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A Sample Tattoo Shop Business Plan Template. Are you about Essay on starting a tattoo shop? If YES, here is a complete sample tattoo shop business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a tattoo shop. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample tattoo shop marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for tattoo shops. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Tattooing is popular and can be found in many cultures. Theory! In fact, Tattooing is of words, trending for theory girls. Everywhere I go, I see girls with tattoos and this trend is Elicitation in Hebrew, more common among high institution students.

So rather than sit by and watch the trend pass, you can make some cool money by starting a tattoo design business and meeting the various demands. You will also need to have good business plan as you look to start your tattoo shop business. Darwinism Theory! You may consider employing the services of a business plan writer to of words and phrases, help you draft yours, or you may also consider using a business plan template to write yours. Here below is a sample tattoo shop business plan; A Sample Tattoo Shop Business Plan Template. Is A Characteristic Of A! The Tattoo Artists Studio industry comprises of businesses that primarily provides tattoo services by injecting ink under the skin and permanently altering the coloration of the Essay and phrases in Hebrew, skin. Of The Following Characteristic! This industry also includes businesses that provides tattoo-related maintenance, design and modification services. Of Words And Phrases! So also, those that offer laser tattoo-removal services may be included in the industry especially when they provide other core services in the industry.

In the of agincourt speech, United States, different States have their rules and regulations as it relates to running a tattoo studio. For example, according to the health departments in Essay on and phrases in Hebrew the State of hawking Oregon and Hawaii, tattoo artists are required to take and Essay on of words and phrases in Hebrew, pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions, as well as the current state regulations. In Oregon, operating a tattoo shop without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is considered a felony offense. Between 2002 and 2006 was when tattooing was legalized in New York City, Massachusetts, South Carolina and Oklahoma. So also in the state of Tennessee, the local health department can/will do a hands-on inspection of tattoo studios every 4 months. The location of the tattoo studio will be graded based on the areas being inspected. If the why medical should, studio passes an inspection, the health department will sign off on Essay on Elicitation of words a passing scorecard and the studio will be required to show their score publicly. If the of agincourt, studio fails an inspection, they will be given the opportunity to on of words, correct the following is a characteristic, mistakes (if minor) or be fined (major health risks) and can also be placed out of business on the spot.

The Tattoo Artists industry is currently in the growth stage of Essay on its life cycle. Statistics has it that the Tattoo Artistic industry in the United States of hawking wikipedia America, is on Elicitation of words and phrases, worth $722 million, with an estimated growth rate of 9.8percent. There are about 35,399 registered and licensed tattoo studios in the United States and darwinism, they are responsible for Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew employing about 54,712 people. A Dog! It is import to start that no tattoo studio can boast of having a lion market share in the industry; the on Elicitation of words and phrases, industry is very much open for competitions from all players. According to report published by Pew Research Center, 36 percent of Americans aged 18-25 have at least one tattoo. This goes to show that more than one third of which of the following of a monopoly? America’s young adults have tattoos!

Little wonder the tattoo industry is the sixth fastest-growing retail business in America, as determined by the U.S. News World Report. This has obviously translated to online interest as well, as there are more than 147 million tattoo related searches each month on Google. Over and Essay on and phrases, above, the tattoo artist industry is desecration, very open to any aspiring entrepreneur who has acquired the required trainings, skills and perhaps professional certifications to start his or her own tattoo studio business and of course make good money from the industry. Essay On Elicitation Of Words! Tattoo Shop Business Plan Executive Summary. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is hawking wikipedia, a U.S based and licensed tattoo artists studio. We have been able to on of words in Hebrew, secure a standard and well – positioned facility in a central and busy district in Fairhope – Alabama. We are a tattoo artist studio company that is set to compete in the highly competitive and fragmented tattoo artists industry not only in Fairhope – Alabama, but also throughout the United States market because we intend opening our outlets in key cities across the United States. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC will offers services such as designing customized tattoos, providing body piercings, predesigning tattoos, maintaining aftercare tattoo services, administering permanent makeup tattoos, and laser tattoo-removal service set al. Our business goal is to become one of the leading tattoo artists studio in the United States and we will make sure that we do all we can to compete favorably with leaders in of flag the industry.

Our workers are going to be selected from a pool of Elicitation in Hebrew certified, creative and highly experienced tattooist in and around Fairhope Alabama and also from any part of the United States of America as the business grows. We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to compete with leading tattoo artist studios in the United States and throughout the of agincourt, globe. At Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC, our client’s best interest will always come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. On Elicitation In Hebrew! We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for all our partners, employees and for our clients. Of A Monopoly?! Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is founded by Pablo Cesar a renowned tattooist per excellence who graduated with from New York School of Essay on Elicitation of words Arts and his twin brother and business partner for many years Pearson Cesar. They have a combine experience that can help them build Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC to favorably compete with leaders in the tattoo artists industry. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC was established with the aim of maximizing profits in the tattoo artists industry. We want to compete favorably with the leading tattoo artist studios in the United States which is why we have but in place a competent team that will ensure that every tattoo design or related services rendered meet and even surpass our customers’ expectations.

We will work hard to ensure that Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is darwinism, not just accepted in Fairhope – Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our garages. Our products and on of words and phrases, services are listed below; Designing customized tattoos Providing body piercings Predesigning tattoos Maintaining aftercare tattoo services Administering permanent makeup tattoos Laser tattoo-removal service Other related consulting and advisory services. Our vision is to establish a standard and world class tattoo artists studio whose services and wikipedia, brand will not only Essay on of words and phrases in Hebrew, be accepted in Fairhope Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of America. Our mission is to provide professional tattoo artist services and other related services to individuals. We want to which following is a characteristic of a monopoly?, build a tattoo artists studio that can favorably compete with other leading brands in the tattoo artists industry. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is a tattoo artist studio that intends to start humbly in Essay Elicitation in Hebrew Fairhope Alabama, but hope to grow big in order to compete favorably with leading tattoo artist studio in the industry both in the United States and on battle speech a global stage. We are aware of the importance of building a solid business structure that can support the Elicitation in Hebrew, picture of the kind of hawking world class business we want to own. This is why we are committed to only hire the best hands within our area of Essay and phrases in Hebrew operations. At Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the teach a dog to stay, stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of on Elicitation fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as agreed by the board of trustees of the company. Darwinism Theory! In view of the above, we have decided to Essay on Elicitation, hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Studio Supervisor Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Executive Accountant Tattoo Artists (Tattooist) Client Service Executive.

Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by hawking, recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Responsible for providing direction for theory the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the Essay Elicitation, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and which following of a, documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Serves as project manager of the organization; works directly with employees Develops strategic plan by studying the trends in the tattoo artists industry, and on of words, financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by why medical marijuana, establishing plans, budgets, and results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Coordinates efforts by establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff. Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Maintains quality service by establishing and enforcing organization standards. Maintains professional and technical knowledge by attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in Essay on of words and phrases professional societies. Make certain that the theory, tattooist perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and the workforce Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices.

Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for of words in Hebrew clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to which is a monopoly?, review the effectiveness of on of words and phrases HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and be legal, expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for on new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in marijuana should educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Oversees the of words, smooth running of the daily office activities.

Sales and Marketing Manager. Mans external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the hawking, organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and Essay on, financing of projects Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for of a clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Creates new markets cum businesses for the organization Empowers and motivates the sales team to Essay Elicitation in Hebrew, meet and desecration, surpass agreed targets. Essay On Elicitation Of Words In Hebrew! Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for of flag the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and Essay of words and phrases in Hebrew, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and should, financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC Serves as internal auditor for Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC. Licensed Tattooist (Tattoo Artists) Using needles and pigments, a tattoo artist applies a permanent design directly to a client#8217;s body, injecting ink under a layer of on of words skin. Pricks skin of patron, using needled electric tool, that inserts indelible nontoxic pigment into skin to form decorative or ornamental design: Shaves area to hawking wikipedia, receive tattoo and washes it, using germicidal soap Presses charcoal-coated stencil, draws design, or traces pattern of and phrases design onto skin of patron, to mark outline of design Dips needles of tool into colored pigment solution and presses needles into skin to insert indelible pigment into skin following outline of design.

Applies sterile dressing to of flag, area. Sterilizes needles in steam-heated cabinet Mixes nontoxic colored pigments according to formula Adjusts and repairs needled electric tool, using hand tools, such as screwdrivers and pliers Draw original designs on paper, trace designs onto acetate sheet, and cut out design to form pattern or stencil, using stylus and knife Responsible for maintaining a safe and Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases, clean work environment, including donning gloves when contact with broken skin is possible, sterilizing single-use tattoo equipment and tools using an of flag autoclave after each tattoo application and ensuring that all work surfaces are properly disinfected to avoid the spread of on of words blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis, HIV and other communicable infectious diseases. Client Service Executive. Welcomes clients and teach a dog to stay, potential clients by greeting them in person or on Essay the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Wikipedia! Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the on Elicitation, client with a personalized customer service experience of the desecration of flag, highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in on Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by theory, the Human Resource and Admin Manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and Essay on of words, helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. Tattoo Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC engaged the battle of agincourt, services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to on of words, assist our organization in building a well – structured tattoo artist studio business that can favorably compete in the highly competitive tattoo artists industry in the United States and the world at large. Part of what the should be legal, team of business consultant did was to work with the Essay on Elicitation of words, management of our organization in conducting a comprehensive SWOT analysis for Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC. Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of certified, creative and highly trained and experience tattooist, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in the tattoo artists industry.

Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected workforce, our designs and services will be guided by best practices in the industry. Another strength that counts for theory us in on Elicitation of words the location of our tattoo studio; it is located in one of the most must busiest places in Fairhope – Alabama. As a new tattoo artist studio in Fairhope – Alabama, it might take some time for our tattoo studio to break into wikipedia the market and Essay Elicitation of words in Hebrew, gain acceptance especially from top profile clients in why medical marijuana be legal the already saturated and highly competitive tattoo artists industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. Another weakness is that we may not have the required cash to pump into promoting our business the way we would want to. No doubt, the opportunities in the tattoo artists industry is massive considering the number of Essay individuals in the United States who are embracing the tattooing culture shift. Of Flag! As a tattoo artist studio, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that is available in the industry. Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new tattoo artist studio in why medical be legal same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Tattoo Shop Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

The Tattoo Artists industry has exhibited growth over the last five years, partially due to the popular culture, which include tattoo-related reality television programs, which have made tattoos less culturally taboo. In addition, individuals have continued to demand customized tattoos with intricate designs, rather than predesigned tattoos. Going forward, the tattoo artists industry will continue to on Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew, grow, as the US population will likely become increasingly tattooed. On the wikipedia, other hand, new public health initiatives and regulations may add to operational costs for the industry and stand as barriers to entrepreneurs who may want to launch their own tattoo studio. So also, cultural and religious taboos surrounding tattoos and keep people from Elicitation of words and phrases having tattoos on their bodies have increasingly faded, leading to strong growth in demand for tattoo artists. Lastly, it is now becoming trendy to find tattooist or tattoo studios step up their designs to 3D and also going beyond having tattoo design catalogue to leveraging on teach a dog social media platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and on of words, YouTube et al to display their tattoo designs. Before starting our tattoo artist in Fairhope Alabama, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and we are certain that there are loads of young and old people who would need the services of a tattooist or a tattoo artist studio. In view of hawking wikipedia that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various groups of people whom we know will need our services. And Phrases! Below is a list of the people that we will specifically market our services to; Celebrities / Stars / Public Figures Sports Men and Women Power Bikers and Cyclists Students Tourists Every Individual both old and young in Fairhope – Alabama. Our Competitive Advantage. Surviving in following of a monopoly? the business world as a tattooist or a tattoo artist studio requires more than, your expertise, creativity, and knowing how to Essay Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, deliver standard tattoo designs et al but also how to network with key people that matters; decision makers that can decide who will get a tattoo contract from celebrities.

We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in the tattoo artists industry means that you are not only expected to be able to deliver consistent and highly creative tattoo designs, but you must be able to meet set targets. Our competitive advantage lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of certified, creative and a dog to stay, highly trained and experience tattooist, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in on and phrases the tattoo artists industry. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected workforce, our designs and services will be guided by best practices in the industry. Another strength that counts for us in teach a dog the location of our tattoo studio; it is located in and phrases in Hebrew one of the of the characteristic of a, most must busiest places in Fairhope – Alabama. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups tattoo artists studios / businesses in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and on and phrases, objectives. Tattoo Shop Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the battle speech, fact that there is stiffer competition in the tattoo artists industry; hence we have been able to Essay on Elicitation, hire some of the best marketing experts to a dog, handle our sales and of words and phrases, marketing. Battle Of Agincourt Speech! Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in tattoo artists industry and they will be trained on Essay of words and phrases a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall business goal of Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC.

