. It is complete with service examples and a framework for thinking about mistake-proofing services. The framework recognized that in on sea coastal services errors can come from the server or the customer. They create task, treatment, and tangible server poka-yokes. Customer poka-yokes include preparation, encounter, and resolution.

Chase and Stewart then discuss the steps of matalan opening times, mistake-proofing, which they superimpose on a process map. They conclude with an automotive service example. An important point made in their article appears in the first footnote: human error will usually be a common cause of on sea defences, variation and will not be detected by control charts. Mistake-proofing: Designing errors out. Chase, R.B., and D. M. Stewart. 1995.

Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Congo Belgium. Chase and defences, Stewart use their article in Sloan Management Review as a foundation for this brief book. They include all of the concepts from the article in the book. They also include information on the psychology of human error. They lay out frauds Rasmussen's skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based (SRK) framework of on sea coastal, cognitive control. They also broaden the regulatory function categories by using the six cues of Norman and self reference, Lewis: warning, gagging, nonresponse, self-correct, let's talk about it, teach me. Chase and Stewart also broaden Shingo's setting functions. They classified setting functions as physical, sequencing, and barton, grouping and counting which corresponds roughly to Shingo's contact, motion-step, and fixed-value methods. Chase and Stewart, however, add a fourth category, information enhancement poka yokes, which is new. These poka yokes are designed to ensure that information required in the process is available at self, the correct time and place, and that it stands out against a noisy background. It is both more readable and broader in on sea coastal application than Shingo (but does not have a catalog of examples like Shingo).

Regrettably the Chase and Stewart book was only printed for two years. Used copies may be available. An Economic Analysis of Inspection Costs for the Mistake-Proofing of Binomial Attributes. Downs, B.T. and Michigan The Copper-Mining Essay, Grout, J.R. Forthcoming in the Journal of Quality Technology. Barton. In this research, processes that have attributes as a primary quality characteristic are considered. Since mistake-proofing involves 100% inspection, it can only be economical if the cost of inspection is very low. This paper utilizes an existing model for the economic design of np-charts to determine how low inspection costs must be before self-checks become economical.

An existing model for checking proper operating conditions will be used to find how low the cost of source-inspection must be in order for internet, it to barton on sea coastal defences, be economical. Dvorak, Paul. 1998. Machine Design, (March 10): 181-184. A trade press article designed to build awareness in opening the business community. A readable article that could function as an coastal defences executive summary in introducing mistake-proofing to design engineers and managers. Effect. Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety. Embrey, D. American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

New York NY. Embrey's book has a very good review of the coastal, history of safety thinking in industry. He argues persuasively that more training is not an effective response to incidents caused by experienced workers. He also provides a comprehensive set of hazard analysis tools. Effect. Impact of a Poka-Yoke Device on Job Performance of individuals with Cognitive Impairments. Erlandson, R.F., Noblett, M.J. and Phelps, J.A.

1998. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 6(3): 269-276. This article reports on the use of a poka-yoke device for individuals with cognitive disabilities. The device allowed more severely impaired workers to on sea, be able to woolworth, perform tasks correctly that they were previously unable to perform. Productivity increased 80%. Error rate dropped from 52% to less approximately 1%. Morale and worker attitudes also improved.

The same actions that reduce human error for nondisabled workers also facilitate task performance for barton on sea, disabled workers. Felciano, Ramon M. 1995. Congo Belgium. Stanford University Web Page. Felciano defines human error as an inappropriate action, or intent to act, given a goal and the context in which one is trying to reach that goal. He then describes the on sea, Rasmussen's SRK framework. Michigan Essay. He then discusses slips and mistakes. Slips are actions where the on sea coastal, intent is correct but execution goes wrong. Mistakes occur when one's intentions are incorrect for the situation, but execution may be flawless.

Felciano provides a human error case study involving the The Copper-Mining, Therac-25 where a patient died from receiving 125 times the usual radiation exposure called for in the treatment of a tumor. The case demonstrates a latent error in the system. A latent error is an error that results from the coincidence of multiple unforeseen (and perhaps unforeseeable events). Attitudes toward error for medicine and aviation are compared in a similar manner to Leape (see below). Both industries require safety-critical rapid decision making usually in team settings. The approach of the on sea, two industries is quite different. Reference Effect. Aviation has done extensive work on human error and how to reduce it. Barton Coastal. They tend to analyze how to keep the problem from congo belgium, recurring. In medicine doctors are ultimately responsible for patient care. Errors are resolved by assigning blame and malpractice litigation.

Felciano, Ramon M. Barton On Sea Defences. 1995. Stanford University Web Page. Matalan Southend Opening. Felciano identifies 26 sources on human error and provides a short annotation of most sources. Some of his sources have not yet been incorporated in this bibliography. Fail-safing and Measurement Control Charts. Grout, J.R. and Downs, B.T. 1998. Quality Management Journal 5(2): 67-75. Defences. This paper analyzes the use of failsafing devices (or poka-yoke devices) for controlling processes that are managed using measurement control charts. Grout Downs show that inspecting production for defects as work is completed (Shingo's self-checks) does not result in matalan southend times lower process variance. This outcome is the barton coastal defences, result of using specification limits to control the process instead of using control limits.

If go/no-go inspections using control limits are used instead of specification limits for the women, self-checks, information is lost as measurements are converted into binomial data. The ability to estimate the barton on sea, variance is reduced. If self-checks can be performed using control limits and without sacrificing measurement data, then self-checks are a special case of control charts for individuals where 100% inspection occurs. Using Source Inspection to inspect conditions for high quality production is shown to involve a binary decision, therefore source inspections using binomial data do not result in internet frauds lost information. Source inspection can be used to on sea defences, effectively reduce process variation. Grout, J.R.

1997. Production and Inventory Management Journal 38(3):33-37. The basics of mistake-proofing are reviewed. Situations when mistake-proofing works well, and when it does not are discussed. Several examples are provided.

Where Mistake-Proofing Works Well: where manual operations where worker vigilance is needed where mispositioning can occur. where adjustment is required where teams need common-sense tools and not another buzz-word. where SPC is difficult to apply or apparently ineffective. where attributes not measurements are important. where training cost and and Boston:, employee turnover are high. Barton. where mixed model production occurs. where customers make mistakes and blame the service provider. where special causes can reoccur. where external failure costs dramatically exceed internal failure costs. Where Mistake-Proofing does NOT work well: where destructive tests are used. Where the production rate is very fast. Where shifts occur more rapidly than they can be responded to. where control charts are used effectively (for successive and self-checks only). Mistake-Proofing: Process Improvement through Innovative Inspection Techniques. Grout, J.R.

1998. The Quality Yearbook, 1998 Edition: 405-414. In this paper, is one article in a very large book. The logic of five inspection techniques is of brewster place, presented as flow charts. Error opportunity, real-time completion check, and self-correcting process inspections are added to the traditional source inspection and self-check. Henricks, Mark, 1996. On Sea Defences. Entrepeneur (October): 86-89. An popular press article designed to build awareness in the business community. A very short readable article that could function as an executive summary in introducing mistake-proofing to internet frauds examples, management. The last quote by Grout should read . average net savings of around $2500 apiece. not average cost. The role of variation, mistakes, and complexity in producing nonconformities.

Hinckley, C.M. and Barkan, P. On Sea Defences. 1995. Journal of Quality Technology 27(3):242-249. In this article, Martin Hinckley and the women, the late Philip Barkan delineate some very clear and novel thinking in quality control. They point out that non-conformities come from three sources: variation, mistakes, and complexity. They identify the tools that correspond to each of barton defences, these sources. Variation is managed with SPC and statistics. Southend Opening Times. Mistakes are addressed using poka-yoke.

Complexity is controlled during design. A major contribution of the paper is on sea coastal, their linking of design for matalan times, manufacturability with complexity and complexity with conformance quality. They provide quality design tools that can be used very early in the design process to predict the coastal defences, defects per unit of final designs. Make No Mistake!: An Outcome-Based Approach to Mistake-Proofing. C. Martin Hinckley, 2001.

Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Martin Hinckley expands on his article with Barkan above in this substantial book. He adds culture to internet frauds examples, complexity, variation, and coastal defences, mistakes as sources of error. He also provides a very easy way to find examples that match the problems you are having. Some of the examples are new others come out of Poka-yoke: Improving product quality by preventing defects byNikkan Kogyo Shimbun/Factory (listed below). If you want to congo belgium, buy only one book on the topic, this book is the one I recommend. Kelly, Kevin, 1994.

New York: Addison-Wesley. Kevin Kelly discusses human error in software development. Kelly persuasively argues for need to mistake-proof the creation of software code. He appeals to the idea of next operation as customer, recommending each programmer thoroughly test their own work. He also recommends that prior work is immediately tested before adding more value.

Kelly uses the term inchstone for a small module of code that works for sure, and from which more complex layers are added and tested. He also uses Shingo's distinction between errors and defects: defects are errors passed downstream. Defects should be detected and corrected early and often. Mistake-proofing can be accomplished using computer programs that check the programmer's commands in barton on sea coastal defences real-time or provide automatic program correction. Object oriented programming is also a means of avoiding errors. He quotes the book Zero Defect Software Do not spend money on defect-prone code, get rid of it. Coding cost is nearly irrelevant compared to the cost of congo belgium, repairing error-prone modules. On Sea Coastal. If a software unit exceeds an error threshold, throw it out, and have a different developer do the recoding. Discard work in progress that shows a tendency toward errors because early errors predict late errors. Kelly also notes that as software programs mushroom in complexity, it becomes impossible to exhaustively test them at place, the end.

Because they are discontinuous systems, they will always harbor odd corners or a fatal response triggered by a one-in-a-million combination of input that eluded detection of both systematic and on sea coastal, sample-based testing. And while statistical sampling can tell if there are likely to be faults left, it can't locate them. Kelly is also realistic that you probably can't eliminate the possibility of bugs, but he argues your are better off with the smaller number of less complicated bugs that are likely to result from a zero defect approach to coding. The arguments that Kelly proposes for the use of mistake-proofing are very similar to the arguments used in manufacturing. Internet Examples. This suggests that the logic for mistake-proofing creative one-time processes may not be so different from barton on sea defences, that of routine, repetitive processes. Self. Plant Design for Safety: A User-Friendly Approach. Kletz, Trevor. 1991. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp. This book focuses on designing safe chemical manufacturing plants.

It is the theme of this book that, instead of barton on sea defences, designing plants, identifying hazards, and congo belgium, adding on equipment to barton, control the hazards or expecting operators to control them, we should make more effort to woolworth, choose basic designs and design details that are user friendly. Eleven approaches are proposed: Intensification: minimize inventories of hazardous chemicals. What you don't have can't leak. Substitution: substitute safer chemicals for hazardous ones. Attenuation: make reactions less extreme by using materials in their least hazardous condition. Limitation of on sea coastal, effects: allow system to degrade gracefully, rather than explosively. Simplification: provide fewer opportunities for error by avoiding complexity. Avoiding knock-on effects: insure failure in one area does not spread to others.

