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A Short History of Medieval Music. The Middle Ages, though bereft of the cultural influence of the Roman Empire, were a time of remarkable musical achievement. From the lowest troubadours in the market square to the great masters in sacred cathedrals, music was everywhere in black full medieval society. The late Middle Ages, especially, saw the rise of many talented composers. Aerodynamics. This was possible in part due to prospering merchant families, such as the Medicis, who sponsored musicians extensively.
Even before the hawk down full movie Renaissance of art, music was going through a rebirth in Christian monasteries. After the fall of Rome, Europe went through a long period of barbarian invasions which rather distracted the people from music. Acute Housing Crisis. After this wave ceased, there was finally a relatively peaceful time, around the reign of Charlemagne, in which musicians could prosper. There were always common musicians, of course: these were the guys who provided the music to black down full dance to, to work to, and to Airfoil get drunk to. These three activities have always taken place, throughout all time in every civilization, and they're usually accompanied by music. Film Hawk Down Full. Meanwhile, in Aspects Essay the monasteries the hawk full movie Christian monks (and very rarely nuns, such as Hildegard von Bingen) were busy writing music for church occasions. Perhaps the reason women were so excluded is the message of Saint Paul to the Corinthians: Mulieres in ecclesiis taceant , or Let your women keep silence in How Catapults the churches.
Monks, being monks, took this quite seriously. Some male chauvinists try to do the same today. Film Black Hawk Full Movie. The birth of modern music, or basically all music as we know it, is said to catalogue have been with the Gregorian chant. This type of song is named after Pope Gregory I (who reigned from 590 to 604 AD), who claimed a bird flew from heaven and hawk down full movie, dictated the chants into his ear. Some historians claim that all he did was collect existing songs, and organize the Schola Cantorum , or 'Singing School' of Rome. Yet others insist he hasn't done anything at all, and his image was merely advanced by catalogue later Catholics who wanted to improve the heritage of the black full movie papacy. To avoid the controversy, I will refer to this music style as Plainchant, another name for Aspects it. There are also several other varieties of plainchant, including Ambrosian, Old Roman, Mozarabic, Gallican, and others. Though far less complicated than later music, plainchant has many set rules which must not be violated.
This is partly because it was set out by abbots, friars, and monks, who like rules that must not be violated. Only certain intervals are allowed between notes in this style, although this later changed when people became less fussy. Another feature of plainchant is modes, which are like our scales, but not so much so. There are eleven different modes, though hardly anyone knows all of them. Again, this is black movie just some decorum for monks. If this had been designed by less orderly people perhaps the Housing Affordability Essay whole thing would be easier to understand. Black Hawk Down Full. The Frankish king Charlemagne was a big fan of music, and he had many Gregorian chants memorized. He even collected a book of rather lewd ballads of the wallpaper fight day, which kept him amused. This collection was later burned by film full movie his son, Louis the Pious. After conquering a large portion of Western Europe, Charlemagne had time to enjoy the finer things of life. He promoted learning at every opportunity, although he never learned to read.
Under his leadership plainchant became more organized. As mentioned earlier, just about the wallpaper fight only woman involved in hawk any of this was a German abbess named Hildegard von Bingen. She was born in 1098 and finally died in 1179. Born as the tenth child of a noble family, she was sent to a convent at a young age. Having little to do at the nunnery, Hildegard had plenty of free time. She used this time to write scholarly works, as well as music. Most of her music is of Negotiation Essay dedicated to various saints, which was a common practice among pious musicians of that time. She wrote in the Gregorian tradition, and was renowned through religious circles around Europe during her lifetime. At the end of the twelfth century in film black hawk down movie Paris were two composers at the cathedral of rhul catalogue, Notre Dame.
Whether they were contemporaries or a teacher and pupil is unclear, but together they produced a whole mess of church music. This was compiled in a large text called the Magnus Liber, which simply means big book. Most of what we know about these two great composers is from an unknown source by the name of Anonymous IV, who was probably a monk living around 1280. Anyway, Leonin and Perotin, along with several other less famous composers, were the at the center of musical happenings in film hawk full Europe, at least in the 1100s. Starting with the original Plainchant, they would add a second, and later even a third and fourth vocal part. This was a big deal back then. In fact, duels have been fought over whether they intended a melody to go dum-ti-dum or ti-dum-ti-dum. While all this important churchy stuff was happening, the common people continued singing their common songs. The chief musicians outside of the church were traveling performers in catalogue France called troubadours and down full movie, trouvres.
The only difference between a troubadour and rhul catalogue, a trouvre is this: the former were in northern France, while the latter were in southern France. This implied that troubadors spoke the langue d'oil, which has evolved into modern French, and trouvres spoke langue d'oc, which we know as Provenal. Most troubadour (or trouvre) songs are about how the singer loves the woman of his dreams so much, and how beautiful she is. Film Hawk Down Movie. Unfortunately, this woman is Acute in Rural England Essay generally married to film black hawk down movie another man. Thus, such musicians had to be quite mobile sometimes. This type of music was usually accompanied by How Catapults Essay mandolins, lutes or guitars.
Well, there you have it: a brief history of Medieval Music. There's still much more to be discussed, but four pages is probably enough, isn't it? I haven't covered the film black down full movie early Renaissance at all, or Palestrina, Gesualdo, di Lasso, or any of the Italian crowd. But this essay has provided the Paper Airfoil Aerodynamics reader with a good start in black down the interesting world of what were settlement, plainchant, and related forms.
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Lab Report about Simple Staining of Microbes Essay. This experiment was carried out to perform staining methods on microbes, explain the film black hawk down movie mechanisms of staining, namely, simple staining, and learn how to use the microscope. The experiment setting was kept as sterile as possible when conducting the experiment. The microbes under the microscope were drawn out and Paper Airfoil Aerodynamics labelled. In conclusion, different staining techniques are used to determine the presence of certain exterior structures of the bacteria like the cell envelope or just to identify the basic shape and size of the microbe. In this experiment, the film black hawk movie microbes E. coli, Bacillus sp and an unknown microbe from petri dish 1 were categorised as gram negative or gram positive and their shape was identified.
These staining techniques are the correct way to identify the shape and size of microbes. Microbiology is the branch of Housing in Rural England biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms. Microbes are very small organisms which can only be viewed with the film down full aid of microscope. Several groups of organisms that fit into this category are bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and wallpaper fight protists. Within this group there are several species interesting to humans because of hawk down movie their ability to cause disease or their use in the food industry and microorganisms can be classified to unicellular and multicellular.
These organisms are extremely diverse in cell type, size, colour, and reproductive energy. Microbes can be classified by their cell type. All cells can be categorized either prokaryotic or eukaryotic and the primary difference between these two cell types is the Acute Housing Affordability Crisis England presence of a membrane-bound nucleus. The experiment was carried out to use a bright field microscopy, prepare and observe bacterial slides and perform staining methods and explain the mechanism of the bacteria. In order to observe and investigate microbes we need to use microscope and bacterial Staining Techniques. Film Black Down Full! Microscope is the invaluable tool allows the viewing of objects or structures that otherwise would go unnoticed by human naked eyes. In addition, microscope can magnify objects up to 1000 times, revealing microscopic details. It has special techniques and optics thus it can reveal the structure and biochemistry of living cells.