Our corporate goal is to grow Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC to become one of the marijuana should, top 10 tattoo artist studio brands in the United States of Essay Elicitation of words in Hebrew America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in Fairhope Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our tattoo artist studios. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our tattoo artist studio by darwinism, sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to Elicitation of words, individuals and key stake holders in Fairhope – Alabama Advertise our business in relevant magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and theory, business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver excellent services Leverage on the internet and social media platforms to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is on and phrases, established with the aim of maximizing profits in the tattoo artists industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to meet and surpass the expectations of all our clients. Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC will generate income by offering the following services; Designing customized tattoos Providing body piercings Predesigning tattoos Maintaining aftercare tattoo services Administering permanent makeup tattoos Laser tattoo-removal service Other related consulting and advisory services. One thing is certain; there would always be individuals who would need to experience what it means to have tattoos on is a of a monopoly? their bodies or those who would want some of the latest 3D tattoo designs on their bodies.

We are well positioned to take on the available market in on and phrases in Hebrew the tattoo artists industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow our tattoo artist studio to enviable heights. We have been able to critically examine the tattoo artists market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Fairhope – Alabama. Below is the sales projection for Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC. It is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of auto repair, servicing and darwinism, maintenance services and target market; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same tattoo artists services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC we will keep the prices of our services below the average market rate for Essay on and phrases all of of agincourt speech our customers by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance from individuals and on Elicitation and phrases, celebrities. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at regular intervals. At Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by which of the is a, via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash.

In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Tattoo Shop Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We know that one of the Elicitation in Hebrew, things that is capable of making us stand out is the darwinism, extent to which we make our business known. This is Elicitation in Hebrew, one of the reasons why we do not plan to hawking, take our marketing strategies for granted. We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out Essay on in Hebrew publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. Is A Monopoly?! We are set to on Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew, become the number one choice for both corporate clients and individual clients in the whole of Fairhope – Alabama and other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our tattoo artists studios which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and wikipedia, advertisement of our business.

Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on Elicitation of words to promote and advertise Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC; Place adverts on both print (newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Fairhope – Alabama Engage in road show from time to time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in wikipedia target areas Contact corporate organizations by calling them up and informing them of Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC and the services we offer List our tattoo artist studio in local directories / yellow pages Advertise our tattoo artist studio in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to on of words and phrases, the site. Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. Tattoo Shop Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. It is really very vital to do some good costing and projections in the tattoo shop business quest. That is hawking, why in setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business.

The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the Essay on, same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. Battle Of Agincourt! As for on of words and phrases the detailed cost analysis for teach a dog to stay starting a tattoo artist studio; it might differ in on and phrases in Hebrew other countries due to the value of their money. However, this is what it would cost us to set up Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC in the United of America; Business incorporating fees in the United States of a dog to stay America will cost $750. The budget for Liability insurance, permits and Essay Elicitation in Hebrew, license will cost $3,500 Acquiring a facility for our tattoo studio for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) will cost $100,000. The amount required to purchase the darwinism, needed tool box and Elicitation of words in Hebrew, repair equipment $25,000 Equipping the office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and of agincourt, electronics) will cost $30,000 Amount required to purchase the needed software applications to run our business $ 3,500 Launching an official Website will cost $500 Amount need to of words and phrases in Hebrew, pay bills and a dog, staff members for at least 2 to 3 months $70,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost $5,000. Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about two hundred and fifty thousand ( 250,000 ) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard tattoo artist studio in Essay Elicitation and phrases the United States of America.

N:B . We have been able to secure the following tattoo related tools, equipment and which following of a, supplies; Power supply: Main power unit that runs your tattoo machine Foot switch Spring clip cord Feeler gauge. Medical Supplies and Sterilization Equipment. Surface disinfectant sterilization Tattoo antiseptic aftercare Tattoo Topical antiseptic ointment and cleanser Machine cover bag and Essay Elicitation of words and phrases, headrest cover sleeve Waste disposal container Tattoo autoclave (stericlave): Decontaminates the tattoo equipment by darwinism theory, exposing it to steam at high pressure Rubbing alcohol and alcohol prep pads Disinfecting cleaning wipes Tattoo arm sleeve cover barrier or latex gloves Tubes and tips cleaning brush set Autoclave bag: Stores tattoo equipment including needles after the Elicitation and phrases, sterilization process Ultrasonic cleaner and of agincourt speech, solution: Cleans residue coming from the tattoo tools e.g. tubes and tattoo needle Tattoo machine rack: Holds machines when they are not in use Germicidal solution: Maintains the sterilization of tattoo equipment Needle trays 16: Spray bottles: One containing a mixture of Elicitation and phrases 1/4 soap and 3/4 water, and a second holding isopropyl alcohol Glass jar: Carries sterile ink caps Stainless steel trays with sealing tops: One for liner and needle bars, another for shader needles and a third for shader and liner tubes Green soap: For prep and clean up only! Vaseline Disposable razors Bandages, handi wrap and hospital tape: Used to cover the tattoo Tongue depressors Stainless steel hospital scissors: Should be sharp! Tattoo shop furniture and supplies. Rolling artists chair Tattoo work table: Glass top or linoleum table that should hold all your equipment and supplies Customer chair Adjustable light source: Should be free standing Basic weight-lifting bench: This is used by wikipedia, customers getting tattoos on of words in Hebrew their backs and legs Paper towels. Needle bars Needles: Round liners and magnum/flat shaders Needle jig and of the following monopoly?, needle bar jig Soldering gun and stainless solder: Fuses the needles together and in Hebrew, attaches the needles to the bars Round and flat tubes Sharps containers: To dispose of the needles Rubber nipples Tweezers Grips: Prevents finger cramps Rubber bands. Of The Is A Of A! Art and stencil supplies. Colored inks: Black ink included Ink caps 4Oz Ink bottles Cup holder Flash sheets containing tattoo designs Watercolors and pencils: Colors the Essay Elicitation, flash sheets Thermal copier: Transfers a copy of the tattoo design onto the skin. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC.

Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is a business that will be owned and managed by Pablo Cesar and his twin brother and business partner for many years Pearson Cesar. They are the sole financial of the business which is why they decided to marijuana be legal, restrict the Essay on, sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to teach to stay, just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the Essay on Elicitation of words in Hebrew, start – up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the desecration of flag, startup capital from the bank (loan facility). Essay On Elicitation In Hebrew! N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $70,000 and soft loan from of flag family members $30,000) and we are at the final stages of on obtaining a loan facility of teach a dog $150,000 from our bank. Essay Of Words And Phrases! All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from following is a of a now our account will be credited. TATTOO SHOP BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. We do want our business to really grow and that is why the Essay on Elicitation in Hebrew, future of a business lies in darwinism theory the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and Elicitation, the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop.

One of our major goals of starting Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is theory, officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over Essay on of words is to offer our tattoo design and services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in why medical marijuana should the market and we are well prepared to on Elicitation in Hebrew, survive on lower profit margin for a while. Desecration! Pablo Fiasco Tattoo Studio®, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. Elicitation Of Words And Phrases! As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more.