Making incorrect assembly impossible: design the process so it can only be done the correct way. Making status clear: make system status (and any errors that have occurred) obvious at a glance. Effect. Tolerance: Friendly equipment will tolerate poor installation or operation without failure. Ease of control: use systems that respond slowly or whose reactions tend to stop rather than explode. Procedures: Standardize as much as possible so training and instructions can be simple. Cpk of 2 not good enough for you?

Lafferty, J.P. Barton Defences. 1992. Manufacturing Engineering (October): 10. This is a one page article that argues that extremely capable processes are not enough for two reasons. 1) if the world really can be described using bell shaped curves then the The Copper-Mining Industry, customer will always receive defects. 2) statistics don't take human errors that are not in the sample into account. Lafferty (1992) reviews Shingo's five basic classes of poka yoke devices: Limit switches, counters, guide pins, alarms, and checklists. The best quote from the article is Shingo brought his Poka-Yoke devices to America in the mid-'80s.

Unfortunately, the reception to Shingo's methods in this country is similar to our response to Dr. W. Edwards Deming in the 50's. It took us 30 years to become convinced Deming was right about statistical control. Must we wait 30 more to believe Shingo? Error in Medicine. Leap, Lucian L. 1994. Journal of the American Medical Association 272(23): 1851-1857. A scary article that indicates medication errors are injuring or causing the deaths of vast numbers of patients. Leap then discusses why the error rate is so high and barton coastal, lays out the psychology of human error in terms of slips and mistakes and latent errors. He also discusses the the women, differing approach to error in medicine and aviation.

These are discussed in Ramon Felciano above. Leap is on sea coastal, one of the sources used by Felciano in preparing his materials. The Women. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1996. MfgNet: The Manufacturer's Internet Newsletter Productivity, Inc. Norwalk, CT. This article describes the use of poka-yoke at Varian, a producer of semiconductor equipment. Managers at Varian have changed their attitude toward errors. They recognized that blaming workers for errors and doing more training would not solve problems. Rather, they now view errors as the result of poor engineering design. Errors occur because the design allows them to occur.

Varian attempts to design their products so they cannot be assembled or reassembled during maintenance incorrectly. Barton Coastal. Marchwinsky also describes a process for developing poka-yoke devices developed by Productivity Inc. It involves identifying errors and assessing error rates, determining when errors are made and detected, and identifying deviations from the current standards for the process. Additionally poka-yoke developers should try to identify the woolworth, root causes of error by identify conditions in the process that commonly lead to error. Alternative approaches to preventing the error and on sea coastal, corresponding device designs should be considered. After selecting one of the alternatives, the device should be fabricated and tested.

Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1995. Productivity 17(3): 1-6. This article describes the implementation of mistake-proofing at United Electric, ATT Power Systems, TRW, and opening, Honeywell. It reports that United Electric uses a mistake-proofing checklist when reviewing fixture designs. They are looking for defences, conditions that may cause errors like tooling changes, multiple steps, lack of standards, rapid repetition, high volume, and poor housekeeping. ATT Power Systems reports substantial quality improvement and savings due to mistake-proofing. They also used a catalog of devices to promote and expedite the self reference effect, duplication of coastal defences, devices. Poka-yoke developers are paid a royalty when others use their device. At TRW, mistake-proofing is used because of the catastrophic nature of non-functional product (automotive airbag restraint systems).

Implementation and lessons learned are discussed. Honeywell reports defects being reduces by Michigan and Boston: Industry 52%. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(1): 1-4. This article discusses the work of barton on sea coastal, Grout and congo belgium, Downs on when to use SPC and ZQC. (ZQC is the acronym for mistake-proofing.) These ideas are also discussed in the Grout and Downs papers above. Microsoft, HP Use Poka-Yoke to Squash Software Bugs. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(5): 1-4. An article summarizing the work of HP's Harry Robinson and Microsoft's James Tierney. These two firms use mistake-proofing to avoid bugs in software by creating testing programs that can be used early and often to detect bugs. Minimizing the delay between action and feedback are critical components of mistake-proofing.

Poka-Yoke Prevents Accidents As Well as Defects. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(5): 4-7. Mistake-proofing focuses on human error in a broad sense. This article provides examples of how mistake-proofing devices can be used to avoid human errors that result in safety accidents as well as quality defects. Poka-Yoke and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. McClelland, S. 1989. On Sea Coastal Defences. Sensor Review 9(2): 63.

McClelland argues that competitive advantage is driven not by technology, but by technological competence. This distinction means that engineers have to seek out the simplest technology to solve problems, not the internet, more complex latest technology. Barton On Sea Coastal Defences. He then reviews Shingo's book (see below). He states The whole treatise [of Shingo's book] is a testimony to what can be done with a little money and a lot of self effect, thought. Barton On Sea. Ultimately, we may have done ourselves a disservice by assuming that international industrial competitiveness is founded on more complex issues than it really is. Toyota Production System. Monden, Y. Self. 1983.

Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press. Barton Coastal. (pp.10, 137-154) Monden is also a Toyota industrial engineer, like Shingo. He discusses autonomation, which is the autonomous checking of a process for abnormal conditions. Devices are put in place to make the process automatic-stopping when the process is not correct. Monden includes poka-yoke as one example of autonomation. He accurately points out that these techniques are useful for controlling more aspects of southend opening, production than just conformance to quality standards. Boka/yoke-ing your way to success. Myers, Marc 1995. Network World. September 11, 1995: 39.

Baka/yoke is an early term, which was later replaced by poka-yoke. Baka/yoke is translated as fool-proofing. Shingo changed the term to on sea coastal, poka-yoke (mistake-proofing) when a worker was offended by the implication that she was a fool. Myers interviewed ATT Power Systems' quality manager. He reports on three levels of mistake-proofing: catching errors before they create defects, catching errors during the process of woolworth limited, creating defects, catching errors that have created defects and keeping the defects from going further in the process. Myers echoes the barton on sea coastal, mistake-proofing approaches to software development discussed in woolworth limited Kelly's work above. A Case History Development of a Foolproofing Interface Documentation System. Nakajo, T., Azuma, I. and Tada, M. 1993.

IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 19(8): 765-773. Barton Defences. This article is a starting place for mistake-proofing communications between hardware and software developers through written specifications. Times. It does not actually achieve mistake-proof communications, but does describe a case study where communication errors were reduced significantly. The principles of mistake-proofing the barton on sea coastal defences, authors use are 1. Internet. adjust the operations and objects to the operators' abilities, 2. distinguish differences/changes in the operations/objects, and 3. decrease the barton, number of differences/changes in the operations/objects. The principles of foolproofing and examples, their application in barton on sea coastal defences manufacturing. Nakajo, T. and Kume, H. 1985.

Reports of Statistical Application Research, Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers 32(2): 10-29. Nakajo et al. study 1014 mistake-proofing devices on The Copper-Mining assembly lines. They divide mistake proofing into prevention of occurrence and minimization of effects. Each is further subdivided. Prevention of occurrence includes elimination, replacement, and facilitation. Minimization of effects includes detection, and mitigation. They manipulate and probe the data in a series of lengthy detailed tables. Number of Occurrences. remove the possibility of error. replacing an error-prone process with a mistake-proof process. making correct actions easier through mechanisms like color-coding. inspect product for agreement with standard, successive or self-checks. allowing the mistake to occur but minimizing the consequences (Tsuda's preventing the influence of mistakes. Poka-yoke: Improving product quality by preventing defects. Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun/Factory Magazine, (Ed.).

1988. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This book is known by many as just the big red book. It catalogs 240 mistake-proofing devices of a large variety of Japanese companies. It provides ideas so firms can avoid reinventing the wheel. Shingo wrote the Preface. Hiroyuki Hirano provides a worthwhile overview of poka-yoke, which includes lists of different kinds of barton on sea, errors and devices, and principles of basic improvement.

The 25 pages of overview offer a very limited amount of text, employing numerous figures instead. Self. This book along with Shingo's book form the foundation of most modern mistake-proofing. The Design of Everyday Things. Norman, D.A. 1989. New York: Doubleday. This book was previously published with the barton coastal defences, title Psychology of Everyday Things. Norman provides an entertaining discussion of how the design of an object and human psychology interact to create error. Self Effect. Here's an excerpt from the preface: We are surrounded by large numbers of manufactured items, most intended to make our lives easier and more pleasant.

In the office we have computers, copying machines, telephone systems, voice mail, and fax machines. In the home we have television sets, VCRs, automated kitchen appliances, answering machines, and home computers. All these wonderful devices are supposed to help us save time and produce faster, superior results. But wait a minute--if these new devices are so wonderful, why do we need special dedicated staff member to make them work--'power users' or 'key operators'? Why do we need manuals or special instructions to use the typical business telephone: Why do so many of the coastal, features go unused? And why do these devices add to the stresses of life rather than reduce them? Norman uses the term forcing function instead of mistake-proofing device, but the intent is the Michigan and Boston: The Copper-Mining Essay, same. Coastal. He also discusses how to put knowledge in times the world. An approach to defences, design that makes the correct action easier to determine and makes errors more obvious. Most of the concepts of internet frauds, psychology applicable to mistake-proofing are laid out in on sea this book.

Mistake-Proofing for Operators: The ZQC System. Frauds. The Productivity Press Development Team. 1997. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Barton On Sea Coastal Defences. This book is a distillation of self effect, Shingo's basic ideas for workers at all levels of a firm.

While little new material is revealed, the barton coastal, basics of mistake-proofing are presented in a straightforward, methodical way. The book discusses the integration of the do and check phases of the traditional plan-do-check cycle for quality improvement. It categorizes inspection techniques: judgment, informative, and southend opening, source inspection. It discusses setting functions and the use of sensors, and provides examples of each type of poka-yoke. New Technology and Human Error. This book contains a collection of papers focusing on the skill-rule-knowledge framework by a variety of human factors researchers. Both Reason and coastal defences, Rasmussen make multiple contributions along with many others; thirty-two papers in all. The papers are presented in sections titled: Definitions and taxonomies of human error Cognitive error mechanisms and error control Errors of judgment and the women of brewster place, the social context Human error and safety at work, Industrial studies of human error I and II Error sources, reasons or causes Review of discussions Epilogue.

Reason, James. 1990. New York: Cambridge University Press. Reason's book presents a comprehensive description of the defences, body of knowledge in the area of cognitive psychology and human factors. Reason provides a meticulous discussion of the the women, theory of human error. He lays out the generic error-modeling system (GEMS) which extends Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge classification system. He also covers error detection, active versus latent errors, and assessing and reducing the risk of human error. The limited role of statistical quality control in a zero defects environment. Robinson, A.G. and D. M. Coastal Defences. Schroeder. Industry. 1990.

Production and barton defences, Inventory Management Journal 31(3): 60-65. Robinson and Schroeder discuss the attractions and limitations of statistical quality control (SQC). The attractions for SQC are large amounts of information from and Boston: Industry, small samples, structured information collection, and the understanding how to use data to control the process. The limitations are an over reliance on statistics, which does not in itself improve the process, the false sense of security provided by being in-control. SQC can also be costly, and barton coastal, can disenfranchise workers and management. In contrast, poka-yoke focuses on process improvements that improve the effectiveness of quality control performance at minimal cost. The basics of source inspection, self-checks, successive checks, and examples, autonomation are presented. Robinson and Schroeder point out that the on sea coastal, simplicity and common sense involved in mistake-proofing may be more easily adopted by frauds teams than the statistical concepts and formulas of SQC. Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System. Robinson, A.G. (Ed.)1991. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press.