Microscope consists of a combination of several optical lenses. In this experiment, we are using light microscope. Light is conducted through curve lenses in such a way that an what settlement houses, object may be viewed larger than its actual size. The light microscopes in this experiment have ocular lenses with magnification of 10X. Moreover, there are also four different objective lenses to choose from 10X, 40X, and 100X. For Bacterial Staining Method, there are two basics techniques. One of down full movie them is using wet mount method but bacteria are too small and How Catapults Work Essay too transparent to film movie be well described using light microscopy and library catalogue a wet amount. Black! Therefore, they are stained to make them more visible by imparting contrast.
Simple stain, with only one layer of cell, is coloured with different colour and methylene blue dye are used for Aspects, differentiating Bacillus sp. Negative stain is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement and it can be used to stain cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. Full! By using this technique, the solution used does not colour the cells and the bacteria will show up as clear spots against a dark background. The Gram Staining Method is used as a tool for differentiation of Work Essay Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as a first step to determine the film black hawk movie identity of a particular bacterial sample. Gram-positive and in Rural Gram-negative organisms are distinguished from each other by differences in their cell walls, including the way the cell takes up and retains stains. The E. coli, Bacillus sp and unknown microbes are categorised into those that retain iodine-crystal violet after an organic washing procedure and those that do not.
Gram Staining is the most consistent when done on bacteria that less than 24 hours, while the film black down full older cultures may not retain the primary stain and give inaccurate results. 2.0 Literature Review. Instrument that is used to see objects that are too small for the naked eyes is called microscope. It can magnify objects up to 1,000 times, revealing microscopic details. With special techniques and How Catapults Work optics the structures and biochemistry of living cells can be revealed. There is various type of microscope, the black hawk movie most common and first to be invented is the How Catapults Essay optical microscope which uses light to hawk full movie image the sample. Although, Zaccharias Janssen discovered that object appeared greatly enlarged after experimenting with several lenses in a tube in 1590 and in 1609, Galileo worked out the principles of Acute Housing Affordability England lenses, but Anton van Leeuwenhoek is a microscope designer who first to hawk down full detect microorganisms using microscope.
Light microscope employs visible light to detect small objects. The biggest challenge when it comes to looking at living things are obtaining sufficient contrast, finding the focal plane, obtaining good resolution and recognizing the wallpaper fight subjects when one sees it. The smallest bacteria can be observed and cell shape recognized at a mere 100x magnification and they are invisible in bright field microscope. Black Hawk Full! Ocular lens is How Catapults Essay a cylinder containing two or more lenses. The function is to bring the image into focus for the eye. Staining is a process in which microbes are stained to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Stains or dyes are organic compound which are used to highlight microorganisms or biological tissues for viewing with the help of microscope. Microbes are colourless and hawk full movie highly transparent structures because they have nearly same refractive index as water. Therefore, microbes cannot be seen with our naked eyes thus different types of staining methods are used to increased visibility and contrast, accentuate specific morphological features, to detect extracellular and intracellular components of microbes and preserve them for future use. Library Catalogue! The basic requirements for staining are clean grease-free slide, bacteria tobe stained, inoculating loops and Bunsen burner to sterilise inoculating loops before and hawk after smear preparation. Two ways to fixing the slides are heat fixation and Housing Affordability Crisis England Essay chemical fixation. Heat fixation can be done by passing the slide over the flame while chemical fixation can be done using ethanol, methanol, picric acid, Potassium Permanganate or Formaldehyde vapour. The function of fixation is to kills bacteria rendering safe handling and prevents autolysis by inactivating the autolytic enzymes. In addition, it increases the permeability of cells to stain, makes cell rigid and unfolds the hawk down full globular proteins and exposing reactive groups and increasing affinity for stain.
Different stains have different affinities for Aspects Essay, different organisms and they are used to differentiate different types of organisms. Bacteria are slightly negatively charged at pH 7.0 and basic dye stains bacteria while acidic dye stains background. For simple staining, only one dye is used. Simple staining is easier to perform but it has limitations. It was an easy method because only black hawk full movie, single staining agent used and either using basic or acid dyes. The features of the dyes are to give colouring of microorganisms and to bind specifically to various cell structures. Were Settlement Houses! For simple staining basic dyes which are positively charged are used.
These dyes will attach to negatively charged. cytoplasm of microbial organism. Figure 1 :Bascillus sp. Negative staining is particularly useful for black hawk down movie, determining cell size and arrangement. Housing In Rural Essay! In addition, it can be used to film hawk down stains cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. Acidic dyes like nigrosin dye (10% solution) and Indian dye which is negatively charged are used. These dyes get repelled by Acute Housing England the negatively charged cytoplasm of microbes. Therefore, the solution used does not colour the cells and give a contrast background. It is commonly used for determining bacteria with capsules. Figure 2: E. Film Hawk Down Full! coli.
Gram stain techniques identify bacteria as gram-positive which is the How Catapults stain is film hawk down retained or gram-negative which means the stain is washed. In 1884, Hans Christian Gram discovered that crystal violet irreversibly stains certain bacteria but can be washed from others. Work Essay! Gram staining can be described as a staining technique used to classify bacteria which is bacteria that are stained with crystal violet followed by a brief treatment with Gram’s iodine and after being decolourised with alcohol and film hawk full movie treated with safranin then washed with water. Those that retain the crystal violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative. Work! The functions of iodine as a mordant to film hawk down movie help the crystal violet bind more firmly. Aspects Of Negotiation! Gram positive bacteria have the multiple layers of black hawk down full movie peptidoglycan retain the crystal violet while it is quickly rinsed out of Gram-negative bacteria because their peptidoglycan is a single layer thick. The bacteria is counter stained with safranin which will not show up on the already purple Gram-positive but will stain the decolorized Gram-negative bacteria red. Figure 3: Cell wall difference. Figure 4: Gram-negative. Figure 5: Gram-positive.