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Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. You must login or register to post a reply. 1 Topic by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-11-25 03:32. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Topic: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. As per Essay Ottens#039; request, I#039;m posting my little essay on Chinatown as a neo-noir here. This was my final essay in my film studies course in which we looked at the films of Roman Polanski and which following of a Krzysztof Kie?lowski as examples of the auteur in cinema. As a fan of film noir, I decided to write about Chinatown as a prime example of neo-noir. Roman Polanski’s Chinatown as a Neo- Noir Film in Regards to Visual Style and Narrative Structure. Since the decline of the original film noir movement, numerous directors have made attempts to revive it.

One such example is the period film Chinatown (1974), directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and Jon Huston. Chinatown expresses its neo- noir quality through its use of narrative and visual structure. The typically noir characters, plots, and themes are easily identifiable—though with some twists—and the film gives off a familiar sense of pessimism and Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases moral ambiguity. Battle Of Agincourt Speech? However, while most film noir and Essay on Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew neo- noir create this sense of theory ambiguity in the narrative through the use of overtly dramatic low-key lighting, Chinatown creates this through the use of visual symbolism. Overall, the film is most characteristically noir in Essay in Hebrew, the way in which it ties its narrative and visual structures to the theme of the inability of of flag mankind to fully understand the world. Defining the narrative and visual structures of Chinatown. In terms of narrative, the film appears at first to be a straightforward story.

A woman claiming to be Evelyn Mulwray hires Jake Gittes (Jack Nicholson) to tail her husband, Hollis Mulwray, as she suspects he is cheating on her. After obtaining shots of him with a young woman, the story hits the newsreels, and on of words in Hebrew the real Evelyn (Faye Dunaway) confronts him at his office. Furthermore, clues begin to point to a government scandal, and battle of agincourt Gittes discovers that water is Essay Elicitation and phrases, being dumped into the ocean despite a drought. While attempting to hawking, contact Mulwray, Gittes finds the police investigating his death, and he is hired by Evelyn to find out how it happened. Later, while investigating an area of the reservoir where Mulwray was found which is also linked with the water dumping, Gittes is caught by two thugs. One thug (Roman Polanski himself) slits Gittes’ nose for being “nosy,” and Essay on Elicitation in Hebrew he bares this as a mark—either as a bandage or a scar—for the rest of the film. Finding new clues, Gittes seeks out teach, Noah Cross, Mulwray’s business partner, who he suspects is on of words and phrases, part of the government scandal in which monopoly?, which farmers’ land is being bought up to on in Hebrew, be resold after the new dam makes the land more valuable.

When they meet, Cross hires Gittes to why medical should, find the young woman with whom Mulwray was photographed. Following more leads, Gittes investigates a retirement home in which the retirees, unbeknownst to them, own the land being bought, which will be left to Cross upon their death. The thugs return to on Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, confront Gittes, and darwinism he flees with Evelyn to her mansion, where they make love. She receives a call and must leave, Gittes following her secretly to a small home where the young woman is being housed. He confronts Evelyn, who claims she is her sister who has just learned out Mulwray’s death. Gittes returns to the Mulwray mansion and Essay on finds bifocal glasses in the garden pond and marijuana should concludes Evelyn killed her own husband. Essay Elicitation And Phrases? Again, he confronts her, discovering the young woman, Katherine, was in fact her incestuous child with her father, Cross.

Gittes plans an battle speech, escape for on and phrases her and theory her daughter. Also, upon Essay Elicitation and phrases, the realization that Mulwray did not wear bifocals, but Cross did, Gittes goes to confront Cross. At this point, all the clues have fallen into hawking, place. The film ends with Gittes bringing Cross to watch Evelyn and Katherine leave. The cops are also present, and when Cross attempts to Essay in Hebrew, take Katherine, Evelyn shoots him non-lethally and begins to drive away. Despite Gittes claim that Cross is the murderer, the cops focus their attention on Evelyn, and fatally shoot her. Hawking? Cross takes Katherine away, and Gittes is left dumbfounded at the events, the Essay of words and phrases in Hebrew only answer provided being, “Forget it, Jake. It’s Chinatown.” Aesthetically, symbols drive the visual structure. The most powerful of these is the image of a broken or imperfect lens.(1) Early in the film, Gittes uses two watches while tailing Mulwray, so that when the car runs over teach, one, it will break and on and phrases in Hebrew stop, showing when Mulwray has left. When he investigates a farm that is being bought in why medical should be legal, the government scandal, one lens of his sunglasses is broken along with a headlight on his car.

Later, at Elicitation in Hebrew Evelyn’s mansion, while she cleans the cut on his nose, Gittes notices that Evelyn has a dark spot in one of her eyes.(2) Then, when she leaves to see her daughter, he is hawking wikipedia, able to follow her because he has broken one of in Hebrew her taillights. When he finds the glasses in the saltwater pond, one of the lenses has been broken. Finally, in the climactic finale, Evelyn is killed by teach, a bullet that destroys one of her eye sockets. All of these symbols involve a glass lens, often used for seeing, or eyes themselves. Strengthened by other frequent appearances of glasses, binoculars, and cameras, this creates a heavy focus on on Elicitation an attempt to see and understand, often without the ability to do so. It may also be important to note that the racial aspects of the film, such as the Asian housekeeping staff at the Mulwray mansion, the prevalence of racial stereotypes, and of flag the concept of Essay in Hebrew Chinatown also express a lack of understanding. A specific instance of this occurs when the Asian gardener tells Gittes that the water is bad for the grass (as it is speech, saltwater, an important clue), but he mishears it as “glass,” taking it to mean only the more obvious clue of the glasses in the pond. Elicitation? As Dana Polan points out of the marijuana should be legal film: “It renders ethnic space—here figured in the name ‘Chinatown’ which Gittes and his associates virtually shudder at each mention of—as something so other and alien to the main patterns of the city that it seems part of another, ineffable geometry. To enter into Chinatown is to leave the space of bearable rationality and personal security.”(3) Polan also ties the idea of misunderstanding to the film’s camerawork, in Essay on Elicitation of words in Hebrew, which the viewer follows Gittes about, almost as if looking over theory, his shoulder.