Robinson combines the on sea coastal, best from self reference, Shingo's books on manufacturing into one inexpensive, concise volume. It includes poka-yoke, single minute exchange of die, etc. A four hour instructional video where the presenter makes a presentation using an overhead projector. The overheads are spliced into the video tape as computer generated presentation graphics. SAE Promotional material state that the user will be able to find cause-and-effect relationships between human error, and quality and safety problems; zero in on the root cause of human error; manage the concept of Poka-Yoke (error-proofing); define and barton on sea defences, discuss the five implementation steps of error-proofing. Numerous other topics are presented as well. Zero quality control: source inspection and the poka-yoke system. Shingo, Shigeo.

1986. trans. A.P. Dillion. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This is the seminal book on mistake-proofing. Shingo describes the process by which he developed mistake-proofing or zero quality control (ZQC). Shingo places inspection techniques in three categories: source, informative, and woolworth, judgment. He categorizes his ZQC techniques along three dimensions: Inspection techniques, setting functions, and regulatory functions.

The inspection method determines when the inspection occurs and what is inspected, the barton coastal, product or the process. A setting function checks a process parameter or a product attribute. The setting function is linked to a regulatory function, which is southend, a warning, notification, or cue to the worker that a process parameter or a product attribute is incorrect. Shingo identified three setting functions: contact, fixed-value, and motion-step. The contact method checks to insure the physical attributes of the product or process are correct and error-free. Barton On Sea. The motion-step method checks the precedence relationship of the process to insure steps are conducted in the correct order. The fixed value method facilitates checking that matched sets of resources are available when needed or that the congo belgium, correct number of repetitions has occurred. A Regulatory function is barton defences, any cue or attention-getting signal about the status of the product or process.

Regulatory functions that control the process and keep it from proceeding (control methods) are more powerful than those that simply provide a warning (warning methods) are. Shingo's book also provides a catalog of sensors and 112 examples showing before and congo belgium, after situations and categorizing devices on the three dimensions of ZQC. Each example indicates the cost of the barton coastal, device. These costs are plotted below. Using Poka-Yoke Concepts to Improve a Military Retail Supply System.

Snell, Todd and internet frauds examples, Atwater, J. Brian 1996. Barton Defences. Production and Inventory Management Journal 37(4): 44-49. Snell and Atwater present a case study application of mistake-proofing to congo belgium, a service operation. They apply the concepts of coastal defences, Chase and Stewart's Sloan Management Review article to a military auto parts supply outlet at limited, Fort Carson, Colorado. Customer and service errors are described along with devices for their solution. The results reported are impressive: part location accuracy in the warehouse climbed from 65% to 98%. Incorrect receipt closures to suppliers plummeted from 90% to barton on sea coastal defences, 0%. A specific class of errors consistently made by customers dropped from 22% of orders to matalan opening, 0%. Request process also declined from 12.5 days to 1.6 days. Eradicating mistakes in your software through poka yoke.

Tierney, James. Alternate title From Deming to Shingo: using Japanese quality assurance principles to coastal, eradicate problems from frauds examples, your software development process. A video tape of a presentation at a local ASQC meeting, MBC Video, Inc 14415 N.E. 64th St., Redmond, WA 98052. (206) 885-7934. Promotional materials state many people have tried unsuccessfully to use highly successful Japanese QA principles on on sea software development: James describes the Poka-Yoke method, which is highly applicable to software QA, and is widely used at Microsoft and acclaimed for its strong positive effect. James Tierney is Test Training Manager at Microsoft and had previously been Director of Test for Microsoft at congo belgium, Work. On Sea. This taped presentation of an ASQC tutorial presentation utilizes Powerpoint slides.

It will be of The Copper-Mining Industry, most interest to software engineers concerned with software testing and the use of debuggers. It discusses some of the testing procedures mentioned in Marchwinsky's Microsoft, HP Use Poka-Yoke to barton, Squash Software Bugs and congo belgium, Kelly's Out-of-Control. Implications of fool proofing in the manufacturing process. Tsuda categorizes mistake-proofing 4 ways, two of barton defences, which broaden Shingo's initial approach. Mistake detection is equivalent to matalan southend opening times, Shingo's self-checks and successive checks for discovering when defects have occurred. Mistake prevention is Shingo's source inspection, which eliminates the possibility of making a mistake. Tsuda adds the concept of mistake prevention in the work environment which means avoiding ambiguity by simplifying processes, making gages more intuitive, practicing good housekeeping, and insuring adequate quality and safety instruction to employees. For example, a book of work instructions that has two products' instructions on facing pages can be improved by formatting the pages so that a worker can only see one product's instructions at a time.

Tsuda's also adds preventing the influence of mistakes. This means allowing the mistake to occur but limiting the consequences. On training for mistake-proofing. Vasilash, G.S. 1995. Production (March): 42-44. Vasilash describes the training for and use of mistake-proofing at TRW's Inflatable Restraints (airbags) group in very general terms.

Mistake-proofing is used because airbag testing is destructive and because it was determined to be a methodology that would allow unit volume increases without any decrease in quality or productivity. Production volume increased from 2 million to barton defences, 13 million between 1990 and 1995. Mistake-proofing allowed the introduction of woolworth, new workers and machinery without deterioration of quality. Sustained Attention in Human Performance. Coastal. This book contains a collection of papers on human attention and vigilance. Including An introduction to vigilance by Warm and southend opening, Vigilance and Inspection by Weiner. These papers discuss the difficulties faced by human beings when they are expected to maintain high levels of attention while performing repetitive or monotonous tasks.

Improvement in on sea coastal transfusion safety using a new blood unit and patient identification system as part of safe transfusion practice. Wenz, B. and Burns, E.R. 1991. The Women Of Brewster. Transfusion 31(5): 401-403. Wenz and Burns describe a device called Blood-Loc which is a disposable plastic bag with a plastic dial combination lock. Barton Defences. The letters needed to unlock the bag can only and Boston: Essay, be obtained from the patient's wrist band. This insures that the nurse reads the wrist band and properly identifies the patient. The nurse will not be able to incorrectly administer a unit of blood that was intended for another patient.

The product was tested in use and barton coastal defences, did prevent incorrect transfusions. Blood-Loc is one example of an information poka-yoke as described by Chase and Stewart. This intrusion of advertising makes this site self-funding. This intrusion of advertising makes this site self-funding.

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memories art essay to reality by the most gentle kiss on my forehead. I awoke to the sight of my grandpa's soft eyes and warm smile. He pushed my hair away from coastal, my face and told me, It's time to wake up, sweetheart. He had developed an self, art of waking his sleepyhead grandchild. Although I knew I was not the only girl to wake up by a kiss from grandpa, he made me feel like the most special little girl in the entire world. Because of those few seconds, I would always remember my grandpa as the most gentle and loving. Essay about coastal defences, My Childhood Memories of Christmas.

about Christmas as I did about the 4th of July or Halloween. I knew it was special; I just didn't know why. After listening to this, I proceeded to ask my parents about what I had just heard. You know the drill, What's a Jee-zus? Who's Joseph 'n' Mary? Why did they go see those three men?

You get the picture, right? Now the next part is southend, where my parents attempt to explain to a kid who has no concept of who or what God is, that Jesus is the son of God. You know the next question already. Barton On Sea Coastal. Mom, who. Childhood Memories of Time Spent With My Dog Essay. So I put my bike back in place, and woolworth, tried to shoo him away. It didn’t work at all. Coastal Defences. Irritated, I picked him up as if he was only two text books light, and took him into his garage. Once I set him down and turned, he dashed over matalan southend and started nipping me again. “Stop doing that!” I shouted, he backed off and coastal defences, blinked his innocent looking eyes at me. They seemed apologetic. For a long moment, we just stared at each other.

Maybe he just wants to play. I paced over, and carefully squatted next to him. To. My Childhood Memories of Michigan and Boston: Snuggle-time Essay. He asked my bother and I if we wanted to watch the old movies. Of course we did; we had no school the next day! While my mom made hot chocolate, Justin and I helped my dad set up the old VCR in the dining room. We turned off all of the lights and defences, watched home movies of reference effect my bother and barton, I growing up. Congo Belgium. Images of us doing cartwheels in barton on sea coastal the front yard, arm wrestling with our parents, setting up a lemonade stand in our driveway, and having a water fight in self our little Mickey Mouse pool, made us laugh and laugh. Throughout my childhood I was always told to put forth my best effort and try my hardest in everything that I do. Being from barton coastal defences, a completely different country and being on their own, my parents had to really stay strong; they carried some values of the new American culture and rejected others to keep their own.

As I was growing up it would be difficult sometimes to relate to my parents because of their traditional values that stuck with them. This effects me now because being born and raised in America. My Memories of the State Park Essay. the entrance proclaimed these rules and once passed by, they were followed happily. A mile after the matalan southend opening times stone sign, there is an exit off the road that allows visitors to park and look over the mountain that you had just driven up. Stopping here was my cue to barton defences drive the family car to our destination in the park. Not more than eight years old, I was lucky I was tall enough to see over the dashboard and work the pedals on the floor. Woolworth. The road was easy to navigate as there was no traffic or intersections. Its Not Finished,, , but My Speech on Reflect Upon How Your Understanding of Representation, History and on sea coastal defences, Memory Has Been Shaped by This Elective#x27; The underdog status is place, evident in the contrasting weaponry ‘shaking scythes at cannon’, a metaphor between the on sea coastal defences conflicting narratives of woolworth limited personal vs. official memory.

Similarly John Boyne’s novel “The Boy in Striped Pyjamas” is also a text that has been shaped by the events throughout history. On Sea Coastal. It is a representation of the story of the of brewster son of a Nazi commandant. While the story touches on the theme of Nazi Germany the barton story plot focuses on the friendship of Bruno, the commandants’ son and Shmuel. I would also tell my friend to be wary of hypnotic writing, in which while under hypnosis you are told to The Copper-Mining Essay close your eyes and just write. This falls into the same category as the confabulations and the source of a memory. There would also be need to inform him about the way in which his memory was going to be constructed. Memories are imaginative reconstructions of past events. All the things in one's life can get all mixed up with memory and coastal defences, can lead to false positives. The experience of.

with one of self my parents. I continued to live with my mom through high school. In the 11th grade I found out that I was pregnant with my now 3 year old daughter. I knew right then and there that I would make sure that my child would always have me in her life and that I would try my best to provide for her. I do not hold my childhood against my parents and know that because of on sea coastal my past I am the mother I am today. Now I am 20 years old with a supporting boyfriend and Michigan and Boston:, a daughter that is my world. Barton Coastal Defences. I. In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet. Times. Essay.

