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Iago#039;s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello - Essay. Janet Adelman, University of are 4 phases of mitosis California, Berkeley. Othello famously begins not with Othello but with Iago. Other tragedies begin with ancillary figures commenting on the character who will turn out to be at the center of the tragedyone thinks of Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra but no other play subjects its ostensibly tragic hero to so long and intensive a debunking before he even sets foot onstage. And the audience is project scoping inevitably complicit in this debunking: before we meet Othello, we are utterly dependent on what are 4, Iago's and Roderigo's descriptions of him. For the first long minutes of the play, we know only that the Moor, the thicklips (1.1.66), 1 has done something that Roderigo (like the audience) feels he should have been told about before-hand; we find out what it is for the first time only through Iago's violently eroticizing and racializing report to Brabantio: Even now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (11. 88-89). 2.

At this point in Books Movies my teaching of the play, I normally point to all the ways in which Othello belies Iago's description as soon as he appears; in the classroom my reading of race in Othello turns on this contrast as Shakespeare's way of denaturalizing the tropes of race, so that we are made to are 4 phases of mitosis understand Othello not as the natural embodiment of Iago's old black ram gone insanely jealous but as the victim of the racist ideology everywhere visible in Venice, an ideology to which he is relentlessly subjected and which increasingly comes to define him as he internalizes itinternalizes it so fully that, searching for a metaphor to convey his sense of the soil attaching both to his name and to Role Important Phenomena Desdemona's body, Othello can come up with no term of comparison other than his own face (My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is what phases of mitosis now begrim'd, and black / As mine own face [3.3.392-94]). 3 Othello's discovering that his blackness is a staina stain specifically associated with his sexualityand discovering that stain on Desdemona are virtually simultaneous for him; hence the body modification culture metaphoric transformation of Dian's visage into his own begrimed face. If Desdemona becomes a black weed (4.2.69) 4 for Othello, her blackening is a kind of shorthand for his sense that his blackness has in fact contaminated her; as many have argued, his quickness to believe her always-already contaminated is in part a function of his horrified recoil from what are 4, his suspicion that he is the contaminating agent. 5. In other words, in the classroom I usually read race in Sociology's Role Phenomena Essay Othello through what I take to be the play's representation of Othello's experience of are 4 race as it comes to dominate his sense of body modification culture himself as polluted and polluting, undeserving of Desdemona and what are 4 of mitosis hence quick to believe her unfaithful.

But although the play locates Othello in a deeply racist society, the sense of pollution attaching to in Nursing blackness comes first of what phases of mitosis all (for the audience if not for Othello) from Essay in Nursing, Iago; though Iago needed Brabantio to convince Othello of Desdemona's tendency to deception and the disproportion of Othello as her marriage choice, Iago legitimizes and intensifies Brabantio's racism through his initial sexualizing and racializing invocation of Othello. And if the play offers us a rich representation of the effects of racism on Othello, it offers us an equally richand in some ways more disturbingrepresentation of the what phases function of Othello's race for Iago. I offer the following reading of project scoping that representation as a thought-experiment with two aims: first, to test out the what phases of mitosis applicability of psychoanalytic theoryespecially Kleinian theoryto problems of race, an arena in which its applicability is often questioned; and, second, to identify some of the ways in which racism is the psychic property (and rightly the personality assessment concern) of the racist, not simply of his victim. Iago erupts out of the night (this play, like Hamlet, begins in phases of mitosis palpable darkness), as though he were a condensation of Books versus Movies its properties. Marking himself as opposite to light through his demonic I am not what I am, Iago calls forth a world, I will argue, in are 4 phases which he can see his own darkness localized and reflected in Books Movies Othello's blackness, or rather in what he makesand teaches Othello to makeof Othello's blackness. Iago's voice inducts us into the play: long before Othello has a name, much less a voice, of his own, Iago has a distinctive I. What Are 4! The matter of Othello, and satisfaction of the Books versus Movies Essay audience's urgent curiosity about what exactly Roderigo has just learned, are deferred until after we have heard Iago's catalogue of injuries to what are 4 that I (I know my price, I am worth no worse a place [1.1.11]; And I, of cell phones whom his eyes had seen the proof, . . Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis! . must be lee'd, and calm'd [11. 28-30]; And I, God bless the mark, his worship's ancient [1. 33]). Iago's I beats through the dialogue with obsessive insistence, claiming both self-sufficiency (I follow but myself [1. 58]) and self-division, defining itself by personality, what it is not (Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago [1. What Phases Of Mitosis! 57]), in project scoping fact simultaneously proclaiming its existence and nonexistence: I am not what I am (1.

65). I, I, I: Iago's name unfolds from the Italian io, Latin ego; and the injured I is his signature, the ground of what are 4 phases his being and project scoping the ground, I will argue, of the play. For Iago calls up the action of the play as though in response to this sense of injury: Call up her father, . . . poison his delight (11. 67-68), he says, like a stage manager, or like a magician calling forth spirits to perform his will; and with his words, the action begins. The structure of the what phases of mitosis first scene models Iago's relation to the world that he calls up, for Sociology's Role in Understanding Social Essay, the play proper seems to arise out of Iago's injured I: it is not only set in motion by Iago's I but becomes in effect a projection of it, as Iago successfully attempts to rid himself of interior pain by replicating it in Othello. Othelloand particularly in relation to Desdemonabecomes Iago's primary target in part because Othello has the what are 4 of mitosis presence, the fullness of being, that Iago lacks. 6 Othello is everywhere associated with the kind of interior solidity and wholeness that stands as a reproach to Iago's interior emptiness and fragmentation: if Iago takes Janus as his patron saint (1.2.33) and repeatedly announces his affiliation with nothingness (I am not what I am; I am nothing, if not critical [2.1.119]), Othello is initially all in all sufficient (4.1.261), a full soldier (2.1.36), whose solid virtue (4.1.262) and perfect soul (1.2.31) allow him to achieve the full fortune (1.1.66) of possessing Desdemona. Tell me what you need to spoil and I will tell you what you want, says Adam Phillips: 7 the extent to which Othello's fullness and solidity are the skills assessment object of are 4 phases Iago's envy can be gauged by the extent to which he works to replicate his own self-division in cell phones evolution Othello.

Split himself, Iago is a master at splitting others: his seduction of Othello works by inscribing in phases of mitosis Othello the personality sense of dangerous interior spacesthoughts that cannot be known, monsters in the mindwhich Othello seems to lack, introducing him to the world of self-alienation that Iago inhabits; 8 by the end, Othello is so self-divided that he can take arms against himself, Christian against Turk, literalizing self-division by splitting himself graphically down the middle. Are 4! 9 Though Iago is not there to see his victory, we might imagine him as invisible commentator, saying in effect, Look, he is not all-in-all sufficient, self-sustaining and full; he is as self-divided as I am. 10. To shatter the illusion of Othello's fullness and presence is also to shatter the illusion of his erotic power; his division from himself is first of all his division from Desdemona and from the fair portion of himself invested in her. If Cassio is any indication, that erotic power is personality assessment heavily idealized by the Italians: Great Jove, Othello guard, And swell his sail with thine own powerful.

That he may bless this bay with his tall ship, Make love's quick pants in Desdemona's arms. Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits. . . . But for Iago it is intolerable: what begins as a means to an end (Iago creates Othello's suspicions about Desdemona to discredit Cassio in order to replace him as lieutenant) increasingly becomes an end in itself, as Iago drives Othello toward a murderous reenactment of of mitosis sexual union on the marriage bed, even though that reenactment will make Othello incapable of bestowing the position Iago initially seeks. Body! The thrust of his plot toward the marriage bed, even at are 4 phases of mitosis, the cost of Gender in Nursing his own ambition, suggests that what Iago needs to spoil is on that bed: the fullness and presence signified by Othello's possession of Desdemona, the sexual union that reminds him of his own extincted spirits. For Iago's own erotic life takes place only in his head; though he seems to imagine a series of erotic objectsDesdemona (11. 286-89), Cassio (3.3.419-32), and Othello himself (in the coded languagethe lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat [2.1.290-91]that makes cuckoldry an anal invasion of Iago's own body)he imagines them less as realizable erotic objects than as mental counters in his revenge plot, and what are 4 he imagines them only in sexual unions (Othello with Desdemona, Othello with Emilia, Cassio with Desdemona, Cassio with Emilia) that everywhere exclude and diminish him. And in response, he effectively neutralizes the cell phones evolution erotic potency that mocks his own lack. His primary tool in this neutralization is the creation of are 4 phases Othello as black: and in fact it is personality Othello as progenitor that first excites Iago's racializing rage. His first use of the language of black and white is in his call to of mitosis Brabantio: An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe. If Cassio needs to Books versus Movies make Othello into an exotic super-phallus, capable of restoring Italian potency, Iago needs to make him into are 4 of mitosis a black monster, invading the citadel of whiteness. Role! (The idealization and the debasement are of course two sides of the are 4 same coin, and they are equally damaging to Othello: both use him only as the container for white fantasies, whether of desire or fear.) Your white ewe/you: Iago's half-pun invokes the whiteness of his auditors via the personality assessment image of Othello's contaminating miscegenation; 12 true to form in racist discourse, whiteness emerges as a category only when it is imagined as threatened by its opposite.

Iago's language here works through separation, works by placing blackness outside of whiteness even as it provokes terror at the thought of their mixture. But the what phases play has already affiliated Iago himself with darkness and the demonic; the threat of a contaminating blackness is already there, already present inside the whiteness he would invoke. Iago creates Othello as blackand therefore himself as whitewhen he constructs him as monstrous progenitor; and he uses that racialized blackness to destroy what he cannot tolerate. Versus Essay! But the trope through which Iago imagines that destruction makes Iago himself into the monstrous progenitor, filled with a dark conception that only darkness can bring forth: I ha't, it is are 4 engender'd, he tells us; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to Books Movies Essay the world's light (1.3.401-2). This trope makes the what are 4 blackness Iago would attribute to Othellolike his monstrous generativitysomething already inside Iago himself, something that he must project out into the world: as though Iago were pregnant with the monster he makes of Othello. 13. If the structure of the first scene predicts the process through which Iago becomes the progenitor of Othello's racialized blackness, the trope of the monstrous birth in the first act's final lines perfectly anticipates the mechanism of projection through which Iago will come to use Othello's black skin as the container for his own interior blackness. Cassio uses Othello as the locus for fantasies of inseminating sexual renewal; Iago uses him as the Important Phenomena repository for his own bodily insufficiency and his self-disgust. What Of Mitosis! For Iago needs the blackness of personality skills others: even the white ewe Desdemona is blackened in his imagination as he turns her virtue into pitch (2.3.351).

How are we to understand Iago's impulse to blacken, the impulse for which Othello becomes the perfect vehicle? What does it mean to take another person's body as the what are 4 phases of mitosis receptacle for one's own contents? The text gives us, I think, a very exact account of what I've come to call the psycho-physiology of Iago's projection: that is, not simply an account of the psychological processes themselves but also an account of the culture fantasized bodily processes that underlie them. Projection is in its own way comfortingly abstract; by invoking the are 4 body behind the abstraction, Othello in effect rubs our noses in it. 14. Let me begin, then, by thinking about the way Iago thinks about bodies, especially about the insides of bodies. For Iago is the play's spokesman for the idea of the body modification culture inside, the what are 4 of mitosis hidden away.

At the beginning of his seduction of Othello, he defends the privacy of his thought by asking where's that palace, whereinto foul things / Sometimes intrude not? (3.3.141-42); no palace is impregnable, no inside uncontaminated. Characteristically, Othello takes this image and cell makes it his own, reinscribing it in what phases his later anatomy of Desdemona as a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in (4.2.62-63). But merely by insisting on the hidden inwardness of project scoping thought, Iago has already succeeded in are 4 causing Othello to project scoping conflate the hidden with the hideous, as though that which is inside, invisible, must inevitably be monstrous (he echoes me, / As if there were some monster in his thought, / Too hideous to be shown [3.3.110-12]). 15 According to this logic, the case against Desdemona is complete as soon as Iago can insinuate that she, too, haspsychically and anatomicallyan inside, unknowable and monstrous because it is inside, unseen. If Iago succeeds in what transferring his own sense of Books versus Essay hidden contamination to Desdemona, localizing it in her body, the sense of the hideous thing withinmonstrous birth or foul intruderbegins with him. Seen from this vantage point, his initial alarum to Brabantio (Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags. What Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis! . . . Are all doors lock'd? [1.1.80, 85]) looks less like a description of danger to Brabantio or Desdemona than like a description of danger to Iago himself. For Iago findsor createsin Brabantio's house the perfect analogue for his own sense of vulnerability to intrusion, and he can make of Othello the perfect analogue for the intrusive foul thing, the old black ram who is about Gender in Nursing tupping your white ewe/youor, as we later find out, tupping Iago himself in Iago's fantasy, and leaving behind a poisonous residue (I do suspect the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat, the thought whereof / Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards [2.1.290-92]). But even the image of the body as a breached and contaminated palace suggests rather more interior structure than most of Iago's other images for the body. Are 4 Phases! Again and again Iago imagines the body filled with liquid putrefaction, with contents that can and project scoping should be vomited out or excreted. The three fingers Cassio kisses in show of courtesy to Desdemona should be clyster-pipes for are 4 of mitosis, his sake (1.

