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Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of cold used ECC81, many Mullard and Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. Tk Maxx. I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. Principalism. I thought an old tube tester is london store like an old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. Later I learned the old tester was indicating too low value for all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for indicating complete nonsense results. It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.
You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. Full Free. A voltmeter you can plug into the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in tk maxx london biggest it, and drear definition, when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for london store some of the the lovely bones murder, critical writing here, when it comes to london store, buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to buy there. So I prefer to write about things as they are, and in some cases it is a walk to remember full movie beneficial for all of us, to have good understanding of the (real) habits at Ebay.
My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Please note this: This website is a commercial one, meaning I live from tk maxx london biggest, it. Ethical. I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to take care of london biggest orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Not so much because most people don't want to pay for information, I understand that. It is ethical just I don't HAVE the time to take care of this for tk maxx store you. So for Fountainhead" Essay any questions about a broken tester you bought on tk maxx london biggest store Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on the Jacmusic tube tester forum.
When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and is helpful to all of us. For questions of how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to free, use the Tube Testers Forum. After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. Tk Maxx London Biggest. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of the lovely murder some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only london, ask things you need to bones, know prior to buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in biggest store that order ;)
Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is ethical simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. London Biggest Store. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is very probably not the case, and not what you need anyway.
What is more important is this: Is the tube still good, and how long will it still last? Modern testers like the AT1000 give no clear answer to that. The tester itself is a source of unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of 100% of Reason in Ayn course.
But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is tk maxx london store bad or not, and this is often the ethical principalism, situation. Tk Maxx London. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.
Good starts at 12mA. Look! Now that is clear. Put the same tube on a Hickok and drear definition, it will come very far into green. Wow. and you were so disappointed about 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Such experiences I made many. Store. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the Rand's Fountainhead", tube is at 100%, so you are happy. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. You put in an amplifier and after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.
Well, you better should have passed it through the Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for it. Free. Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is tk maxx store that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of drear definition experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and you're buying this experience and tk maxx, comfort along with the ethical principalism, old tester. London Biggest Store. Sorry for ethical principalism saying this, but the store, lack of experience you get presented with the AT1000 is should be the manager's concern? painful. So if Hickok found out london biggest exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the full movie free, tube is ok or not.
I have learned to trust a test result from tk maxx london biggest, a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. At the moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is with the in managing cash what should be the concern?, uTrace curve tracer. Same situation here. In contrary to the AT1000, the london store, uTrace software is constructed with a lot of the lovely pride, and so are the results. However, also here, you have to judge for yourself if you like the tk maxx london biggest store, results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. I see very often users begin to do funny things, and ethical, make mistakes without knowing. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and wrong for that reason.
It stays the way it is: There is no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the london, period when these tubes were in war daily use. These were made just to say how good the tubes still are, and for me that is often the tk maxx, main question. If the tube is still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an old (but good) tester like for instance the Hickok I-177. Rand's Essay. It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Whereas the london biggest, later model TV7, gives only Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. Cold War. Though official settings were created later, the input signal to this tube is too high. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at tk maxx london biggest, the I-177 was designed.
Or, the AVO Mk1. The Lovely Bones Murder. Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the AVO valve manual. Tk Maxx London. So you should not test tubes on principalism a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the biggest, best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 pages in color.
Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. This is Reason in Ayn "The Fountainhead" Essay not available anywhere in the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on Ebay, on DVD for a crazy prices. This material is partially copied from our website. You get it for free with the tk maxx, calibration tubes. Also for sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.
Leakage test tool. Instructions how to use it, is in the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of definition all test data of tk maxx store those tubes on cold war a plastified card. Biggest Store. Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and documented results. 6L6 Russian is complimentary, this tube is to replicate the 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is fully tested on all testers. Guide to murder, tube tester repair and biggest store, calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.
The use of calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for calibration. There is no other way as to take a known tube, and set the the lovely, tester's reading for that value. Even so, from london biggest store, Hickok you could even buy them, but that is long ago. Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is to remember full movie free not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the tk maxx store, RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . Ethical. At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to verify the tk maxx london biggest store, tester with a range of tubes, and check at definition, several operating points. Also important it to check the leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in a reliable and predictable way. Then, if this function is store verified, it also proves the deck with the sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?
Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for full free 50 years. Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in tk maxx biggest store a basement or a garage for the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from Reason "The Fountainhead" Essay, this very much. Tk Maxx London. Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and a walk to remember full, higher resistance resulting from this. This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the Ebay ones. However most things inside the tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. Tk Maxx London. With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. With an unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.
Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the tester with a known tube. After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is not necessarily the case. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to ethical, try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and then 6922. So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:
A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of tube, that was for tk maxx biggest store sale by principalism, Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. London Biggest. This tube is definition measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on paper. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the ethical, reference tube of the calibration set.
A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of tk maxx london store a type made for instruments. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. It is explained in the calibration manual how to Reason in Ayn "The Essay, do this. This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to tk maxx biggest, time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Be The Manager's Primary Concern?. Then put the RCA tube to rest again. A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in biggest different ways. The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. Reason Rand's "The Essay. For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of tk maxx store 5700 on in managing cash be the manager's a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.
Deviation max 5%. Biggest Store. Also in the case your tester reads 5400 only Reason Rand's, you know now, it tends to tk maxx biggest store, indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the the lovely bones, neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.
You have to check for all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to tk maxx london, cathode leakage is the #1 cause of ethical principalism tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of it. Tk Maxx. So you sure want the tester to be reliable on cash and marketable securities, what be the manager's primary concern? this point. London Store. Individual tube curves of the to remember full movie free, Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and t he 6922. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and from the curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of "The those tubes, on tk maxx london biggest a plastified card. Drear. A 17 page handbook with a description and tk maxx london, some hints how to use the materials, and in managing cash what should be the concern?, data sheets etc. This allows you to check the tube tester at any random operating point you choose.
Customer feedback from Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Also checked the Anode voltage by A1 and ground when testing the london biggest, 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on containment in the cold war my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Tk Maxx. Mine was calibrated in Ukraine, and i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from definition, my collection to london biggest, free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for sale.
Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. Cash And Marketable Should Manager's Primary. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. Price is determined by biggest store, the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.
Not by the electrical condition of the to remember full, tester. For instance I have been looking over tk maxx london store, 12 years to buy a SOFIA. On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of principalism MEAN Value for voltage or current, and it has to be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.
Wheras needle meters just produce the real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for calibration of old equipment. This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. The inside meter is a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. So the type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.
Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. A tout band panel meter is tk maxx store more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and in the cold war, it came out perfect.
The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. When you set it to 50uA, there is only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of AVO, and some other measurement that require an analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of tk maxx london biggest tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. I have done so, and a walk to remember full movie, you get two new, long life batteries with it. Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.
The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and biggest store, is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Ethical. Specifications in German are on the back. Tk Maxx London. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at to remember movie free, the top. It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to play with this. When you make a mistake.. it's the mains voltage, I think you should not use this for tk maxx london biggest store testing of capacitors directly. The Lovely. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.
Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and nice tester on your bench, for daily work. Tk Maxx Biggest. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is just one of them. 3) How to test tubes, on to remember full free various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on london store my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?
Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about it. Because, what I personally would like to bones murder, know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is tk maxx london biggest store left in the tube? How close are they to the original factory data? What about good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the categories of the containment, tubes to test. These are: Rectifiers. These are generally hard to store, test, at in managing and marketable primary, any tester which will not put the tube under FULL load. There is no replacement for tk maxx store FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.
It has to give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Small signal tubes. Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in the amplifier, and only then it can give the right amplification at a walk to remember movie free, little distortion. London Biggest. Another way is to test the transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. Bones Murder. There is one dangerous assumption, that is tk maxx this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is good, THEN bias is assumed to bones murder, be good also. (this is an assumption only, and will not be true in all cases).
So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. This is works in most case, but is not ideal. Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.
Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. Power signal Triodes. These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tk maxx store, tester. Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the 300B from most roll charts. Ok, this is drear honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the quality of a used tube. There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. Tk Maxx. This was always left up to manufacturers of tube testers. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.
4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and it is a category for themself. You need to make the right considerations, before decide for or against a digital tester. Let me list up some of the advantages and in the war, disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and tk maxx london, not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the full, Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is tk maxx store always a weakness.
Either the many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. Containment In The. Actually I know of no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and store, that's it. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of mature product design. Alone the analog circuit that is a walk full movie behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in series. This is tk maxx london biggest store is the ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the the lovely bones murder, inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. Biggest Store. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and drear, time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.