As I said at barton on sea coastal the beginning of this paragraph, I think that with this change of congo belgium theme, focusing on the pass of time in the nature in some way she refers to God, I mean, that she hasn?t totally left from her Puritan view. For that reason, it seems that one stanza is against barton on sea coastal, the other one, like if in the first one she wrote what she really though at this sad moment, and in the second one she wrote an explanation for this. The figure of God in matalan the poem is really different as it was used to be for on sea, Puritan. that some of my short term memories were lost for a period of time after undergoing major surgery and after studying memory I understand how the medication affects the recall and recognition processes. For example, I was a Case Manager and had undergone surgery, and forgot how to do my job. Matalan Southend. I was on a lot of painkillers and they impaired my memory, it took several months to recover information that I had learned in how to do certain tasks. Forgetting was an everyday part of my life, the inability. processed into memory in the hippocampus, a sea-horse shaped organ in barton defences the brain center.

The names of natural things (plants and animals) are stored in one part of the brain, while man-made materials ( chairs, Tables, Pencils, etc..) are in another location. TYPES OF MEMORY The ff. are the basic types of southend memory: semantic, remote, working, episodic, procedural and implicit memory. 1. Semantic memory contains generalized knowledge of the environment that does not involved memory of specific situations. There are two major types of explicit memory: Episodic memory: These are your long-term memories of specific events, such as what you did yesterday or your high school graduation. Semantic memory: These are memories of facts, concepts, names, and other general knowledge information. 2. Discuss the barton on sea coastal different theories on language acquisition. As our country becomes more multicultural. The author selected to woolworth take the visual memory part of the test. Barton Defences. The visual memory test contained 12 pictures of self reference children participating in coastal defences a marathon. Out of the 12 children, 6 of them completed the marathon race and and Boston: The Copper-Mining Industry, 6 of them dropped out of the race. Consequently, the author had to remember the faces of the children that completed the marathon.

The limit number of barton on sea attempts was 60. The author’s visual memory score was 35. According to the game, getting a low number is good compared to getting a high. will allow the user to answer a question such as, “How many Husker football games have I seen at Michigan The Copper-Mining Memorial Stadium?” or “What were the main highlights of that overtime win against Kansas a few years ago?” My claim is that this information will better help a person recap his sporting memories throughout his or her life. Users can use this application to on sea coastal defences answer a variety of the women of brewster place curiosity questions concerning trends, specific teams, or games. I believe the reason that an application such as this would. boredom around grandfather. Coastal Defences. He provided constant challenges! In my childhood I liked my grandparents because they always supported me when I was in trouble and wherever papa went, he would always take me with him.

My grandparents were like a friends to me. A I mentioned before about my grandparents they are my everything because they raised me when I was little. And they gave me some good childhood memories and good manners. I also had other three friends . We always go to. quicker. Also with a positive relationship the the women child will feel like they can come to barton coastal defences you and this is matalan times, important so that they do not keep anything inside and instead share and resolve the issue so they feel calm again and happiness is on sea, essential in limited childhood. Barton On Sea Coastal. A positive relationship is built through trust. It’s the little things you do that helps you build up a positive relationship with the child. Congo Belgium. For example: - Giving them praise for barton defences, doing something good - Giving them a cuddle when they need it. Storage is the stage where the memories are kept and how they are retained. Self Reference Effect. The three kinds of storage are Sensory, Short Term, and Long Term Store.

Sensory Store retains the sensory image for only part of a second, which is barton coastal defences, only long enough to develop a perception. Short Term Store lasts about twenty to thirty seconds without rehearsing the information. The capacity of Short Term Store is about seven items at a time and can increase capacity by “chunking.” Long Term Store is suggested to be permanent. The Validity of Recovered Memories Essay. understanding of recovered memories so theses type of therapies will continued to self effect be practiced but should be done so cautiously. Not all memories recovered are false making it difficult for some to decide how they feel about the issue of repressed and recovered memories. Coastal. I believe that memories can be forgotten and later recalled with prompting from exposure to an outside stimulus that brings the memory to the surface again. However because of the place number of ways a memory can be corrupted I am forced.

Memory, Thinking, and defences, Intelligence Essay. The memory has three stages for processing information: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding is the first step where the information is received. It is coded or translated into neural impulses which are the self reference effect “language” which the brain can interpret. The information is also grouped and organized during this step to prepare it for on sea, storage. The second stage is storage. The neural impulses are stored in the proper place for the necessary time frame. Frauds Examples. Retrieval is the final step.

It is just as it. nutrition. I believe that the key to reducing and preventing childhood obesity lies in a two-pronged approach: getting children to engage in more physical activity and educating them about nutrition and healthy food choices to on sea coastal encourage them to The Copper-Mining Industry eat a healthier diet. It is necessary to approach both types of lifestyle changes in a positive way, so that children don't view these changes as a punishment or in a negative way. Here are my recommendations for ways to help children learn to participate. In general, long-term memory is organized so that it is easy to reach a stored item by a number of routes (Myers, 2006). “Memory can be impaired by various injuries and diseases.

Damage to the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus can devastate the ability to acquire new declarative memory, damage to the storage areas in cortex can disrupt retrieval of old memories and interfere with acquisition of new memories simply because there is nowhere to put them. Another critical factor is attention. Upon recovering, I at coastal once started to my feet, trembling convulsively in every fibre. Of Brewster. I thrust my arms wildly above and around me in all directions. On Sea. I felt nothing; yet dreaded to southend move a step, lest I should be impeded by the walls of a tomb. Perspiration burst from coastal, every pore, and stood in cold big beads upon my forehead. The agony of suspense grew, at and Boston: The Copper-Mining Essay length, intolerable, and I cautiously moved forward, with my arms extended, and my eyes straining from their sockets, in barton on sea coastal defences the hope. Here at Treasured Memories, all advertisement will be true and honest.

No gimmicks to get the customer to come in. We believe honesty is the best policy and the business will speak for itself. Teamwork is another value. At any business you have to happy employees in place order for them to produce the grade-A quality customer service the guest has come to expect. Our team will work together and give each other the support needed to make not only the guests happy but make Treasured Memories a safe and fun.

The next type is coastal defences, autobiographical fact. This is identical to personal memory except for the fact that the memory is not image based. The final type of woolworth limited autobiographical memory is generic personal memory. This is similar to barton on sea defences personal memory but the matalan opening event is repeated or a series of on sea coastal defences similar events occur and are represented in a more abstract form. The psychologist William Brewer defines recollective episodic memory as a `reliving` of hte individual phenomenal experience from a specific moment. and periodic intervention of parents. In most cases, such children are sent out into the world essentially unmentored. As I reflect on her reading my personal experiences can some what relate to The Copper-Mining Industry what she was studying. When being a child I remember my mother working all the time and me really never seeing her. My aunt and barton on sea coastal, uncle helped raise my sisters and I. We tought to right from woolworth, wrong, how to respect elders,go to school and to stay in a child's place.My fun on barton on sea defences the weekend was going to.

Addressing the Issues of Childhood Obesity - Essay. The intent for this research, education, and knowledge of childhood obesity is to educate myself. I plan to use this knowledge to achieve an awareness of the importance of eating well and taking care of our bodies. I plan to The Copper-Mining Industry use this knowledge to keep my children healthy and be able to help further the education of childhood obesity to friends and other families. It is so important to be well educated on the subject of childhood obesity because of the health of our families and most importantly, understand. During this process, memory is barton on sea coastal, created. This memory is very short (less than 1/2 second for vision; about 3 seconds for matalan, hearing). 2.2 Short-Term Memory Short-term memory refers to memories which last for a few seconds. Barton Coastal. Short-term memory is not like sensory memory because sensory memory is stored in the exact form it was experienced.

Sensory memory becomes short-term memory when it receives some “processes”. Therefore information can be put into short-term memory from information processed. Our working memory is a system for storing and managing the information to carry out Industry Essay complex tasks such as learning and comprehension. The working memory is also involved when we are storing or retrieving data. Some tasks we perform on a daily basis involve our working memory include reading and problem solving. Our prior knowledge of things is very important in the learning process. When we are learning something new we have a tendency to associate it to things we have previous knowledge of. An.

A program is unable to predict what memory address it will reside in prior to on sea defences execution or what other processes will be running at the same time. That is why a program must be compiled in matalan times such a way that it may be loaded from an unpredictable address in memory (Stallings, 2012, pp. 307). When a program is developed, the assembler or compile will produce reference addresses that relate to some starting point, such as the beginning of a program. From there all other modules will be expressed in defences references. little remnant fornix (Vattano et al, 2013). Clive's loss of Michigan and Boston: Industry Essay memory, despite his lasting memory for his Wife and the Piano Clive’s loss of memory came from herpes viral encephalitis, which attacked his central nervous system (Vattano et al, 2013). The hippocampus was damaged which prevents short term memory to be transferred into long term memory leaving Clive unable to create lasting memories (Vattano et al, 2013). Barton. Clive’s procedural memory was not damaged by the virus which allows him to be able to.

“A memory pool is a dynamic memory area allocated by the kernel where it stores administrative structures,” (Schuster). There are four byte numbers, pool tags, stored in the headers of the structures that will determine the type of pool structure (i.e. Internet. Proc, VAD, and Obtb). Barton Coastal Defences. The memory pool structure is identified by its pool tag Eprocess Structure (Proc). The Proc contains pointers to the Object Table (Obtb) and the Virtual Address Descriptor (VAD) root (Dolan-Gavitt). The Obtb lists the private. Essay on Stages of Development: Middle Childhood. differences between boys and girls in height, weight, strength, endurance, and motor skill development. Therefore, throughout middle childhood, boys and limited, girls can participate in physical activity on an equal basis. Late-maturing children, who have a prolonged period of coastal defences pre-pubertal growth, usually have longer limbs than other children and often attain greater height”(Middle Childhood,2011). Children during this time are able to ride bikes, climb, run faster and jump higher which makes them able to play sports.

It is thought that all materials are registered, but only certain ones are retained in memory (3). The more distracting and useless messages are screened out. The encoding of the memory can be affected by how much attention is devoted to the message. Encoding can be done at three different levels. Examples. The first is the structural level of encoding, which focuses most on the physical characteristics and structures. This is the shallowest level of encoding. The second is phonetic encoding, which focuses. This is called total amnesia. Barton Coastal. Memory failure occurs when one or more processes is disrupted.

If you are typing in a word document and the power suddenly surges before you can save you lose that information. The loss of one of the memory processes causes memory failure. (Dennis Coon, John O. Internet Frauds Examples. Mitterer, Patrick Brown, Rajesh Malik, Susanne McKenzie 2010) Sensory information is lost through decay and displacement. Short-term memory information is lost as a result of: decay, displacement, and interference. Memory Management Comparison Essay. These structures are the continuous memory areas and they too have the same security parameter. Linux divided the barton on sea lists into a specific set of categories which are an opening, active list, inactive-dirty list, inactive-clean list, and a free list.

An advantage that Linux has over other operating systems is the amount of control and reconfigurability that each user has over barton defences the computing environment. With this in mind it is no surprise that Linux was designed for woolworth limited, a multiuser environment. All the users and. Polygraphs and Reconstructive Memory Essays. muscles or squeezing toes (Kassin, Fein Markus, 2010). Barton. 2) Summarize the matalan southend times theory of reconstructive memory as it relates to eyewitness testimony.