176), Iago says; through the bizarre reworking of Iago's fantasy, Cassio's fingers are transformed into enema tubes, an imagistic transformation that violently brings together not only lips and Books faeces, mouth, vagina, and anus, but also digital, phallic, and emetic penetration of a bodyDesdemona's? Cassio's?imagined only as a container for faeces. Early in the play, poor Roderigo is a sick fool . . . Whom love has turn'd almost the what are 4 phases of mitosis wrong side outward (2.3.47-48); by the end, he is a quat rubbed almost to the sense (5.1.11), that is, a pus-filled pimple about to break. The congruence of these images suggests that Roderigo becomes a quat for Iago because he can't keep his insides from running out: the love that has almost turned him inside out is here refigured as pus that threatens to break through the surface of his body. In Iago's fantasy of the Books body, what is phases inside does not need to be contaminated by a foul intruder because it is already pus or faeces; in fact, anything brought into this interior will be contaminated by it. Iago cannot imagine ordinary eating, in which matter is Phenomena Essay taken in for of mitosis, the body's nourishment; any good object taken in will be violently transformed and violently expelled.

When he is done with her, Iago tells us, Othello will excrete Desdemona (The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as acerb as the coloquintida, an body culture, emetic or purgative [1.3.349-50]); when Desdemona is sated with Othello's body (1.351), she will heave the gorge (2.1.231-32). (Poor Emilia has obviously learned from what of mitosis, her husband: in her view men are all but stomachs, and we all but food; / They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, / They belch us [3.4.101-3].) Given this image of the body's interior as a mass of undifferentiated and contaminated matter, it's no wonder that Iago propounds the ideal of self-control to Roderigo in the garden metaphor that insists both on the rigid demarcation and differentiation of the body's interior and on its malleability to the exercise of will: . . . Phones Evolution! 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus: our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are gardeners, so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either to have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry, why, the power, and corrigible authority of are 4 phases of mitosis this, lies in our wills. This is not, presumably, his experience of his own body's interior or of personality assessment his management of it; it seems rather a defensive fantasy of an orderly pseudo-Eden, in which man is wholly in what phases of mitosis control both of the inner processes of his body/garden and of the Essay about Gender in Nursing troublesome business of gender, and woman is wholly absent. 16 His only explicit representation of his body's interior belies this defense: the mere thought that Othello has leaped into his seat (even though he know[s] not if't be true [1. 386]) Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw [his] inwards. No reassuring gardener with his tidyor even his untidyrows here: Iago's inwards are hideously vulnerable, subject to a poisonous penetration. Through an imagistic transformation, Othello as penetrator becomes conflated with the thought that tortures Iago inwardly; Othello thus becomes a toxic object lodged inside him. (The garden passage simultaneously expresses and defends against the homoerotic desire that here makes Othello a poisonous inner object, insofar as it voices a fantasy of supply[ing] the body with one gender rather than distract[ingj it with many. 17 ) What I have earlier called Iago's injured Ihis sense that he is chronically slighted and betrayed, his sense of what are 4 self-divisionproduces (or perhaps is body modification culture produced by) fantasies of his body as penetrated and phases of mitosis contaminated, especially by Othello. In fact, any traffic between inner and outer is dangerous for culture, Iago, who needs to keep an absolute barrier between them by making his outside opaque, a false sign (1.1.156 and 157) of his inside; to do less would be to risk being (Roderigolike) turned almost the wrong side outward, to wear [his] heart upon [his] sleeve, / For dawes to peck at (11. 64-65). 18 To allow himself to be seen or known is tantamount to what phases being stabbed, eaten alive: pecked at from the outside unless he manages to keep the barrier between inner and outer perfectly intact, gnawed from the about Gender inside if he lets anyone in.

Iago's need for sadistic control of others (Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short [2.3.369], he says, after managing Cassio's cashiering) goes in tandem with his extraordinarily vivid sense of vulnerability: unable to be gardener to himself, he will sadistically manage everyone else, simultaneously demonstrating his superiority to those quats whose insides are so sloppily prone to bursting out, and hiding the contamination and chaos of his own insides. Roderigo plays a pivotal role in what are 4 of mitosis this process. As the embodiment of what Iago would avoid, Roderigo exists largely to give Iago repeated occasions on which to display his mastery over both self and other: in effect, Iago can load his contaminated insides into Roderigo and Sociology's Social Phenomena then rub him to the sense in order to are 4 demonstrate the project scoping difference between them and, hence, the impermeability of Iago's own insides. Moreover, in managing Roderigo, Iago can continually replenish himself with the fantasy of new objects to be taken into the self: objects over whichunlike the thought of Othello, which gnaws at his inwardshe can exert full control. Obsessivelysix times in fourteen linesIago tells Roderigo to Put money in thy purse . . . fill thy purse with money (1.3.340, 348).

We know that Iago has received enough jewels and phases gold from Roderigo to have half-corrupted a votarist (4.2.189), but we never see Iago taking the miser's or even the spendthrift's ordinary delight in this treasure; detached from any ordinary human motivation, the money accrues almost purely psychic meaning, becoming the sign not of any palpable economic advantage but of Iago's pleasure in being able to empty Roderigo out, to fill himself at will. Books Versus Movies! Put money in what phases of mitosis thy purse, he repeats insistently, and then adds, Thus do I ever make my fool my purse (1.3.381), as though the emptiedout Roderigo becomes the personality container that holds the illusion of Iago's fullness. For his repetition signals a compulsive need to fill himself with objects in order to compensate for the contamination and of mitosis chaos inside: hard shiny objects that might be kept safe and might keep the self safe, objects that could magically repair the sense of what the project scoping self is are 4 phases of mitosis made of and phones evolution filled with. Iago's hoarding, his sadism, his references to purgatives and clyster-pipes can be read through the language of classical psychoanalysis as evidence of an anal fixation; in that language the equation of money with faeces is familiar enough, as is the are 4 phases association of sadistic control with the anal phase. 19 Iago's obsessive suspicion that Othello has leaped into his seat, along with his heavily eroticized account of Cassio's dream, similarly lend themselves to a classically psychoanalytic reading of Iago as repressed homosexual. 20 While these readings are not wrong within their own terms, they nonetheless seem to me limited, and culture not only insofar as they can be said to assume a historically inaccurate concept of the subject or of the homosexual: 21 limited even within the terms of psychoanalysis insofar as they do not get at either the quality of Iago's emotional relationships (his inability to form any kind of libidinal bond, his tendency to treat others as poisonous inner objects) or the terrifying theatrical seductiveness of the processes of projection that we witness through him. I want consequently to move from the consideration of libidinal zones and conflicted object choices characteristic of classical psychoanalysis to the areas opened up by the work of Melanie Klein; a Kleinian reading of Iago will, I think, help us to understand the ways in what phases of mitosis which Iago's imagination of his own interior shapes his object relations as he projects this interior onto the landscape of the play. In Klein's account the primitive self is composed in part of remnants of internalized objects (people, or bits and pieces of people, taken into the self as part of the self's continual negotiation with what an evolution, outside observer would call the world) and the world is composed in part of what are 4 phases of mitosis projected bits and pieces of the evolution self.

Ideally, the good breast is taken in and becomes part of the what are 4 phases ego, and the infant who was first inside the mother now has the mother inside himself. 22 Internalization of the good object is the basis for trust in project scoping one's own goodness; 23 full identification with a good object goes with a feeling of the self possessing goodness of its own and what phases of mitosis hence enables the return of goodness to the world: Through processes of projection and body modification introjection, through inner wealth given out and re-introjected, an enrichment and deepening of the ego comes about. . . . Inner wealth derives from having assimilated the good object so that the individual becomes able to share its gifts with others. 24 And the corollary is clear: if the what are 4 phases infant cannot take in the experience of the good breast (either because of his/her own constitutional conditions or because the experience is versus Movies not there to be had in a consistent way), the phases bad breast may be introjected, with accompanying feelings of one's own internal badness, poverty, poisonousness, one's own inability to give back anything good to the world. But, in the words of Harold Boris, a contemporary post-Kleinian analyst of envy, the infant who cannot, sooner or later, feed the cell phones hand from which it feeds . Are 4 Phases! . . is the child who will then attempt to bite it. 25 The infant stuck with a depleted or contaminated inner world will, Klein suggests, exist in a peculiar relation to the good breast: even if it is there and personality assessment apparently available, the infant may not be able to use it. For if the infant cannot tolerate either the discrepancy between its own badness and the goodness outside itself or the sense of dependency on this external source of what are 4 goodness, the good breast will not be available for body, the infant's use: its goodness will in effect be spoiled by the infant's own envious rage. The prototype for Kleinian envy is the hungry baby, experiencing itself as helplessly dependent, empty, or filled only with badness, confronted with the imagined fullness of a source of goodness outside itself: the first object to be envied is the feeding breast, for the infant feels that it possesses everything he desires and that it has an unlimited flow of milk, and love which the breast keeps for its own gratification. 26 Klein's insistence on the priority of the breast as the are 4 of mitosis first object of envy effectively reverses Freud's concept of penis envy; in Klein's account even penis envy becomes secondary, derivative from this earlier prototype.

27 But Klein's concept of envy turns on personality, an even more startling innovation: for most analysts of infantile destructiveness and rage, the source and target is the frustrating bad objecta maternal object that doesn't provide enough, is phases not at the infant's beck and call, provides milk that in some way is felt to be spoiled; but in Klein's reading of envy, the source and target of rage is not the frustrating or poisonous bad breast but the good breast, and it is exactly its goodness that provokes the rage. Hence the peculiar sensitivity of the envious to the goodand the consequent need not to possess but to destroy it, or, in culture Klein's terms, to put badness, primarily bad excrement and bad parts of the self, into the mother, and what phases of mitosis first of all into her breast, in order to spoil and Sociology's Role in Understanding Social destroy her. 28 But the breast so destroyed is of course no longer available to what are 4 phases of mitosis the child as a source of good: The breast attacked in phones this way has lost its value, it has become bad by being bitten up and poisoned by what are 4 phases of mitosis, urine and faeces. 29 Insofar as the infant has succeeded in modification culture destroying the good object, he has confirmed its destruction as a source of goodness within himself; hence the what are 4 phases peculiarly vicious circle of versus envy, which destroys all good both in the world and in the self, and hence also its peculiar despair. We do not, of course, need the of mitosis help of project scoping a Kleinian perspective to identify Iago as envious. His willingness to phases kill Cassio simply because He has a daily beauty in Sociology's Role in Understanding his life, / That makes me ugly (5.1.19-20) marks the extent to which he is driven by envy; in an older theatrical tradition he might well have been named Envy. Here, for example, is Envy from Impatient Poverty: A syr is what of mitosis not thys a ioly game . . Evolution! . Enuy in fayth I am the same . What Are 4 Of Mitosis! . . I hate conscience, peace loue and reste. Debate and Books versus Movies Essay stryfe that loue I beste.

Accordynge to my properte. When a man louethe well hys wyfe. I brynge theym at debate and stryfe. 30. This genealogy does not, however, make Iago a Coleridgean motiveless malignity. For in Iago, Shakespeare gives motiveless malignity a body: incorporating this element of the morality tradition, he releases through Iago the range of bodily fantasies associated with a specifically Kleinian envy. Klein describes an envy so primaland so despairingthat it cannot tolerate the existence of goodness in the world: its whole delight lies not in possessing what is phases good but in spoiling it. Versus Essay! And that spoiling takes place in are 4 phases of mitosis fantasy through a special form of object-relating: through the violent projection of bits of the self and culture its contaminated objectsoften localized as contaminated bodily productsinto the phases of mitosis good object. Sociology's Phenomena! By means of this projection, the self succeeds in replicating its own inner world out there and thus in phases destroying the goodness it cannot tolerate; at the end of the process, in the words of one Kleinian analyst, There is nothing left to envy. 31 Through the Sociology's Role Essay lens of a Kleinian perspective, we can see traces of this process as Iago fills Othello with the poison that fills him.

In Iago's fantasy, as I have suggested, there is no uncontaminated interior space: he can allow no one access to his interior and has to keep it hidden away because it is are 4 of mitosis more a cesspool than a palace or a garden. And there are no uncontaminated inner objects: every intruder is foul; everything taken in turns to pus or faeces or poison; everything swallowed must be vomited out. Project Scoping! This sense of inner contamination leaves himas Klein would predictparticularly subject to the sense of goodness in others and particularly ambivalent toward that goodness. His goal is to make those around him as ugly as he is; but that goal depends on his unusual sensitivity to their beauty. Even after he has managed to bring out the quarrelsome drunkard and class-conscious snob in Cassio, transforming him into a man who clearly enjoys sneaking around to see his general's wife, Iago remains struck by the daily beauty in Cassio's lifeat a point when that beauty has become largely invisible to the audience. What Are 4 Of Mitosis! To Roderigo, Iago always contemptuously denies the goodness of Othello and Desdemona (he is an erring barbarian and she a supersubtle Venetian); but in soliloquy he specifically affirms their goodnessand affirms it in order to imagine spoiling it. Othello's free and open nature he will remake as the stupidity of an ass who can be led by the nose (1.3.397-400).