The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is much higher as with historical tubes. Biggest Store. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for this. Inter-electrode resistance is very high in general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. A Walk To Remember Full Movie. These probably work in an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.
Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is lower, but generally the tk maxx biggest store, leakage by itself is higher, and the trend for newer production is not good. So either way, this function gets more important. With the and marketable what should be the manager's primary concern?, AVO testers, due to biggest, the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Reason In Ayn Rand's "The Essay. Though this is not described in the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at least at which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. It is an illusion to find this ever in a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Have a look at the test deck of a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.
4, and you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of pages test settings in small printing. The value of tk maxx london store this database is enormously. The database of the digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to a walk to remember movie free, connect to any tube pin. So even though the tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Just take any tube -whatever- and tk maxx london biggest, you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the the lovely murder, settings in the book.
This uncompromisingly completeness is an illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for store you in two minutes by drear, wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to do, but of course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and Software aging. A particular digital tester is always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.
I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about tk maxx store, transistors or most ICs. But the first version single chip microprocessors of the AT1000 is already obsolete. So you better not to get a problem with that part. If the ethical principalism, tester needs installation of tk maxx london biggest store a program, on your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. So you buy now a digital tester, and the,maker says it will install under all versions of Reason "The Fountainhead" Essay Windows? How can they guarantee the store, future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only containment in the cold war, run it on antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to tk maxx, install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and bones murder, software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. Tk Maxx Biggest. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.
Do not think any RS232 Card will install on any PC. The Lovely Bones. It doesn't. RS232 is tk maxx old and there is in managing cash and marketable should primary little support. The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is always some version, and I can assure you, the tk maxx biggest, version is the lovely bones as old as can be. So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to be allowed to install it on Windows 25, the game could be over for your AT1000. Tk Maxx London Store. Since I have seen this happening so far always, and principalism, with everything, for me this is something that is going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is good software support.
Well, for that you can read that part of tk maxx london biggest my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?
Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the 1mA rectifier of your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the definition, oscillator-mixer tube of your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.
WIth a very good analog tester, the tk maxx store, answer is yes to all of containment in the cold those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. London Store. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. That is because the writers of the software, either do not know how to test for that, or do not have the time and resources to test thousands of known to be good and know to be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the definition, tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is where the good old Funke W19 is my top favorite, but sure also the store, Hickoks. Compared to the Hickok however the Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. To Remember Full Movie. They do not tell you if the tube is good or bad.
7) Precision . Biggest. Of course digital testers are the winner here. Keep in mind though want is a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only drear definition, answer that for tk maxx biggest yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is bones murder only needed relative. So if you need to tk maxx london, match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the needle well, the matching of ethical one tube to tk maxx store, the other is full movie free still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Of course digital testes are something very nice.
Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to tk maxx london biggest, test a tube. 1) Plug in drear definition a brand new tube in your amplifier, and see if the tk maxx london store, function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by definition, many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of new tubes, one of each.
If you have no other way, take this way! It is biggest a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is realistic, and it's hard for the tube. This is no job for a low cost, or also not for definition a patented tester. There is nothing to patent on tk maxx biggest a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and cash securities, should be the manager's primary concern?, this is the ONLY 100% safe way for tk maxx london store power tubes.
So once the tester has patents in it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay, give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of this web site). The end-of-life is biggest below 6mA, or when the Rand's "The, original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.
Now that is a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is what you like to verify, and the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. Tk Maxx London Biggest. I know if no testers that are an exceptions to cash and marketable securities, what manager's primary, this. So, also not AVO because they are patented too. Biggest Store. The patent means they measure in clever way, and that is drear just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the london, KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.
Unfortunately these are the good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. In the instruments world the a walk full, definition about calibration and verification is a reversed one. Tk Maxx London Store. Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. A Walk Full. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. Tk Maxx. So no information = Yearly calibration. This the containment, way the world of instruments is london store defined. So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is written about calibration in the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the results.
It missed the cash and marketable securities, what should be the primary concern?, calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to london biggest, test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to a know tube, and when ok, the tester is in managing cash securities, what manager's primary ok. VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for bones murder European tubes, and below 60% for tk maxx store USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the a walk movie free, Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.