What does the coastal research suggest about the use of such testimony from children? Elizabeth Loftus developed the reconstructive memory theory. According to this theory eyewitness testimonies are sometimes inaccurate due to reconstruction of the memory (Kassin, Fein Markus, 2010). Loftus explains that when individuals witness an internet examples, event the information is. The idea behind this is consistent with what a memory mechanism should and can possess. Donald Hebb wrote, When an axon of cell A. excites cell B and repeatedly takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or more cells so that A 's efficiency as one of the cells firing B is increased (4) Thus, memory is likely to involve a strengthening of synaptic activity. This Hebb's rule closely resembles the definition of on sea coastal defences LTP in that learning is accompanied by an increase. Apparently this was due to an increased emotional personal consequentiallity felt their part of society.

Therefore self referring prior knowledge of congo belgium surprising important events is thought to support privileged encoding of FMs compared to other mundane memories. In support for this Livingstone (1967) proposed that when an event passes a certain biological criterion, the limbic system discharges into the reticular system, which further discharges throughout the barton on sea defences cortical hemispheres. This firing above a certain. Essay on Henry Wadsworth Longefellow and the women, My Lost Youth Longfellow accommodates this conclusion by telling, “Of all my boyish dreams. …It murmurs and on sea, whispers still.” Is there truly any being who could refute these claims? Perhaps not every person has “boyish dreams”, but those that possessed our imaginations as children, seem to fade away into only our deep memory, but are never truly forgotten. This is a simple elucidation as to why nearly anybody can precisely remember their own childhood fantasies and dreams. This provocative part of the poem draws. you plan to make. Childhood obesity really isn’t that big of a problem/ There aren’t that many obese children in America. We shouldn’t have to worry about childhood obesity, because it isn’t affecting us/our children.

We shouldn’t have to help prevent/solve this problem, because it isn’t us/our children that are obese. 6. a list of sources you have looked at on the topic at this point Paoletti, J. (2007). Tipping the scales: What nurses need to know about the limited childhood obesity epidemic. index into on sea coastal defences, a segment table which contains base address of each segment in physical memory and reference effect, a limit of segment. Segment offset (o) -- segment offset is first checked against limit and then is combined with base address to define the physical memory address. Simple Segmentation In simple segmentation each program is subdivided into blocks of non-equal size called segments. When a process gets loaded into main memory, its different segments can be located anywhere. Barton On Sea Coastal Defences. Each segment is fully packed with. Human Memory Model, Thinking, and effect, Intelligence Essay.

which keeps or stores memories or informations in human memory and the third process is retrieval which it access information that was encoded than stored in human memory. Barton On Sea Coastal Defences. Sensory memory is the first stage of memory; the matalan environment information will be stored immediate, for a short time, duration is couple second, the coastal defences capacity is not that large, according to congo belgium (Dr. Abbott, n.d. para5) we have “memory of vision also called iconic memory” and “audition (hearing) called echoic memory”. Barton Coastal Defences. The characteristic. and childhood obesity. Marketing to children is an effective way to promote for chain restaurants, by using products such as toys in self reference their meals, advertising of the products on television and directly in the restaurant, and being promoted on children’s television it encourages children to make unhealthy choices. Marketing to on sea coastal children and having a nutritionally balanced meal should be an equal compromise; the health of children should take a forefront when addressing the congo belgium issue of childhood obesity. Introduction to Early Childhood Education Essay.

appealing and encouraging for the children. Requirements are taken to ensure children are protected from infections and defences, accidents and matalan opening times, also educated in reasons for barton on sea coastal, doing so and how to protect themselves. Marotz, Cross, and Rush (2005) state that “early childhood is a prime time to promote good health, safety, and nutrition education” (p. 13). I believe nutrition is vitally important to the child not just for their physical health but also for their mental behaviour. Marotz, Cross, and Rush’s unit study (cited. Essay on Incidence of Childhood Obesity. representative of social epidemiology because childhood obesity is primarily caused by environmental factors. Sure it can be argued that heredity and family genes plays a role because children with parents affected by obesity are more likely to obtain it.

However, genes alone do not dictate whether a child is affected by obesity. Congo Belgium. Social factors such as dietary patterns, socioeconomic status, lack of physical activity and environment all contribute to barton defences childhood obesity. Incidence or Prevalence Study: Extended memory is a seamless continuation of the original 1 MB address space on reference 80286 and 80386 computers. Extended memory always starts exactly at 1024K, where the 384K UMA ends. There are no exceptions (Memory).

Windows 3.1 used swapping as part of coastal it’s memory managment scheme. The system supported concurrent execution of self reference effect processes in memory. If a new process is loaded and there is insufficient main memory an on sea, old process is swapped to disk. Congo Belgium. This swapping process is called virtual memory. Windows. Essay on The Persistence of Memory. Because of this, the audience does not know whether the environment is hot, cold, or in between.

Dali uses this vagueness to instill anxiety in the audience caused by uncertainty and inability to control the surroundings. Barton Coastal. In The Persistence of Memory, Dali uses soft shades of blue, yellow, and brown to provide calming contrast to the feelings of anxiousness evoked by the irrational, disorderly, and paranormal aspects of the painting. The only object. Evaluating People#x27;s Memory Considering Different Factors Essay. experiment. Self Effect. This will allow me to find, almost truthfully, how good people's memories are. In my case experiments will usually work better than questionnaires. A questionnaire, which would merely ask questions with regard to barton the individual's memory, might return with false or spoilt data, which would render my project invalid. This is especially so, if the questions are directly related to the person's memory.

This would embarrass someone if he admitted that he can forget something. Essay about Radcliffe and woolworth, Wordsworth: Nature, Travel, and barton coastal, Memory. spare that venerable tree (Radcliffe 16) which are incomprehensible to Quesnel, who does not share St. Aubert's reverence for woolworth, the property - indeed, he regards it only barton as property to be done with as he wishes. The old tree continues to evoke memories of earlier and happier times for St.

Aubert when he visits Quesnel again after the death of internet Mme. St. Aubert - the meeting at barton on sea coastal which we are first introduced to Signor Montoni - and, as the visit concludes, Radcliffe points out congo belgium that Emily observed.

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You Are What You Eat: How Food Affects Your Mood. For thousands of years, people have believed that food could influence their health and well-being. Hippocrates, the barton coastal defences, father of modern medicine, once said: “Let your food be your medicine, and your medicine be your food” (1). In medieval times, people started to take great interest in how certain foods affected their mood and temperament. Many medical culinary textbooks of the congo belgium, time described the relationship between food and mood.

For example, quince, dates and elderberries were used as mood enhancers, lettuce and chicory as tranquilizers, and apples, pomegranates, beef and eggs as erotic stimulants (1). On Sea Coastal Defences! The past 80 years have seen immense progress in research, primarily short-term human trials and the women of brewster place, animal studies, showing how certain foods change brain structure, chemistry, and defences, physiology thus affecting mood and performance. Matalan Southend Opening! These studies suggest that foods directly influencing brain neurotransmitter systems have the greatest effects on mood, at least temporarily. In turn, mood can also influence our food choices and barton defences, expectations on the effects of certain foods can influence our perception. Chocolate is effect, a powerful mood enhancer. Complex Mood-Food Relationships.

The relationship between food and mood in individuals is complex and depends “on the time of day, the type and macronutrient composition of food, the amount of food consumed, and the age and dietary history of the subject” (2).In one study by Spring et al. (1983), 184 adults either consumed a protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich meal. After two hours, their mood and performance were assessed (3). The effects of the meal differed for female and male subjects and for younger and on sea coastal, older participants. Woolworth Limited! For example, females reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate meal whereas males reported greater calmness. In addition, participants aged 40 years or older showed impairments on on sea coastal a test of sustained selective attention after a carbohydrate lunch. Furthermore, circadian rhythms influence our energy levels and performance throughout the reference effect, day. “Early birds” feel most productive the first part of the day and their food choices become particularly important during lunch and throughout the barton on sea coastal defences, afternoon. “Night Owls” feel most energetic later in the day and should pay attention to their breakfast choices as they can increase or decrease energy levels and influence cognitive functioning.

For example, according to Michaud et al. (1991), if you are an evening person and you skip breakfast, your cognitive performance might be impaired. Internet Frauds! A large breakfast rich in protein, however, could improve your recall performance but might impair your concentration (4). This illustrates the complexity of relationships between food and barton on sea, mood and the need to find a healthy balance of food choices. The Serotonin Theory: the effects of carbohydrates and protein. Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that the brain produces from tryptophan contained in foods such as “clams, oysters, escargots, octopus, squids, banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, turkey”, spinach, and eggs (1). Functions of serotonin include the regulation of sleep, appetite, and impulse control.

Increased serotonin levels are related to mood elevation. Wurtman and Wurtman (1989) developed a theory suggesting that a diet rich in carbohydrates can relieve depression and elevate mood in disorders such as carbohydrate craving obesity, pre-menstrual syndrome, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (5). They theorized that increased patients’ carbohydrate intake associated with these disorders represented self-medicating attempts and the women of brewster, that carbohydrates increased serotonin synthesis. A protein rich diet, in contrary, decreases brain serotonin levels. The synthesis of serotonin in the brain is limited by the availability of its precursor tryptophan. Barton On Sea Coastal! The large amino acids such as tryptophan, valine, tyrosine, and leucine share the same transport carrier across the blood-brain barrier (1). The transport of tryptophan into the brain is reference effect, “proportional to the ratio of its concentration to that of the barton defences, sum total” of the other large amino acids since they compete for available transporters (1). Eating foods high in protein increases the amount of many amino acids in the blood but not of tryptophan, which is only found in low doses in dietary protein. Matalan! Therefore, many large amino acids compete with a small amount of coastal defences, tryptophan for transport into the brain, meaning that less tryptophan is available for serotonin synthesis.

Consuming foods high in carbohydrates can also change amino acid levels in the blood. As blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released and enables muscle tissues to take up most amino acids except for tryptophan, which is bound to albumin in self, the blood. As a result, the ratio of tryptophan relative to other amino acids in the blood increases, which enables tryptophan to bind to transporters, enter the brain in barton coastal defences, large amounts, and the women of brewster place, stimulate serotonin synthesis (5). The potential of increased carbohydrate intake to treat depression, pre-menstrual syndrome and barton on sea, SAD remains small, however. Benton and examples, Donohoe (1999) found that only a protein content of barton coastal, less than 2 percent of a meal favored the rise in serotonin levels.

Foods high in carbohydrates such as bread and potatoes contain 15 percent and 10 percent of calories, respectively, that come from protein thereby undermining the effects of carbohydrates on serotonin levels (5). In addition, “carbohydrate craving” is southend opening times, not an accurate description to describe the craving for foods such as chocolate, ice cream, and other sweets. Barton Coastal Defences! Although people might think that these foods are high in carbohydrates because of their sweet taste, most of the calories come from fat and contain enough protein to undermine any effect of of brewster, carbohydrates on serotonin levels (6). Rather, taste preferences for sweets seem already present at barton on sea defences birth. For example, the facial expressions of the women of brewster place, newborns indicate a positive response to sweet stimuli and a negative response to bitter stimuli (7). Barton! The innate preference for sweet-tasting foods might have adaptive value since bitter tastes could indicate the presence of toxins and sweetness signals a source of energy in the form of carbohydrates. The effects of chocolate.

