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Equal Pay Week of Action: It’s time to pay the sisters the same as the misters. Media advisory : from Council of Trade Unions. Greatest! Equal Pay Week of Action: It’s time to pay the sisters the same as the misters. Kiwis care about in time plot, fairness. Greatest Mathematician! Ensuring that women are paid fairly and equally will be a key election issue. Clues Of Chemical! A week of action, Saturday 12 – Saturday 19 August, focused on the issues of equal pay will see events happening all around the country. Mathematician! 2017 has been a big year for equal pay with the huge success of the care and support settlement which saw union member Kristine Bartlett’s win equal pay on behalf of over 55,000 working women. Most of the events planned will be celebratory; colourful, with music and dance. However they will also be future orientated. “The road to achieving equal pay for all continues to have potholes in banquo quotes, it,” CTU President Richard Wagstaff said. “The National Government seems determined to pursue a new law which will make achieving equal pay much more difficult. We will ensure that working woman and all those that support fairness and equality have their voices heard.” For more information about what’s happening locally please refer to the table below – including local media contacts. Gather at Takutai Sq behind Britomart – march up Queen St to rally at the Suffrage Memorial Te ha o Hine Place off Lorne St.
Methodist Centre, 62 London St, Hamilton. Meeting at greatest, the Te Awe Awe quadrant of The Square and marching to Society: George Street. Cuba St stage – near bucket fountain. Pomeroy’s Cafes –Pomeroys Coffee and Tea Co. Crema coffee cart (Church Steps) Pomeroys City Store (Montgomery Square) The Coffee Factory (16 Elms Street, Stoke) At the Exchange, corner of greatest, Princes and Rattray Street. The Equal Pay Week of Action 12 – 20th August. From 12 – 20 of August all around the country our network of equal pay campaign hubs are running events to draw attention to the issue of equal pay in the lead up to the General Election. You can support these activities by letting other people in Fighting, your networks know and by attending.
There will be more information to come – but we wanted to make sure that you have as much advanced notice about these events as possible. Some unions are planning their own equal pay events at worksites during the greatest mathematician week of action too. If you have any questions or would like more information please email me Sue O’Shea firstname.lastname@example.org or call 021 569 277. Many of the regional actions will include dancing to the Donna Summers song She Works Hard for the Money (Treat Her Right). If you’d like to join in you can practice with others (some regional hubs are holding practice nights) or learn the dance moves in the privacy of maya inca aztec, your own home. Greatest Mathematician! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1wQxIAnKeg. Not your thing? Being there, bringing friends and whanau to support the maya inca aztec action in your area all makes a difference. We want to make as big a splash as possible, so join in the action (and have fun too) This will get the message through loud and clear that Kiwis are committed to winning equal pay!
National’s Proposed New Law Disappoints. Mathematician! Media release: Pay Equity Coalition (Wellington) NATIONAL’S PROPOSED NEW EQUAL PAY LAW DISAPPOINTS. The Employment (Pay Equity and Equal Pay) Bill tabled yesterday by the Government doesn’t do what the Government promises it would do, says the Pay Equity Coalition (Wellington). “The Coalition is macbeth quotes, disappointed because this Bill will fail to deliver equal pay for many women,” says spokesperson Angela McLeod. “The Bill makes it harder and more expensive for women to make a claim by introducing additional barriers for women to take pay equity claims.” “We question if the government is greatest, committed to achieving pay equity in New Zealand if this Bill does not enable a better process and Society:, pathway to equal pay.” “Unfortunately, this Bill is a step backwards in achieving equal pay. Working women deserve better, we deserve a law which supports equal pay for work of equal value,” McLeod said. For further information please contact. Pay Equity Coalition Spokesperson Angela McLeod – 027 497 2761. Submission on the Marriage (Court Consent to mathematician Marriage of Minors) Amendment Bill.
Justice and Electoral Committee. Parliament Building Wellington 6140 New Zealand. Re: Submission on the Marriage (Court Consent to Marriage of Minors) Amendment Bill. This submission is from the NZ Federation of Business and Professional Women (BPW NZ) Inc. BPW NZ supports Marriage (Court Consent to Marriage of Minors) Amendment Bill, as it helps protect minors from forced or coerced marriages. However, BPW NZ believes the maya inca aztec legal age of marriage should be eighteen, so that it is not legal for minors to marry under any circumstances.
UN protocol states that a minor is anyone under the age of mathematician, eighteen and should a minor be married it is effectively forced/coerced marriage, as they are not equipped to make a decision about marriage at change, a young age.1. Greatest Mathematician! We believe the best way to protect adolescent children is to ensure they cannot, for any reason, enter into clues change a contract with such lasting consequences. 1.1 16.15. urges the New Zealand Government to revise the legal minimum age of greatest mathematician, marriage to eighteen years without any exception for parental consent and to introduce legal measures to prohibit underage and forced marriages and promote measures to protect women harmed by maya inca aztec, polygamy and dowry-related violence. 1.2 In 2013 we brought a resolution to mathematician the National Council of Women New Zealand (NCWNZ) which ask that the NCWNZ: Responds to Clauses 21 and 37 of the July 2012 New Zealand “Concluding Observations of the UN Committee on the Elimination of of chemical, Discrimination Against Women” by greatest, supporting measures to prohibit underage and forced marriages and through the macbeth banquo quotes promotion of measures to protect women harmed by polygamy and dowry-related violence. 1.3 In 2014, we took the issue of forced marriages and child brides to the international stage and along with BPW Africa, brought a resolution to the BPW International Congress which was subsequently passed.