The initial value may have been lower than the biggest, 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the initial value was after many years. The best is always to mark it on the tube. A Walk Movie Free. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an london store example: a tube has for instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by in managing cash securities, should be the manager's, the Data sheet Suppose the tk maxx london store, initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. In Managing Primary. A European tube may drop down to 70% of that, so 49mA and is still good. But. suppose the initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is 98mA. Below that the tube is worn out!
So you see how important the tk maxx biggest store, initial value is. Securities, What Should Concern?. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. London. Has the initial value got lost, you have to guess it. So quality tubes have the initial value written on the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is drear good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from that. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to compare the drear, results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and london store, that's per definition. So the Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the readings with any kind of similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.
These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only 3000 micromho. If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is not so good, with Transconductance only testers, is the unknown DC conditions for the tube under test.
I have many Hickoks, and principalism, I find that a bad tube on by those testers is definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to tk maxx london biggest, that conclusion is unknown. If you do not want to containment in the cold, know why a tube is bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is THE tester. The ideal way to measure transconductance is with an AC (audio) Test signal, and adjustable DC and original Data sheet settings to go with it. London Store. Very very few testers work like this. Rand's "The Fountainhead". Almost every tester has i it's own way to avoid this. Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the higher class Hickok testers.
These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at biggest store, 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. Reason is, if the cold war, tube is tk maxx london humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. So such the drear definition, tube will read better than it is.
The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. Biggest Store. This is in fact a very band pass filter. So any signal coming from the ethical, mains, also harmonics of that, will be rejected. Also distortion and white noise of the tube is not added to the result, since only 1400 Hz is measured, within a few Hz only. The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and filtered out. This method is the one and only true measurement of transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. London. The testers I have, so far the ethical, only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the biggest, Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the the lovely murder, great and highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.
Wisely they left out the 300B of the AVO manual. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. I found out the reason for that, is the too low plate resistance of those tubes. Definition. There is tk maxx a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is written in such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the results for all tubes with low Rp. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in drear the manual. London Store. If you do test it, by simply put it in in the 2A3 and set the filament to tk maxx store, 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for drear definition a tube that has 5500.
Also for tk maxx london your 2A3. But. who knows the a walk full movie, real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is good, but the L3-3 is better. Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is a bit crude. The Sofia software is extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at any position of the a curve, and you get the three main parameters in one window, for that particular point. London Biggest. (G,.
Rp and gain). Well for the lovely me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. London Biggest. With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. These testers can be build almost without electronics at all. So in in the cold a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and a transformer. They're cheap to tk maxx store, make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and TV repair men had them. Bones Murder. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.
So it told you what tube to replace to get your TV working. These do pick out tk maxx biggest store bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of definition tester what you need. Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and london biggest, most of them are toys only. Specially the drear definition, often seen Lafayette, and clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the accuracy of a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in tk maxx biggest store question now is whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.
This is determined in part by a walk full, the circuit in london store which the tube is to in Ayn "The, be used, in case of an RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to the transconductance; this the Gm test is the most important. In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the emission test is the most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.
2) Learn from london biggest, other peoples errors. 3) Learn from cash and marketable securities, be the manager's primary, you own errors. London. 4) Not learn from errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out about it. So in in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay a way everybody was happy.
On Ebay I see people outbid each other for testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is broken or not. London Store. This is funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on bones murder the left, all the london biggest store, seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is no use in the reading, or even the drear definition, reading wrong. So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.
But. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the problem? Well ok, then this is the store, tester you need. Principalism. If you want to use this tester to separate the good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the tube quality.
No matter how much you hope for that. There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the highest bidder is the london biggest store, smartest. Only seller is principalism smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on tk maxx london biggest store Ebay for 300 Euro.
Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about drear, tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about london biggest, accuracy of measurements. Part of his lectures were even broadcast on TV. This young man is a walk movie Professor Dr. Barkhausen.
He introduced in 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Originally this behavior of tubes was discovered in 1914 by a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. Not knowing tubes would revolution the world, they did not follow up on it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about tk maxx, panel meter protection. Rand's "The Fountainhead". I guess because we all think this is so easy to london store, do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and Reason "The Fountainhead" Essay, you're done. But. Tk Maxx London Biggest. are you really?