A) Microscope handling. 1) Microscope is How Catapults Essay turned on, and then the light source is adjusted. 2) The objective lens was lowered till the lower far without touching the slide. Black Down Movie! 3) By using the fastening clip the slide was fastened on Aspects the microscope stage. 4) While looking at the eyepiece, the illuminator and diaphragm were adjusted. 5) The coarse adjustment was slowly adjusted until the image of desire was focused. 6) The slide was moved around to the centre of the field to focus to desire image. 7) The slide is observed through the low power objective (x10), high dry objective (x40) and immersion oil objective (x100) for film black full movie, clearer view of culture. 8) The stage is lowered to its minimum position after finished using the microscope. The switch is turned off and the microscope is covered back. B) Bacterial staining techniques.
i) Simple staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide are run on the flame of Bunsen burner. One drop of water was dropped to the clean slide by what were using sterile loop. 2) The cultures of Bacillus sp. are spread onto the water slide surface, again by using sterile loop. The loops were sterile again to kill excess microbe. Film Hawk Down Movie! 3) The slide contained by culture was passed quickly through the flame of Bunsen burner for two second for each two or three time. Library Catalogue! 4) The slide was flooded with methylene blue stain for film hawk full, a minute. Airfoil! 5) The slide is film black down full rinsed with water and blotted to dry using bibulous paper. 6) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 7) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 8) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.
ii) Negative staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures are spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry without exposed to heat. 2) Two to three of Nitrogen dye solutions were dropped to the smear. 3) The Nitrogen dye solutions were spread by Paper using the edge of another slide side became one thin film. 4) The prepared slide was let for air dry. 5) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. Film Hawk Down Full Movie! 6) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 7) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.
iii) Gram staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures were spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry and exposed to were settlement heat for few seconds. 2) The slide was added with crystal violet solution and let for one minute. Black! 3) The slide was rinsed with water and flooded with iodine solution for one minute. 4) The slide was washed with water and added with decolourizer till crystal violet colour disappeared. The slide the rinsed with water. 5) Safranin was added and library waits for a minute.
Then the prepared slide was washed with water for maximum 5 seconds. 6) The prepared slide was dried with bibulous paper and allowed to air dry. 7) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. Film Black Hawk Down! 8) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 9) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli. and sample E2. 4.0 Result and Discussion. The experiment environment is kept as sterile as possible by conducting the experiment within 10 centimetres of the flame from a Bunsen Burner. This is to avoid contamination of the sample by microbes in rhul library, the air. Gloves are worn for the same purpose. The loops used to smear the film black down microbes onto the slide are sterilised three times in a flame. Meanwhile, the Airfoil slid with sample on film hawk was to fix the bacteria onto the slide.
Now about the stains, methylene blue dye is used to make the cells and Housing England nuclei more visible6. Crystal violet is used to full stain the houses cell walls of bacteria6, which consist of peptidoglycan. Nigrosin is dark in colour, hence it is used in negative staining to provide a dark background against which the white microbes can be seen. Film Full! In Gram staining, cells are stained with crystal violet dye. Next, a Gram’s iodine solution (iodine and potassium iodide) is added to form a complex between the crystal violet and iodine. This complex is a larger molecule than the original crystal violet stain and iodine and Acute Affordability Crisis Essay is insoluble in water. Alcohol is added to the sample as a decolouriser, which dehydrates the film down movie peptidoglycan layer, shrinking and Paper Airfoil tightening it. The large crystal violet-iodine complex is film hawk down movie not able to penetrate this tightened peptidoglycan layer, and is thus trapped in the cell in Gram positive bacteria. Conversely, the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is degraded and Work Essay the thinner peptidoglycan layer of Gram negative cells is unable to retain the black full crystal violet-iodine complex and the colour is lost. A counterstain, safranin, is added to the sample, staining it red. Since the safranin is lighter than crystal violet, it does not disrupt the purple coloration in Gram positive cells.
However, the decolorized Gram negative cells are stained red. Were! Gram positive bacteria (with a thicker peptidoglycan layer) retain crystal violet stain during the decolourisation process, while Gram negative bacteria lose the crystal violet stain and are instead stained by the safranin in the final staining process.6 From our observation from simple staining of Bacillus sp ,it can be seen that the bacteria is rod-shaped. The bacteria was stained a dark blue, no internal structures could be seen. For negative staining, the negative stain uses the dye nigrosin, which is an acidic dye. By giving up a proton (as an acid) the chromophore of the dye becomes negatively charged. Film Black Down Full! Because the cell wall is also negatively charged only the background around the catalogue cells will become stained, leaving the film hawk full cells unstained. Hence, the what were settlement cells are seen as white spots against a dark background E.coli is a rod shape as well. After gram staining for E.coli, E.coli shows up as pink, indicating it is a gram-negative bacteria while Bacillus sp shows up as purple, meaning that it is film movie a gram-positive bacteria. The unknown microbes from wallpaper fight petri dish.
1turn out to be a mixture of gram negative and film black full movie gram positive bacteria because of the presence of light pink and purple regions. Rhul! They are round in shape. 1) Morphology includes size, cell structure, presence of black hawk down movie endospore and flagella. From the report, in Figure 8, the unknown microbes from petri dish 1 give purple and pink colouration after gram staining, they’re round in shape. A more reliable method to identify cell morphology would be to use special stains to identify specific parts of a microbe like endospores, which is usually present in gram positive bacteria. The method use to stain endospores is called the Schaeffer-Fulton1 method, where Malachite Green is used to stain the wallpaper fight endospores while Safranin is a counterstain.
The end result would be pink bacteria with green dots within them. 2) Three methods to characterise a microorganism include: i) Starch hydrolysis test. This bio-chemical test is used on hawk full gram-positive bacteria to identify bacteria that can hydrolyze starch (amylose and in Rural England Essay amylopectin) using the enzymes a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Often used to differentiate species from the general Clostridium and Bacillus. Because of the large size of film hawk down movie amylose and amylopectin molecules, these organisms cannot pass through the what were settlement houses bacterial cell wall. In order to film black hawk down full movie use these starches as a carbon source, bacteria must secrete a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase into the extracellular space. These enzymes break the starch molecules into smaller glucose subunits which can then enter directly into rhul library catalogue the glycolytic pathway.
In order to interpret the results of the starch hydrolysis test, iodine must be added to the agar. The iodine reacts with the starch to form a dark brown colour. Thus, hydrolysis of the starch will create a clear zone around the bacterial growth. E.g. Bacillus subtilis is positive for starch hydrolysis.2 ii) Protein analysis (gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, establishment of clonality) The size and other differences between proteins among different organisms can be determined by using protein separation methods, collectively known as gel electrophoresis.3 iii) Nucleotide sequencing, example, Southern blotting, where a specific DNA sequence is detected.4 3) Full standard procedure for operating a microscope5: i. When moving a microscope, always carry it with both hands. Grasp the down movie arm with one hand and place the other hand under the base for support. ii. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the lowest power objective lens is “clicked” into Acute Housing Crisis in Rural England position. iii. The microscope slide should be prepared with a coverslip or cover glass over the specimen. This will help protect the objective lenses if they touch the slide.
Place the black full microscope slide on the stage and fasten it with the wallpaper fight stage clips. iv. Look at film black down movie, the objective lens and the stage from the side and turn the coarse focus knob so that the rhul library catalogue objective lens moves downward (or the stage, if it moves, goes upward). Move it as far as it will go without touching the slide. Black Down Full! v. Look through the eyepiece and Paper Aerodynamics adjust the illuminator (or mirror) and diaphragm for film black down, the greatest amount of light. vi. Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the objective lens goes up (away from the slide). Continue until the image comes into Paper Airfoil focus. Film Movie! Use the Aspects of Negotiation Essay fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing. If the microscope has a moving stage, then turn the coarse knob so the stage moves downward or away from the objective lens. vii. Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in the center of the field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image. viii. Then change to the next objective lens with only minimal use of the focusing adjustment. Use the fine adjustment, if available.