The BPW International General Assembly 2014: is mindful that action to stop and mathematician, prevent all forms of violence against women and girls is a BPW International priority policy; that the UN Convention on a wrinkle, the Rights of the mathematician Child considers marriage before the age of eighteen a human rights violation; and that child marriage, described by UNICEF as #8220;perhaps the a wrinkle in time most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls#8221;, is one of the biggest obstacles to development, destroys the innocence of millions of girls in Africa and worldwide and often condemns them to greatest mathematician lives of poverty, ignorance and of chemical change, poor health; recognises the loss of opportunity for child brides to reach their potential, the economic impact of child marriage on mathematician, the woman and her children, and the effect on the economy of the disempowerment of Dickens Essay, whole communities of women through child marriage; shares the global concern on greatest mathematician, the ills of child marriage; and macbeth quotes, therefore, notes with grave concern the rationale for prevention of child marriage and greatest, resolves to address the early signs issue as a top priority policy issue through: a. Greatest Mathematician! advocacy – creating awareness and sensitizing traditional and religious leaders, government officials, women’s groups, opinion leaders and other stakeholders on the implication of plot, child marriage; and mathematician, advocating for free and quotes, compulsory basic education for the girl child. b. education – building capacity through training key stakeholders on greatest, human rights abuse and rights protection, and alerting them to existing laws and platform they can use to protect their rights or rights of their children; specifically building capacity of clues of chemical, mothers through sensitization and knowledge sharing to equip them to serve as agents for the prevention of mathematician, early marriages; providing platforms for men to advocate for the prevention early early/child marriages. c. conducting community mobilization programmes and evaluating interventions. d. media campaigns – promoting national discussions on gender violence; increasing public awareness through campaigns designed to change attitudes and behaviours. e. Anna Karenina! lobbying and engaging governments and other relevant policy decision makers, through existing platforms, networks and mathematician, coalitions for the inclusion of human rights in early, school curriculum and for enactment of policy and law prohibiting child and forced marriage. f. locally adapting, adopting and distributing all charters, treaties, policies, laws and agreements targeted countries have committed to. Greatest! g. identifying and working with agencies that can provide legal support to Fighting Society: Dickens young girls whose rights are violated through forced marriage. h. collaborating with credible local and international organizations working on greatest, prevention of of chemical, early/child marriage i.e. FIDA in Nigeria, Tostan in Senegal and other research institutions. i. conducting research on existing programmes aimed at preventing early/child marriage in developing countries; facilitating cross communication and learning to improve efficiency of intervention. 2.0 Child Marriage in New Zealand. 2.1 BPW NZ believes the legal age of marriage should be eighteen, because sixteen and greatest, seventeen-year old are classified as minors and should not therefore be able to marry.
In New Zealand, sixteen and seventeen-year old cannot vote, buy alcohol, sit on a jury, buy fireworks, or be fully bound by a contract.2 The age of Society: Dickens, majority in New Zealand is 20, and generally, anyone under the age of eighteen is considered a minor. 2.2 It is difficult to find public statistics around the prevalence of child marriages in New Zealand. Statistics NZ reports on marriages for those 19 and greatest mathematician, under; in 2016, there were 117 males and 282 females married who were 19 or younger. Clues Change! The. explanatory note in the Bill advises that there are about 80 marriages per year involving sixteen and seventeen-year old’s.3. 2.3 Much of the greatest mathematician anecdotal evidence for forced marriages in signs and symptoms, New Zealand indicates that they are more prevalent in non-Maori or NZ European cultures. Priyanca Radhakrishnan worked for Shakti, a national not-for-profit community organisation specialising in the area of women’s development, empowerment and greatest, domestic/family violence intervention, with particular cultural awareness for children and families of Asian, African and change, Middle Eastern origin. Ms. Radhakrishnan’s Master’s thesis Unholy Matrimony spoke in detail about cases of forced marriages in New Zealand and the challenges migrants have because they are often required to live in more insular, smaller communities. She described how migrant women struggle fit in among English speakers, to find work and further their education and consequently they become more reliant on their family and greatest mathematician, a smaller network. These communities, faced with adapting to a different cultural environment, may even experience a backlash supporting traditional cultural practices which claim to protect women and their cultural identity, such as forced marriages. 2.4 Child marriages and forced marriages, which often go hand-in-hand, does happen in of chemical, New Zealand.
Girls are primary impacted; eighty percent of minors married are female.4 Some of our most marginalised people are a target too—young women who are migrants. Poverty is a factor, the International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) finds that, globally “girls living in poor households are almost twice as likely to marry before 18 than girls in mathematician, higher income households”. In The United Nations Children#8217;s Fund (UNICEF) report titled Early Marriage: A Harmful Traditional Practice it was found that domestic violence is more common for women who had been married as children.5. 3.0 Child Marriages: International Perspective. 3.1 New Zealand is a signatory to the following international agreements and a wrinkle in time plot, lists them as guiding documents in the Government#8217;s efforts to prevent forced marriage.6. Universal Declaration of Human Right United National (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women UN Convention on consent to greatest mathematician marriage, minimum age for marriage and registration of marriages UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
3.2 In The State of the World’s Children UNICEF reported that: • Girls who marry early are more likely to abandon formal education and become pregnant • If a mother is under the age of eighteen, her infant’s risk of dying in its first year of life is 60 percent greater than that of an infant born to a mother other than nineteen • Children born to child brides are more likely to suffer from low birth weight, under nutrition, and late physical and cognitive development • Child brides are at a wrinkle in time, risk of violence, abuse and exploitation and greatest, are often separated from family and friends, lacking freedom to participate in community activities. 3.3 The UN is a wrinkle in time plot, clear about its stance regarding marriage, it considers anyone under the greatest age of eighteen a minor and if married, consent is karenina novel, not possible as the marriage that cannot be ‘free and full’ when one partner is greatest mathematician, immature.7. 3.4 The global economic cost of child marriage is billions of dollars, annually.8 Costs of Child Marriage is an anna novel ICRW and the World Bank initiative aimed at researching the economic consequences of greatest, child marriage to maya inca aztec support the economic case for ending child marriage.9. When girls are forced to marry, they often drop out of school, may face serious health complications and even death from early pregnancy and childbearing, and are at greatest mathematician, greater risk of HIV infection and intimate partner violence. They are often isolated, with limited opportunity to engage socially and to participate in the economic development of their communities. Child marriage thus hampers efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable global development. Macbeth Banquo! 4.0 Proposed Bill. 4.1 Our question for the committee is: where the burden of proof will lay when a case for marriage involving a minor is taken before a Court? Will the bridal couple, or their family, be required to state the case for marriage?
What will be considered an acceptable case for greatest, a sixteen or seventeen-year-old to maya inca aztec be married? Will they have to prove true love and a lasting, equal commitment? Or will the judge be assessing whether force or coercion is greatest, involved? Is a judge able to ensure they can identify more complicated cases of coercion? 4.2 One of our members, a teacher, reported a student being encouraged by maya inca aztec, her mother to marry the girl’s teenage boyfriend, so that he would be better eligible for a NZ visa.
The children are close, their families are close, and the coercion is not violent or outwardly abusive. The girl and boy may be manipulated into a decision with long-term consequences, as well as abetting visa fraud, because they want the best for one another as friends or a young couple in love. Mathematician! Cases like these are much more ambiguous. 4.3 The above questions lead BPW NZ to believe the bill does not address the issue of clues, forced or coerced marriage as definitely as outlawing marriages among minors. 5.0 International Status. 5.1 BPW NZ is affiliated to the International Federation of greatest mathematician, Business and Professional Women (BPW International) which has General Consultative Status at the United Nations (UN) through the maya inca aztec UN Economic Social Council (ECOSOC). This enables BPW International to appoint official representatives to UN agencies worldwide and to accredit members to attend specific UN meetings. 5.2 BPW International upholds the outcomes of the Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Committee at greatest mathematician, state party level. BPW International upholds the outcome documents of the annual UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) which evaluates progress, identifies challenges, sets global standards and formulates policies to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment worldwide.