Chocolate has a strong effect on mood, generally increasing pleasant feelings and reducing tension. Nevertheless, some women, especially those trying to lose weight, experience guilt after eating chocolate (8). Many people consume chocolate when they are in negative moods such as boredom, anger, depression and of brewster place, tiredness, experience stress, or are in a particularly happy mood. Furthermore, many women label themselves as “chocoholics,” which led researchers to on sea coastal defences examine the internet frauds, effects of psychoactive substances in chocolate that potentially could create a drug-like addiction (6). Chocolate contains a number of potentially psychoactive chemicals such as anandamines which stimulate the barton defences, brain in the same way as cannabis does, tyramine and phenylethylamine which have similar effects as amphetamine, and theobromine and caffeine which act as stimulants (6).

Nevertheless, these substances are present in chocolate in very low concentrations. For example, 2 to 3g of phenylethylamine are needed to limited induce an antidepressant effect, but a 50g chocolate bar only barton on sea defences contains a third of a milligram (6). In 1994, Michener and Rozin conducted an important experiment, which showed that the sensory factors associated with the consumption of chocolate produce the chocolate cravings rather than psychoactive substances. Participants were supplied with boxes that contained either milk chocolate, white chocolate, cocoa powder capsules or white chocolate with cocoa and instructed to eat the contents of one box when they experienced a craving for chocolate. If the limited, chemicals in chocolate produced the barton on sea defences, craving, the intake of pure cocoa would satisfy it. Interestingly, only milk chocolate could alleviate the desire for chocolate. White chocolate was not as effective and and Boston: Industry, adding cocoa to white chocolate did not alter the results. Cocoa powder could not satisfy the craving at all. The unique taste and defences, feel of chocolate in the mouth is congo belgium, responsible for the chocolate craving (8). Barton Coastal Defences! Therefore, chocolate can serve as a powerful mood enhancer. Caffeine: a psychoactive drug.

Caffeine, mostly consumed in woolworth, the form of barton, coffee and tea, has stimulant effects enhancing alertness, vigilance, and reaction time but also increases anxiety in the women of brewster, susceptible individuals. It is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world with an estimated global consumption of 120,000 tonnes per year (7). Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors in the brain and can relieve headaches, drowsiness and fatigue. On Sea Coastal Defences! Short-term caffeine deprivation in regular users can lead to withdrawal symptoms (7). Personality might determine caffeine use. For example, evening people who have difficulty getting up in congo belgium, the morning can improve their alertness and energy levels through caffeine. Contrarily, caffeine can cause unpleasant effects in people who have high levels of anxiety. Fish oil pills are sold as Omega-3 fatty acid supplements.

Omega-3 fatty acids can influence mood, behavior and personality. Low blood levels of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depression, pessimism and barton coastal, impulsivity, according to a study by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (9). Self! In addition, they can play a role in barton, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse and effect, attention deficit disorder. In recent decades, people in developed countries have consumed greater amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, contained in foods such as eggs, poultry, baked goods, whole-grain bread, nuts, and many oils, that outcompete omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both members of the omega-3 fatty acid family, contribute to coastal the fluidity of the cell membrane thereby playing an important role in brain development and functioning (10). Southend Opening Times! Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, meat, and nut oils. Many foods such as bread, yogurt, orange juice, milk, and eggs are oftentimes fortified with omega-3 fatty acids as well.

According to one study by barton on sea defences Benton and Donohoe (1999), insufficient amounts of thiamine or Vitamin B1 caused “introversion, inactivity, fatigue, decreased self-confidence and generally poorer mood” in participants (5). Improved thiamine status increased well-being, sociability, and overall energy levels. Thiamine is contained in foods such as cereal grains, pork, yeast, potatoes, cauliflower, oranges, and eggs and can influence mood states. Matalan Southend Opening Times! Thiamine deficiency is very rare in the United States, however. Iron deficiency represents one of the most common nutritional problems in both developing and barton on sea, developed countries affecting over and Boston: The Copper-Mining Industry Essay 2 billion people worldwide. Iron deficiency anemia can result in depressed mood, lethargy and problems with attention (5).

A low iron status is most common among women, children, vegetarians, and people who follow a diet. Iron deficiency also results in a decreased ability to exercise. Barton Coastal Defences! Foods rich in iron include liver, vegetables such as broccoli, asparagus, and Michigan The Copper-Mining Industry, parsley, seafood, iron-fortified grains, greens, nuts, meat, and dried fruits. Besides helping in the prevention of neural tube defects, folic acid also plays an important role in the brain. Folic acid deficiency, which is rare in the general population, is associated with depressed mood. Psychiatric patients are particularly at risk for developing folic acid deficiency because of possible disordered eating habits caused by a loss of appetite and anticonvulsant drugs, which inhibit folic acid absorption (6).

Foods rich in folic acid include dark, leafy green vegetables, liver and other organ meats, poultry, oranges and grapefruits, nuts, sprouts, and whole wheat breads. Food effects on emotions. Studies have found that diets low in carbohydrates increased feelings of anger, depression, and tension and diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates increased anger (6). Diets high in barton on sea defences, carbohydrates have a generally uplifting effect on limited mood. Mood effects on food choice. As much as food can affect our mood, our mood can also affect our food choices. In a study by Macht (1999), female and male participants were asked to report how their eating patterns changed with emotions of anger, fear, sadness, and joy. When experiencing anger and joy, participants experienced increased hunger as compared to feelings of fear and sadness. Anger increased comfort and impulsive eating, and on sea, joy increased eating for pleasure (6).

Another study found that people eat more less-healthy comfort foods when they are sad (11). Participants either watched a happy or a sad movie and were provided with buttered popcorn or seedless grapes throughout the movie. The group watching the upbeat movie consumed significantly more grapes and less popcorn than the matalan southend, group watching the sad movie. In addition, when participants were provided with nutritional information, the sad people consumed less popcorn than the happy people and the happy people did not alter their consumption (11). Psychological effects of food consumption. Cognitive factors are often more powerful than physiological factors (6). Barton On Sea! For example, if a group of Michigan and Boston: Essay, dieting individuals is asked to eat foods high in barton on sea coastal defences, calories, they might experience anxiety and opening, other negative emotions because they are afraid of on sea defences, gaining weight. Limited! These effects have nothing to do with the ingredients of the foods themselves. In addition, learned appetites can also influence our experience of foods. For example, our favorite foods usually trigger positive emotions. Even the smell of food can evoke a strong emotional experience.

Furthermore, the barton on sea defences, situation in southend times, which food is consumed and our past experience with particular foods also affects our emotional response (6, 7). For example, a person who thinks that drinking a cup of coffee will increase alertness might feel more alert even after drinking decaffeinated coffee. How to maximize the coastal defences, benefits of food on mood. The perfect diet to enhance mood and congo belgium, optimize performance and health remains unknown. Barton On Sea! Although abundant research exists on food-mood relationships, the findings of these studies are often generalized and subjective. For example, the congo belgium, ability of carbohydrates to positively influence mood remains controversial. Therefore, it seems best to follow a well-balanced diet rich in barton coastal, protein, moderate in congo belgium, carbohydrates and low in fat since this could generally improve mood and energy levels. Barton Coastal! This should also ensure the adequate supply of micronutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folic acid and thiamine. Furthermore, to matalan opening times avoid the sense of guilt evoked from overindulging in craved foods such as chocolate, the barton on sea, best way is to manage their intake such as including them in small amounts with meals and avoiding them when hungry. In addition, reading the frauds, labels before consuming these comfort foods can also deter from overconsumption. 1. Prasad, C. (1998).

Food, mood and health: a neurobiological outlook. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31(12): 1517-1527. 2. Rogers P.J. Lloyd H.M. (1994). Nutrition and mental performance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 53: 443-456. 3. Barton Defences! Spring, B et al. (1983). “Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and performance: interactions with sex and age”. Journal of psychiatric research (0022-3956) , 17 (2): 155. 4. Michaud C., Musse N., Nicolas DI Mejan L. Internet Frauds! (1991). Effects of on sea, breakfast size on congo belgium short-term memory concentration and blood glucose. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12: 53-57.

5. Coastal! Benon D. Donohoe, RT. Limited! 1999. Barton Coastal! The effects of nutrients on mood. Public Heath Nutrition, 2(3A): 403-9. 6. Ottley, C. 2000. Food and mood. Nursing Standard, 15(2): 46-52. 7. Rogers, P. 1995. Food, mood and appetite. Nutrition Research Reviews, 8: 243-269.

8. Of Brewster! Macht, M. Dettmer, D. 2006. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple. Appetite . 46(3): 332-336. 9. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (2006, March 4). Omega 3 Fatty Acids Influence Mood, Impulsivity And Personality, Study Indicates. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from

10. Pawels, E. K. Volterrani, D. On Sea Defences! (2008). “Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?”. Drug news perspectives (0214-0934), 21 (8): 446. 11. Congo Belgium! Lang, Susan. (2007). “Mood-food connection: We eat more and barton on sea coastal defences, less-healthy comfort foods when we feel down, study finds”. Cornell Chronicle . Sewage Can Soon Be Converted into Bio-based Fuel. Cassiopea jellyfish prove that sleep requires no brain. A Genetic Explanation for the Process of Aging. Ancient DNA Explains Human Origins and Prehistory.

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After reading `The Rocking-Horse Winner` by defences D. H. Lawrence. One of the most interesting aspects about D.H. Lawrence#8217;s short-story, #8220;The Rocking-Horse Winner,#8221; (1926) is the story#8217;s haunting, almost horrific imagery. Although the story conveys a harsh theme, that of child-exploitation, the climax of the story and the associated images create an woolworth, unforgettable experience for the reader. Many great works of fiction defy categorization and draw from various genres. A story such as #8220;The Rocking-Horse Winner#8221; presents a difficulty so far as classifying the story into a specific genre. We will write a custom essay sample. on After reading `The Rocking-Horse Winner` by D. Barton On Sea Defences. H. Lawrence or any similar. topic specifically for you. There are good reasons to consider the story as a satirical look at the money-mad state of modern-society as Lawrence experienced it nearly one-hundred years ago.

There are also good reasons to consider the story to be a work of fantasy of speculative fiction. In final analysis, the story, though not without aspects of black humor, is probably best regarded as a horror story with a very strong social message. The story is also, #8220;among other things, a story of the supernatural.#8221; (Moore, 1951, p. Congo Belgium. 278) and, as such, is very memorable due to the underlying mystery of the story#8217;s fantastical elements. Of course, a sensitive reader might decide or intuit that the source of on sea coastal defences Paul#8217;s uncanny power to predict the internet frauds, race winers was born out of his fierce desire to be loved, a mechanism or #8220;rational#8221; explanation for the boy#8217;s abilities is coastal never offered. The absence of any rational explanation for the boy#8217;s ability assures that the congo belgium, reader will assume it is born out of love and innocence, which allows Lawrence the chance to develop his penetrating theme: #8220;The theme of greed illustrates the consequence of barton coastal defences a boy#8217;s having to win his mother#8217;s approval through material possessions rather than the unconditional love that parents feel for their children#8221; (Smith, 2002, p. 160) and this theme is an important theme #8212; as important as any theme in literature.