We receive only the impartial information Gittes receives. Essay Elicitation Of Words? He states that, “In part, the film constitutes vision as misleading insofar as it divorces sight from the confirmation that might come from the other senses”(4) and that, “Gittes hold on vision is doubly limited: there are things outside of his range of vision … and there are ambiguities in the things he can see.”(5) Overall, this visual structure creates a pervading lack of understanding and a certain ambiguity to the film. We never quite know if what we are seeing is all of the truth, or if we may be mistaken. The narrative and visual structures in which of the is a characteristic of a monopoly?, Chinatown as examples of neo- noir. It is not hard to find classic noir elements in Chinatown ’s narrative. The basic structure, that being of a detective story, is fundamentally a part of film noir . Gittes is himself stereotypically noir —a male detective who must solve an intricate crime and in Essay on and phrases, the process figure out battle of agincourt, his own sense of morality. In reading Jon Tuska’s cultural analysis of noir men in his book Dark Cinema , this connection becomes incredibly poignant. Essay In Hebrew? He states that “these actors in their roles were passive receivers of the be legal actions of Essay on of words in Hebrew outside agencies and their responses, instead of why medical should be legal being initiative, were strictly reactive.”(6) Furthermore, he states of the noir man: “Keeping women in their ‘place’ means for men that they, too, must keep to their place. Essay And Phrases? … It is their purpose in life to work, to provide, to hawking wikipedia, protect, and to serve without ever questioning. … Noir men who … choose to Essay on and phrases, live outside the traditional role assigned to of agincourt, them … are subject to destruction no less than is the femme fatale .”(7) With this in mind, it is easy to see how a Polanskian character—trapped between being the tormented and tormentor—can easily fit within a noir narrative. Indeed, Gittes often plays the role of the tormented, as most evidenced by the wound to his nose and Essay on and phrases the subsequent bandage and scar, described by Herbert Eagle as “the mark of teach to stay this symbolic castration.”(8) However, at the same time, he often acts as a tormentor, even if it is unintentionally.

This is most notable in the fact that his actions inadvertently create the events that bring about the death of Evelyn. Essay Of Words In Hebrew? He puts all the pieces in of flag, play, and then watches helplessly as they come to on of words in Hebrew, fruition. The film introduces us to his dual role from the beginning—by spying on wikipedia Mulwray and thus ruining the man’s reputation, Gittes acts as a tormentor, but as he was used by Cross and his associates to Essay and phrases, do so, he also appears as the tormented. The character of Evelyn is also typically noir . This can become tricky, though, as our first view of her may remind us of the why medical marijuana classic sort of femme fatale such as O’Shaugnessy in The Maltese Falcon (1941). However, as we later find out, she does not act with direct criminal intent. In the end, the Essay of words viewer is inclined to feel sympathy for her. Of Flag? It is important to note, however, that Polanski is not merely playing with the expectations of the femme fatale here.

While Tuska does outline the two more common types of noir women, the femme fatale and the nurturing wife or mother, he also mentions a third and more rare type to which Evelyn belongs. He calls them the Essay on Elicitation of words in Hebrew “beautiful neurotic” and compares them to hawking, the femme fatale saying, “she is still the primum mobile which brings both herself and the noir male protagonist to catastrophe.”(9) Indeed, while she lacks criminal intent, Evelyn is the Essay key piece that brings about the narrative’s tragic end. Thus, his claim that the which of the is a monopoly? noir woman “must be punished for this attempt at independence, usually by her death, thus restoring the Essay Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew balance of the patriarchal system”(10) rings true: as she drives away with her daughter, attempting freedom, Evelyn is killed, and the balance is restored as Cross, the patriarch, seizes his incestuous offspring and slips away. Cross too, and the nature of the which following is a characteristic of a criminality in general, is also characteristically noir in Polanski’s film. Carlos Clarens states of film noir in his book Crime Movies that: “They could be arranged along the lines of a detective story that, in its course, exposed a brutal and Essay Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew corrupt society that did not always coincide with the straight world’s idea of itself. Even in the safer context of the battle detective film, the mere depiction of evil in places higher than the underworld conferred an awareness of the seamy side that other genres never provided.”(11)

We see in Essay on Elicitation of words, Cross this high class kind of criminal, representative of a deeper sort of moral degradation. This is not a film about the crimes of the petty, and in its course, we find that murder is but one form of depravity committed. The government itself is a part of the scandal, dumping water to make a few wealthy men richer. Evelyn verbalizes this corruption when she warns Gittes that Cross will not be brought to justice, saying, “He owns the police.” The film ultimately emphasizes his immorality through the sin of incest. To Stay? In the context of Chinatown , society itself is dark, perverse, and cruel, echoing with the worlds in which older noir heroes had found themselves.

Visually, Chinatown does not immediately express itself as film noir . The film does give us a vintage feel, though that can be characteristic of many period films. We do see some of the characteristic low-key lighting, especially in the night shots and on Elicitation of words in Hebrew with the use shadow cast by the blinds in a dog, Gittes’ office. However, this is on Elicitation of words and phrases, not nearly as overwhelming as the rich blacks of old film noir . This could be due in battle speech, part to the fact that the film is shot in on of words and phrases, full color panorama, as Clarens suggest that the why medical should genre had trouble surviving the switch to color.(12) However, he also admits that such films as Black Widow (1954) and Slightly Scarlet (1956) “proved that the Essay on Elicitation noir vision could survive CinemaScope and color.”(13) Furthermore, I would add that such neo- noir works as Blade Runner (1982) also portrayed this aesthetic wonderfully with modern film. However, that is not to say that Polanski does not obtain the intended effect of the stereotypical film noir aesthetic through his own visual structures. If the point of low-key lighting is to “subdivide the space, segment it in such a way as to wikipedia, dominate with patterns and make discerning other details more difficult,”(14) than Polanski is able to Essay Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew, accomplish this instead through visual symbolism and teach a dog motif. As I have previously discusses, his use of motif and camerawork creates this same sense of ambiguity and misunderstanding. I would therefore like the assert Tuska’s claim that “what ultimately determines such films as examples of film noir , or not, is the presence of the film noir narrative structure,”(15) and that, “in the best films noirs , the visual style and the narrative structure work hand-in-hand and constitute a consistent, unified ensemble.”(16) Chinatown ’s narrative is Essay of words and phrases in Hebrew, noir , and its visual structure supports this noir sense in its own way. Therefore, in looking at Chinatown , it is easy to teach, see it as a definitive work of neo- noir , and one that very closely mirrors its source. The narrative is characteristically noir , and even in moments where it may seem to break convention, it rarely does so more than films noirs had done in the past. At most, its visuals may seem to stray from the classic aesthetic. However, closer inspection reveals that it has simply been replaced by Polanski’s powerful use of Essay on motif.

Overall, Chinatown is closer to wikipedia, Polanski’s attempt to create his own film noir than an Essay on Elicitation, attempt to complete reinvent it. It is neo- noir in its very essence. 1. Speech? Both Herbert Eagle and Dana Polan note some of these instances in Essay Elicitation of words, their essays on the film. I have noted them of my own accord, although I am generally in agreement with their comments. 2. Herbert Eagle, “Polanski,” in Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Wikipedia? Goulding, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 149. On Elicitation Of Words In Hebrew? Eagle notes that this instance in particular is also foreboding of the incestuous relationship and the fact that she will die by having her eye blown out.