If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the higher power objective lens in place. ix. The proper way to use a monocular microscope is to look through the eyepiece with one eye and keep the other eye open (this helps avoid eye strain). x. Do not touch the glass part of the lenses with your fingers. Use only special lens paper to clean the lenses. xi. When finished, lower the stage, click the black down low power lens into position and remove the slide. xii. Always keep your microscope covered when not in use. Wallpaper Fight! Dust is bad for the microscope. 4) Three accidents that can occur during the experiment are: i. A sleeve catching fire while passing the slide through the flame in wide sweeping motions ii. the film slide dropping due to a weak grip on wallpaper fight it.
The slide breaking due to over-exposure to fire and a strong grip. The staining techniques in this experiment are the correct way to identify the down movie shape and size of the bacteria. Bacillus sp is rod-shaped and gram positive while E.coli is rod-shaped and gram negative. The unknown microbes from petri dish 1 are a mixture of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are round. It is suggested that a smaller amount of microbes are smeared on the glass slide to prevent the sample from looking so dense under the microscope, thus preventing us from seeing the shape and size clearly. Airfoil Aerodynamics! Next, increase the amount of the down full negative stain to ensure more visibility of the cells under the microscope. Lastly, clean the lens of the microscope before use to avoid confusing images in Aspects of Negotiation Essay, the eyepiece. 1) Endospores, retrieved from: http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 2) Rachel Watson M.S., retrieved from: http://www.uwyo.edu/molb2210_lab/info/biochemical_tests.htm#starch 3) Stephen T. Abedon, 6th July 1999, retrieved from: http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/ sabedon/biol3010.htm 4) McGraw-Hill, retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120078/bio_g.swf::Southern%20Blot 5) How to Use a Microscope, retrieved from: http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/how-to-use-a-microscope.htm 6) Monica Z. Black Down Full! Bruckner,Microbial Life Edcucational resources , retrieved from : http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 7) Bio-imaging, 2004, retrieved from: http://web.path.ox.ac.uk/ bioimaging/bitm/instructions_and_information/EM/neg_stain.pdf 8) Staining, retrieved from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/staining.
9) Definition of staining, retrieved from: www.thefreedictionary.com/staining 10) Monica Z. What Were Houses! Bruckner, Gram Staining, retrieved from: serc.caleton.edu/microbiolife/research_methods/microscopy/gramstain.html 11) View as multi-pages. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 May 2016.
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TOEFL Prep Online Guides and Tips. On the black hawk down full movie TOEFL Writing section, you’ll be expected to plan and write two essays. Wallpaper Fight? But what are those supposed to be about? What types of TOEFL Writing topics will you see? In order to be well prepared and confident on black hawk movie, test day, you’ll need thorough understanding of the types of TOEFL essay topics you could see on the exam. Acute Housing Affordability In Rural England? This guide gives in-depth explanations of every type of TOEFL Writing topic you might see, how to approach different types of prompts, and what your essays are expected to include. Hawk Full? We end with a set of 13 unique sample essay prompts, including both TOEFL Independent Writing prompts and Integrated Writing prompts so that you can prepare with high-quality practice problems. An Introduction to the TOEFL Writing Topics.
The TOEFL Writing section is Essay, 50 minutes long and contains two tasks: Integrated Writing and film full movie Independent Writing. It’s the fourth and final section of the exam. After this you’re done! You’ll type both essays on the computer, but you can use scratch paper to jot down notes and plan out Affordability Crisis your essays. In the next two sections, we’ll explain the film format of the two Writing tasks and rhul library catalogue give an official sample question, along with an analysis of the common types of topics and strategies for doing well on each task. The Integrated Writing task requires you to use listening, reading, and writing skills. For this task, you’ll have three minutes to read a short passage, then you will listen to a short (approximately two-minute long) audio clip of a speaker discussing the same topic the written passage covers. Down Full? You’ll need to write an essay that references both of Essay, these sources in order to answer the question. You won’t discuss your own opinion for film black hawk down full movie, this essay. During the writing time, you’ll be able to look at the written passage again, but you won’t be able to re-hear the audio clip.
You’ll be able to take notes while you listen to wallpaper fight, it though. By the way: we have created the world's best online TOEFL course that automatically identifies and improves your weaknesses on the TOEFL. Film Hawk Down Full Movie? Want to Airfoil Aerodynamics, get personal feedback on film black down movie, your Speaking? Confused about Reading? PrepScholar guides you, step by step to How Catapults Essay, conquer TOEFL.
I want to be clear - you don't NEED a TOEFL course to get a great TOEFL score. But we believe PrepScholar is the world's best TOEFL course right now , especially if you are nervous about the TOEFL and have struggled to increase your score and don't know how to improve anymore. Writing Time: 20 minutes Suggested Essay Length: 150-225 words. Official Integrated Writing Prompt Sample. In an effort to hawk down full, encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certificates to wallpaper fight, wood companies that meet high ecological standards by film full conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as “ecocertified.” However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the Crisis England Essay same, for several reasons. First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to film black full movie, the ecocertification label. Because so many mediocre products are labelled as “new” or “improved,” American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general. Second, ecocertified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn ecocertification, a wood company must pay to Housing Affordability Crisis in Rural, have its business examined by a certification agency.
This additional cost gets passed on to consumers. American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price, and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain ecocertification. Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for film black hawk down movie, American companies to Paper Airfoil Aerodynamics, keep up with the film black hawk down movie developments in the rest of the rhul world, this argument is not convincing. Film Black? Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But this is not the case– American wood businesses sell most of their products in library catalogue the United States, catering to film black, a very large customer base that is wallpaper fight, satisfied with the black down movie merchandise. Directions: Below is the transcript. Narrator: Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.
Professor: Well, despite what many people say, there’s good reason to think that many American wood companies will eventually seek ecocertification for their wood products. First off, consumers in the United States don’t treat all advertising the Aspects Essay same. Black Down Full Movie? They distinguish between advertising claims that companies make about their own products and claims made by wallpaper fight independent certification agencies. Americans have a lot of confidence in independent consumer agencies. Thus, ecologically minded Americans are likely to react very favorably to wood products ecologically certified by an independent organization with an international reputation for trustworthiness.
Second point–of course it’s true that American consumers care a lot about price– who doesn’t? But studies of how consumers make decisions show that price alone determines consumers’ decisions only when the price of one competing product is film hawk down, much higher or lower than another. How Catapults Essay? When the price difference between the two products is small–say, less than five percent, as is the case with certified wood– Americans often do choose on factors other than price. And Americans are becoming increasingly convinced of the film down full value of of Negotiation Essay, preserving and film black movie protecting the Aspects Essay environment. And third, US wood companies should definitely pay attention to what’s going on in the film black hawk wood business internationally, not because of foreign consumers, but because of foreign competition. Wallpaper Fight? As I just told you, there’s a good chance that many American consumers will be interested in ecocertified products. And guess what, if American companies are slow at capturing those customers, you can be sure that foreign companies will soon start crowding into the American market, offering ecocertified wood that domestic companies don’t. Directions: Give yourself 20 minutes to film black hawk down full, plan and write your response. Your response is judged on Acute Housing England Essay, the quality of the writing and how well it presents the points in black hawk down full movie the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.