He will not only use Desdemona's virtue; he will turn it into pitch, in a near-perfect replication of the modification projection of faeces into the good breast that Klein posits. For Iago the are 4 desire to spoil always takes precedence over the desire to possess; one need only contrast him with Othello to see the difference in their relation to good objects. 32 Othello's anguish over the loss of the good object gives the play much of its emotional resonance. He imagines himself as safely enclosed in its garnery, nourished and protected by it, and then cast out: But there, where I have garner'd up my heart, / Where either I must live, or bear no life, / The fountain, from the which my current runs, / Or else dries up, to be discarded thence (4.2.58-61). When he is made to imagine that object as spoileda cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender inits loss is wholly intolerable to about him; even at the end, as he kills Desdemona, he is working very hard to restore some remnant of the good object in her. Although he approaches Desdemona's bed planning to bloody it (Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted [5.1.36]), his deepest desire is not to stain but to what are 4 of mitosis restore the purity of the good object, rescuing it from contamination, even the contamination he himself has visited upon it. By the time he reaches her bed, he has decided not to shed her blood (5.2.3). Instead he attempts to recreate her unviolated wholeness (that whiter skin of hers than snow, / And smooth, as monumental alabaster [11. 4-5]) in a death that he imagines as a revirgination; 33 in fantasy he cleanses the phones evolution slime / That sticks on filthy deeds, remaking her unmarred and are 4 of mitosis unpenetrated, one entire and perfect chrysolite (11. 149-50, 146).

But Iago's only joy comes in spoiling good objects: Othello mourns being cast out from the garnery/fountain that has nourished him; Iago mocks the meat he feeds on (3.3.170-71). His description of the green-eyed monster he cautions Othello against modification culture, marks the workings of a very Kleinian envy in are 4 of mitosis him: 34 like the empty infant who cannot tolerate the fullness of the breast, he will mock the objects that might nourish and sustain him, spoiling them by means of his corrosive wit. 35 (Or perhapsin good Kleinian fashionby tearing at them with his teeth: especially in conjunction with the modification culture image of feeding on meat, mock may carry traces of mammock, 36 to tear into pieces, suggesting the oral aggression behind Iago's biting mockery and hence the talion logic in what phases his fantasy of being pecked at.) Mockeryespecially of the meat he might feed onis Iago's signature: different as they are, Othello, Cassio, and Roderigo share an almost religious awe toward Desdemona; Iago insists that the wine she drinks is made of grapes (2.1.249-50), that even the best woman is only good enough To suckle fools, and chronicle small beer (1. 160). If the first object to be envied is the Essay about Gender in Nursing feeding breast, Iago's devaluation of maternal nurturance here is just what we might expect. But envy does not stop there. As Klein suggests, Excessive envy of the what breast is likely to extend to all feminine attributes, in particular to the woman's capacity to bear children. . Gender In Nursing! . What Phases! . The capacity to give and to preserve life is project scoping felt as the greatest gift and therefore creativeness becomes the deepest cause for envy. 37 If Othello's potency and fullness make him the immediate target of Iago's envious rage, the destruction of Desdemona's generativity has been Iago's ultimate goal from the beginning: poison his delight, he says; And though he in a fertile climate dwell, / Plague him with flies (1.1.70-71). What! The image half-echoes Hamlet's linking of conception and breeding with the stirring of maggots in dead flesh, 38 for the fertile climate that Iago will transform into project scoping a breeding ground for what phases of mitosis, plague is Desdemona's generative body. Essay About Gender In Nursing! Hence, I think, the urgency with which Iago propels the plot toward the marriage bed (Do it not with poison, strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated [4.1.203-4]): the ultimate game is to make father destroy mother on that bed in a parody of the life-giving insemination that might have taken place there. 39.

And hence the subterranean logic of what of mitosis Iago's favorite metaphor for that destruction, his monstrous birth. For if Iago enviously devalues Desdemona's generativity (she can only suckle, and modification culture only suckle fools; her body will breed only flies), he also appropriates it, and appropriates it specifically through imitation. Here both senses of mock as devaluation and derisive imitationcome together, as Boris's work on are 4 of mitosis, envy predicts: The urge to take charge of the envied object has several components to it. First, of course, is the denuding (an idea) and disparagement (an emotion) of the inherent value of the original. Skills Assessment! This makes possible what follows, namely the idea that the 'knock-off (the 'as-if' ) is in every way the equal of the real thing. 40 In conceiving of his monstrous birth, that is, Iago not only are 4 of mitosis mocks but also displaces Desdemona's generativity by phones, taking on its powers for of mitosis, himself, denying the project scoping differencebetween her fruitfulness and his barrenness, between her fullness and his emptinessthat he cannot tolerate. Iago's substitution in fact proceeds by stages. When he first invokes the metaphor of what are 4 of mitosis pregnancy, he is merely the Gender midwife/observer: There are many events in the womb of time, which will be delivered (1.3.369-70). But his triumphant I ha't only thirty lines laterI ha't, it is engender'd; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's lightreplaces time's womb with his own: as I have already argued, his is the body in are 4 which the monstrous birth is project scoping engendered, and hell and night have become the midwives. Through this metaphor, Iago's mental production becomes his substitute birth, in which he replaces the phases of mitosis world outside himself 41 the world of cell evolution time's womb, or of Desdemona'swith the projection of his own interior monstrosity; thus conceived, his plot manages simultaneously to destroy the generativity that he cannot tolerate and to proclaim the superior efficacy of his own product.

Emilia's description of the jealousy Iago creates in Othelloit is a monster, / Begot upon itself, born on itself (3.4.159-60)is not accurate about Othello, but it suggestively tracks Iago's own envy to its psychic sources. If Iago imagines himself enacting a substitute birth, making the world conform to the shape of his envy by what are 4 phases of mitosis, undoing the contours of the already-existing generative world, Emilia expresses the wish behind his metaphor: the wish to be begot upon oneself, born on oneself, no longer subject todependent on, vulnerable tothe generative fullness outside the self and the unendurable envy it provokes. 42 Unable to achieve that end, he will empty himself out on the wedding bed, substituting his own monstrous conception for the generative fullness that torments him, and destroying in the process the envied good object in Desdemona. And it is just here, in this fantasy, that Othello's blackness becomes such a powerful vehicle for Iago. I have already suggested that Iago's capacity to spoil good objects rests on his capacity to Sociology's in Understanding Social Essay blacken them, and to blacken them through a bodily process of phases of mitosis projection.

His monstrous birth is from the first associated with the darkness of hell and night; and when, in his conversation with Desdemona, he imagines his invention as his baby, that baby is associated specifically with the personality extrusion of a dark and sticky substance: Comes from my pate as birdlime does from. It plucks out brain and all: but my Muse. And thus she is deliver'd. . . . Presumably Iago means that his invention is as slowas laborious-as the process of removing birdlime from rough cloth (frieze), in which the are 4 phases of mitosis nap of the cloth is removed along with the soiling agent (hence plucks out brain and all). But the route to this relatively rational meaning is Sociology's Role Important Phenomena treacherous: the syntax first presents us with birdlime oozing from his head (invention / Comes from what of mitosis, my pate as birdlime does), takes us on an apparent detour through the soiling of cloth (the birdlime stuck to about Gender in Nursing the frieze), and ends with the image of phases his head emptied out altogether (plucks out brain and all), as though in a dangerous evacuation. Then, through a buried pun on conception, the concealed intermediary term, the evacuation becomes a pregnancy and delivery, displaced from his own body to that of the personality skills Muse, who labors and are 4 is delivered.

Invention, in other words, becomes the in Nursing male equivalent of pregnancy, the production of a sticky dark baby. What we have here, I suggest, is the vindictive fantasy of a faecal pregnancy and delivery that can project Iago's inner monstrosity and darkness into what are 4 of mitosis the world: 44 initially displaced upward to the evacuated pate, this faecal baby is then returned to its source as his monstrous birth, the about baby he has conceived in response to what are 4 phases Desdemona's request for evolution, praise (2.1.124) and the easy generativity (his own is a difficult labor) that he envies in her. This baby's emergence here marks, I think, both the source of his envy and the exchange that envy will demand: he will attempt in effect to replicate his dark sticky baby in are 4 phases of mitosis her, soiling her generative body by turning her virtue into pitch, 45 spoiling the Books object whose fullness and goodness he cannot tolerate by making it the are 4 phases of mitosis receptacle for Essay about in Nursing, his own bodily contents. And he counts on the contagion of this contaminated object: he will turn Desdemona into pitch not only because pitch is what are 4 phases of mitosis black and stickyhence entrappingbut because it is notoriously defiling; 46 his scheme depends on using Desdemona as a kind of tar baby, counting on Books Movies, her defilementher blackeningto make Othello black. In fantasy, that is, Iago uses Desdemona and Othello to contaminate each other; they become for him one defiled object as he imagines them on phases of mitosis, that wedding bed. But at the same time, Othello plays a special role for Iago: in Othello's black skin Iago can find a fortuitous external sign for the entire process, or, more accurately, a container for the internal blackness that he would project outward, the dark baby that hell and night must bring to the world's light; emptying himself out, Iago can project his faecal baby into Othello, blackening him with his own inner waste. Iago plainly needs an Othello who can carry the burden of his own contamination; and to some extent the evolution play makes us complicit in the process, as it makes Othello in effect into Iago's monstrous creation, carrying out Iago's conception as he murders Desdemona on her wedding bed, enacting a perverse version of the what of mitosis childbirth that might have taken place there. Othello himself seems to recognize that a birth of Essay about Gender sorts is taking place, though he does not recognize it as Iago's: preparing to are 4 phases kill Desdemona on that bed, he says that her denials Cannot remove, nor choke the strong conception, / That I do groan withal (5.2.56-57), 47 as though he has been impregnated through Iago's monstrous birth. And in fact he has: part of the peculiar horror of this play is that Othello becomes so effective a receptacle forand enactor ofIago's fantasies. If Iago imagines himself filled with a gnawing poisonous mineral through what amounts to Othello's anal insemination of body modification culture him (2.1.290-92), he turns that poison back on what phases of mitosis, Othello: I'll pour this pestilence into evolution his ear (2.3.347). This retaliatory aural/anal insemination fills Othello with Iago's own contents, allowing Iago to serve his turn on Othello by doing to Othello what he imagines Othello has done to what are 4 phases of mitosis him. (I follow him to serve my turn upon him is sexualized in ways not likely to be audible to a modern audience [1.1.42].

For turn, see Othello's later she can turn, and project scoping turn, and yet go on, / And turn again [4.1.249-50]; 48 characteristically, Othello replicates in what are 4 phases Desdemona the turn Iago has replicated in Sociology's Role in Understanding Phenomena him.) And The Moor already changes with my poison, Iago says, adding for our benefitin case we have not noticed the links between his poisonous conceit and Othello'sDangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, / Which . What! . . Burn like the mines of sulphur (3.3.330-34). The Moor already changes with my poison: the line marks what is modification culture distinctive about projection in this playand distinctively Kleinian. Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis! Before Klein, projection was usually understood as a relatively uncomplicated process in which disowned ideas and emotions were displaced onto project scoping an external figure. Klein insisted both on the fantasies of bodily function accompanying this process and on the extent to which it is what are 4 phases specifically pieces of the self and Essay Gender in Nursing its inner objects that are thus relocated, with the what of mitosis consequence that pieces of the self are now felt to personality skills assessment be out there, both controlling the object into which they have been projected and subject to dangers from it; Klein renamed this process projective identification. Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis! And her followers have expanded on the concept, stressing the effects of these projected contents on the recipient of the projection, the ways in which the projector can in fact control the recipient. In this version of projective identification, the recipient will not only experience the bits of self projected into him but also enact the projector's fantasy scenarios, hence relieving the projector of versus all responsibility for them. 49 When Iago imagines Roderigo turned inside out, his body filled with pus, he seems to phases of mitosis me to be engaging in something close to garden-variety projection: he is attributing to Roderigo portions of himself, or ideas about himself, that he would like to disown; and, as far as we know, Roderigo does not come to experience himself as pus-filled or inside out. But when Iago imagines filling Othello with his poison, when he imagines (in Klein's formulation) the forceful entry into the object and control of the object by parts of the self, 50 he is much closer to a specifically Kleinian projective identification; and, as Klein's followers would predict, Othello really does change with Iago's poison, as he begins to experience himself as contaminated and in Nursing hence to act out Iago's scenarios. And the play depends on precisely this specialized kind of projective identification, in which Iago's fantasies are replicated in Othello's actions. When we first meet Othello, he is confident enough about his status and his color that he wishes to be found; he can confidently wish the goodness of the night (1.2.35) on Cassio and the duke's servants because blackness has not yet been poisoned for him. But as Iago projects his faecal baby into what phases him, Othello comes more and modification culture more to are 4 of mitosis imagine himself as the Books versus Essay foul thingthe old black ramintruding into are 4 phases of mitosis the palace of Venetian civilization or the palace of cell Desdemona's body; as Iago succeeds in making Othello the container for his own interior waste, Othello himself increasingly affiliates his blackness with soiling (he becomes collied or blackened by passion [2.3.197]; 51 his name is begrim'd, and black as his face) and with bad interior objects. Phases Of Mitosis! (In Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell [3.3.454], he calls on black vengeance to arise as though from within the hollow of himself.) 52 His experience of himself, that is, comes increasingly to personality skills resemble what Iago has projected into him; and he begins to act in accordance with that projection, replicating in Desdemona the what phases of mitosis contagion of projection itself.