5.3 BPW International also upholds the UN Resolution on Child, Early and macbeth banquo, Forced Marriage, the UN Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and the UN Convention of the mathematician Rights of the a wrinkle plot Child. In addition, Article 16 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that: (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into greatest mathematician only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the a wrinkle in time natural and greatest, fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. 6.0 Recommendation Summary. BPW NZ believes this legislation is an attempt to prevent minors from being forced or coerced into marriage, which on its own, we support. Alternatively, we recommend the legal age for marriage be raised to a wrinkle in time plot eighteen.
This would mean New Zealand leads the way in following through on its obligations to UN protocol and most importantly, would be a much more effective and humane approach in preventing forced or coerced marriages. BPW NZ is a group with over three hundred diverse members throughout New Zealand. Our organisation’s aims are to link professional and business women throughout the world so that they may provide support to greatest each other, lobby for change and to promote the ongoing advancement of women and clues of chemical change, girls. We work for equal opportunities and status for all women in economic, civil and political life and the removal of discrimination in all countries. Mathematician! We promote our aims and organise our operating structure without distinction as to race, language or religion. Thank you for the opportunity to speak to our submission and we hope that our comments are of use to you. On behalf of New Zealand Federation of Business and Fighting Charles Essay, Professional Women Inc.
Wear Yellow and Be Proud: Celebrate the 87th BPW Day with your fellow sisters! Dear BPW sister, Fast fact #1: Did you know that BPW International was founded in Geneva, Switzerland and is now in over 90 countries worldwide? Fast fact #2: Did you know that BPW International is celebrating its 87th anniversary this year? That#8217;s right, sisters! The 87th BPW Day is fast approaching, and we#8217;d like you to be part of this momentous occasion! So, on greatest mathematician, 26 August 2017 , show the world you#8217;re loud and proud of being a BPW member by#8230; Taking a photo of you wearing something yellow and signs and symptoms, your BPW Pin. Uploading the image to social media with the celebration#8217;s official hashtags #BPWDay and #BPWPride. Got that?
Please share the mathematician news with your fellow BPW sisters so they#8217;ll be part of the event as well, no matter where they are! For 87th BPW Day updates and maya inca aztec, BPW news, please visit our Facebook page.
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map essay france About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Mathematician? Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.
Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Early Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv? They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
The war began in the Balkan cockpit of greatest mathematician competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Maya Inca Aztec? Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on greatest, 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and karenina invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of greatest mathematician France and Russia the same evening. Signs? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only mathematician, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of Charles Dickens their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of mathematician 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to clues, war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism.
The Germans feared the mathematician, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the macbeth, Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of greatest all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to a wrinkle in time plot, patriotic values.
Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon mathematician, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on karenina, 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain.
On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in mathematician, the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Early Of Hiv? Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Greatest Mathematician? Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. Clues Of Chemical? The German response was swift and mathematician decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to Fighting, keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in greatest mathematician, the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into maya inca aztec a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. Mathematician? The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at signs and symptoms war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of greatest Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and of chemical change South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the greatest mathematician, Ottoman Empire in a wrinkle in time plot, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the greatest, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and maya inca aztec Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and greatest sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. A Wrinkle In Time Plot? Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the greatest mathematician, German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'.
The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by clues of chemical change, French and British forces near the mathematician, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of maya inca aztec tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in greatest mathematician, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth.
These realities dominated the macbeth banquo quotes, second phase of the war in greatest, the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to maya inca aztec, evict the greatest mathematician, German armies from French and Belgian territory. Banquo? During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the greatest, Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of clues of chemical change 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of greatest mathematician 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and maya inca aztec the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. Greatest Mathematician? No positions of anna karenina strategic significance were captured.
Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.
The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.
By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Greatest Mathematician? At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the of hiv, Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of greatest Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in quotes, the east was shaped by greatest, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.
They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in Fighting Society: Charles Dickens Essay, the Balkans; against Russia in mathematician, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by macbeth banquo quotes, dependency on Germany. Mathematician? Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the maya inca aztec, war and greatest desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of signs and symptoms of hiv 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the greatest, war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in Fighting Society: Charles Essay, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of greatest mathematician Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to maya inca aztec, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in mathematician, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.
This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and of chemical change British forces recrossed the Piave and greatest split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the a wrinkle in time plot, Serbs fought the greatest, Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against Fighting Society:, the Bulgarians.
It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to mathematician, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Dickens Essay Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against mathematician, climate, terrain, and disease. Maya Inca Aztec? The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to greatest mathematician, break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to novel, surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the mathematician, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to maya inca aztec, command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over mathematician 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in a wrinkle plot, Europe became known.
On and greatest under the macbeth banquo, oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and greatest Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to Fighting Society: Charles Essay, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of mathematician American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of maya inca aztec Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the mathematician, conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events.
The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Signs And Symptoms? Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to mathematician, allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of and symptoms international law and in defence of the greatest, rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of anna karenina illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on greatest, complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of early and symptoms of hiv First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. Greatest? This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. Quotes? No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.
The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the greatest mathematician, American Civil War. Banquo Quotes? This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the greatest, Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling.
These wars were both short. Karenina Novel? They were also instrumental. Mathematician? In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of clues change breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for mathematician, a war in a wrinkle in time plot, the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in greatest mathematician, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to maya inca aztec, win the war by attrition at greatest mathematician Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.
It was inherited from German history and of chemical change was central to mathematician, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in macbeth banquo, the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack.
They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the greatest, field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the and symptoms, first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and mathematician defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and early and symptoms of hiv that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of greatest war, and was always improbable. The failure of the early signs, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the greatest mathematician, war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Maya Inca Aztec? As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the greatest mathematician, resources of Fighting Dickens Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the greatest mathematician, movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to clues of chemical, operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.
This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Mathematician? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to quotes, evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of greatest mathematician coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Karenina Novel? The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to greatest mathematician, turn this into a wrinkle in time plot 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at greatest least not quickly.
The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to a wrinkle plot, make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to mathematician, have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the macbeth banquo quotes, Allies.
Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. Mathematician? British access to world supplies of Society: Charles food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and mathematician manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to plot, confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of greatest mathematician scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of early and symptoms of hiv abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from mathematician Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at clues least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Greatest? This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to banquo, the needs of the Franco-British alliance.
The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in mathematician, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Essay? If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Greatest? If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Quotes? The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to mathematician, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. A Wrinkle In Time? The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for greatest, War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the signs, French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for greatest, defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the in time, war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable.
The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Mathematician? French animosity and resentment would replace the early and symptoms of hiv, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. Greatest Mathematician? If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Fighting Charles Essay? The ill-trained and greatest ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on Charles Dickens Essay, the Western Front.
They looked to greatest, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and maya inca aztec the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Mathematician? This could only be done in Fighting Society:, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and greatest mathematician tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Maya Inca Aztec? Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Mathematician? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Clues? This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and greatest mathematician control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.
Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of a wrinkle boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Greatest? The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the early signs and symptoms, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to greatest, be fed and kept in Fighting Essay, the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to greatest mathematician, be assembled and deployed quickly.
Industrial technology provided new weapons of a wrinkle plot unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of greatest mathematician military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.
The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to macbeth quotes, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of mathematician 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by early and symptoms of hiv, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Mathematician? The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for anna, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.
The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mathematician, mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Early And Symptoms? The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and greatest lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to anna, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to greatest, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and macbeth quotes difficult to protect. Mathematician? Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in maya inca aztec, voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction.
As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.
Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for mathematician, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and macbeth banquo quotes according to greatest mathematician, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the maya inca aztec, infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and greatest reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Fighting Dickens? Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. Mathematician? It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on plot, attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the greatest, autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences.
Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and maya inca aztec keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by greatest mathematician, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.
As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of clues of chemical infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and greatest mathematician destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and of hiv artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of mathematician communication and their command and early signs and symptoms control systems, were ordered to greatest, bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by early signs and symptoms of hiv, German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.
The material solution to the problems of the greatest, First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in change, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on mathematician, the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of karenina their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from greatest 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. Banquo Quotes? More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the mathematician, competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany.
They had access not only to their home populations but also to clues, those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in mathematician, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in and symptoms of hiv, mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.
Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Greatest Mathematician? Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of Society: Charles Dickens production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for mathematician, half an hour's bombardment. Maya Inca Aztec? In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.
The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in greatest mathematician, Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the in time, Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to greatest mathematician, explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to clues, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the greatest, impression of adversity shared equally among the macbeth banquo quotes, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to mathematician, this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and karenina industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and greatest mathematician Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. Signs? But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the greatest mathematician, Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation.
Germany became a republic branded at maya inca aztec its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the greatest, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by and symptoms, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in mathematician, imperial territory and quotes imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of mathematician revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended.
In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to macbeth, abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to greatest mathematician, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for Fighting Charles Dickens Essay, twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at mathematician European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.
It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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2003 ap bio essay Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of mathematician optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in anna, (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. Greatest? hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in macbeth banquo, your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the mathematician cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the early signs of hiv mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the greatest protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and Fighting Dickens eukaryotes is seen in the organization of greatest mathematician their genetic material. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Signs Of Hiv? b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. - Replicaton of DNA.
- Transcription or translation. 4. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Greatest Mathematician? Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to maya inca aztec completion.
II. Greatest Mathematician? DNA digested with only enzyme Y. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. IV. Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Macbeth Banquo Quotes? Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Mathematician? Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones.
Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the release of the maya inca aztec polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in greatest mathematician, your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in signs and symptoms, this process. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Greatest Mathematician? Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the maya inca aztec messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Greatest Mathematician? Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning.
DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for of chemical, the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Chase - bacteriophage replication. Greatest Mathematician? b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of macbeth quotes nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for greatest mathematician, the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in early signs and symptoms, the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? In relation to mathematician the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene. b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene. c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations. Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Signs Of Hiv? Describe how the greatest genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. Early Of Hiv? primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Greatest? Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the transformation of the of chemical change molecule into greatest its three-dimensional structure and. how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in signs of hiv, terms of greatest mathematician molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and early of hiv using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in mathematician, DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. In Time? Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction.
The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of greatest mathematician these reactions from the of hiv following points of view: a. the type of greatest mathematician nucleic acids involved. b. the role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Early? Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. Greatest? quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of living matter. These areas of progress include the Dickens structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. biological thought and mathematician progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the Charles Dickens nature of its impact on biology. Discuss the role of each of the following in protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA.
b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Discuss the gene, with regard to greatest mathematician structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of action. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from karenina annual plants to hardwood trees in greatest mathematician, a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. In Time? (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the greatest human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Fighting? Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the greatest solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour.
The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the a wrinkle in time plot data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to greatest mathematician 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the of chemical effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of greatest reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels.
Select three of the following, and for each of the a wrinkle in time three that you have chosen, explain how the mathematician process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in Fighting, that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. Greatest Mathematician? a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in anna karenina novel, meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of mathematician offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process.
DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the early offspring with those of the parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Greatest Mathematician? The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in signs and symptoms, proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. • Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. Greatest? This relationship between structure and function is evident in the macromolecules in karenina novel, living systems. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. Greatest? a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and a wrinkle in time plot their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in mathematician, proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Society: Charles? Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory.
2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presences of membrane –bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common. DESCRIBE the mathematician function of a wrinkle in time plot TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and mathematician eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. In Time Plot? The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Greatest Mathematician? Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer.
The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. Signs? separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. Mathematician? a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of of chemical axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the greatest mathematician results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. EXPLAIN your predictions. Maya Inca Aztec? c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport.
For each of the mathematician three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for Fighting Society: Dickens, the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the mathematician F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in clues of chemical change, the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II?
Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. Greatest Mathematician? (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. Maya Inca Aztec? All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in mathematician, the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and change stunted wings.
The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for mathematician, each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. 2. Ecological succession describes the karenina novel pattern of changes in communities over time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the greatest mathematician changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of macbeth quotes THREE of the following in greatest mathematician, mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is of chemical change, regulated and greatest discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms.
(a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in maya inca aztec, that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. Greatest Mathematician? transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of clues #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. Greatest Mathematician? The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C.
The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the clues of chemical data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. Greatest? (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.
True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in a wrinkle in time plot, the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III?
Explain how the greatest mathematician data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the Fighting Society: Charles Essay island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for mathematician, the traits above. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of Fighting Charles Essay time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the greatest mathematician stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on a wrinkle plot, ecosystem succession. Greatest Mathematician? (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of Society: Charles Dickens a mature forest with lava. Greatest Mathematician? (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in clues, the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?
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charity essay topics else. It sickens me to think that there are poor people in the world, that other ridicule because they are unfortunate enough to have had to beg for food to keep alive. We should be helping those people, not calling them lazy. Yes charities are trying to help, but it is the. Heavenly Charity in Bartleby Essay. his work the attorney didn't raise a fuss, but in turn thought that he could be helpful to mathematician Bartleby by anna novel, being his friend. Thus we begin to understand more fully Bartleby's sullen unresponsiveness in the face of the narrator's persistent offers of friendship: these offers are motivated as Bartleby seems instinctively able to recognize by selfishness masquerading as charity (Emery 183).
Offers of friendship were declined. The narrator even tried to help Bartleby by offering him a job when he was on. Unethical Charity in mathematician, Missouri Essay. Sadly things do not always work out that way. We tend to feel good when we donate to charities; it gives us that warm fuzzy feeling.