You may view the reading passage while you respond. RESPONSE TIME: 20 minutes. Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to of Negotiation, explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage. We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at getting your target TOEFL score. Download it for free now: What to hawk down full, Expect From TOEFL Integrated Writing Topics.
The written passage and audio recording can be on pretty much any subject, but the good news is that all the prompts for the Integrated Writing Task are pretty similar. They usually ask you to summarize the points made in the lecture and compare/contrast them to How Catapults Work, points made in the reading passage. You won’t be discussing your own opinion during this essay, instead you’ll be taking information from both the lecture and hawk movie reading and analyzing it. How to Approach the Integrated Writing Task. Before you even begin the essay, you should take good notes on the key points of the reading passage and the audio clip. Your notes should be especially good for library catalogue, the audio clip since you won’t be able to hear it again. Black Hawk Full Movie? Using your notes as reference, your essay should recap each of the rhul catalogue main points made in the audio clip. For each point you should clearly describe how it contrasts with or challenges points from the black hawk down reading passage.
Also, remember to Paper, use specific examples to strengthen your essay. Refer back to your notes and down full the reading passage if need be. Were Houses? However, don’t just copy portions of the film hawk full audio clip or passage into settlement, your essay; that doesn’t show your English skills. Always rewrite the main ideas in your own words. Film Full? Again, remember that you shouldn’t be including your own opinion in this essay. Work? Stick only to what the reading passage and film black hawk movie audio clip cover. For the Independent Writing task, you’ll receive a question on a particular topic or issue. You’ll need to write a response to Housing Affordability in Rural England Essay, that topic that explains your opinion, and you’ll also need to give reasons and examples that support your opinion.
Writing Time: 30 minutes Suggested Essay Length: At least 300 words. Official Independent Writing Prompt Sample. Directions: Read the question below. Black Hawk Movie? Give yourself 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay. Typically, an effective response will contain a minimum of 300 words. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Television advertising directed toward young children (aged two to five) should not be allowed. Use specific reasons and examples to Paper Airfoil Aerodynamics, support your answer. What to Expect From TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. TOEFL Independent Writing topics generally fit into one of three categories. There are example problems for each of these categories in the next section.
This is the most common prompt type for the Independent Writing Task, and the sample question above is an black hawk down full example of it. For this type of prompt, you’ll be presented with two sides of an Housing Crisis in Rural Essay argument. You’ll need to film down, pick one side and give specific reasons and examples that support your opinion. Want to rhul catalogue, improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We have the world's leading TOEFL course. Built by world-class instructors from Harvard and MIT, the program combines machine learning and human feedback to identify the fastest way to black hawk movie, hit your target TOEFL score. Try our 5-day full access trial for free: This is wallpaper fight, similar to film full, the first type of prompt, except you’ll be discussing both sides, rather than choosing one you think is best.
Many times these types of prompts will ask you to compare the advantages and disadvantages of an issue and give examples to Aspects of Negotiation, support your statements. If the sample question above followed this type of format, the prompt would be something like this: “Discuss the full advantages and disadvantages of Acute Affordability in Rural Essay, allowing television advertising to be directed toward young children (aged two to five). Use specific reasons and black hawk down full movie examples to support your answer.” Type 3: Pick a Stance From Many Options. This category is rarer, but you still may see it on TOEFL Writing. The TOEFL Independent Writing topics give you a broad topic with many possible opinions and ask for Paper Airfoil, your stance on it. If the sample question followed this type of format, the prompt would be similar to: “Which age group do you believe the majority of television advertising should be directed towards? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.” How to Approach the film full movie Independent Writing Task. Depending on the type of prompt you receive, you’ll either choose an opinion (from two options or many options) or explain both sides of an issue. For this essay, each paragraph should be devoted to making one main point, and each point should be supported with specific reasons and examples to back it up.
If you’re being asked to describe your opinion, make it clear within the first paragraph of your essay. There should be no doubt as to how you feel about the topic. Also, even though ETS states that a 300-word essay is the what houses “recommended minimum” length for this task, don’t feel like you need to write hundreds of words after you reach the 300 mark in order to get a high score. Longer isn’t always better. It’s very possible (and common) for Independent Writing essays that are only 300 words or slightly longer to receive high scores. Completing practice essays and becoming more familiar with the types of questions you could be asked is a key part of preparing for TOEFL Writing. There numerous practice TOEFL questions available, but you’ll likely want more to practice with.
To help you out, we’ve come up with 13 practice TOEFL Writing topics for both the Integrated and Independent Writing Tasks. Remember that on the real exam the conversations for the Integrated Writing Tasks would be audio recordings that you’d be listening to as opposed to reading. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? When people solve problems as a group, they come up with better solutions that if they were to try to solve the problem individually. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All children should be required to take a foreign language class from the time they start school until they begin university. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Technology has made it easier for people to connect on down, a deeper level. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Some people believe school cafeterias should stop selling soft drinks and other high-sugar drinks, while others think students should have a choice in what they drink. Which option do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Some high school students are delaying college for wallpaper fight, a year in order to take a gap year where pursue other opportunities such as work or travel. Discuss the advantages and film hawk full disadvantages of gap years.
Use specific reasons and examples to How Catapults Essay, support your answer. Compare the advantages and film down full disadvantages of requiring college freshman to complete at wallpaper fight, least a year of film hawk down full movie, college classes before selecting a major versus having them choose right away. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of How Catapults Essay, living in a large city versus living in a small town. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Compare the advantages and film black hawk down movie disadvantages of studying on your own versus studying with a group of people.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. #3: Pick a Stance From Many Options. Imagine that there is Aspects, a large piece of vacant land in your town. What is the film best way to make use of it? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. What do you believe is the most important problem facing the world today? Why is Essay, it the most important? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. If you could learn one new skill you’ve never had the film black hawk down opportunity to settlement houses, try before, what skill would it be? Explain your choice by using specific reasons and examples.
What are the main qualities of a good boss? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Directions: Read the following passage and the lecture that follows. Black Down Full Movie? On the real TOEFL, you’ll have three minutes to wallpaper fight, read the hawk down full passage. Then, answer the question below.
Want to Aspects of Negotiation Essay, improve your TOEFL score by 15+ points? Check out our bes online TOEFL course. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your TOEFL score by 15 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial now: Driverless cars are increasingly being seen as the way of the future.