The Othello who feels himself begrimed because he has internalized Iago's foul intruder will necessarily see Desdemona as foul (5.2.201), as a begrim'd Diana or a black weed, and modification culture will evacuate his good object as Iago had predicted (1.3.350); by the end of the play, Emilia can call Othello the blacker devil, Desdemona's most filthy bargain, As ignorant as dirt (5.2.132, 158, 165) because he has so perfectly introjected Iago's sense of inner filth. Insofar as Iago can make Othello experience his own blackness as a contamination that contaminates Desdemona, he succeeds in emptying himself out into Othello; and insofar as Othello becomes in effect Iago's faecal baby, Othellorather than Iagobecomes the bearer of the fantasy of what inner filth. Through projective identification, that is, Iago invents blackness as a contaminated category before our eyes, enacting his monstrous birth through Othello, and then allowing the personality skills Venetians (and most members of the audience) to congratulate themselvesas he doeson their distance from the what are 4 phases now-racialized Othello. Through this process, Othello becomes assimilated to, and motivated by, his racial typebecomes the monstrous Moor easily made jealousand Iago escapes our human categories altogether, becoming unknowable, a motiveless malignity. But this emptying out of Iago is no more than Iago has already performed on cell, himself: if the phases of mitosis projection of his own inner contamination into Role in Understanding Social Phenomena Essay Othello is Iago's relief, it is also his undoing, and in a way that corroborates both the bodiliness of the fantasy of what are 4 of mitosis projection and its dangers to the projector as well as the recipient. Klein notes that excessive use of projective identification results in the weakening and modification impoverishment of the ego; in the words of Betty Joseph, at times the what of mitosis mind can be . . . so evacuated by projective identification that the individual appears empty. 53 If at the end of the play there is body culture nothing left to of mitosis envy, there is also no one left to experience envy: Iago's projection of himself into the racial other he constructs as the body container for his contamination ends not only by destroying his (and our) good objects but also by leaving him entirely evacuated. Having poured the what are 4 phases pestilence of himself into Othello, Iago has nothing left inside him: his antigenerative birth hollows him out, leaving him empty. The closer he is to his goal, the flatter his language becomes; by the end, there is personality assessment no inside left, no place to speak from. The play that begins with his insistent I ends with his silence: from this time forth he never will speak word.

1 Quotations follow the Arden edition of Othello, edited by M. R. Ridley (London: Methuen, 1958). Ridley follows the 1622 quarto, which often differs from the phases of mitosis Folio Othello; I have noted the project scoping differences where they seem significant to what are 4 of mitosis my argument. Citations of skills plays other than Othello follow William Shakespeare: The complete Works, ed. Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). 2 Race is of course a vexed term; many have pointed out that the word race gained its current meaning only what are 4 as it was biologized in support of the economic institution of slavery and that the link between race and skin color is a peculiarly contemporary obsession, that (for example) Irish and Jews might in Essay 1604 have been thought of as racially separate from the English. For a particularly lucid account of the questions surrounding the invocation of what of mitosis race as a category in early modern England, see Lynda E. Boose, 'The Getting of a Lawful Race': Racial discourse in early modern England and the unrepresentable black woman in Women, Race, and Writing in Essay about in Nursing the Early Modern Period, Margo Hendricks and what phases Patricia Parker, eds. (London and skills assessment New York: Routledge, 1994), 35-54, esp.

35-40; see also John Gillies, Shakespeare and are 4 phases of mitosis the geography of difference (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), for the claim that early modern otherness was based on skills assessment, geography rather than on the anachronistic category of what race (25). Books Essay! Nonetheless, in Iago's capacity to make Othello's blackness the phases of mitosis primary signifier of his othernessas Boose observes, once his Ensign has raised the project scoping flag inscribing Othello within the phases of mitosis difference of body skin color, all the presumably meaningful differences Othello has constructed between himself and the infidel collapse (38)the text insists on the visible difference of what are 4 skin color that will increasingly come to define race, perhaps because, unlike religion, it (proverbially) cannot be changed. For a discussion of the significance of project scoping visible difference in early modern England, see Kim Hall, Reading What Isn't There: 'Black' Studies in what are 4 Early Modern England, Stanford Humanities Review 3 (1993): 23-33, esp. 25-27; in her account science merely takes up already pre-existing terms of difference, such as skin color and features, that have [previously] been combined with physical and Essay mental characteristics (25). 3 Ridley follows the Folio reading of line 392, since this line occurs in of mitosis a passage not found in Q1 ; Q2 (1630) famously reads Her name in place of F's My name, perhaps to rationalize Othello's peculiar association of assessment his name with the fairness of a figure for female virginity.

I prefer My name, partly because it suggests the identificatory dynamics that underlie Othello's love for Desdemona; but either reading points toward Othello's association of the stain on what are 4 of mitosis, Desdemona's virgin body with the blackness of his own face. 4 Desdemona becomes a black weed only in the quartos; F omits the adjective. 5 This position was powerfullyand variouslyarticulated in three classic essays published in 1979-80: Edward A. Snow's Sexual Anxiety and the Male Order of Things in Othello, English Literary Renaissance 10 (1980): 384-412; Stanley Cavell's Othello and the Stake of the Other in Disowning Knowledge in Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), 125-42 (originally published in project scoping 1979 in The Claim of are 4 of mitosis Reason [Oxford: Oxford UP]); and Stephen Greenblatt's The Improvisation of Power in Renaissance Self Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1980), 222-54, esp. 232-52. For the body modification culture association of Othello's blackness specifically with sexual contamination, and what are 4 of mitosis Othello's internalization of this association, see especially Snow, 400-402; and Cavell, 136-37. For a fuller reading of the association between blackness and monstrous sexuality in early modern English culture and in Othello, see especially Karen Newman, 'And wash the skills Ethiop white': femininity and the monstrous in what are 4 phases of mitosis Othello in Shakespeare Reproduced: The text in history and ideology, Jean E. Howard and Marion F. Phones! O'Connor, eds. (New York and London: Methuen, 1987), 143-62, esp. 148-53; for a fuller reading of the ways in which Othello internalizes the Venetian construction of his blackness, see Edward Berry, Othello's Alienation, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 30 (1990): 315-33. The blackening of Desdemona has become a critical commonplace: see, for example, Michael Neill, Unproper Beds: Race, Adultery, and the Hideous in Othello, Shakespeare Quarterly 40 (1989): 383-412, esp.

410; Berry, 328; Ania Loomba, Gender, race, Renaissance drama (Manchester and what are 4 phases of mitosis New York: Manchester UP, 1989), 59; Parker, Fantasies of 'Race' and 'Gender': Africa, Othello and bringing to light in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 84-100, esp. 95; and especially Newman, 151-52, for whom the cell phones evolution blackening of Desdemona indicates the convergence of woman and black in the category of monstrous sexuality. 6 See W. H. Auden's related account of Iago as practical joker: The practical joker despises his victims, but at phases, the same time he envies them because their desires, however childish and mistaken, are real to them, whereas he has no desire which he can call his own. .. . If the word motive is given its normal meaning of Essay about a positive purpose of the self like sex, money, glory, etc., then the practical joker is without motive. What Are 4! Yet the professional practical joker is certainly driven, .. . but the drive is negative, a fear of lacking a concrete self, of being nobody. In any practical joker to whom playing such jokes is a passion, there is always an Sociology's Role in Understanding Important Social Essay, element of malice, a projection of his self-hatred onto others, and in of mitosis the ultimate case of the absolute practical joker, this is projected onto all created things (The Dyer's Hand and other essays [New York: Random House, 1962], 256-57).

The emptiness of Auden's practical joker is sometimes associated by later critics with Iago's facility in role-playing; see, e.g., Shelley Orgel, whose Iago gains a temporary sense of cell evolution self by playing the roles that others project onto him (Iago, American Imago 25 [1968]: 258-73, esp. 272). Greenblatt's Iago has the role-player's ability to imagine his nonexistence so that he can exist for a moment in another and as another; but for what are 4 phases of mitosis, Greenblatt, Iago's imagined emptiness is less an ontological state than a cover for his emptying out of his victim (235 and 236). More recently Iago's emptiness has reminded critics of a Derridean absence of self or meaning; see, e.g., Bonnie Melchior, Iago as Deconstructionist, Publications of the Arkansas Philological Association 16 (1990): 63-81, esp. 79; or Karl F. Zender, The Humiliation of Iago, SEL 34 (1994): 323-39, esp. 327-28. Sociology's! In Alessandro Serpieri's brilliant semiotic reading, Iago suffers from an envy of being that is the deconstructionist's equivalent of the state Auden describes: Iago cannot identify with any situation or sign or enonce, and is thus condemned to deconstruct through his own enonciations the enonces of others, transforming them into simulacra. Othello is precisely the lord of the enonce (Serpieri, Reading the signs: towards a semiotics of Shakespearean drama, trans.

Keir Elam, in Alternative Shakespeares, John Drakakis, ed. [London and New York: Methuen, 1985], 119-43, esp. 139). In its emphasis on envy and projection, Auden's and Serpieri's work is closest to my own; but see also David Pollard's powerful Baudelairian reading of Iago's emptiness and the sadistic projections through which he attempts to fill it (Iago's Wound in Othello: New Perspectives, Virginia Mason Vaughan and Kent Cartwright, eds. [Rutherford, Madison, and Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991], 89-96). 7 Adam Phillips, Foreword in phases Harold N. Boris, Envy (Northvale, NJ, and London: Jason Aronson, 1994), vii-xi, esp. ix. 8 For some, Othello is split long before Iago begins his work.

In Berry's account, for example, Othello is divided from the beginning by Books versus Movies Essay, the two contradictory selfimages he absorbs from Venice; his failure to escape this limiting framework and hence to achieve a true sense of what are 4 of mitosis personal identity is a powerful source of tragic feeling in the play (323 and 330). But for critics who read Othello as an early instance of a colonized subject, this failure is not personal but systemic: both Loomba (32, 48, and Sociology's Role Social 54) and Jyotsna Singh (Othello's Identity, Postcolonial Theory, and what are 4 Contemporary African Rewritings of Othello in Sociology's Role Social Phenomena Essay Hendricks and what are 4 phases of mitosis Parker, eds., 287-99, esp. 288) position Othello specifically in opposition to what Singh calls the dominant, Western fantasy of a singular, unified identity (288). But Iago at project scoping, least insists that he is the phases of mitosis divided one, and Othello initially claims that his soul is perfect or undivided; whatever the state to which Othello is reduced, Othello like The Tempest seems to me to personality assessment encode the fantasy that the exotic other possesses a primitive unitary identity before his induction into a Western-style split self. 9 I first read this paper to a very helpful and responsive audience at what phases of mitosis, Notre Dame in November 1994, on which occasion Richard Dutton called my attention to the way in which Othello's self-division is literally played out on the stage. 10 As Iago's self-alienation passes to Othello, so does his habit of soliloquizing. Soliloquies are usually in Shakespearean tragedy the discourse of self-division: only those whose selves are in pieces need to explain themselves to themselves and have distinct-enough interior voices to carry out the job for our benefit. Initially Iago's soliloquies formally mark him as fractured in comparison with Othello's wholeness; by the end, Othello is the soliloquizer. 11 I here depart from Ridley in following F's version of line 80; Ridley and Q1 (1622) give And swiftly come to skills Desdemona's arms.

Ridley himself finds Q1's version of line 80 pallid and thinks Shakespeare probably revised it for F; that he nonetheless rejects the Folio version on the grounds that it is inconsistent with Cassio's character suggests his resistance to seeing just how eroticized Cassio's idealizing of Othello is what are 4 of mitosis (xxixxxx and 52n). In the context of skills lovemaking, spirits is not a neutral term; for its specifically sexual senses, see Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale UP, 1977), 441-43. 12 See Neill's powerful account of the ways in which the audience is implicated in Iago's invocation of the horrors of miscegenation, the improper sexual mixture that medieval theologians called adultery (395-99 and 407-9). For Arthur L. Little Jr. the whole of the are 4 phases play constitutes the primal scene of racism, a forbidden sexual sight/site from body modification culture, which the audience constructs the significance of race ('An essence that's not seen': The Primal Scene of Racism in Othello, SQ 44 [1993]: 304-24, esp. Are 4 Of Mitosis! 305-6). 13 The familiar associations of blackness with monstrosity (see, e.g., Newman, 148; and James R. Assessment! Aubrey, Race and the Spectacle of the Monstrous in Othello, Clio 22 [1993]: 221-38) and of mitosis specifically with monstrous births (see Neill, 409-10; and Aubrey, 222-27) would probably have made the subterranean connection between Othello and Iago's monstrous birth more available to Shakespeare's audiences than it is to project scoping a modern audience. 14 Projection has classically been invoked as a mechanism in Othello, but usually in the other direction, from what phases, Othello to Iago; see, e.g., J.I.M.

Stewart, Character and Motive in skills Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined ([London, New York, and Toronto: Long-mans, Green and of mitosis Company, 1949], 102-5), though Stewart ultimately abandons a naturalistic reading of the play through projection for a symbolic reading of Iago and Othello as parts of a single whole. For somewhat later versions of about Gender in Nursing Iago as Othello's projection, see, e.g., Henry L. Warnken, Iago as a Projection of Othello in Shakespeare Encomium 1564-1964, Anne Paolucci, ed. Of Mitosis! (New York: The City College, 1964), 1-15; and Orgel, 258-73. Sociology's Role Important Phenomena! In these accounts projection is loosely used to what are 4 phases indicate that Iago expresses unacknowledged doubts or desires in Othello's mind (or, in Orgel's reading, Othello's unacknowledged need for a punitive superego); they generally do not explore the mechanism of projection or consider the degree to which the phones structure of the are 4 play posits Iagonot Othelloas its psychic starting point. For Auden, who reads the play through Iago as practical joker, projection begins with Iago, not Othello (see n. 6, above); see also Leslie Y. Rabkin and Jeffrey Brown, who read Iago as a Horneyan sadist, assuaging his pain by projecting his self-contempt and hopelessness onto others (Some Monster in His Thought: Sadism and Tragedy in Othello Literature and Psychology 23 [1973]: 59-67, esp. 59-60); and Pollard, who reads Iago as Baudelairian sadist, filling the world with sadistic projections with which he then identifies to fill his inner emptiness (92-95). Serpieri sees Iago as the artificer of a destructive projection; in his semiotic analysis, litotesIago's characteristic nay-saying figurebecomes the linguistic equivalent of projection, a figure of project scoping persuasion which, by denying, affirms in the 'other' all thatthe diabolical, the lustful, the alienwhich it refutes or censures in what are 4 phases of mitosis the 'self (134 and 142). Skills! Attention to what the status of Sociology's Role in Understanding Important Phenomena others has made contemporary criticism particularly sensitive to Othello as the site of Iago's projections rather than as the originator of projection; see, e.g., Parker on the violence of projection (100). My account differs from those cited here largely in giving projection a body and in specifying the mechanisms of projective identification at work in what are 4 phases of mitosis the play. 15 Although Neill emphasizes the hidden/hideousness of the Movies Essay bed rather than of bodily interiors (394-95), my formulation here is very much indebted to his. In the course of her enormously suggestive account of the cultural resonances of the hidden/private in Othello and what are 4 phases of mitosis Hamlet, Parker comments extensively on the association of the hidden with the assessment woman's private parts, partly via gynecological discourse; see Parker, Othello and Hamlet: Dilation, Spying, and the 'Secret Place' of Woman, Representations 44 (1993): 60-95, esp.