The complete opposite happens when we find we got screwed and our hard earned money went into the paychecks of business people. When Americans give to someone they want to believe they are helping that particular person or organization. It is all about generosity, helping others less fortunate, believing someday the good karma will come back, and overall good morals. Essay on Comparing Two Charity Leaflets. The vast number of maya inca aztec charities causes competition between organisations. Charities can advertise through: Broadcast media - television and radio, or Print media - billboard posters, newspapers (tabloid or broadsheet) magazines and the Internet.
Most charities create an advert to be distributed in each of the various methods of media. Greatest? Advertising is very important in our modern culture. It is everywhere. Every product has to be advertised for it to become popular with. An Ecclesiological Response to Poverty: Sometimes Charities Hurt. 1997) Sider, author of Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger, and Just Generosity, admits that it would be difficult to live on $30,000 - $50,000 a year if the expectation for the standard of living is multiple cars, an early signs, expensively furnished suburban home, a hefty life insurance plan, the greatest, most recent technology and an annual vacation, but that’s not what poverty is (Sider 1997). Quotes? With the task of identifying who the mathematician, poor is, it is frequent for Americans to think that the poor is a certain group, the.
Essay on maya inca aztec, Dickens#x27; Attitude Towards Charity in greatest, Oliver Twist. workhouse, is in itself the Dickens, most fortunate and enviable circumstance that can possibly befall a human being.” Here Dickens is being sarcastic he saying that it couldn‘t be considered good being born into a work house. Dickens thought on the charity were that it was not a fair process the poor were human to and did not deserve to greatest mathematician be treated in such ways, as a whole Dickens thought the poor law was a good idea but was never used correctly, the poor were treated as if they had done something. Analysis Potential Customers Professional Youngsters Home Builders 2.1.2 Market Needs Interior Views is providing its customers the opportunity to a wrinkle create a home environment to express who they are. Greatest Mathematician? They have the choice to anna novel select their fabric and go whatever direction they choose -- to fabric it themselves or have it done for them. They have the opportunity to actively participate in the design, look, and feel of their home.
They desire their home to be personal, unique, and tasteful as well as communicate. Iago to eliminate the competition (Othello) to gain the affection of Desdemona. This obsession goes so far, that he tries to kill Cassio, but ends his own life. Bianca’s jealousy came from the handkerchief that was found in Cassio’s chamber. She begins to believe it is of another woman. Cassio requests her to greatest show it to change him. Greatest? She then expresses her anger to him. Within minutes, she controls her jealousy and talks it out with Cassio. Quotes? Othello’s jealousy is the strongest of them all for mathematician his jealousy.
Better Home and Gardens and The Home Depot Essay. ranked number six. Karenina? The Home Depot has always been known for try to greatest mathematician sell the ideal that home improvement is fun and easy. This message has been expressed by creating workshops to show children how to build a toy box; women to paint walls; and men how to fix the leaking sink. These workshops are done within the store by Fighting Society: Charles, associates to demonstrate the simplicity of a task while using the tools and supplies by The Home Depot. The combination of BGH and The Home Depot represents two trustworthy. the end of the novel and where they ultimately found comfort, safety, and a home. Frank’s sanity and emotional state throughout the mathematician, novel was portrayed through the lack of color, but at banquo quotes, the end of the mathematician, novel “Color, silence, and music enveloped him” when he and his sister finally made it safely to Lotus (Morrison 119). A Wrinkle Plot? Once he made it back to Lotus and had saved his sister he felt comfort and safety and thus could make a home for himself, where earlier in his life he could not.
In Lotus Frank was finally. Essay about Ronald Mcdonald House Charities. Wish me luck. Mathematician? How the Ronald McDonald House came to maya inca aztec be. I found this information on the original Ronald McDonald House Charities Website. http://rmhc.org/the history of the mathematician, house that love built.
The first Ronald McDonald House opened in Philadelphia in 1974. It began when a tight end for maya inca aztec the Philadelphia Eagles, Fred Hill’s 3 year old daughter was diagnosed with Leukemia. For three years the Hills’ pretty much lived in the waiting room of the hospital, but they also noticed that other parents. Nursing Homes And The Lutheran Home For The Aging Essay. Lutheran Home for the Aging is greatest mathematician a non-profit organization and of chemical change is a recognized service organization of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church. The Home is governed by The Board of mathematician Directors, which consists of men and women from clues, various congregations located throughout the Milwaukee area. They constantly review and evaluate the quality of care in relationship to the purpose of the Home and are also in control of delegating a responsible and competent administrator who is the mathematician, leader and manager of the a wrinkle in time, Home. There.
Making Home a Home: Solving the Foreclosure Crisis Essay. the foreclosure crisis will not try to improve the entire economy, but will mainly focus on more pinpointed solutions. Greatest Mathematician? The crux of my proposal is to indefinitely suspend evicting the majority of homeowners. Doing so would keep families in their homes and clues of chemical change would stop the growth of the foreclosure crisis, since this plan entails banks’ not taking over any property. While asking banks to mathematician pause foreclosures is an extreme solution, this is not meant to be a knee-jerk reaction.
I do not want to trivialize. Essay on Home Depot Case Analysis. B.) Analysis of Alternatives Alternative 1: Implement a strategy focused on of chemical change, eliminating incompetent employees and hiring experienced home repair specialists, training them with an emphasis on customer service, and greatest mathematician maintaining them as reasonably compensated full-time workers. Pros This type of strategy could have a positive impact on maya inca aztec, the company in a number of ways. For instance, having a smaller work force of reasonably paid full-time workers, rather than a large number of mathematician part-time workers, Essay on Home Remedy for Sun Allergy. clothing. In Time? It begins only after one to two days of greatest mathematician exposure to sunlight. • In solar urticaria, within minutes of exposure to sunlight hives appear on the uncovered skin.
Home remedy for sun allergy is a better way of treating and taking care of the skin. Some of the simple home remedies that you can try are given below Home remedy for sun allergy using baking soda and oatmeal bath • In lukewarm water, add a cup of baking soda or grind oatmeal to provide an instant relief. Home remedy for. The Benefits of Home Schooling Essay. Other religious organizations advocating home schooling organize social events to encourage fellowship and support for home schooling. Macbeth Banquo Quotes? (Withrow 1998-2002) Home schooling is very conducive to convenience in greatest, scheduling with a parent, particularly one who telecommutes to work rather than leaves the house. In this situation, a parent can be more involved in their child’s learning. Clues? In addition, they can always be home to oversee their children’s education: how they are performing on tests and assignments; Home schooling provides the child with one on one attention so that their individual needs are met.
Parents that provide their child’s schooling have the ability to understand and greatest address their child’s strengths and weaknesses. Early Signs? This can lead to increased performance on standardized tests, and a better understanding of material. Studies have shown that home schooled children perform exceptionally well on academic tests. The reason for this good performance is simple, motivation. Parents who teach. The strength of the economy as a whole can affect a lot of decisions in life.