They will eliminate many of the film hawk movie hassles and dangers associated with traditional driving and pave the How Catapults Essay way for this new technology to become commonplace. Perhaps the biggest benefit of driverless cars is that they will drastically cut down on human error that results in millions of people being injured or killed every year in car accidents. Driverless cars won’t forget to notice a stop sign, get distracted while texting, not notice the car up ahead has slowed down, or any other of a myriad of driver errors that occur every day. Once driverless cars become commonplace on our roads, thousands of lives will be saved a year. Another benefit is film full movie, that driverless cars will cut down on houses, driving time and make commutes shorter. Cars with automated driving will travel at a more consistent and efficient rate than cars with human drivers, who tend to use the brake and gas pedals more often than necessary. Driverless cars know the exact speed to go in black hawk full order to get to the destination as quickly as possible, based on speed limits, traffic, and catalogue other conditions, and the more driverless cars there are on the road, the more travel time will be reduced. Finally, driverless cars allow people who would normally be driving to hawk down movie, focus their attention on Housing Affordability in Rural Essay, a task that’s more interesting and important to film movie, them.
They may choose to check their emails, get absorbed in an audiobook or podcast, or enjoy a snack, among other possibilities. Having a driverless car will help former drivers make better use of their time. Professor: Despite the recent attention this subject has gotten in the news and on social media, driverless cars are not the world-changing technology they are being advertised as. They have significant drawbacks, and even if those are ironed out, they will still not offer all the Airfoil Aerodynamics benefits that they are advertising. First and foremost, even if every car on the street became driverless, that does not mean automobile accidents would suddenly end. Automated driving technology, like all technology can and will fail at times. In fact, even though there are few driverless cars currently on the road, they have already been associated with multiple accidents, injuries, and deaths. Automated driving will always be an imperfect technology, and it will also lack the human mind’s ability to analyze a situation and make split-second decisions which are often necessary to avoid accidents.
Another falsehood is the belief that driverless cars will make commutes significantly shorter. Driverless cars may be able to reduce a lot of the speed up/hit the brakes patterns human drivers engage in, however, driverless cars cannot do anything to change speed limits, road conditions, traffic, or other factors that contribute to film black full movie, commute times. As such, any reductions in driving times will be small, at best. And third, many people believe that, with driverless cars, drivers won’t need to wallpaper fight, pay attention to the road at all. They’ll be free to film hawk full movie, watch a movie or read a book while driving! However, this is completely false. The person sitting in the driver’s seat of an automated driving vehicle will still need to pay attention to the road at rhul catalogue, all times in film black full order to be alert for any situations where they need to override the automated driving technology. This means that, not only Essay will driverless cars mean drivers can do something else while in the car, they’ll have to suffer through the boredom of passively watching their car make all the decisions without taking their eyes off the road. Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on film movie, specific points made in the reading passage. Review: What Will You See on Essay, TOEFL Writing Topics? Knowing what to expect from the TOEFL essay topics will go a long way towards helping you write high-scoring essays.
There are two essays on black hawk down, this section, the Integrated Writing Task and rhul the Independent Writing Task. Integrated Writing topics provide you with an article to movie, read and a lecture or conversation to listen to and then ask you to combine information from the two. Acute Affordability Crisis In Rural Essay? TOEFL Independent Writing topics simply give you an idea or theory and ask for your perspective on it. Completing practice essays will help you become better at understanding and film black hawk movie answering TOEFL Writing topics. You should practice writing appropriately long responses that clearly outline your thoughts and support them with specific details. Looking for more information on the TOEFL Writing section? Learn all the tips you need to know in order to ace TOEFL Writing!
Looking for a great TOEFL prep book? A good prep book can be the Work Essay most important study tool you use, and we have information on all the best TOEFL prep books you should consider. Ready to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to film black down full, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and were houses Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in black full the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries. View all posts by Aspects of Negotiation Christine Sarikas. 1 thought on “13 TOEFL Writing Topics to film black full, Help You Practice for the Exam” Good tips and suggestions always come from people who have in depth understandings and analyses that they have acquired through time and experience about a particular subject- in this case the TOEFL.
I have personally benefited from such tips and suggestions and its my opinion that any one who have never appeared on the TOEFL ought to seek and follow these guidelines. Going through tips on this site I strongly believe they are realistic and library catalogue if a person wants to get his/her required scores on his/her first TOEFL test, he/she should act upon these tips. Get FREE tips to start mastering the film black hawk down full movie TOEFL today. Join our Facebook TOEFL Study Group! Read Our Top 10 Favorite TOEFL Guides. Applying to US Schools (6) English Language Learning (3) TOEFL General Info (26) TOEFL Listening (3) TOEFL Logistics (5) TOEFL Prep (18) TOEFL Reading (4) TOEFL Speaking (6) TOEFL Writing (7) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved.
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amjur award resume Lauren Scholnick has championed equal protection, civil rights, and black full due process for How Catapults Work Essay, her entire life. She got her first taste for fighting for the underdog in elementary school when she organized her classmates against lunchroom tyranny. After witnessing one too many girls being commanded to leave the prime lunchroom table in favor of a more popular girl, Lauren instigated an film insurrection. She convinced her classmates to rally together, beat the popular kids to the lunchroom, and take over the prime spot. Shortly thereafter, equality was the rule of law in her suburban Chicago elementary school. Lauren continued to foster her belief that the most satisfying work comes from fighting for How Catapults Essay, the disenfranchised. In her first post-college job, as a staffer with the Illinois Senate, Lauren was able to institute reforms to guarantee an annual cost of living increase for senior citizens on state assistance.
She was also instrumental in implementing a series of public hearings on education reform in black hawk down full movie Chicago's public school system. Lauren then moved on to two new challenges: working for the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) as its Legislative Director in the Illinois capitol, and later attending law school. During her first year of law school, Lauren proved that she was not afraid to Housing Affordability England Essay, fight for workers' rights even if it required her to face down her law school professors. She organized the law school clerical staff and helped them and film hawk the rest of the staff at Paper the University of Illinois secure a collective bargaining agreement, which provided yearly raises and better benefits. After graduating from film black down movie law school, Lauren headed to Utah to clerk for Judge Gregory K. Orme where she confronted equal protection and due process issues from the unique perspective of wallpaper fight behind the down full movie, bench.
Then, she once again went to work for a clear underdog by becoming campaign manager for Jim Bradley, a Democrat running for Utah Governor against the wildly popular Republican incumbent, Mike Leavitt. Rhul Library! While Lauren appreciated both appellate review of civil rights issues and electoral politics, she knew that she needed to be on the front lines of advocating for black down, those who needed it most, which led to Essay, her next position as Director of black down full Development at Utah Legal Services. Faced with Congress' drastic cuts to the Legal Services' budget, Lauren created and How Catapults Essay spearheaded the black hawk down, And Justice For All campaign, a collaborative effort of Utah's three legal services providers, to raise funds for civil legal services for Acute Housing Crisis England, the disenfranchised. Film Black Down Full Movie! Thanks to her efforts, the And Justice For All campaign is in its 11th year of were settlement houses successfully raising money to ensure equal access to justice for all of Utah's citizens. Lauren returned to film hawk down movie, her roots in the labor movement by practicing employment law with a medium-sized Utah firm before she and her partner opened a boutique firm specializing in labor and employment law on behalf of Work Essay employees. For the last seven years, instead of implementing large-scale reforms via legislation or union organizing, Lauren's practice has focused on film black down movie reforming the library, law through individual cases and seeking out justice for black hawk down full, her clients. She has been the driving force behind numerous civil rights decisions and jury verdicts. A few of her more notable achievements include: Successfully appealing an Aspects important racial harassment case resulting in a published appeals decision that contains numerous favorable holdings for employees facing a hostile work environment. Tademy v. Union Pacific Corp ., 520 F.3d 1149 (10th Cir.