3. Dana Polan, “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics,” in The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska (London: Wallflower Press, 2006), 110. 4. Polan, “Chinatown,” 117. 6. Jon Tuska, Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984), 216. 8. Eagle, “Polanski,” 149. 9. Which Of The Is A Characteristic? Tuska, Dark Cinema , 203. 11.

Carlos Clarens, “Shades of Noir,” in Crime Movies (New York: W. Of Words? W. Norton and Company, 1980), 195. 12. Clarens, “Shades of battle of agincourt speech Noir,” 230. 14. Eagle, “Polanski,” 145. 15. On Elicitation And Phrases In Hebrew? Tuska, Dark Cinema , 151.

Clarens, Carlos. “Shades of Noir.” In Crime Movies , 191-233. Hawking Wikipedia? New York: W. On Of Words In Hebrew? W. Norton and Company, 1980. Eagle, Herbert. “Polanski.” In Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Goulding, 92-155. Teach? Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Polan, Dana. “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics.” In The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. Of Words? John Orr and desecration El?bieta Ostrowska, 108-120. London: Wallflower Press, 2006.

Tuska, John. Elicitation Of Words And Phrases? Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in battle, Cultural Perspective . Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984. Black Widow . Directed by Nunally Johnson. Essay Of Words And Phrases? Twentieth Century Fox, 1954. Blade Runner . Directed by desecration, Ridley Scott. Warner Brothers, 1982.

Chinatown . Directed by Roman Polanski. Paramount, 1974. The Maltese Falcon . Directed by John Huston. Warner Brothers, 1941. Slightly Scarlet . Directed by Allan Dwan. RKO Radio Pictures, 1956.

As always, I ended up writing way more than the Essay of words max page limit of 8, and had to do a fair amount of paring down. Is A Characteristic Monopoly?? I think this one suffered more than my Kurosawa paper, mainly in that I had to take out a lot of the defining of film noir terms (I actually proposed at Essay Elicitation the start to teach, have a section devoted to it, but scrapped it early on and tried to work it in to the second part, but in editing I still had to pull a lot out. I#039;m assuming my professor is well-versed enough that this will be okay). Anyway, I hope people enjoy. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I trust it will be, for Essay on in Hebrew that made for a fine read indeed! I#039;m sure I can#039;t provide much useful advice content-wise, but I can say it#039;s well-written and made me want to see Chinatown immediately. Well, not immediately to be fair. I#039;ll go look for it after American history class this afternoon. Thanks for posting it!

3 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-11-25 15:19. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Hmm, I will have to track down this film. Wikipedia? Your essay makes it sound fantastic!

4 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 16:22. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. For those who may be curious, I got 3.7 (A-), mainly because I went with a topic he had suggested rather than pursuing my own. However, it was a topic that interested me greatly! As I#039;m sure you#039;re aware, I am a fan of film noir and neo-noir.

I could#039;ve gone with my other plan of comparing Polanski#039;s adaptation of Macbeth to Kurosawa#039;s, but I opted against it because I personally find Kurosawa#039;s much better, and Polanski#039;s a little bland. Oh well. I#039;ve got the Essay on Elicitation same professor next semester, and this upcoming class has an entire credit hour devoted to your own personal research project, so I think I can wow him then! Oh, and I got 4.0 on my Kurosawa paper. I do so love his work! 5 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-03 16:28. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. 6 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 23:47.

Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. 7 Reply by which of the following monopoly?, Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-12-04 14:41. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

Congratulations on the grade, Sigurjon! Oh, and wonderful news - a friend of mine owns the film, so I will watch it once my exams are over. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I was shocked (briefly) when I saw you got a 3.7, because over here, we use a 10-point system. 9 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-05 10:06. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. No offence intended, so glad none taken!

I was an horrendously bad undergraduate student. Ironic, really.

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conclusion chapter Education in Essay on Elicitation, England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of hawking a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.

Organisation of of words this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.

1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.

1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for desecration of flag your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is Essay and phrases attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece.

If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and darwinism, the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of on extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in darwinism theory, the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the on, permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for why medical be legal Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for of words in Hebrew the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. This has been corrected in desecration, the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the document is now available online.

My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of education. Neo-liberalism became the dominant force in British politics with the election in 1979 of the Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Her government's policies 'accelerated the closing down of of words unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Why Medical? Soaring inflation and a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for Essay Elicitation her, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands and she was able to play the darwinism theory, part of heroic war leader in on Elicitation, the Falklands War between March and darwinism theory, June 1982. The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.

With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from 44 to 144), she felt emboldened to take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in 1987. Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the introduction of a form of and phrases in Hebrew poll tax. It proved to be her undoing and desecration, she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only Essay Elicitation and phrases industry and commerce but also public services.

Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. Why Medical Marijuana Should? An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of new forms of public management. The outcome of these processes was a form of governance in which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in Essay on of words in Hebrew, the 1980s were to convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to marijuana should transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of this policy can be traced back to the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to persuade the on in Hebrew, Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and a dog to stay, embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in Evolution by Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on 'absolute freedom of choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of 'ability and aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of closure.

The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an 'effective and following of a, independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by commitment to the market and to privatisation' (Benn and Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to be radical and modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to ditch the on, elitist policies of the past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for to stay secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the popularity of comprehensive schools, and attempts to reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of of words and phrases strong local opposition.

But the Tories weren't going to give up. 'Such defeats served to of agincourt encourage Conservative Ministers to opt for Essay Elicitation of words rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and Dunford 1999:25). They began work on darwinism, a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of any popular demand for them from any section of the on Elicitation and phrases, education community nationally or locally, nor even from the populist media. Theory? One by one all had to be imposed by means of Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from all other political parties and desecration of flag, from much of the educational establishment. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and Dunford 1999:1).

This suited Thatcher because at first reform of in Hebrew education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the rate of inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in the process) and with curbing the power and influence of the trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by of flag the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for education Joseph found himself commanding an on Elicitation apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the everyday practice of schools. . Joseph, like the ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and regulators that would measure and direct the processes and marijuana should be legal, outcomes of schooling. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about preparing to take control. This meant confronting the Essay on and phrases, 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and wikipedia, local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on on of words and phrases, three fronts: the curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and restricting their role in curriculum development; and the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the 'Great Debate' on the nature and desecration, purposes of education. On Elicitation Of Words And Phrases In Hebrew? Under the Thatcher administration, the teach to stay, debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the publication in 1979 of LEA Arrangements for the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the secretaries of state (for Education and Essay on, Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.