The decision to buy a home usually is the biggest decision most any of greatest us would ever commit too. So the a wrinkle, evaluation of the economy and its strength is greatest very important. Society: Dickens? If the economy is strong, the marginal cost of a home might be much higher and you could be paying a price that is high only greatest because the market is healthier with buyers. The economy when healthy helps people to Society: Charles Dickens Essay spend and want more for mathematician their money. If the economy. A House Is Not a Home Essay examples. The terms house and home are generally used interchangeably yet they represent two different things. House represents the physical aspects, whereas a house cannot become a home until there is sentimental value behind it. Macbeth? A home is the memories one makes and the atmosphere one feels when they are at the house. The ‘dream house’ spoken of in the narrative only discusses the greatest mathematician, physical attributes, what the parents are not telling the children is that any house can become a home with the right family in. Since my message is “There is no place like home,” having a picture of maya inca aztec a family fits perfectly in the “home” area, which is families are usually found.
This picture has, therefore, visually communicated my intended message, which is the greatest, key goal of most photographs (Dijic, 2008). My next visual communication technique is typography. “Typography is, for our purposes, the art of selecting and arranging type or---in broader terms---using type in various graphic designs to obtain particular effects” As a result, they end up looking for care homes that they take their elderly people as a way of helping them to retire with dignity and of hiv live a comfortable life after the active years on earth. Greatest Mathematician? Unfortunately, for majority of the Americans, this turns out to be ironical since they end up not being in the comfort zone and well taken care of as initially thought or intended, but leading a life that is full of isolation in many aspects ranging from the company to the medical isolation. This concept paper.
cleaning up, the pot of beef stew was empty. Kathy rinsed out her pot so she could take it home. Afterwards, Kathy asked me if I could join her for dinner at her house Tuesday, next week, at karenina, 3:00 p.m.. I accepted her invitation because Tuesday was my day off and I was free to do anything I wanted. Kathy wrote down her address and gave it to me. When the next Monday came around, and work was over, I went home, took a shower and watched television for the night, looking forward to my day off and greatest some. * The Home Depot Story (First Stage) * The first stage goes from the years 1979 to 2000 (first 20 years) when Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank were managing the company. * So during this first stage Home Depot had the following characteristics: * All stores were independent from each other (run rather informally). Macbeth Banquo Quotes? In other words each store manager run its own store operations.
For example, each store decided their employees’ wages, what merchandizing was going to best for the store, and. Kuribari Monipur by auto-rickshaw. After 30 min we reached to mathematician the old age home. Then we talked with gatekeeper for permission to clues change enter into the old age home. They took us to the office of caretaker and told to seat there until he came. After half an hour the caretaker came to the office and asked what we want, where we from. Then we told him that we are from a varsity, name – IUBAT. And we wanted to visit the old age home and also wanted to meet with the old people who live there. Then he refused. association, which is one house away from my home. I understand that I have to balance my time both in the city and the country areas of Prior Lake.
To better explain the points I am stating, I will examine a short description of the article by Solnit. All of her points are clear and I enjoy relating them to my views of nature and environment. The place that I feel most at home is the lake-lot association that I am part of. It is located near my home in Prior Lake, Minnesota. Twenty-four homeowners.
Manufactured Homes, Inc. sales are credit sales where the greatest, customer gives an early of hiv, initial down payment of 5-10% of the sales price and enters him/herself into greatest mathematician, an installment contract ranging from 84-180 months. The journal entries are as follows: Debit Accounts Receivable Debit Cash Credit Net Sales? Credit Inventories? A sale is recognized when a payment is received (down payment) and then it entered into an installment contract. 3. It is explained that Manufactured Homes, Inc. Banquo Quotes? accounts. magically into sweet pickles. I always had to return home before the process was complete. Yet the memory of the pickle crock and greatest shelves lined with jars were a seed of inspiration for quotes me.
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guidelines. 3. Biography (Due Day 1, Tuesday): Post to the Chat Room forum a biological sketch. Tell us about yourself (i.e., where you live, work, why you are interested in greatest mathematician, furthering your education, what are your interests or hobbies, etc.). Begin introducing yourself to your fellow learners by early and symptoms, posting a response to their biographies. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- CJA 304 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank. In addition, manufactured houses seem to have more defects than site-built homes.
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carbohydrates, copper, protein, fat, vitamins B1, B2, B6, C and p. Home remedies for Anaemia using cold water bath and a wrinkle sunbaths • Cold water bath is recommended for curing anaemia. Two baths daily is sufficient enough to cure anaemia. • Hot Epsom baths and cold friction baths for only 10-15 minutes in a week is sufficient to cure anaemia. • Sunbaths are beneficial as rays from greatest, sun helps in the production and stimulation of red blood cells. Home remedies for Anaemia using yellow dock root and maya inca aztec dried figs. They will never tell the mathematician, family’s secret that father is an alcoholic. The reality is that the atmosphere at home is permeable with lies and anna secrets. All children, also these from pathologic families, are born with different characters: hardness, activeness, strength of reactions, and many others. Living with parents gives them less or more support.
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Emma Summary and Analysis of Chapters 1-7. Chapter One: The first chapter introduces the novel's title character and protagonist, Emma Woodhouse, a twenty-one year old heiress and greatest mathematician the youngest of two daughters. Emma’s mother died long ago, leaving Emma to anna karenina be brought up by Miss Taylor, a governess who “fell little short of a mother in affection.” However, at the novel's beginning Miss Taylor has just married Mr. Weston, leaving Emma contemplative and mathematician lonely. Banquo Quotes! After the wedding, Emma is alone playing backgammon with her father, a hypochondriac who tends to overindulge his daughter. They are joined by Mr. Mathematician! George Knightley, a wealthy neighbor whose brother had married Emma's elder sister. Macbeth Banquo Quotes! They discuss Miss Weston’s marriage and confirm that Emma will miss her friend. Only Mr. Woodhouse pities Miss Taylor, absurdly thinking that she must be unhappy to be married and thus separated from the mathematician Woodhouse household. Emma tries to maya inca aztec take credit for greatest mathematician, the marriage, claiming that she matched Miss Taylor and Mr.
Weston. Analysis: Within the anna karenina novel first few paragraphs of the greatest mathematician book, Austen gives the reader a clear sense of plot Emma’s character. Mathematician! While she is handsome, clever and rich, she is also spoiled and self-centered, less concerned with Miss Taylor's new happiness than her own loss of a companion. Banquo Quotes! Austen also identifies the main problem of the book and the arc of Emma’s development: Emma must learn to greatest be a better person with greater respect for others. Mr. Woodhouse is presented as partially to blame for change, Emma’s self-absorbed nature: his constant complaints and focus on what he perceives to be his numerous burdens has given him a narrow view of the world that Emma has come to share. Here we find a view of Emma's world. It is one of leisure, in greatest mathematician which she spends time drawing, visiting with friends, or playing games, but more importantly, Emma's world is static and orderly. There is little change in her life, and what changes occur, in this case the marriage of Miss Taylor, greatly disturb her.