2008). Obtaining Utah's largest Title VII jury verdict ($2,500,000 for film hawk, emotional distress) for her client who had been raped by her supervisor. Parker v. Of Negotiation Essay! Olympus Healthcare Center , 2:00 CV-626 (D. Black Down! Utah 2002). Establishing that a cause of action for wrongful termination exists for Utah employees who are discharged from their employment in retaliation for filing workers' compensation claims.
Touchard v. La-Z-Boy, Inc ., 148 P.3d 945 (Utah 2006). Representing a transgendered employee under the Price Waterhouse theory that people who do not conform to gender stereotypes have a cause of action under Title VII the Equal Protection clause. Etsitty v. Utah Transit Authority , 502 F.3d 1215 (10th Cir. Acute Crisis Essay! 2007). Film Black Hawk Full Movie! Establishing that employees must be paid for pre-shift activities when those activities are required for the job. Land, et al. Aspects Of Negotiation! v. Black Hawk Down Full! EGG , Case No. 2:04-CV-00479, Order on Partial Summary Judgment (Benson, J., D. Utah, March 26, 2007). Making clear that police detention of witnesses without probable cause or consent violates the were settlement houses, Fourth Amendment. Walker v. City of Orem , 451 F.3d 1139 (10th Cir.
2007). In addition to film black down movie, these legal achievements, Lauren has a strong commitment to were houses, pro bono work and volunteerism. She spends over film down full movie, 100 hours per year on pro bono cases, and in 2004, she was named Utah's Pro Bono Lawyer of the Year. For the last 10 years, Lauren has been a supervising attorney for the Guadalupe Street Law Project, where people who cannot afford legal services can seek advice from law students and attorneys. She also chaired the Major Gifts Committee for the Community Legal Center and she currently sits on the board of Utah Legal Services and the Utah Association for Justice. Lauren also somehow finds time to donate countless hours each legislative session lobbying the Utah Legislature on important civil rights issues such as lowering the number of wallpaper fight employees required to be covered under the Utah Antidiscrimination Act.
Lauren's devotion to civil rights and equality is simply contagious. All of the people that work at Lauren's firm, from the lawyers, to film full movie, the law clerks to the legal assistants, devote time to pro bono work and other community activities. Her firm, which is the largest plaintiffs' employment law firm in Utah and Idaho, also has a strong commitment to promoting equal access to justice, and contributes to what were houses, the Impact Fund, the Community Legal Center, and recently, an in-depth study on the retention of women lawyers in Utah firms. Lauren is one of film black hawk full movie those unique people who promotes equality and justice in nearly all she does and Paper Airfoil who has inspired many law students and new lawyers to do the film black down movie, same. University of Illinois College of Law , Champaign, Illinois Juris Doctor, May 1995, cum laude Honors: Honors in Work Legal Writing and in film hawk down movie Moot Court, Dean's List, AmJur Award for Excellence in Civil Procedure, Rickert Award for Service to the Law School. Stanford University , Stanford, California Bachelor of settlement Arts in black down full movie International Relations, June 1988. Salt Lake City, Utah.
Member, January 2002 - present. Aspects! Salt Lake City, Utah. Associate Attorney, April 1999 - January 2002. Salt Lake City, Utah. Director of Development/Staff Attorney, November 1996 - May 1999.
Utah Court of Appeals, Judge Gregory K. Orme. Black Hawk Down Full Movie! Salt Lake City, Utah. Judicial Clerk, August 1995 - June 1996. Summer Associate, May - August 1994. United States District Court, Judge Marvin Aspen. Judicial Extern, May - August 1993. Jim Bradley for Housing Crisis, Governor Campaign. Salt Lake City, Utah. Campaign Manager, June 1996 - November 1996.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. Organizer, August - November 1992 and June - August 1995. Legislative Director, February 1991 - August 1992. Springfield and Chicago, Illinois. Legislative Analyst, November 1988 - February 1991.
David Orr for Cook County Clerk Campaign. Campaign Manager, August - November 1990. Implicit Bias Utah Employment Lawyers Association (“UELA”) (July 2015); Employment Law Primer New Lawyer Training Program (October 2014); Implicit Bias: Employment Discrimination’s New Wave Utah Association for Justice (“UAJ”) (October 2014); Employer Wellness Programs ABA EEO Section Meeting (March 2014); Mediating Employment Law Cases ABA Center for film black movie, Professional Development (March 2013); The Tables Are Turned: When Human Resource Professionals and Housing Crisis Essay In-House Lawyers Bring Claims Against Their Employer ABA EEO Section Meeting (April 2013); Settlement, Severance, Non-Compete Non-Solicitation Agreements UELA (March 2012); “Excellence in hawk full ADR” Panel (March 2011); Voir Dire: A Demonstration UAJ Annual Convention (September 2010); Attorney Conducted Voir Dire UELA (February 2010); Dealing with the wallpaper fight, Press UELA (April 2009); Voir Dire Panel Tri-State Federal Bar Convention (October 2009); Giving Back New Lawyer Ethics (June 2008); Harassment Training for Various Employers including Park City, Utah Legal Services and Peterbuilt (2007 - present); View from the Employee’s Side: What Makes a Good Plaintiff’s Lawsuit New Lawyer’s CLE (August 20007); Successful Approaches To Recovering Punitive Damages National Employment Lawyers Assoc. (“NELA”) Annual Convention (June 2007); Focus Groups and Mock Trials NELA Annual Convention (June 2006); You Too Can Do a Mock Trial Employment Law Section (April 2006); Creative Pro Bono Panel, Women Lawyers of Utah Annual Retreat (October 2005); HR Rx: The (Juris) Doctor is in film hawk National Association of Bar Executives (February 2005); Writing for UALD Investigators (Spring 2005); Prince Yeates v. Young Panel Discussion Employment Law Section Annual Meeting (January 2004); Employee Claims in Essay Utah (May 2004); Non-Competes: The Wild West of Employment Law Employment Law Section (October 2004); Employment Case Law Update Employment Law Section Annual Meeting (May 2003). Film Hawk Down Full Movie! Lawyers who Lunch column , with Edward Havas, Utah Trial Journal, starting Winter 2015. The Impact of Leaving Idaho’s Government Employees Unprotected , with Erika Birch, The Advocate, May 2014. Giving Back: The Rewards of Pro Bono , with Edward Prignano, Utah Bar Journal, May/June 2013, Vol.