64-69. 16 Gender can of course mean kind; but, as Ridley notes, Shakespeare normally uses it of difference of sex (40n). 17 Ridley notes that supply = satisfy (40n); for what are 4, a specifically sexualized use, see Measure for Measure, 5.1.210. 18 Doves is the reading in Ridley and cell evolution Ql; I here depart from it in phases giving F's and Q2's dawes. 19 On the relationship between money and faeces, see Sigmund Freud, Character and Anal Eroticism in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey, 24 vols. (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-74), 9:167-76, esp. 171 and 173-74; Ernest Jones, Anal-Erotic Character Traits, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 13 (1918): 261-84, esp. 272-74 and 276-77; Karl Abraham, Contributions to personality skills the Theory of the Anal Character in Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1927), 370-92, esp. 383; and Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), 281. Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis! On sadism and anality, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes in Dreams and Neurosis in Selected Papers, 318-22, esp. 319 and 321; Jones, 268; and Fenichel, 283.

20 The loci classici for this reading are Martin Wangh, Othello: The Tragedy of Iago, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 19 (1950): 202-12; and Gordon Ross Smith, Iago the Paranoiac, American Imago 16 (1959): 155-67. Both essays are based on Freud's account of delusional jealousy as a defense against homosexual desire in the Schreber case. For an extension and elaboration of this view, with particular focus on Books versus, Iago's hatred of women, see also Stanley Edgar Hyman, Iago: Some Approaches to phases of mitosis the Illusion of His Motivation (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 101-21. Contemporary critics who comment on the homoerotic dynamic between Iago and Othello tend to locate their readings not in this model but in project scoping the complex of metaphors that makes Iago's seduction of are 4 Othello into an aural penetration and insemination, with a resulting monstrous (and miscegenistic) conception; see, e.g., Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U of California P, 1981), 144-45; and Parker in Hendricks and body modification culture Parker, eds., 99-100. Parker notes that the imagined penetration is anal as well as aural (99); see also, e.g., Graham Hammill's brief discussion of Iago's anal eroticism, The Epistemology of Expurgation: Bacon and The Masculine Birth of what are 4 of mitosis Time in Queering the Renaissance, Jonathan Goldberg, ed. (Durham, NC, and London: Duke UP, 1994), 236-52, esp. Phones! 251n. 21 For historically based arguments against Iago-as-repressed-homosexual, see Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 157-62; and Bruce R. Smith, Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago and what are 4 phases of mitosis London: U of Chicago P, 1991), 61-63 and 75. Both Dollimore and Smith stress the social functions of the male homosocial bond rather than the dynamics of Sociology's Role homoerotic feeling partly on the grounds that the homosexual subject is an anachronism in the early modern period. But Shakespeare does not need to have the category of the homosexual subject available to him in order to represent Iago as acting out of desires inadmissible to him, including sodomitical desires; and critics who insist that we do away with the homosexual as a category sometimes throw out the are 4 baby with the in Understanding Phenomena Essay bathwater. In Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship in are 4 Elizabethan England (in Goldberg, ed., 40-61) Alan Bray demonstrates the cultural (nonsexual) uses to which the bedfellow could be put; but in order for Smith, for example, to invoke Iago's report of Cassio's bedfellow dream to make the argument that Iago is a self-conscious male-bonder rather than a repressed homosexual, he has to ignore the explicit sexiness of the project scoping dream (the hard kisses plucked up by the roots, the what phases leg over the thigh).

The dream clearly crosses the linebetween male friendship and sodomythat Bray delineates, more strikingly because Iago need not have included all that sexiness to convey his information to Social Phenomena Essay Othello; and whether or not the reported dream proclaims Iago a repressed homosexual, its effect on Othello clearly depends as much on its crossing of that line as on the information that Cassio dreams about Desdemona. As for subjectivity: whether or not the Renaissance shared our sense of the bourgeois subjectin any case, emphatically not the subject as it is construed by psychoanalysis Othello is obsessively about what is hidden away within the what of mitosis person, the inner, private, and unknowable self that might harbor inaccessible desires. For a good summary of these controversiesand a sensible middle positionsee Alan Sinfield, Cultural PoliticsQueer Reading (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994), 12-14. 22 Melanie Klein, Envy and Gratitude (1957) in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963 (London: Hogarth Press and Role the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 176-235, esp. 179. 24 Klein, 192 and 189. 27 For an what of mitosis, early statement of this position, see Klein, Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) in Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 186-98, esp. 190-91 and 193-96. 28 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 181. 29 Klein, Envy and project scoping Gratitude, 186.

30 Quoted here from Bernard Spivack's discussion of Iago and the morality tradition in Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil: The History of a Metaphor in Relation to what of mitosis His Major Villains (New York: Columbia UP, 1958), 184. 31 Betty Joseph, Envy in everyday life in Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers of Betty Joseph, ed. Michael Feldman and body modification Elizabeth Bott Spillius (London and what phases of mitosis New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1989), 181-91, esp. 185. 32 In Kleinian terms, Othello has reached the depressive position, characterized by the capacity to mourn for the damaged object and to make reparations to it (see especially Klein, A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States [1935] and personality skills assessment Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States [1940], both in Love, Guilt and Reparation, 262-89 and 344-69); Iago functions from within the more primitive paranoid-schizoid position, with its characteristic mechanisms of splitting and projection/introjection (see especially Klein, Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms in Envy and Gratitude, 1-24). 33 As many have argued: see especially Cavell, 134; and Snow, 392. What Are 4! See also my Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare, Hamlet to The Tempest (New York and project scoping London: Routledge, 1992), 69-70. 34 Iago's words here, like Emilia's at phases, 3.4.157-60, refer explicitly to jealousy but nonetheless define the self-referential qualities of envy. Although the two terms are sometimes popularly confused, they are distinct in psychoanalytic thought: jealousy occurs in a three-body relationship, derived from the Essay oedipus complex, in which the loss of a good object to a rival is at stake; envy occurs in a pre-oedipal two-body relationship, in which the good qualities of the of mitosis object are felt to be intolerable.

Jealousy seeks to preserve the good object, if necessary by killing it; envy seeks to personality skills spoil the good object. (For these distinctions, see Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 196-99; and Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182.) Jealousy is what are 4 of mitosis a derivative of envy but is more easily recognized and more socially acceptable (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198; Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182); partly as a consequence, it can sometimes serve as an important defence against Essay, envy (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198). This defensive structure seems to me at work both in Iago and in the play at what phases, large: in phones Iago, who repeatedly comes up with narratives of jealousy as though to justify his intolerable envy to himself (tellingly, he uses the what are 4 phases traditional language of envySpenser's Envy inwardly . Modification Culture! . . What Are 4 Phases! chawed his owne maw in The Faerie Queene [I.iv.30]to register the gnawing effects of jealousy on Essay Gender, him); and in Othello itself, insofar as its own narratives of what are 4 jealousy are far more legible and recognizably human than the Books envy represented through Iago and dismissed in are 4 phases of mitosis him as unrecognizable, inhuman, or demonic. 35 Mock has puzzled commentators for years, occasioning five pages of commentary in the New Variorum edition of Othello (ed. Horace Howard Furness [Philadelphia: J. B. Cell! Lippincott, 1886]). William Warburton (1747) glosses mocke (in terms strikingly close to my own) as loaths that which nourishes and sustains it (176). Are 4! With very little plausibility but some interest for my argument, Andrew Becket (1815) transforms mocke to muck, glossing it as to bedaub or make foul: two other commentatorsZachariah Jackson and Lord John Chedworthapproved of about this emendation enough to come up with candidates for are 4 phases, the monstrous animal that befouls its food, mouse and dragon-fly, respectively (179). 36 Zachary Grey suggested in 1754 that mock is a contraction for mammock (Furness, ed., 176); as far as I can tell, his suggestion has been entirely ignored. 37 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 201-2. 38 See Hamlet, 2.2.181-82.

39 This destruction also has the effect of versus Movies Essay separating the two figures whose conjunction has haunted Iago's imagination. What Are 4 Phases! Klein hypothesizes the combined parent figure as a special target of in Nursing envy (the suspicion that the parents are always getting sexual gratification from one another reinforces the phantasy . . . that they are always combined [Envy and what are 4 phases of mitosis Gratitude, 198]); Iago in fact evokes such a fantasy-figure in his initial description of Othello and cell phones evolution Desdemona as fused, a beast with two backs (1.1.116), always in the process of achieving the incorporate conclusion (2.1.258-59) that is always denied him. 41 My formulation here is partly indebted to Janine Chausseguet-Smirgel's work on perversion, especially anal perversion, which she sees as an phases of mitosis, attempt to dissolve generational and gender differences in order to defend against acknowledgment of the pervert's own puniness and vulnerability; though she does not draw specifically on evolution, Klein's concept of what envy, her work sometimes intersects usefully with Klein's. In Chausseguet-Smirgel's reading, Sade's intention, for example, is to evolution reduce the universe to what are 4 phases faeces, or rather to project scoping annihilate the universe of differences (Perversion and the Universal Law in Chausseguet-Smirgel, Creativity and Perversion [New York: W. W. Phases! Norton, 1984], 4). Insofar as perversion attempts to replace God's differentiated universe with its own undifferentiation, it is the equivalent of Social Phenomena Devil religion (9); the undifferentiated anal universe constitutes an imitation or parody of the genital universe of the are 4 father (11). Skills! While this formulation is suggestive for are 4 phases, Iago, I think that Chausseguet-Smirgel is hampered by her Lacanian milieu, with its overvaluation of the phallus and the father's law; Iago is at personality, least as intent on imitating and ultimately replacing the mother's generative function as the father's law. 42 With the what are 4 kind of psychological intuition that everywhere animates his portrayal of Satan, Milton reworks Emilia's comment: unable to stand the project scoping debt immense of endless gratitude to the God who has created him (Paradise Lost, Bk.

4, 1. 52), Satan proclaims himself self-begot, self-rais'd / By our own quick'ning power (Bk. 5, 11. 860-61). Klein cites Milton's Satan as an instance of the spoiling of creativity implied in envy (Envy and Gratitude, 202). 43 According to the Oxford English Dictionary, birdlime is a sticky substance made out of the bark of the holly tree and smeared on branches to entrap birds; With the barkes of Holme they make Bird-lyme, cited from Henry Lyte's 1578 Niewe herball or historie of plantes (Oxford English Dictionary, prep. J. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner, 2d ed., 20 vols. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989], 2:216).

Holme is confusing; it is cited as blacke Holme in Spenser's Virgils Gnat (1. 215), but there apparently refers to the oak, not the phases holly. In any case, despite the Books Movies echo of lime, birdlime seems to have been dark, not white. 44 The equation of of mitosis faeces with baby is cell evolution familiar to psychoanalysis; see, e.g., Freud, On the Sexual Theories of Children, on the cloacal theory of phases of mitosis birth (If babies are born through the anus, then a man can give birth just as well as a woman [9:205-26, esp. Culture! 219-20]); Jones, 274-75; and what Susan Isaacs, Penis-Feces-Child, Internationaljournal of Psycho-analysis 8 (1927): 74-76.

For fantasies that overvalue the power of faecal creation to create or destroy every object, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes, 322; about one of his patients he reports, That night he dreamed that he had to expel the universe out of his anus (320). 45 Oddly, Ridley associates the pitch into which Iago will turn Desdemona's virtue with birdlime without noting its source in Iago's earlier metaphor (88n). 46 For Shakespeare's reworkings of the proverbially defiling properties of pitch, see, e.g., Love's Labor's Lost, 4.3.3; 1 Henry IV, 2.4.394-96; and Much Ado About Nothing, 3.3.53. 47 I here depart from Ridley in following F and Q2; Q1, Ridley's copytext, gives conceit. The half-buried metaphor of childbirth is, I think, present in either case, both through the association of groanespecially in proximity to body modification a bedwith childbirth (see, e.g., All's Well That Ends Well, 1.3.140 and 4.5.10; and Measure for Measure, 2.2.15) and through the family relation between conceit and Latin conceptus, cited in the OED; the OED also gives Conception of offspring as an obsolete meaning for conceit with a 1589 instance, though it notes that this usage is Perhaps only what are 4 of mitosis a pun (3:647-48, esp.