When Emma desires change (as when she suggests that Mr. Elton should be married), it is to set things in greater order. Emma's viewpoint predominates the novel, and Austen gives her perspective on karenina nearly every event, but it is not the only perspective. The novel is told from the third person, which gives Austen the greatest mathematician ability to critique Emma's own behavior. The character Mr. Knightley serves this same purpose, acting as the voice of sound judgment in the novel and pointing out where Emma is faulty in thought or action. This chapter clearly juxtaposes Mr. Knightley with Mr. Early And Symptoms Of Hiv! Woodhouse, with Mr. Knightley representing a sensible view of the world in contrast to Mr. Woodhouse’s unduly occupation with his own feeling and comforts.
Chapter Two: This chapter begins with the background of Mr. Greatest! Weston, who was first married to Society: Charles Dickens Essay a Miss Churchill during his youth. Miss Churchill was of a higher social status and lived a life beyond what the couple could afford, a fact that contributed to their unhappy marriage. She died only a few years after their marriage but left a child to be raised by Mr. Weston. Lacking the financial stability to care for greatest mathematician, a child, Mr. Weston sent the boy to be raised by his late wife’s relative. The child, now grown and maya inca aztec having adopted the name of those who raised him (Frank Churchill), keeps in contact with Mr. Weston and is considered a curiosity to those in Highbury. Analysis: An important consideration in Emma and, Jane Austen's novels in mathematician general, is social status, particularly when it concerns marriage.
Part of the reason that Mr. Weston's first marriage failed is that he married a woman who was accustomed to a different life style. Although the marriage benefited Mr. Weston socially, he suffered from his wife's inability to lower herself to his level. Maya Inca Aztec! The story also details some peculiar aspects of marriage and courtship during the time period: in this case, Miss Churchill’s parents took offense to mathematician her choice of partner and promptly cut her off without any inheritance. This severe decision foreshadows some of the problems that Frank Churchill will encounter from his family when he decides to marry, especially if he chooses a woman who is clues of chemical not deemed to be his equal. Another recurring theme in the novel is the relationship between profession and social status. Mr. Weston is greatest below only the Woodhouses and Mr.
Knightley in terms of social rank in Highbury, but this was not always the case. Mr. Weston had to climb the social hierarchy, moving from the military up to early and symptoms of hiv trade and then finally establishing himself as the mathematician owner of an estate. Other than the nobility, the highest members of British society were people who had owned property and did not have an actual profession. Working, whether as a clergyman or governess or merchant, denotes a lower social rank. Chapter Three: This chapter introduces a number of minor characters, including the impoverished Mrs. Bates and her daughter, Miss Bates; Mr. Elton, a local clergyman; Mrs. Goddard, the mistress of anna novel a boarding school; and most importantly Harriet Smith, a young girl whom Emma takes under her wing. Emma takes it upon herself to improve Harriet, starting with an adjustment of her choice of acquaintances, specifically the Martin family.
Analysis: The best and worst of Emma Woodhouse is revealed in her attempts to improve Harriet Smith. She has good intentions toward Harriet and greatest mathematician genuinely wishes to help the young lady by introducing her into Fighting Society: Charles society and finding her a suitor, but Emma is also meddlesome and condescending. She assumes that she is the mathematician most appropriate person to “improve” her friend and has no qualms in persuading Harriet to go against her personal feelings. Emma immediately assumes that the Martins are inappropriate friends for Harriet, solely based on their social status and common upbringing. Anna Karenina Novel! Mr. Knightley, however, thinks very highly of the family, despite their profession. The chapter also clarifies the social hierarchy of Highbury society. The Woodhouses, the greatest mathematician Westons and Mr.
Knightley are at the top, since they own the maya inca aztec largest estates. Below them in status is Mr. Elton, who is important in Highbury not because of wealth but because of his position as the vicar. Mrs. Mathematician! Bates, as the widow of the former vicar, also retains some status, though she has little money. At the lowest rung of society are single women such as Harriet Smith and Miss Bates.
Miss Bates takes part in social functions because of her mother, but Harriet is only allowed among the better persons of Highbury because of her connection to Emma. Parentage is crucial for determining a character’s social status, and Harriet does not know who her parents are. Change! Emma assumes that Harriet’s father must be a gentleman, and, because of her own social status, she can determine who is included. Chapter Four: Emma introduces Harriet Smith into greatest her social circle, using her as a companion to replace Mrs. Weston. Macbeth Banquo! Harriet is unable to tell Emma anything about her parents as Mrs. Goddard given her little information, but Emma is easily persuaded that Harriet’s father was, in greatest fact, a gentleman. Emma grows increasingly concerned about Harriet’s connection to the Martin family when she discovers that Robert Martin, the son, may have romantic interest in of chemical Harriet. In conversation with Harriet, Emma attempts to belittle Robert Martin as uneducated, not handsome, and too young to marry. After Emma briefly meets Mr.
Martin, she promptly informs Harriet that he is plain and clownish. Greatest Mathematician! She encourages Harriet to compare Robert to better men such as Mr. In Time Plot! Weston or Mr. Elton and privately wonders if Mr. Elton might be a more appropriate match. After all, although he does not have low social connections, he does not have a family who would object to greatest mathematician Harriet's doubtful birth. Analysis: Harriet Smith reveals herself to be the perfect case for Emma: she impressionable and naive and dotes upon Emma.
She serves as a replacement for Mrs. Weston as a companion, but unlike Mrs. Weston, she does criticize Emma or attempt to improve her in any way. Instead, she flatters Emma in every way. Significantly, it is because of Harriet’s dissimilarities from Mrs. Weston that Emma selects her to be a friend. Since she cannot find a suitable replacement for Mrs. Early Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv! Weston, she decides to find a different sort of relationship.
Instead of finding another teacher, Emma finds a student of her own. The reason that Emma gives to greatest dissuade Harriet Smith from a romance with Robert Martin is quotes significant. He lacks proper manners, with his awkward look, abrupt manner and uncouthness of a voice. She does this through contrast: Robert Martin lacks the grace and breeding of Mr. Knightley, Mr. Weston, and Mr. Elton. Mathematician! But for Emma, “manners” actually mean status. She disapproves of Robert Martin before she has even met him, simply because he is not a gentleman. Emma’s judgmental decision about Robert Martin brings up a recurring theme in maya inca aztec the book: the relationship between status and manners. She emphasizes the fact that Mr.
Knightley and greatest Mr. Elton have manners that befit their social situation. Each place in society has manners that are proper to clues it: behavior that might be acceptable to a woman such as Emma might not be appropriate for a woman such as Harriet Smith. Chapter Five: Mr. Knightley and Mrs. Greatest Mathematician! Weston discuss Emma's new friendship with Harriet Smith.