26 No.3. President’s Message: From the Airfoil Aerodynamics, Corner Office of the Managing Partner of the Largest Plaintiff’s Law Firm in Utah , Utah Trial Journal, Winter 2011. Film! President’s Message: Finding Common Ground with the Tea Party , Utah Trial Journal, Spring 2011. President’s Message: In Defense of the Twin Protectors of the Middle Class: Civil Service and Labor Unions , Utah Trial Journal, Summer 2011. How Catapults! Efficiency and Efficacy of black down Voir Dire in Utah: A Prescription for Airfoil, Change , Utah Trial Journal, Summer 2009. Down! Tademy v. Union Pacific Corporation: A Plaintiffs’ Victory in the Tenth Circuit , with Erika Birch, Utah Trial Journal, Summer 2008. How to How Catapults Work Essay, Win a Title VII Case , with April L. Hollingsworth, Utah Trial Journal, Summer 2003. Pro Bono Lawyer of the Year , Utah State Bar, 2004. Lawyer of the Year , Labor and down full movie Employment Section, Utah State Bar, 2007. Mickey Duncan Award , ACLU of Utah, 2008.
Dorathy Merrill Brothers Award for the Advancement of Women in the Legal Profession , Utah State Bar, 2011. Enlightened 50 , Community Foundation of Utah, 2013. Utah State Bar , admitted May 1997. Idaho State Bar , admitted September 2006. Essay! Illinois State Bar , admitted November 1995. Member of : Utah Legal Services' Board of Trustees; Utah Association for Justice Executive Committee; Women Lawyers of film black down movie Utah; Street Law Project; A. Wallpaper Fight! Sherman Christensen Inn of Court. We cannot give legal advice over black hawk down, the telephone. To make an appointment for Crisis England, a legal consultation with one of our attorneys, please contact our office.
675 East 2100 South, Suite 350. Hawk Down! Salt Lake City, Utah 84106. 1516 W Hays Street. Boise, Idaho 83702. © 2012-2013 Strindberg Scholnick, LLC. | Salt Lake City, Utah: 801-359-4169 | Boise, Idaho: 208-336-1788. This website is designed for general information only.
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essays on bentham jurisprudence and political philosophy. Author by : H. Black Down Movie! L. A. Hart. Publisher by Acute Affordability England : OUP Oxford. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 335. File Size : 51,5 Mb. Description : In his introduction Professor Hart offers both an exposition and a critical assesment of some central issues in jurisprudence and political theory.
Essay themes include Bentham's identification of the forms of film black down full mistification protecting the law from Aspects Essay criticism, his relation to Beccaria and his conversion to democratic radicalism. Author by film hawk down full movie : Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart. Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 655. File Size : 42,5 Mb. Essays In Jurisprudence And Philosophy.
Author by : H. L. Wallpaper Fight! A. Hart. Publisher by : OUP Oxford. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 276. File Size : 54,8 Mb. Description : This important collection of essays includes Professor Hart's first defense of legal positivism; his discussion of the distinctive teaching of American and Scandinavian jurisprudence; an film full movie, examination of theories of basic human rights and the notion of rhul catalogue social solidarity, and black movie, essays on Jhering, Kelsen, Holmes, and Crisis England Essay, Lon Fuller.
Author by film movie : Michael S. Moore. Publisher by were settlement houses : Oxford University Press on black hawk full, Demand. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 715. File Size : 53,8 Mb. Description : The eleven essays in Educating Oneself in Public: Critical Essays in Jurisprudence constitute an education in the Anglo-American jurisprudence of the second half of the Paper Airfoil twentieth century. The book examines both the thought of down full movie major figures such as H. L. A. Aerodynamics! Hart, Joseph Raz, Ronald Dworkin, Lon Fuller, and Richard Rorty, and film, the general themes of major movements such as legal realism, post-modernism, and pragmatism. Despite this focus on the thoughts of others the book is were houses, not a survey butis a critical probing of black hawk full movie particular ideas often attributed to such figures.
Detailed depth of understanding is sought about: Hart's conception of a `general jurisprudence' that describes law in general; Dworkin's conception of an `internal jurisprudence' that interprets the concept of law of our legal culture; Fuller's ideal of rhul catalogue a `functional jurisprudence' that seeks the hawk full essence of law in Aspects Essay, the values it serves; the place of rules in legal and film hawk movie, moral reasoning; Raz's idea that laws give `exclusionary reasons' to legal actors subject to such laws; how judges should reason, according to the legal realists; whether there are right answers to all disputed law cases; whether behind the obvious law of Airfoil legal rules there can exist an unobvious law of legal principles; Finnis's conception of the common good as the black down full movie function law uniquely serves; in what sense law practice and legal theory are interpretive activities; whether all knowledge, or some discrete realm of How Catapults Work Essay knowledge, is peculiarlyinterpretive in film hawk down full movie, character. Paper! Michael Moore's views on each of these topics are detailed and original, even if the springboards for each discussion are the writings of down full those who introduced such topics into modern discussions. The introductory chapter includes responses by many of the figures examined in the other essays, together with the Acute Housing Crisis in Rural Essay author's rejoinders. Author by : Matthew H. Kramer. Publisher by : Oxford University Press on Demand. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi.
Total Download : 858. File Size : 49,7 Mb. Description : This book brings together contributions from seventeen of the world's foremost legal and black movie, political philosophers to examine the lasting influence of H.L.A. Hart. The essays explore the major subjects of Hart's work: general jurisprudence, criminal responsibility, rights, justice, causation and the foundations of liberalism. Bentham S Theory Of Law And Public Opinion. Author by : Xiaobo Zhai. Publisher by : Cambridge University Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 364. File Size : 40,8 Mb.
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As William Cobbett had only recently been fined and sent to prison for two years for criticising army flogging in film, his Political Register the verdict against Hunt could hardly be in doubt. Nevertheless, Brougham secured a brilliant acquittal [after a speech] which was remarkable for “great ability, eloquence and manliness.” Bentham And The Common Law Tradition. Author by : Gerald J. Postema. Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA.
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Total Download : 322. File Size : 44,8 Mb. Description : Bentham, Jeremy. A Fragment on black down movie, Government. Edited with an Introduction by F.C. Affordability Crisis England Essay! Montague. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1891. xii, 241 pp. Reprinted 2001 by full The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
ISBN 1-58477-166-6. Work! Cloth. $65. * Bentham's first published work, an film black hawk down full movie, essay on sovereignty that criticizes Blackstone's Commentaries and attacks contemporary views on politics and law. This edition includes F.C. Montague's scholarly introduction that shows the Essay significance of the film black movie Fragment and includes a biography of Bentham [1748-1832] and a discussion of his role in the history of jurisprudence. The Fragment on Government is primarily a criticism. If it were nothing more, it would have no interest for later generations, which do not regard Blackstone as an authority upon speculative questions of politics or history, and therefore do not need to have Blackstone's theories corrected or disproved. But in criticizing Blackstone's views, Bentham necessarily expounds his own. Airfoil Aerodynamics! As Bentham is film black down movie, one of the few English writers of mark upon the theory of political institutions, and as his doctrine forms a link in the chain of English political philosophy, we still read the Fragment of Government in order to see, not how far Blackstone was wrong, but how far Bentham was right.: Introduction 59.
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