648). 48 See also the best turn F th' bed (Antony and Books Essay Cleopatra, 2.5.59). For serve, see Lear's Oswald, A serviceable villain, / As duteous to what phases of mitosis the vices of thy mistress / As badness would desire (4.6.248-50); for serve my turn, see Costard's exchange with the king (Love's Labor's Lost, 1.1.281-82). For follow / fallow, see Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99, citing Herbert A. Evolution! Ellis, Shakespeare 's Lusty Punning in Love 's Labour's Lost (1973). 49 This is an oversimplified summary of a very complex development in psychoanalytic theory; for of mitosis, a fuller summary, see Projective Identification in R. D. Hinshelwood's A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought (London: Free Association Books, 1991), 179-208; or Elizabeth Bott Spillius's Clinical experiences of projective identification in Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion, Robin Anderson, ed. (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992), 59-73, esp. Personality Assessment! 59-64. Are 4 Of Mitosis! For Klein's initial development of the concept of projective identification, see Envy and Gratitude, 8-11. The development of the cell concept by her followers has had broad ramifications for clinical work; for a particularly lucid account of what some of these, see, in addition to Spillius, Joseph, Projective identificationsome clinical aspects in Melanie Klein Today: Developments in Theory and Practice, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, ed., 2 vols. (London and New York: Routledge, 1988), 1:138-50.

50 Klein, Envy and project scoping Gratitude, 11. 51 Collied is conjecturally related to coaly by the OED, 3:390-91. 52 Folio gives hell for Q1's cell. The Folio reading would ally black vengeance with Iago's monstrous birth. What Phases! In either reading, the apparently superfluous hollowness suggests an Sociology's Role in Understanding Important, inner space; as Ridley notes, it occurs, again redundantly, in the reference to a hollow mine (4.2.81). Shortly after he calls up black vengeance, and again in 5.2, Othello imagines his revenge swallowing up his victims (3.3.467 and phases 5.2.76), as though returning them to Role in Understanding Important the interior source of his vengeance. 53 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11; Joseph in Spillius, ed., Melanie Klein Today, 140.

Source: Iago's Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello in Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2, Spring, 1997, pp. 125-44. Access our Othello Study Guide for are 4 of mitosis, Free. The most significant purpose for Venice being the setting of Othello has to do with Shakespeare honoring the about Gender source from which his ideas for the play came. Almost the entire play is based on an. In Othello, Iago is are 4 phases extremely manipulative.

Iago is a master at manipulation. Through his mere words, he plants seeds of doubt in body Othello. Truly, Iago is subtle in what phases of mitosis his accusation as he merely. There is - as usual in Shakespeare's tragedies - a huge body count at the end of Othello. In the in Understanding Social Phenomena scene in what phases the dark, Cassio is wounded in skills assessment the leg, and Roderigo is what of mitosis killed by Sociology's in Understanding Important Social Phenomena, Iago in the dark. Of Mitosis! In the. There are several reasons given for Sociology's in Understanding Important Social Phenomena Essay, Iago's hatred of, and intended ruination of Othello. First, he is insulted by are 4 phases, Othello's promotion of project scoping Cassio; he felt that he deserved the what are 4 promotion.

That is. For each of the following soliloquies, you can find modern English versions in the etext version of the script. For now, I'm just giving a capsule summary. One comes at cell evolution, the end of Act I, scene 3.

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A Business Plan for a DJ Party Service in Harare. Extracts from this document. ?DJ BUSINESS PLAN Mission Statement: We are committed to providing the what of mitosis, best service and value for time and money. It is our mission to provide the highest quality services of unmatched value to our clients through the efforts of a highly dedicated, educated, and productive work force who share a commitment to the long term growth and success of the versus Movies Essay, company. Vision Statement: We want to be the what are 4, Disk Jockeys of choice for all clients in Zimbabwe. Our vision is to about Gender be known all around the world. We intend to of mitosis open our own state of the art night club. Types of clients Following groups will be hosted in assessment, Birthdays, social events etc Group Ages Children?s Parties 6 - 12 Teenage Parties 13 ? 19 Young Adult Parties 20 ? 32 Middle Aged Parties 33 ? 49 Senior Citizens Parties 50+ Other clients We intend to host or DJ formal and informal corporate events. We will also DJ events in schools/colleges like musical shows, social dances, galas, game day celebrations, graduations, fashion shows, promotions, and what are 4 fund raising. Personality Assessment! We will also be available for phases opening and assessment closing ceremonies, musical shows, holiday parties, church events, For the families we will DJ for what phases of mitosis family reunions, bachelor/bachelorette parties, wedding ceremonies, memorial services. For the community we can provide our service in carnivals and fairs, competitions, trade shows and talent shows. . read more.

Stage 1- Introduction stage 1. At this stage we are just entering the Dj industry so profits will be low because of lack in Sociology's Role in Understanding Essay, clients and may increase slowly Stage 2 ? Growth 1. At this stage we are experiencing higher profits. There is what need to promote to gain more clients and be competitive. This stage will not last a very long time but at this stage we would have gained a high enough or increasing marketshare, and due to word of mouth we will get recognized everywhere. Stage 3 ? Maturity or Saturation 1. At this stage client loyalty is most important because we will not have the large numbers of new clients entering or hiring us. At this stage we would have covered most of the market so there won?t be a significant rise in profits, but profits will remain high. This stage will last for years to come it would take a vey long time to get to the next stage. Stage 4 ? Decline 1. We can only reach this stage if there is a new competitor in the market with better or more improved technology. To avoid this stage we will have to Rejuvenate, we will have to improve our technology and entertainment. Project Scoping! We will have to open a club. . What Are 4 Phases! read more.

Competitors with established brand and client base. They may have a large marketshare 3. Low barriers to entry, meaning its easy for competitors to enter the market Opportunities 1. Create strategic relationships with event planners. This will increase client range 2. Easy to go against versus Movies big branded DJ?s and take away their marketshare. 3. Positive cashflow expected after first few events Threats 1. Growth may be rapid. What Are 4 Of Mitosis! This must be controlled. New equipment won?t be bought unless there are special requirements by in Nursing a client.

Avoid excess inventory by not buying equipment that has no demand 2. New competition undercuts prices. This will not be a problem if we create a strong client base and solid word of mouth. What sets us apart from are 4, other DJs in the Country What sets us apart from other DJ is project scoping that: Most DJ?s if not all DJ in what are 4, the country focused on small scale levels, they only in Nursing focus on DJying at what are 4 of mitosis clubs and at parties. Most DJ?s don?t have goals they want to achieve. Evolution! We are different because: 1. We have a marketing plan 2. We plan to expand and one day open a club or a chain of clubs worldwide 3. We have drive to what are 4 phases of mitosis be the best 4. We provide DJYING as a service 5. We plan on providing the service at evolution any Event possible 6. We have goals to achieve 7. We provide the are 4 phases of mitosis, service nation wide 8. We plan to provide the service for international events . read more. This student written piece of Sociology's in Understanding Important Phenomena work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Business Studies section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis! Related International Baccalaureate Business Studies essays. Scholarships and Apprenticeship all the project scoping, above three stated companies provide their employees opportunity to are 4 of mitosis get further qualification in their respective fields, these organisation provide them scholarships for the expenses of their studies and cell evolution also provide the facility of what are 4 of mitosis apprenticeship to newly graduates to became ready for the acquiring good job placements. When starting up my business I am going to get money from the Princes trust, the right sources of finance would have to be taking loans from the banks and paying them back in monthly payments. The total cost of project scoping finance would probably be ?30,000 in the beginning as the. This paper will concentrate on Apples Apple TV business, and its complementing iTunes business. Users can also watch movies on of mitosis, a Computer [8]. * Up to 40,000 movie and TV titles * Using the TiVo option, allows the Role in Understanding Important Social Phenomena, users to send their rentals directly to their DVR. Weakness * Rented movies cannot be transferred to a portable device.

Business Plan. Dhaka fashion will be a magazine that is completely devoted to fashion. . What Phases! However there are no sources available in Dhaka right now. But Dhaka fashion is optimistic and hopes to deliver a fashion magazine to the adolescents that meet their demands well. Market Segment Total Percent of Business a. Modification Culture! Private sector 70 % b. Wholesalers 0 % c. Retailers 20 % d. Business plan for Laundry Toaster laundry dryer. What Of Mitosis! So, this unique feature of the Laundry Toaster will help this product to penetrate the market since this is the first drying cupboard in the world. This product will help people to simplify their duty and gives more time for other duties. Example of a event proposal and client brief - Lady Gaga's Perfume Launch . Books Versus Movies Essay! There also will be 30 waiters who will only wear black and a golden mask. They will serve the food and drinks. 3. Entertainment: DJ Davit Guetta and DJ lady starlight will take care of the music thy will do that for free like friends. Are 4 Of Mitosis! Analyse Reasons for project scoping Zara's Success in the Fashion Retailing Business. For example if a customer request a certain colour or style, the store manager advises the company regarding the request which enters an of mitosis, appropriate data system called ?Cassiopeia? used for placing orders where the marketing team straight away starts developing the request based on clothing availability, sales patterns together with.

Should easyJet further penetrate the market for air travel between the UK and Greece? . In contrast to traditional airlines, low-cost carriers have achieved a relatively smooth weathering of the recession and a lot better than the project scoping, fuel-driven crisis of 2008. The following table gives a clear indication that the profitability of the sector has held up relatively well. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and phases feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the project scoping, rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on phases of mitosis, your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for project scoping expert help with your Business Studies work?

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Conclusion About Newspaper Essays and what are 4 Research Papers. what extent have newspapers become an phones evolution, outdated source of information? Consider this question in relation to other forms of media used today to . communicate information in a globalized world. To communicate information in what are 4 of mitosis, a globalized world. At present, most people obtain information from internet instead of newspapers . Personality Skills. Many newspapers have been shut. Advertising , Editing , Internet 912 Words | 3 Pages. Conclusion Managers in the 21st century are encountering extremely significant challenges in their process of management in an . organisation such as hiring and keeping the right employee, building a strategic mindset, crafting an innovative culture and organisation, developing system thinking and also getting rid of short term mentality. An organisation will need to have a caliber HR manager in order to own a team of committed employees.

It is HR managers responsibility to make sure. Economics , Employment , Goal 820 Words | 3 Pages. Conclusion about sparkly islands The geographical location of the South China Sea is very important. It is a route that . fishermen must take, is rich in phases of mitosis, fishery resources and has very rich petroleum reserves. About. This has made it a bone of contention between the countries in the region, resulting in a never-ending conflict, especially in the Spratly Islands. Each littoral state has occupied islands as a means of declaring their sovereignty over them, so there is a high level of tension in are 4 phases, the area. Itu Aba Island , Natural gas , Petroleum 935 Words | 3 Pages. (15001700) sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers .[6] However, none of . Skills. these publications fully met the what are 4, classical criteria for proper newspapers , as they were typically not intended for the general public and restricted to a certain range of topics. [edit] Newspapers Main article: History of about newspapers and magazines See also: List of the earliest newspapers [edit]Europe See also: History of British newspapers Title page of Carolus' Relation from. Han Dynasty , Newspaper , Newspapers 1063 Words | 3 Pages.

? The Holocaust Diary First Entry January 30,1933 My name is Friedrich Krebs. I am a 29-year-old free-lance journalist. . I write about all things happening in Germany, and then sell them to newspapers and magazines all over the world. What Of Mitosis. I am the only son of project scoping a World War 1 hero, and my mother who idolizes me. I am divorced with one son who resides with his mother. Im young, blonde, blue-eyed, strong, and phases pure German. Im what you would consider Hitler ideal German. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Joseph Goebbels 1906 Words | 6 Pages. The promising future of newspaper In the wave of information explosion appeared in 90 last century, the channels to Role Social Phenomena Essay, obtain information . among people have apparently been diversified due to the rise of new media outlets through the medium of the Internet. Although some advantage of newspaper has been overshadowed by what of mitosis the excellent performance of new media, newspaper is personality skills, actively adapting to social and economic transformation based on maintaining its existing advantages.

For this reason, the essay. Advertising , Electronic media , Journalism 844 Words | 3 Pages. Conclusion In part A of this experiment, we transformed the are 4, bacteria into an antibiotic resistant form by about Gender inserting a plasmid into it. We . used heat shock in order to what of mitosis, make the bacteria capable to uptake a plasmid in the presence of Sociology's Role Important Social Essay calcium ions that help disrupt the cell membrane (heat shock is the combination of altering hot and cold). When they are capable of accepting plasmids, the bacteria are incubated with plasmids that carry the resistance to a particular antibiotic, in this case ampicilin. Agar plate , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 970 Words | 3 Pages. Poor or middle income group people 5. Businessmen 6. What Phases Of Mitosis. Creating Brands 7. Adds and assessment promotions 8. Low price strategy 9. Varieties available . for different age groups 10. Various schemes for pre-paid and post paid customers Conclusion and Recommendation.

Bharti Airtel , Cellular network , GSM 827 Words | 5 Pages. CONCLUSION Angiosperms (flowering plant) include in phylum Anthophyta.Angiosperms are plant that have flowers and fruit. Their part of . the flower is a carpel which surrounds and protects the ovules and seeds. The fruit surrounds the embryo and are 4 phases aids seed dispersal. The great majority of personality skills assessment angiosperms are classified either as monocots or eudicots.Monocot embryos have a single seed leaf (cotyledon), and pollen grains with a single groove while eudicots (true dicots) have two cotyledons, and pollen. Dicotyledon , Flower , Flowering plant 719 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction A newspaper headline is often the only thing that readers read in a newspaper , or at least, it is the first thing . that everyone notices in are 4, a newspaper . Essay. It serves as a indicator for are 4 phases of mitosis, the reader that helps decide whether to continue on reading the whole text or to skip it onto in Understanding Phenomena Essay, another one. Each headline should be a summary of the news which follows. A headline should be a regular sentence structure containing a subject and are 4 of mitosis a verb. Books Essay. It means that only what phases, lexical, not grammatical words are used.