The reason this theme is so important is that no society of civilization can afford to ignore or abuse their children because children represent the self effect, future of defences any given society. As such, it is the role of. Page 2 After reading `The Rocking-Horse Winner` by D. H. Lawrence Essay. adults to nurture #8212; rather than exploit #8212; children. However, all too often, and even more-so in Lawrence#8217;s time, children were regarded merely as a #8220;means to an end#8221; or as a nuisance or an obligation. Congo Belgium. The exploitation of children is symbolized in the story not only by Paul himself, but by the rocking-horse which he rides to his feverish visions of #8220;luck#8221; and money: #8220;the innocent [#8230;] young boy who, ironically, rides a child#8217;s toy to on sea satisfy the urges of the adults in his life#8221; (Smith, 2002, p. 160). Obviously, the even greater irony is that the child, Paul, is in internet examples practice more #8220;adult#8221; than the chronologically mature people around him.

His actions are born out of the desire to serve and gratify those he loves as he sees their needs and on sea coastal expectations. On the other hand, the #8220;adults#8221; in Paul#8217;s world fail to recognize that Paul is frauds even a person, let alone a child who needs their guidance and protection. On Sea Coastal. The irony is matalan southend opening that the #8220;adults'#8221; pursuit of money is merely a game, a pursuit of children while their true purpose and responsibility in life: to defences nurture and protect the young and to Michigan and Boston: Industry Essay grow a better world, is left undone while they pursue material greed. That is why, at root, the story is a horror story adn not merely black-satire, because the on sea defences, exploitation of Paul is final: he is made to ride his #8220;luck#8221; until it kills him: #8220;The Rocking-Horse Winner#8221; is frauds a horrible commentary on today#8217;s money-madness-horrible because its evil forces crush the child in the story#8221; (Moore, 1951, p. 277). The idea that a child#8217;s love is turned through the greed of the barton defences, adults to nothing more than money#8230;and death creates a tragic ending for the story which makes the story#8217;s moral even more profound. It is possible that Lawrence was speaking not only, literally, of the children in society who are put at risk by the women place greed and barton defences exploitation, but the essential innocence and goodness that is in everyone, whether they are a child or an adult, and how greed and selfishness can corrupt and murder those aspects within individuals. Woolworth Limited. This reading of the barton on sea, stroy views the aspects of the narrative as symbols: the boy, Paul, as a symbol for humanity#8217;s innocence and goodness, the rocking horse as a symbol of the exploitation of childhood, the money as symbols of love turned to greed, and death as symbol of the woolworth limited, humanity#8217;s loss of its compassion and innocence. This type of defences interpretation allows the story to woolworth be read as having a broad, sociological implication and could, in some ways, even be consider a political interpretation. Barton On Sea Coastal. If the congo belgium, story is,#8221;in the truest sense, a horror story#8221; (Moore, 1951, p. 279) part of that true horror comes from the fact that Lawrence was able to reach a universal expression of the social injustices he perceived and comment on these injustices through a cast of characters and a progression of images that could be very widely comprehended. This story is one of the most powerful, memorable and complex pieces of literature that I have encountered and coastal I think that the fact that it functions not only as a work of congo belgium art but as a work of deep social significance means that this story deserves a wide readership. Barton On Sea Coastal. There are many stories which seek to point out social ills or to present tragedies which contain a lesson or a moral, but few works of fiction are as haunting or as universally important as D.H.

Lawrence#8217;s #8220;The Rocking-Horse Winner.#8221; In this tale, #8220;Lawrence has here written a study not only of the gambling neurosis-even the winners are destroyedbut also of the entire money neurosis that destroys so many modern families#8221; (Moore, 1951, p. 278) and he has reminded anyone who cares to observe his story that the price of greed is innocence and love. Moore, H. T. (1951). The Life and Works of D. H. Lawrence (1st ed.). New York: Twayne. Smith, P. A. (2002).

Thematic Guide to of brewster place Popular Short Stories. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

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Cosi by Louis Nowra (Notes by English Works) Cosi ‘s depiction of the “funny farm”: what is normal? by Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works. Set in barton on sea defences, the remnants of a burnt-out theatre, and drawing upon the political and social context of the Vietnam War, Louis Nowra’s play Cosi challenges our perceptions about love, madness and southend opening, politics. Whilst the inmates in the asylum suffer from various degrees of insanity and drug addictions, they often appear at on sea defences times more “sane” than their visitors. The more the self audience personalises the characters and the more we become aware of similarities between the inmates and on sea defences, the “normal” people, then the more we are encouraged to challenge the stereotypical perception of a “mad” person. As the borders become hazy, we start to think about the subtle signs of madness and darkness in our own lives.

Nowra uses humour, irony and cynicism to blur the boundaries and subvert the distinctions between madness and sanity: The differences among the inmates shows that it is difficult to stereotype the patients. Justin tells Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… (5). He also tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the women of brewster place, the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) which alludes to the fact that the sane person is “clothed”; the “madman” nakedly exposes his madness. Lewis becomes a bridge between the two worlds and his commitment and attachment to on sea defences the insane reveal his growing awareness of their problems and Michigan The Copper-Mining Essay, often their similarities The role reversal between Roy and Lewis and similarities between Roy and Nick shed light on the superficial distinctions. The fact that there is not a clear distinction between the characters who are obviously mad, and those who are suffering from an addiction, already makes the audience question the stereotypes of “madness”. Whilst some of the characters are obviously mad such as Doug and Ruth, characters like Zac and Cherry rarely exhibit obvious signs of madness. Likewise, Julie is suffering from coastal defences, a drug addiction and is much more capable, more aware and more realistic than the other inmates, but just as sad, nonetheless.

Nowra constructs Lewis as a bridge between the two worlds, which enables him to show how these two worlds clash and collide. This function as a “bridge” also helps the playwright concentrate on similarities between the inside and the outside world so that the audience once again does not have a clear sense of woolworth limited, distinction. At the barton coastal defences outset of the play, Justin asks Lewis, “what ward are you from”, suggesting that he could easily be mistaken for an inmate. As the audience becomes increasingly aware of the self effect inmates’ personal problems, we recognise important similarities. As Justin reaffirms to Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… But you get my drift? (5).” The fact that Lewis’ grandmother was certified insane also links him to the two separate worlds.

As such, members of the audience are challenged to reflect upon their own backgrounds and problems and on sea, many would be able to identify with some aspects of the characters, especially where love is concerned. Times. One of the on sea coastal defences reasons that Roy chooses the play is because of his disturbed childhood and the fact that he is seeking to recapture an idyllic world of love. He, too, has a story of madness hidden in the closet. He chooses Mozart’s opera Cosi in an attempt to recapture or rekindle his idealistic dream of childhood – a romantic idyll that he never experienced. He hopes that it will help him escape the depressing life at the asylum, and recapture his ideal. He wants the play to recapture “lullabies sung to me by my beautiful mother”. This is congo belgium, particularly sad given Roy’s life as an orphan. (64) Another way that Nowra challenges the stereotypes of madness is evident in barton coastal defences, the relationship between Roy and Lewis whereby their role reversal seems to and Boston: Industry imply that Roy is more rational than Lewis.

Initially Roy appears more capable and confident than Lewis and Lewis is hesitant, naive and inexperienced. Barton Defences. As Roy constantly humorously reminds the audience, he “could direct a poofter to a man’s dunny”. Roy chooses the play, which becomes an important theme in Cosi. Also the way Nowra sets Lewis up for ridicule makes the audience think that perhaps Lewis is, at the women place times, more insane or peculiar than Roy. Nowra vindicates Roy’s choice of play, which again shows that he is in coastal defences, touch with the needs of the inmates. At times, Roy appears decisive and authoritative and southend opening times, has worthy dreams of introducing culture to the asylum. In this instance, he not only sets himself apart from barton coastal defences, those in the asylum but also from Australians. Nowra caustically states that Australians are only familiar with the “culture” on cheddar cheese.

Not only is the role reversal between these two main characters an indicator of the inability to typecast people, but there are similarities between Nick and Roy. Both have visions of congo belgium, grandeur; both simplistically want to change their environment etc. Is this another form of barton coastal, madness? As Nowra would also suggest, just because Roy is an orphan, or has visions of frauds examples, grandeur, or as it turns out has stage fright does not make him automatically insane. However, as their relationship develops, ironically Lewis grows in stature and confidence and barton on sea coastal, Roy becomes diminished especially through stage fright, which perhaps gives the audience a glimpse into his insanity.

He appears to be incorrigible – he irritates people to of brewster place such an extent that he is constantly moved from “ward to ward” Nick seems to coastal defences share some of the “stereotypically” mad syndromes exhibited by Roy such as a delusional tendency towards self- grandeur, which once again encourages the internet frauds examples audience to question who is “mad”. Again, Justin’s reference to the Emperor’s nakedness also sheds some light on the way Nowra makes us question the differences between sanity and barton coastal, insanity. Matalan Times. When Justin tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) this alludes to the fact that the “madman” shows his madness. His madness is clearly evident from his nakedness. Defences. As such Justin also alludes to the fact that the difference is that sane people conceal their madness in many subtle and congo belgium, not so subtle ways. Perhaps we can see that Roy’s delusions of grandeur are obviously misplaced in the asylum and that this could be a sign of his madness. However, Nick also shows similar delusions, but they are perhaps more subtle. Roy shares similarities with Nick, which makes us question whether Nick is insane or Roy is just as sane.

As a visionary, Roy is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. He instigates the play and has a grand idea of barton, bringing “culture” to the institution. Internet Examples. He wants to on sea implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I aim for woolworth the stars.” Similarly Nick believes that the moratorium ends up changing Australia “forever”. He is just as arrogant and supercilious in on sea coastal, his belief that politics is the only worthy ideal and self effect, can be stripped of empathy and sentiment. Nick is set up for ridicule by hypocritically sympathising with the Vietnamese victims but scorning and humiliating the on sea defences “right wing nuts” and congo belgium, the ‘funny farm”. Also Nowra constructs characters such as Nick and Lucy to show that often there are also similarities between their outlook and behaviour and the inmates. Defences. In fact, there are many similarities between the patients and the citizens in the world. For example, Roy and Nick both share a vision and both world views are legitimized throughout the play. Nick is examples, rather simplistic in his world view, believing that the march and moratorium can change the world. Barton. He is happy that Australia was “forever changed”. He belittles the play and believes that those who are focusing on love are being trivial. (Such people are “definitely mad”.) However, Nowra shows that Roy is woolworth, just as idealistic, but perhaps he holds a more realistic vision about on sea love and hatred.

Neither visions are more important than each other. As a visionary, Roy is a perfect contrast to Nick and is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. However, the similarities between characters enables Nowra to congo belgium subvert the clear distinctions between “mad” and “sane”. Roy instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” the institution. Barton. he wants to implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I am for the stars.” Throughout the course of the play, Nowra suggests that typically “mad” people do have more difficulty with the concept of “illusion” than sane people do.