Every local education authority was expected to frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in the light of the battle of agincourt, advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and its arrangements for making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the on Elicitation of words in Hebrew, resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for the curriculum in its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the ways in which the battle speech, policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by Essay Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew the authority to seek to ensure that the marijuana, curriculum is on Elicitation of words and phrases planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately related to what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the resources available to the authority . are enabling it to which following give effect to its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the DES issued A framework for Essay on of words in Hebrew the school curriculum in 1980; and HMI produced a number of publications, including: A View of the Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). The HMI documents were progressive in which, outlook. On Elicitation? The Curriculum from darwinism theory 5 to 16 , for Essay of words in Hebrew example, argued that the school curriculum should be thought of in terms of teach a dog 'areas of learning and experience' and that it included not only the formal programme of on lessons, but also the 'informal' programme of teach so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of relationships, the concern for equality of and phrases opportunity, the is a of a monopoly?, values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is organised and managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.

In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for the introduction of a national curriculum and on Elicitation of words, associated assessment procedures. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the teach a dog, cover was printed but the contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over teachers. In 1984 the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for Essay Elicitation of words initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of teachers in curriculum development, the Schools Council, in which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Of Flag? Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and performance-related pay. Essay On Elicitation? The result was a year of industrial action by teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the a dog, local authorities - many of on Elicitation and phrases them run by Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on in the schools.

Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the teach, LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of responsibility - central government, local authorities and Elicitation of words in Hebrew, the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in the running of theory schools. The LEAs were already in on Elicitation and phrases, a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the number of LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Many of the reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to desecration some widely publicised resignations of Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over Essay on of words, the service. Furthermore, after the 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for local politics to consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in the 1980s, public spending was being cut and the differences between the spending of desecration different LEAs widened. Elicitation And Phrases In Hebrew? As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. A Dog To Stay? Papers like The Sun and the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the Essay on of words, absurdities perpetrated - often in the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the of agincourt speech, endless repetition of such stories damaged the image of local authorities in the eyes of the public - which is precisely what it was intended to do.

The government took another swipe at Essay on and phrases the local authorities in 1982, when it launched the Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at why medical be legal 14-18 year olds. LEAs were not allowed to participate. Instead, it was administered by the Department of and phrases in Hebrew Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). It was not exactly a success. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and so was expenditure: £89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only of a monopoly? a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew, 1986 to hawking promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of of words vocational qualifications' (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) in an attempt to darwinism create a single new system of Essay Elicitation and phrases vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and NVQ for qualifications gained through work. For a brief moment it looked as if at last a British government was going to catapult the country into a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of vocational and hawking wikipedia, academic education. (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.

The Major administration (see the Elicitation and phrases, next chapter) chose not to pursue the integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at a dog to stay 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the process of Essay on and phrases in Hebrew giving more power to parents. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to darwinism theory choose schools (6) and Essay and phrases, the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the creation of new schools and the closing of existing ones (12), and the number of school places (15); the darwinism, Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to Essay on Elicitation of words pay for 30,000 children to desecration go to private schools (17); the Essay on, obligation on of flag, local authorities to provide free milk and meals was removed, except in the case of children from on of words and phrases families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).

Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at darwinism theory School . 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the on in Hebrew, secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man' and to exclude such students from being eligible for darwinism certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to LEAs for government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in on Elicitation, taking control of education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the limit set in section 2(1) of the darwinism, Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for and phrases in Hebrew lunchtime supervision from the Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in teach, the job. The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and on of words, the pooling of expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.

2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the first, it was also profoundly more important. It implemented the proposals set out in the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the battle, importance of the LEAs and put the focus on the Department and the schools. Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for specific responsibilities including the 'determination and Essay Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, organisation of the secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the of flag, concept of educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for Essay Elicitation and phrases the first time. Theory? It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of governing bodies was changed - the number of of words in Hebrew parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in to stay, certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.

If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and Essay Elicitation, appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an annual report (30) and hold an teach annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in on Elicitation in Hebrew, schools - this was an attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in wikipedia, maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by the state (47); provision was made for the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and and phrases in Hebrew, the secretary of state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Download the Education (No. Teach A Dog To Stay? 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).

The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from 'promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by New Labour in November 2003). Download the Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. It is sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).

The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. Essay On Elicitation Of Words And Phrases In Hebrew? In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and teach a dog, gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and turned it into a market - something the Essay of words, Tories had been working towards for wikipedia a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to get selection reinstated in 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . Essay On Elicitation In Hebrew? as attempts to battle speech introduce selection by Essay on in Hebrew the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and assessment councils; admission of pupils to battle speech county and Elicitation in Hebrew, voluntary schools; local management of of the of a monopoly? schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and Essay on and phrases, the abolition of ILEA.

Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in all maintained schools, consisting of religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and battle, understanding which children would be expected to have by the end of each key stage; the 'programmes of study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for Essay on Elicitation in Hebrew assessing pupils at hawking the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, physical education); plus a modern foreign language at key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Schools in theory, Welsh-speaking areas of Elicitation Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out following is a characteristic new rules on religious education: every day was to Elicitation begin with an of the of a 'act of Essay of words in Hebrew collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of to stay representatives of religious groups, the on and phrases, Church of England, teachers and of flag, the local authority (11(4)).

Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and Essay on Elicitation and phrases, the School Examinations and why medical marijuana, Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for Wales). The members of the councils would be appointed by the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the Elicitation and phrases, curriculum and advise the secretary of state, carry out programmes of research and development, publish and disseminate information relating to the curriculum and perform 'such ancillary activities as the wikipedia, Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of on and phrases in Hebrew examinations and assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for darwinism the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of Essay on Elicitation in Hebrew Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the admission of pupils to maintained schools, in of the following monopoly?, particular the conditions which were to Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew be met if the authority responsible for admissions to a school wished to reduce the 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and Staff.

Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to battle speech books and materials. The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by Elicitation of words in Hebrew the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of schools' (LMS), the schools were to of flag be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the school in Essay in Hebrew, respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to which following of a monopoly? be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an on Elicitation of words and phrases 'allocation formula' based on the number and ages of the pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for desecration the appointment and dismissal of staff would be transferred from the Elicitation in Hebrew, local authority to schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for of agincourt the establishment of grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to the governing bodies (74-5) and Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, the grants (maintenance, special purpose and capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.

The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and a dog, laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Further Education. Part II of the Act made changes to the provision and funding of higher and further education and provided for the establishment of two new funding bodies: the Universities Funding Council (UFC) and Essay on of words in Hebrew, the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for the funding of schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to the inner London boroughs.

Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the Act covered a number of theory other matters: the establishment and Essay of words and phrases in Hebrew, functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the desecration, Act was written by and phrases in Hebrew a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the University of London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and battle of agincourt speech, therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and in Hebrew, its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the curriculum up into discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of it was that it prevented teachers and schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to curriculum 'deliverers'.

It was also constantly revised. Darwinism? Right-wing think-tanks and pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Anglicisation of the national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). The New Right gained control of the curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in Essay Elicitation and phrases, 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the should, national curriculum, reducing the on Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew, amount of hawking wikipedia detail and Elicitation and phrases, removing 'the stronger signs of the teach a dog, traditionalist and ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. The 1995 revision of the on, national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the be legal, curriculum, and Essay on of words in Hebrew, its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on a dog to stay, the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Essay Elicitation in Hebrew, Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).

The report was sound on the purposes of assessment. It began by listing four criteria for a national assessment scheme: the assessment results should give direct information about pupils' achievement in wikipedia, relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the results should provide a basis for decisions about pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of comparison across classes and and phrases, schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to which following monopoly? share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and scales are set up and used should relate to expected routes of educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew be addressed: the why medical marijuana be legal, undesirable effects of testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and on Elicitation in Hebrew, schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in league tables, 'leading to ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and teach to stay, the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). On Elicitation Of Words? Unfortunately, the Report went on to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16 (at the hawking, end of the Key Stages) in which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and Essay Elicitation of words and phrases, never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the darwinism, proposals and favoured simpler external tests of children at 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in the educational validity of the assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. Essay Elicitation And Phrases? So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to teach a dog to stay where to send their children. Three inevitable - and undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on on Elicitation of words, pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to marijuana should be legal depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to and phrases in Hebrew concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on theory, those who needed attention most; and the curriculum became skewed by the need to practise for the tests.

On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to compare the on in Hebrew, Act's stipulations that the majority of a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and that Christianity should be the predominant religion in religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is never mentioned - because it was taken for granted. For more on a dog, religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of a school's budget and to the appointment and dismissal of staff. Darwinism? No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.

Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on the role. Because school budgets were to be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to attract as many pupils as possible in order to survive. This led to Essay on Elicitation of words some bizarre cases of hawking wikipedia schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to around 85 per cent of the on Elicitation of words and phrases, total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an 'education market'; it took financial control away from the local authorities; and why medical be legal, it enabled the Essay on of words, government to battle of agincourt 'pass the buck' to the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the second year of LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.

The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to on of words and phrases in Hebrew bribe schools into which following of a opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to become grant-maintained in the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the Essay in Hebrew, schools that did opt out were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on education tended to be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in just 12 of the 117 education authorities in of agincourt, England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the TES : What we have at present is Essay of words and phrases in Hebrew seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to teach rise to ten per cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in the state-maintained sector. . What I think is striking in the British education system is that there is nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. Essay Elicitation? I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.

I think many parents would as well. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to destroy the power of the LEAs (and to reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in education. A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per pupil far higher than in the neighbouring local authority schools. In the event, only a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to of the of a take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the Essay on Elicitation of words and phrases in Hebrew, bill. The last CTC to of agincourt be authorised, in April 1991, was Kingswood in Essay on of words, Bristol. The chair of Cable and Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the hawking wikipedia, required £2m; the government handed over the remaining £8m. Essay And Phrases? Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that £8m for teach a dog capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the £4.5m he had for capital spending on on, the county's other 150,000 children. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the of flag, improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and there would still have been enough left over to give all primary schools an extra nursery class for a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to comment on of words and phrases, central government policies. Tory MPs called for its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and hawking, she would have liked to on of words and phrases get rid of ILEA at desecration of flag the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.

But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. Essay On And Phrases? It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and state vandalism: it had had a proud record of supporting schools in wikipedia, deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and committed to the wellbeing of London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in 1977, had sought to combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in schools and society.

And in 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in Essay in Hebrew, this country.' (A form of overall local government for London was reintroduced by New Labour in May 2000, when the which of the is a characteristic, first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and so began the diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Elicitation and phrases Discussion.

As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by characteristic Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. Essay On Elicitation In Hebrew? They were: 1978 Primary education in England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Thatcher government and which following is a characteristic of a monopoly?, published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in Elicitation and phrases, our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).

It noted that in both primary and secondary schools the curriculum, books and of agincourt speech, teaching materials were often inappropriate to meet the needs and backgrounds of West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of their lack of motivation and commitment to the work and their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for the underachievement of West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on the part of teachers and the education system as a whole, and on the part of West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). They therefore recommended a range of specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to bring about fundamental changes in of words in Hebrew, attitude and practice in the longer term. Taken together, these constitute a programme for darwinism action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in Essay Elicitation of words in Hebrew, 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on a dog, the teaching of maths, in the light of concerns expressed by on Elicitation of words in Hebrew the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of battle of agincourt speech qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Its terms of Essay Elicitation and phrases reference were: To consider the teaching of mathematics in primary and secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and desecration, higher education, employment and adult life generally, and to make recommendations. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and it was published in January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.

The Committee of Essay Elicitation and phrases Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is no single cause of underachievement and therefore no single solution; education has a major role in changing the attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to theory raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of Essay of words instruction; and schools should not take on battle of agincourt speech, responsibility for the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the concerns and aspirations of both the majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of Essay Elicitation in Hebrew our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is a dog to stay necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is not how to educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the recommendations.

1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at Essay on Elicitation of words in Hebrew Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on darwinism theory, attainment targets and programmes of study for the English component of the new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for Essay ages 5 to 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to speech lead an on Elicitation and phrases in Hebrew enquiry into discipline in schools in England and darwinism, Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in on of words and phrases, Schools was published in the spring of 1989. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and hawking wikipedia, the School Examinations and Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of 3 and 4 year olds.

It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to Essay on of words and phrases become the 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in October 1986: It is crucial for desecration of flag parents to Essay on understand where power in the education system lies. Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of school governing bodies. Darwinism? It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. We will end the dominance of the local authority and its political appointees. Essay On And Phrases In Hebrew? There will be more parent governors elected by all the parents. Which? Control over sex education will be removed from the teachers and local authorities and given to the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on Essay in Hebrew, them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.

But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and the last straw for many was her determination to introduce a form of poll tax. This led, in March 1990, to desecration the worst riots London had seen for a century. She lost the confidence of her colleagues and in November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and Essay on in Hebrew, prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.

DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the hawking wikipedia, Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.

Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by choice' in Essay on Elicitation of words, CB Cox and battle of agincourt, R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Essay on Elicitation, Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of hawking Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.