Grammar , Headline , Headlines 1693 Words | 6 Pages. briefs forecast figures. Contents: 1 Introduction 1.1 What is this Report About ? 1.2 Definitions 1.3 Summary Methodology 2 India Packaging . Market Value and Forecast 2.1 Historic Market Value Rigid Plastic Packaging 2.2 Forecast Market Value Rigid Plastic Packaging 3 India Packaging Sector Analysis 3.1 Historic Market Value by Sector 3.2 Forecast Market Value by Sector 4 Appendix 4.1 Methodology 4.2 Contact us 4.3 About ICD Research 4.4 Disclaimer List of body Tables Table 1: India Table 2: India Table. Credit card , Dublin , International Bank Account Number 761 Words | 3 Pages. Comprehensive Study on Narsingdi District. 2. Corporate Social Responsibility of phases Dutch Bangla Bank ? Operating System; Windows XP. ? . Microsoft office; 2003 2007 (Word, Excel, Microsoft Power point, ) ? Have a deep knowledge about personality skills Internet and Online Systems ? Strong desires for what phases, leading an project scoping, honest life with dignity. Phases. ? Aspiration to build a career showing superior performance. Personality Assessment. ? Ability to take responsibility. ? Strong academic background and phases of mitosis analytical.

Bangladesh , Bengali language , Dhaka 480 Words | 4 Pages. Choosing change intervention tools: Change is not primarily about personality riding the new waves; it certainly is about taking risks, . Risk taking comes with being a leader but learn to lever change interventions into the border directions of the what are 4 of mitosis, organization in order to versus Movies, increase the effectiveness of change. - Levels depth of change intervention While change can be effected at various levels, not all type of intervention guarantee the longevity of change for the organization. However, its. Globalization , Management , Organization 527 Words | 3 Pages. ?Reading Newspaper As A Habit Updated on March 23, 2013 Human being is a much habituated species. It is not free from habits. If any human . being continues to what phases, perform one thing in phones, a repeated manner, then he/she becomes habituated to what phases, that particular task. There is Books Movies, hardly any human being who is free from this mentality.

Thus both good and bad habits are formed. So, one should try to develop good habits in this manner. One such good habit is reading newspaper . What Phases Of Mitosis. As said, when a thing is done repeatedly. Advertising , Free daily newspaper , Newspaper 2139 Words | 7 Pages. Socio-Culture Factor 4 Strategic Issues 4 Conclusion 4 References 5 1. Introduction A newspaper is usually . Cell Phones Evolution. a daily or weekly publication which have lasted news about some events or information of special or general interest. What Are 4. The world is now changing gradually and globalization has become a trend. Modification. People have to be more open to access to new information and lasted news in order to keep up with the world. Hence, it is important for the newspaper publishers to understand its future market.

Mass media , Newspaper 1607 Words | 5 Pages. The quality newspapers (broadsheets, Berliner) The two newspapers we have chosen to compare are the USA Today and the . International Herald Tribune. They are dating from what Friday, May 29, 2009. First impression What strikes out is skills assessment, that the front page of the USA Today is more exuberant than the International Herald Tribune. The page counts six small pictures and three clarifying graphics. The font of the headlines are more bulky, different and short in its titles. Comparing this to the International. International Herald Tribune , New York Herald , New York Herald Tribune 1796 Words | 5 Pages. ? HAVE YOU READ A NEWSPAPER ? ABSTRACT Have you ever wondered; why we find the lead story in the . Phases. farthest upper-right hand column? Like most people, we try to about, keep up with the news by watching it on television.

That is how 65% of us get 100% of what are 4 our news from the 24-odd-minute television news broadcast. What television news bring is primarily a front-page headline service only. To get all one needs to know, one has to amplify these headlines with a complete. A Story , CBS Evening News , Dan Rather 1211 Words | 4 Pages. Reading newspaper is a very good habit. We cannot think of modern life without the Essay, newspaper . It is a storehouse of knowledge. . Reading newspapers broaden our outlook and enriches our mind. What. Reading english newspaper is a good way to spending our leisure properly. A newspaper is Sociology's Phenomena Essay, very helpful to us. It brings news of home and abroad. The economic situation of a country is described in it. What. It also brings news of tread and commerce, games and sports.

It also helps the growth of public opinion. It gives. Advertising , Editorial , Newspaper 881 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages Disatvanges of Newspaper. Disadvantages of Reading the project scoping, Newspaper There are many advantages and disadvantages of reading the phases of mitosis, newspaper . . Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses, both big and small alike. People read newspaper to find out information, news, and what going on around there world. However, there are many pro and con about reading the newspaper . The advantages of reading the Sociology's Role in Understanding Phenomena, newspaper are good in many ways. For instance, you can increase you neologies by reading the newspaper . You can also find.

Advertising , Mass media , Newspaper 1141 Words | 4 Pages. ?News corporation Australia Newspaper Consumers Headed to the Graves Briefing Note Summary The struggle . of hardcopy newspaper in what phases of mitosis, the digital world Dependent on advertising revenues Newspaper industry heading towards a darker future Conclusion and Recommendations Issues It has come to the companies attention that the digital revolution, all though a major positive for phones evolution, the world, is rapidly becoming. Advertising , Digital , Digital media 1167 Words | 5 Pages. Newspaper and books have long been a medium for are 4, information transfer and dissemination. Project Scoping. The printing press and the printing industry have been . around for centuries, and have become the are 4 of mitosis, major tool for communication and information. They have been the most popular medium for shaping public opinion. Their credibility, knowledge, values and information-gathering skills remain a formidable force on the high street, and with titles now separated into sections with more lifestyle content, their potential. Advertising , Journalism , Mass media 1488 Words | 5 Pages. What is Newspaper ? A newspaper is a periodical publication containing news regarding current events, informative articles, . diverse features, editorials, and Essay advertising.

It usually is printed on are 4 of mitosis relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6,580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a day. The late 2000s-early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of web-based alternatives, caused a serious decline in advertising and circulation. Advertising , Lagos , Mass media 1327 Words | 6 Pages. Newspaper Introduction: Newspaper is a wonder of modern science. Newspaper is a paper which carries news and project scoping . views of home and abroad to us. In the morning we eagerly wait for a newspaper to read. We cannot have our breakfast without a newspaper of the what phases of mitosis, day. We cannot think of a day without a newspaper . It is cell phones, a part and parcel in what are 4 phases, our day to day life.

History: Newspaper was first published in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The Indian Gazette which was the first newspaper. Broadsheet , Dhaka , International Herald Tribune 315 Words | 2 Pages. The History of Newspapers Today, people can use newspapers to find out many things. One can use the . newspaper to check sports scores, get the day's news, read feel good stories, or even find out project scoping their horoscope. It was not always that way. From the Acta Diurna, reported in what are 4 of mitosis, the ancient Roman empire, to the New York Times, newspapers have come a long way.

In this report, the distance that newspapers have traveled since their inception is skills, going to phases of mitosis, be outlined. Essay Gender. Before literacy. Acta Diurna , Johannes Gutenberg , John Peter Zenger 1367 Words | 4 Pages. history of newspapers back to the Romans Acta Diurna and the ti pao of china. The Acta Diurnal, a daily , handwritten gazette launched . by Julius Caesar in 59 B.C.. reported noteworthy events, private and official notices and births among other things. It continued for about 350 years. Chinas early version of the newspaper , the ti-pao, provided news to government officials and the intellectual elite for about a thousand years. The forerunners to the modern American newspaper first appeared. Benjamin Franklin , Broadsheet , Newspaper 1352 Words | 4 Pages.

amp; FINDINGS | 33-37 | CHAPTER 04 | 4.1 CONCLUSIONS | 38 | | 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS amp; SUGESSTIONS | 39 | ANNEXURES | QUESTIONNAIRE | . 40-43 | | BIBLIOGRAPHY | 44 | EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Newspaper Industry can be said as the most trusted Industry as people believe whatever is written in the newspaper as facts and are 4 day to day happenings. Body Modification. My motive was to broaden the spectrum of trust and what phases of mitosis acquire more customers for Business Standard Newspaper For every industry to be successful in its. Advertising , Broadsheet , English-language newspapers published in India 1574 Words | 5 Pages. Strategic Analysis of the Essay, Newspaper Industry. ? NEWSPAPER PUBLISHING INDUSTRY A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS Author Name BUS5480-02 Strategic Management Dr. Uchenna Nwabueze Submission Date . Abstract The Newspaper Publishing industry is a segment within the Media industry and is made up of companies whose primary scope is to phases, produce and print newspapers . The industry has experienced declines in both advertising revenues and in Understanding Social Phenomena Essay readership since 2007. This decline has forced many in the industry to re-evaluate their strategy going forward. New strategies. Advertising , Editing , Journalism 1297 Words | 8 Pages. Politicization: Link for are 4, Newspapers.

POLITICISATION THE LINK BETWEEN NEWSPAPERS AND LITERACY An Essay by cell Deepa Venkatesan , T.Y.BMM A newspaper which loses its . value every passing hour once published and are 4 out-read by a reader has, in in Understanding, laymans terms, maybe an investment of just a rupee or three. But that very newspaper has a long past and has shaped the Indian History in ways unimaginable. Are 4. From becoming a poor mans tool towards literacy to influencing political rule, regional language newspapers have penetrated in the ground level. Ayodhya , Ayodhya debate , Babri Mosque 2200 Words | 4 Pages. Printted Newspaper vs. Online Newspapers. Online newspapers vs. Project Scoping. print newspapers In an early morning of of mitosis a winter day with cold wind and Role Social Phenomena snow breeze blowing out, hardly . What Phases Of Mitosis. any people are waiting to put a quarter into an old automated newsstand to get there newspapers at a corner near the Union Station in downtown of St. Louis city.

Hardly to find young people in skills assessment, that crowded but aged people are likely to prefer the traditional newspapers than the new type which is online. In contrast, most of what are 4 phases young people who tend to spend most of their lifetime. Newspaper 1118 Words | 3 Pages. Since the turn of the new century, newspapers have always been the main source of our news. For years, it started the day for millions. Along . with a cup of coffee, maybe even some breakfast, the arrival of the morning paper meant the beginning to project scoping, the daily grind. What Are 4 Phases Of Mitosis. Nowadays the evening paper is long extinct, especially in Essay about, large cities.

With Internet so available to the masses and, for the most part, providing free news, the newspaper is what are 4, no longer a necessity. The newspaper becoming extinct is beneficial. Advertising , Blog , Journalism 1097 Words | 3 Pages. careful review of your notes, and careful thinking about the course, share two key themes (an idea, image, or motif repeated or developed . throughout a work) or ideas which seem to be present in different periods of Role in Understanding Phenomena literature. Are 4. Newspaper Creation 6. Please provide travel directions and personality skills a map from your home to your local newspaper office. Phases Of Mitosis. Your directions should include the cardinal and ordinal directions, total distance from your home to your local newspaper office, travel time, street names, and at least. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Cardinal direction , Following 449 Words | 3 Pages. The Newspaper Industry is one of the cell evolution, oldest and what of mitosis largest, most widely-known media industry in existence. More than 1 out of 3 people in the . United States reads a newspaper everyday (Vivian 78). When you think of someone reading a newspaper , we often think of someone whos older, sitting in a chair with a cup of skills assessment coffee and who doesnt really know much or endulge themselves in the fast-paced world today, like with television or newer technology, basically, a grandpa.

However, what we can easily be. Advertising , Broadcasting , Journalism 852 Words | 3 Pages. Coming to Conclusions The conclusion of an essay is are 4 phases of mitosis, a key factor of the about Gender in Nursing, overall effectiveness of an essay. Often seen as a . brief summary of the paper, the conclusion frequently revisits the thesis of the paper, sometimes repeating lines or words from the introduction verbatim. This almost textbook-like format can be effective but is by no means the only option there is when a writer concludes an essay. In fact, the title of the conclusion can be quite misleading. Many types of are 4 phases of mitosis conclusions do not. Conclusion , Essay , Reader 979 Words | 3 Pages. The Current Development and Impact of Free Newspapers in China. Free newspaper in China With the development of technology and economy in major cities in China, the citys RRT(Rail rapid transit) is . experiencing an unprecedented growth and progress.

Metro as the citys RRT, is playing a significant role in project scoping, the development of urban transportation. At the of mitosis, same time, Metro also plays a unique role in phones, culture development as the culture carrier in the city. It is obvious that in modern cities, the number of metro passengers are surging, which indicates that the power. Broadsheet , China Daily , Free daily newspaper 1640 Words | 5 Pages. Value of Newspapers The Value of Newspapers Print No other advertising vehicle has the are 4 phases, reach of newspapers . Sociology's Role Important Social. . What Of Mitosis. Nationally, 95 million adults read a newspaper on an average weekday and more than 108 million on an average Sunday. Project Scoping. More than 71% of all adults in the U.S. read a newspaper or visit a newspaper website in an average week (Scarborough Research). According to research by the Readership Institute at Northwestern University, advertising is one of the top five drivers of newspaper readership.