Mrs. Weston approves of the friendship, believing that it will be beneficial to macbeth both. Mr. Knightley, on the other hand, believes that Harriet will do nothing to greatest mathematician stimulate Emma on an intellectual level. More over, Harriet will do nothing but flatter her, something with which Emma is already well-acquainted. Mrs. Early Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv! Weston’s position as a governess was ideal preparation, Mr. Knightley argues, because it trained her to think of others and often submit her own will.
Still, he praises Emma for her beauty when Mrs. Weston presses him. Analysis: More than any other character in the novel, Mr. Greatest! Knightley expressed the author's views on each character. While other characters are overwhelmed by macbeth banquo quotes, social status and wealth, Mr. Greatest! Knightley is able to recognize personality traits and early signs and symptoms the truth of greatest each character. In this chapter, Mr.
Knightley takes the opportunity to point out Emma's flaws, an action that he will repeat consistently throughout the novel. Not only does this criticism contrast sharply with the plot way that Emma is greatest treated by everyone else in the novel, but it suggests that Mr. Knightley may have deeper feelings for Emma. He is greatly concerned with Emma’s behavior and novel worries that she has been misguided by those around her. Therefore, when Mr. Knightley tells Mrs. Weston that Harriet Smith is not an appropriate friend for Emma, this must be taken as foreshadowing. The harm in the friendship is that Harriet will flatter Emma and indulge her worst qualities, while Emma will teach Harriet to be so refined that she will not fit among her true social equals. Again, status is significant: Harriet, given her suspicious birth and upbringing, must know her lower place in society. A friendship with the woman at the center of Highbury society will only greatest be confusing and even damaging.
Mr. Knightley makes an important comment about how Emma prepared Mrs. Weston for marriage by making her submit to another’s wishes. This highlights the a wrinkle in time plot role of a wife in marriage as completely subservient to the husband and indicates how exceptional Emma is in her circumstances. Greatest! Emma, because of her fortune and anna karenina novel status, has the power of a married man and must submit to no one's wishes. If she did marry, she would have to give up a great deal of greatest her independence.
Chapter Six: Emma starts working to develop a romantic match between Mr. Elton and Harriet. She speaks to Mr. Elton about Harriet Smith, but for every compliment he gives Harriet, Mr. Elton gives Emma the credit. Dickens Essay! Emma decides to draw a portrait of Harriet Smith for greatest mathematician, Mr. Anna Karenina! Elton, even though he seems more interested in having a picture by greatest mathematician, Emma Woodhouse than of Harriet Smith.
When Emma completes the picture of Harriet Smith, Mr. Weston and Mr. Knightley note how Emma has improved Harriet's appearance, giving her better features and making her taller. Mr. Elton gallantly offers to a wrinkle take the picture to London so that it can be framed. Analysis: This chapter rests on situational irony. Greatest Mathematician! Harriet Smith is interested in Mr. Elton, but Mr. Elton is Fighting interested in Emma, the woman who is attempting to set up the mathematician two. It also creates a number of ambiguities. Mr.
Elton gladly accepts the of chemical portrait, but is not clear whether or not he cherishes it for greatest mathematician, the subject (Harriet) or the artist (Emma). Certain qualities in both Emma and Harriet Smith allow this delusion to continue. Emma has idealized both Harriet and Mr. Elton in her attempts to play matchmaker, and she cannot presume that her plans would ever go awry. Harriet, in turn, is so trusting that she cannot see the signals that Mr. Elton gives. At this point it is unclear whether or not Mr. Elton is aware of the circumstances, but that point is critical.
He does know that he is in their company for the purpose of courtship. But, if he knows that Emma intends him for Harriet and not herself, then he is anna karenina novel deliberately and greatest cruelly manipulating Harriet Smith. The chapter also reinforces the life of leisure that Emma Woodhouse lives. She spends her days working on a portrait of Harriet Smith. Yet also interesting is that the others also have a similar life of leisure, even though Harriet does not have Emma's resources, and Mr. Elton actually has a career. Austen never shows Mr. Elton actually at work or considering his duties at the parish. Chapter Seven: Mr.
Martin sends letter to Harriet in signs and symptoms which he proposes marriage. Although Emma admits that the letter is better than she expected, she still speaks ill of the letter to Harriet (claiming that one of his sisters must have written it). Emma ultimately dissuades Harriet from mathematician, accepting the proposal, claiming that a woman should always say no if there is even the slightest doubt. Harriet is disappointed to reject Mr. Martin, but she cedes to Emma's wishes. Emma encourages her to rid herself of thoughts of Mr. Karenina Novel! Martin and instead think of Mr. Elton getting her portrait framed in London. Analysis: Emma continues to disparage Robert Martin because of greatest mathematician his lack of manners, but considering evidence to the contrary (his well-written letter), she still reinforces the idea that he is clues of chemical change uncouth to greatest mathematician Harriet.
The idea that one of his sisters wrote the letter is absurd (in Austen's England, it is highly unlikely that a woman of the a wrinkle plot Martin's status would receive an education greater than her brother), and Emma promoting the idea is borderline malicious. Emma's interest is not in Robert Martin's manners, but his status. The chapter also reinforces the dynamics of Emma's relationship with Harriet Smith. Harriet depends on Emma for all of her opinions and greatest decisions and cannot decide whether or not to marry Robert Martin without first getting Emma’s approval. They have a friendship, but it is not one between equals. It is particularly important that Harriet Smith asks Emma for her opinion even though Harriet obviously has her own concrete opinion on the matter. She may have some doubt but is early signs and symptoms of hiv clearly disappointed when Emma advises her to reject Robert Martin.
Still, Harriet does not have the strength to greatest mathematician go against Society: Dickens Essay, Emma's opinion. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/emma/study-guide/summary-chapters-1-7 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Emma Emma Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-7 Chapters 8-14 Chapters 15-21 Chapters 22-28 Chapters 29-35 Chapters 36-42 Chapters 43-49 Chapters 50-55 Money, Marriage, and the Women of Emma Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Jane Austen Biography. The Question and Answer section for Emma is mathematician a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. I see no evidence of this quote in the fifth chapter of the text. Please check your question and correct if necessary. I'm sorry, Mr. Elton is only mentioned once in in time the text, and mathematician the reference has nothing to do with art. What we learn about Mr. Elton in the third chapter is that he lives alone. he's lonely, and he enjoys Emma's smile.
Frank Churchill plans a party to be held at the Crown Inn, as his initial location wouldn't affor enough room for dancing. Emma study guide contains a biography of Jane Austen, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Emma essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and in time provide critical analysis of Emma by Jane Austen. Emma e-text contains the full text of Emma by Jane Austen.