Ruth struggles with the concept of the play and focuses on how many steps she must “literally” take. She states, “I can handle something being an woolworth limited, illusion and real but not at the same time”. Roy wants to use toy soldiers as a backdrop and he wonders whether the typically “mad” audience will recognize these as symbols. Henry also takes a literal view of the on sea coastal defences soldiers’ uniform and congo belgium, the Albanian communists, which he believes denigrates his father’s involvement in war. Conversely, there are signs of fantasy in Nick’s and Lucy’s world as they show aspects of Cosi in their own love relationships. Nowra constructs the characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. However, in barton, their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness and fantasy. They believe it is so easy to “save the world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule.

Their attitude to the asylum patients is southend, condescending, and yet they do not achieve perhaps any more or less than the “mad” patients. Personally, and professionally, Lewis changes and on sea, matures as he gains real-life experience. Lewis’s skills as a director are challenged as he directs the play, Cosi Fan Tutte, and frauds examples, gains in stature as he becomes personally committed to the inmates. His goal is to on sea coastal try to ‘bring them out of themselves”, but in such a gloomy and self reference, dark setting and the constant threat of Doug’s pyromaniac tendencies suggest that the play is doomed from the start. Initially Lewis is inexperienced and defences, naive and has had very little experience either directing a play or working with certified patients, which makes the Michigan Essay goal somewhat farcical. As a result, Lewis has a lot to learn, and ironically Roy, an inmate, helps him to become more assertive and defences, sympathetic towards the actors. Roy constantly reminds him that the actors are “crying out for direction” – not only because they have irrational tendencies, but they also have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality. Because such characters already inhabit the boundary areas, they have difficulty thinking symbolically – that is they may struggle to differentiate “real” from “toy” soldiers. Congo Belgium. Roy also reminds Lewis that he is dealing with a “mad audience”.

Not only does he specifically need to tell Ruth just how many steps she must take, but he also needs to barton on sea coastal defences protect Henry’s vulnerabilities and the sense of matalan southend times, betrayal he feels on account of his father when Lewis wants to dress up the two protagonists as Albanians. Likewise, Ruth fears being set up for ridicule should she forget the words of barton on sea coastal defences, a song. However, despite these difficulties Lewis does rise to the occasion and the women of brewster place, his choice to work on the play instead of joining the moratorium testifies to his growing confidence and desire to stage a successful play – which he does. Even Roy, subtly admires Lewis’s ability when he gives him a list of barton, instructions. Nowra positions Lewis’s involvement at the mental asylum as a journey of self-discovery. Not only does he have a personal link with madness, as his grandmother was certified insane, but Lewis must challenge his stereotypical attitudes towards madness.

Lewis comes to appreciate that there are no clear-cut boundaries. He realises as Justin says that they are “normal … well not quite”. The fact that towards the end of the self reference play Lewis drops his guard and becomes comfortable and intimate with the barton on sea coastal defences patients shows that he no longer fears them, because he sees them as people with foibles and shortcomings rather than as “madmen”. Personally, he also matures and develops as a person. He shows greater sensitivity and compassion. As Lewis becomes more deeply involved in the play, he has to challenge his personal priorities and think about his commitment to people. Lewis must temper his arrogance and gains sensitivity and compassion towards the inmates. Woolworth Limited. At first he was dismissive of their ability to act, but he cajoles them and learns that he must be careful of setting them up for ridicule. He realises that they fear exposure and humiliation; he must provide a comfortable and reassuring context for them to defences explore their creative side. Self. When he is forced to choose between attending the barton on sea coastal defences moratorium or practicing the play, he opts for the play which shows a fundamental shift in congo belgium, his views, values and priorities. Lewis also becomes more assertive when he categorically states to Lucy that he will not let the patients down.

He knows that if the play fails this could be embarrassing; they could look ridiculous which will severely harm their self-esteem. The sub-text of the play within a play, makes Lewis realise the significance of love as opposed to war. Initially he is flippant and barton on sea defences, cavalier, but when it affects him personally he is insulted. He realises that war is not necessarily the opening times “real theatre” and that love plays an on sea, enormous role in people’s lives . In fact, although Nowra does not suggest that their lack of love causes madness, it is a contributing factor in many of their conditions whether it be madness or addiction. His views on love evolve. If he previously echoed Lucy’s views that love is a “bourgeois indulgence of the privileged few”, he is forced to confront its significance when Lucy flippantly reveals her affair. Nowra states that Lewis is “stunned” thus showing the degree of his personal offence. Lewis spontaneously quotes Cosi , “Women’s constancy is like the woolworth Arabian phoenix..” which underscores his chauvinistic attitude which will be exposed as hypocritical. Finally, Lewis’ choice also shows his shift from barton on sea coastal defences, believing that the arena of war is the most important issue, thus challenging the priority of Nick’s views. Lewis’s views about love and politics are tested and eventually he shows a change in internet frauds, priorities.

Lewis’s flippant and cavalier view of love is tested. Previously he, like Lucy and barton coastal, Nick, prioritised to war as the “real theatre”. This is the time of the Vietnam War and limited, many students are involved in anti-war marches. Lewis echoes Lucy’s and barton coastal defences, Nick’s beliefs that love is a “bourgeoise” indulgence. Lewis also reflects the view exposed in the opera that women could not be trusted. He also realises that many inmates lack love and that this may be a contributing factor to their sadness, loneliness and desperation. Roy’s admission.

He is forced to realise that he is not that “constant” either and enjoys the attention from Julie and Cherry. Lewis’s chauvinistic views are challenged. Self. Women’s fidelity and constancy are a subtext and he is found wanting; also social context of barton on sea defences, “free love” and independence. One of the defining aspects within “Cosi” occurs with the irony of “a play within a play”, namely the production of Mozart’s “Cosi Fan Tutte” which works to promote the Michigan and Boston: Essay importance of coastal defences, love within the wider spectrum of “Cosi”. Matalan Southend. It is no accident that Roy chooses a play so focused on love, and it this which serves as the basis for underlying ideas of Lewis and the inmates about barton defences love and fidelity, regardless of whether or not they are agreement with the play. On numerous occasions ideas are extracted from Mozart’s opera supporting the importance of love and fidelity, such as the self reference effect idea that a “Women’s constancy is like that of the on sea coastal Arabian Phoenix, everyone swears by it by no-one has seen it.”. Other characters draw upon the contentious idea of the play as a “comedy” and Henry remarks that “Cosi Fan Tutte” has corrupting influence, stating that “whether women can be true is a tragedy” not a comedy as Lewis suggests. Roy’s perception on love’s place in internet, the world is barton coastal, unique as he demonstrates both the destruction it can cause as well as the joy it can bring. Roy generally serves as the secondary protagonist, driving the examples plot through sheer determination at times coupled with sporadic fits of depression. It is during one of those fits that the darker side of Roy is revealed when he states that “love is barton on sea defences, what you feel when you don’t have enough emotion left to hate”, a reference to Roy’s dissatisfaction with personal experiences in love.

This becomes clear when Roy’s true childhood is exposed. Roy spent his childhood moving between orphanages, always deprived of love. His delusions about his mother’s “beautiful Parisian gowns” provides a form of release. To balance the presence of effect, love in Cosi , Nowra also injects an element of realism into the play through politics, primarily those surrounding the Vietnam War. Set in barton on sea coastal defences, a period of political turmoil, the characters of congo belgium, Lucy and barton on sea defences, Nick prioritize politics over love, a concept which Lucy calls “an indulgence for the privileged few”. The concept of politics and war is further embedded into “Cosi” symbolically through fire and darkness, and it this which weakens and almost destroys the production of “Cosi Fan Tutte” and by extension the ideas of love, demonstrating its vulnerability. This suggests that “love does shit all for the starving masses” and for all that love is within “Cosi Fan Tutte”, it is useless with the “real” world of Vietnam where fire and darkness prevail. Nick’s and Lucy’s attitude to the play about and Boston: love reveals much about barton their own self-centred and rather arrogant attitude towards the congo belgium vulnerable people in on sea coastal defences, society. Nick tells him that he is just performing an “opera about a few upper class twits” (76) at congo belgium a “funny farm”. (77) Lucy is insensitive when she tells Lewis that she is sleeping with him but having sex with Nick. Lucy belittles Lewis’s involvement in the play because she thinks a play about love is typical of the “upper class twits” who are removed from the real battle of on sea coastal defences, life. Lucy thinks that “love is the self last gasp of bourgeois romanticism” (33) Lucy interprets love according to her narrow political framework.

She tells Lewis, that “love is an emotional indulgence of the privileged few” (70). She hates him doing an opera about barton love and fidelity while thousands of Vietnamese are being killed by American troops. The Copper-Mining Essay. Nick is critical of their desire to do a play about love and barton coastal defences, infidelity in this day and age (41) “They’re definitely mad”. Nowra constructs these characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness.

That they believe it is so easy to “save the world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule. In the world of Cosi , Nick and Lucy represent the “real world”. They are typical of the informed, educated students who are trying to make a difference. They are involved in “real life issues”, “important” issues of the day, such as politics. They idealistically believe that they can make a difference and realize their world view. Nick believes that it is possible to make changes. Woolworth Limited. He is barton on sea, “getting fed up with our society”. He is typical of those who “changes and we want them now!” Lucy also extols Nick’s virtues because she notices how he “gets things done and limited, does things that matter (70).

The most important thing in barton, their lives is the moratorium march which is woolworth, critical of Australia’s involvement in Vietnam. Following the march, Nick is really happy that “Australia was changed forever” today. Barton Coastal Defences. 76. Self-importantly, Lucy declares her support for examples Nick: “He’s doing a play that’s relevant and he’s doing something about the war in Vietnam. Coastal Defences. After rehearsals we’ll go on to the moratorium meeting. Southend Opening Times. It’s going to be huge. Absolutely huge.

The biggest protest ever seen in Australia.” (70) Nowra deliberately constructs Roy as a character who hovers on the border between madness and sanity and thereby challenges the audience’s preconceived and settled notions about insanity and the audience is often left in suspense wondering why Roy has been certified. As an intellectual and “cultured” person, Roy appears to on sea defences be one of the most lucid characters in the play and cynically mentors the naive and simple-minded Lewis. Internet Frauds Examples. Such a role reversal between them is instructive and the play about love eventually mirrors to Lewis his own hypocrisy, which proves to be a fortuitous choice. On Sea Coastal Defences. Also similarities abound between Roy and Nick such as their simple-minded delusions of grandeur which once again undermines distinctions between sanity and insanity. If Roy “aims for the stars”, Nick believes that their march single-handedly changed the Michigan and Boston: world. Furthermore, Roy’s desire to “bring culture to this place” is portrayed in an honourable light, albeit sarcastically; however Nowra reserves his sarcasm not for Roy but for Australians who believe that culture is the “stuff that grows on barton defences, stale cheddar”. Although Roy does have anti-social tendencies and shortcomings such as his paranoia and stage-fright and a deprived childhood which has yielded to romantic illusions, it would be too simplistic to conclude that these are a sign of madness.

Notes on Cosi , Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes) For Excellence in The Copper-Mining Industry Essay, VCE: please see our recently published Arguments and Persuasive Language.