Advertising , Mass media , Newspaper 953 Words | 3 Pages. Will newspapers disappear? In the last ten or twenty years access to knowledge has utterly changed. Access to information is of mitosis, just a push . on a button away. Kids and Gender in Nursing youngsters hardly read books and the latest news is available in just 140 characters. Will people in a short while only focus on phases short online messages, and type their messages about project scoping events happening to friends as well as to absolute strangers? Will people lose interest for newspapers , and are 4 phases will newspapers have to change their focus. Advertising , Journalism , Mass media 842 Words | 3 Pages.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet and Books Movies Newspaper Advertising. behind paywalls. Putting up a paywall means that in order to access a paper's content online, one will have to subscribe to it for a fee. The Wall Street . Journal conducted such initiative about more then 10 years ago and the New York Timesestablished its new paywall since this year. Apart from online newspapers , a number of what are 4 phases magazines such as the Economist and Harpers have been doing this for a long time. Given the fact that one basic rule in the times of body modification culture world wide web is to encourage to provide. Broadsheet , Journalism , Mass media 2582 Words | 6 Pages. html Part 2: Answer the following questions. Do not repeat the questions, just # each answer.

Use detailed examples and answer in each question in a . paragraph format. 1. Introduction: Explain why it is important to review the information on the about us page when you are considering using a website for what are 4, nutrition or health related information. 2. Provider and Purpose: Briefly discuss 3 clues that identify a reliable web site and 3 clues that indicate the project scoping, website might be a questionable source. HTML , Internet , Internet privacy 470 Words | 3 Pages. ? Online newspaper 1. Banglanews24.com 2. Are 4 Of Mitosis. Bdnews24.com 3. Banglamail24.com 4. Books. Natunbarta.com 5. Are 4 Phases. TheReport24.com 6. Sheershanews24.com 7. . Cell. Risingbd.com 8. Ctgnews.com Online News Agency 1. United News of Bangladesh (UNB) 2. Focus Bangla 3. Banglar Chokh 4. Bangladesh News Agency (BNA) An online newspaper is the online version of a newspaper , either as a stand-alone publication or as the what phases of mitosis, online version of a printedperiodical.

Going online created more opportunities for newspapers , such as competing. Agence France-Presse , Associated Press , News 1889 Words | 6 Pages. The Art of the Conclusion The conclusion of an essay should establish a sense of closure or completeness that leaves the reader . with lingering thoughts about the modification culture, topic. Each writer has their own approach in composing a conclusion that they feel solidifies their argument; every approach makes different demands of a reader because of the moves the what are 4 phases of mitosis, writer chooses to make. The essays How to personality assessment, Tame a Wild Tongue by what are 4 Gloria Anzaldua, Translating Translation by Alberto Alvaro Rios, and Joyas Voladoras. Conclusion , Essay , Essays 1160 Words | 3 Pages.

Newspaper Reading as a Function of Basic Human Need: Why Did Maslow Read the Newspaper? time to read newspapers ? Did a man so engrossed in his pursuits of the understanding of human behavior ever have the time to read something as . common as a newspaper with all the new information technologies like radio and television available during his era? This work though is not about whether or not Maslow read newspaper . It is not even about Abraham Maslow but newspaper reading as a function of basic human need. The work however is based on Maslows hierarchy of needs. Newspapers have withstood. Abraham Maslow , Food , Fundamental human needs 2192 Words | 6 Pages. HINTS FOR WRITING A CONCLUSION Hint #1 Conclusion Words - Sometimes conclusion words like these will help you . write the conclusion of an personality skills assessment, essay. What Are 4 Of Mitosis. Most of the time, using the Books Movies Essay, word or phrase in the middle of a sentence is better than making it the first word of the conclusion . in fact in conclusion for are 4 of mitosis, these reasons as a result of in effect Hint #2 altogether indeed surely clearly to sum up overall truly all in all due to obviously definitely ultimately thus in effect consequently Four Strategies. Conclusion , Phrase , Sentence 842 Words | 2 Pages. For my assignment I have been asked to identify and analyse fact, opinion and implied meaning of my chosen Newspaper article. I am going to . explain and analyse the Books versus, authors use of fact and opinion.

I need to identify and are 4 phases of mitosis analyse examples of skills assessment language used for specific effect; such as bias. I will also explain the what are 4 of mitosis, authors purpose of writing the Newspaper article. I am going to cell phones evolution, analyse and are 4 identify the structure to Books Movies, achieve the effects and techniques used to present and layout the information in are 4 phases, the. Article , Critical thinking , Formal grammar 1443 Words | 4 Pages. The Differences between Malaysia's Leading Newspapers. Differences between the assessment, Star newspaper and the New Straits Times The Star and The New Straits Times are two of Malaysias most read . English-language daily and Sunday newspapers . What. Having given the task to observe and analyze both newspapers for a week; from the 15th of March till the 21st of Sociology's Phenomena March 2010, many similarities as well as differences were spotted. From the aspect of the content and are 4 objective of the papers, ownership plays a major role in Essay about in Nursing, determining what materials are included in. Asia News Network , Broadsheet , English-language newspapers 1748 Words | 6 Pages. Will Paid Newspapers Be Substituted by Free Newspaper in the Near Future? The emergence of what free newspapers has undeniably aroused fierce competitions in the newspaper industry. Until now, there are 6 . free newspapers and 15 paid newspapers , included both Chinese and English-language, in personality skills, the market.

Although the social phenomenon shows that people tend to of mitosis, get free newspapers instead of about Gender buying the paid newspapers , does this mean paid newspapers will be substituted by of mitosis free newspapers in the near future? The answer may not be simple as there are 2-sided arguments. First, revenue. Advertising , Editing , Free daily newspaper 919 Words | 3 Pages. If You Were a Newspaper Publisher in a Local Community, What Types of project scoping Stories and Issues Would You Cover to are 4 phases of mitosis, Make the Publication Appealing to Young People? Do You Think the Newspaper Writing Style Should Be Simplified.

Newspaper is the most trusted information source that been used to deliver updated information to the whole people in the world. The . Role In Understanding Important Essay. newspaper industry dwarfs others media by almost every its operation and procedure. Newspaper , as we know, it issued by daily and what phases weekly, consists with folded sheets containing news, advertisement, correspondence and feature articles. Deliver people a lot of information such as what was happened yesterday will be issued in the newspaper tomorrow. Feature articles may. Advertising , Journalism , Mass media 1562 Words | 4 Pages. Newspaper Reading Habbit Among School Teachers. NEWSPAPER READING HABITS AMONG SCHOOLTEACHERS ABSTRACT Newspaper , the mirror of the day had a crucial role of informing the . changes that is occurring in the world. The teaching community, in their pursuit of molding a new generation should also be updated of the happenings in the globe.

Newspaper reading helps the teachers to be aware of the world they are living. This particular study intends to understand how teachers read newspapers and how they interact with students about news items. INTRODUCTION. Advertising , Broadsheet , Editorial 1364 Words | 6 Pages. Are Online News Sources Causing Newspapers to Become Obsolete?

data makes clear that the future of hard copy newspapers is questionable at Books Movies best. But to what of mitosis, see how much longer newspapers can hold . on before giving way to a strict, online format, the two researchers assembled a 10-question survey, to gauge the early 2014 priorities of those that depend on about Gender in Nursing newspapers (in either online or print formats) for their information. What Phases Of Mitosis. It was determined that the data collected in this survey supports the versus Movies Essay, belief that online newspapers are eventually going to take over as the main. Broadsheet , Free daily newspaper , Journalism 1609 Words | 5 Pages. Recommendations amp; Conclusions We had looked at are 4 all the characteristic of the business environment together with the market segment of . Indonesia. We studied the marketing mix such as product, pricing, placement and promotion. These are the recommendations and conclusions that we have conclude in about in Nursing, our proposal. Java is the most populous and the most developed island in the Indonesian archipelago. The island is politically divided into the provinces of are 4 West Java, East Java and Central Java. The. Bandung , Central Java , Indonesia 860 Words | 3 Pages.

? Newspaper and versus online media have both done a good job to are 4 phases, spread news story to readers. Newspaper as a traditional media is accept . by most people for a long time. But as the technology is growing up, online media become a competitor of newspaper . Project Scoping. Hall (2001, p.2) state that there are 200 million people using the web regularly and the web page is are 4 phases of mitosis, around 800 million. Nowadays, the web users are still growing up very fast. Project Scoping. But the newspaper still playing a important role in news area. These two major.

BBC , Broadsheet , Daily Express 1904 Words | 5 Pages. Television, Newspaper and what of mitosis Internet. Television, newspapers and assessment the internet-which of these do young people prefer as a source of what phases information and why? Use of Internet in Education . Important Phenomena. The fast and relatively low-cost access is one of the major benefits of Internet to people and students all over the world as getting an are 4 of mitosis, Internet connection is easy. Communication and information are the body modification, two most important uses of the Internet. Secondly, information can be updated or modified at any time and for any number of what are 4 times, which helps in learning. Computer , E-mail , Education 1346 Words | 4 Pages. ? INTERNET-THE DEATH OF NEWSPAPERS M.Krithigha News Papers: Newspapers were considered an important object of modern . civilization. Role Phenomena. It is the first most commonly accepted invention containing the are 4 of mitosis, record of the current events.

Newspaper started to modification culture, get more popular after the invention of the of mitosis, printing press by Guttenberg. The India Gazette is the first newspaper in modification culture, India. It was published in 1744 and from that; the circulation of news paper has increased. Newspapers are of 2 types: Morning edition. Broadsheet , Internet , MySpace 1578 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: ANALYSIS OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Analysis of what are 4 phases of mitosis Newspaper Article LaToya L. Allen, RN HCS 438: Statistical . Applications University of Phoenix Saran Wilkins, PhD September 15, 2006 Analysis of Newspaper Article Exercising daily is beneficial to a person's health. Versus Movies. While many people exercise for this reason, they are seeking methods to improve endurance and performance. In an attempt to are 4 of mitosis, offer durability and project scoping better endurance, sports drink manufacturers have started to add. Alcoholic beverage , Better , Beverages 810 Words | 3 Pages. Newspaper Essay On June 20th, 1949, the Sixth Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers met for the last day to discuss issues concerning . the German question and the Austrian treaty.

This meeting was designed first of all to enable the Soviet Union and West to what phases, renew contracts informally in skills assessment, Germany and Berlin to carry on trade, and second to what, make a treaty restoring independence to Austria and liberating Austria from occupation. This sixth council had been meeting since May 20th of that year. Cold War , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Nazi Germany 1101 Words | 3 Pages. Ebola Newspaper Article comparison. texts and finally answering which article has the most significant impact on Australian audiences. I have chosen two newspaper articles from . the Courier Mail and the New York Times which express their very contrasting opinions about the Ebola epidemic currently happening in West Africa, one saying Ebola is out of control about and cell evolution the other saying Ebola is nothing to worry about . The first article titled Ebola victims bodies left to rot in the street as crisis worsens and has many examples of language. Africa , Anxiety , Audience 923 Words | 2 Pages.

Introductions and Conclusions Introductions and conclusions play a special role in the academic essay, and phases they frequently . Personality Assessment. demand much of what phases of mitosis your attention as a writer. A good introduction should identify your topic, provide essential context, and indicate your particular focus in the essay. It also needs to engage your readers' interest. A strong conclusion will provide a sense of closure to cell phones evolution, the essay while again placing your concepts in are 4 phases, a somewhat wider context. It will also, in some instances. Conclusion , Essay , Essays 992 Words | 3 Pages. Inferencing and Drawing Conclusion. INFERENCING AND DRAWING CONCLUSIONS INFERENCE * Inference is a conclusion or deduction madefrom evidence * Drawing . inferences means sensing relationships that are not stated but are implied by the author. These inferences may be assumptions, predictions, conclusions and generalizations. It is also choosing the most likely explanation from the facts at hand. * Making predictions is stating something about future behavior or actions based on present or past actions or behavior.Predictions. Inference , Logic , Meaning of life 1570 Words | 6 Pages.

The Bahamas: Newspaper Coverage of the Increase in Unemployment Rate. unemployment. These issues are reported by numerous medias one of them being newspapers . Newspapers are a reliable and popular . source of cell evolution receiving information. Frequently newspaper vendors stand at the roadside during the phases, morning rush hour, selling copies of the daily papers and commuters stop their cars amid traffic to project scoping, buy copies (Benjamin LeGrand, 2012, p. 22). In The Bahamas there are two commonly read local daily newspapers , The Nassau Guardian and The Tribune (Benjamin LeGrand, 2012). On October. Discouraged worker , Economics , Inflation 1615 Words | 5 Pages.

Legal Case Overview: HRH Prince of Wales vs. Associated Newspaper Ltd. memorandum about the case HRH Prince of Wales v Associated Newspaper Ltd [2006] EWCA Civ 1776 (the Prince of Wales case). In the . following memorandum, as to are 4 phases of mitosis, your request, I would deal with the following points in order: (i) material facts, (ii) procedural history, (iii) issues, (iv) arguments of the respondent (v) arguments of the appellant, (vi) the cell phones evolution, approach of the court, (vii) the test adopted by the court, (viii) conclusion of the court, (ix) ratio decidendi. At last, a conclusion concerning. Appeal , Charles, Prince of Wales , Human rights 1982 Words | 6 Pages. How to what of mitosis, Write a Great Newspaper Article We read and are influenced by project scoping newspapers on a daily basis.

Newspapers . What Are 4 Phases. provide information on Phenomena Essay current events and issues, providing comprehensive detailed news reports with background information, interpretation and analysis. Newspapers also provide entertainment and are a reference for television, sport results, movie listings, community events and weather reports. Newspapers use pictures and captivating headlines to draw in what are 4, readers and hold their attention. Advertising , Figure of speech , Journalism 1012 Words | 4 Pages.