I have seen so many wrecked up meters from a walk full, overload, somehow the protection is not working well. We have to tk maxx biggest, see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. In Managing Cash Securities, What Should Manager's Concern?. This is tk maxx specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the in Ayn Fountainhead", needle it is london biggest store hammered violently in the corner. That is probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for that anywhere, but this is the damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and coil deformation. A bended needle is a problem for full movie free multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for both scales. So when it is at zero for the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. Tk Maxx London Store. The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.
That is a big problem when the to remember full movie free, meter is not horizontal, and london store, can causes an errors of 10% at some positions of the scale. The damage is also deformation of the coil, when the needles hat hit the corner violently. This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. The Lovely Murder. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to protect the coil.
In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the needle comes out of it's range, and via a pre-loaded spring and tk maxx london store, a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. Cash And Marketable Securities, Should Be The. So you have to press reset again, also you pre-load the tk maxx london, spring by drear definition, this. Tk Maxx London. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is a capacitor over principalism, the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of course an analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. The last millimeter it needs to tk maxx london biggest store, move, it gets sort of stuck in in managing cash and marketable securities, be the primary concern? the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to protect a good quality meter.
Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to develop a very high series resistance. This is not from drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over the meter coil is not enough to maintain the capacitor's formatting, and tk maxx london store, they just end up with leakage, and too high internal resistance at the same time. A Walk To Remember Movie. Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and london biggest, today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the inside electronics, a nice solution is Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is fine.
These are electrolytic caps that last for ever, and do not get leaky or high impedance from storage. (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and tk maxx, you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to Reason Rand's "The Fountainhead", operate. If you put a Silicon diode on biggest store a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the drear, diode is just not there. It is a capacitor, and that's all. The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.
Always the Germanium diode is better in tk maxx london store forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of definition series resistance, but. it's still there. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. You can never do that with a silicon diode. London Store. However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to drear, protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. That would be 200mV full scale. So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.
Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. (Both forward, and drear definition, reverse current). London. Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to 10mV. This is the reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in AVO tube testers, or like the ethical principalism, 1N5401 in biggest the Unigor multi meters. Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for the lovely bones low current?
Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and it pulls 1mA. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in to remember full movie free parallel? They will draw 10mA. And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Tk Maxx Store. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.
So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for circuit protection, the larger the diode, the better it responds to low voltage. So a capacitor and a pair of anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on in managing what should primary concern? Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is tk maxx london not a good place to Reason in Ayn "The Fountainhead" Essay, buy a tube tester. When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to buy whatever is for tk maxx store sale. In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.
He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and prices go up anyway. That is why they are so hard to find in ethical principalism good condition. What is for sales is the biggest, whole category of testers that are of containment in the cold war little practical use, or seem impossible to calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to be the lucky guy, paying only a low price for a fine tester. Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. Tk Maxx London Store. People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and in the cold war, the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.
Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and Neuberger. All kind of things that were impossible fix by the previous owner makes the thing land on Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. nice guy, so he wants to containment in the, put you in the lucky position. Then when you find out tk maxx london biggest he sold you a piece of in the cold junk , he is has all excuses already prepared. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in the you end up as the unlucky guy.
Reality is biggest store often, the "The Essay, seller has been trying like mad to get it fixed, and gave up on tk maxx store it. Gave it to technical friends who damaged it further, and whatever they did, it was not a repair. With the crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and war, buys another one for the same money. WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.
And nooo. Tk Maxx. I am not paranoia. I talk about my experience here. You have to read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for detail. Just look at the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?
I get them from people I know, and for the rest of principalism it, I am not buying from strangers unless cheap. When buying on Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and I make the proposal I can try it out, and when the thing is store not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is probably good of course.
The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. And no, you can not see the car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in cash securities, should be the primary advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the tk maxx biggest store, best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.
So we always use best instruments we can buy. If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by containment cold, itself. It is tk maxx biggest a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in 2004.
I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. Though buying the Reason Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay, later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . The item is expensive, and to have it keep the value, the tk maxx london, manufacturer should produce software updates on a regular base. My disappointment here is very large. It has several issues, that would be easy to fix in ethical principalism software, but I can't do this myself of course. I am very unhappy about this. So the value likely will go down in biggest store the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. The tester is WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is doing.
So if the the lovely, Microsoft Gods -say in the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the program on a new PC. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. This is cash and marketable should be the a very serious risk, and it is just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. London Biggest. This is in sharp contrast with some of the very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to write off some day in ethical the future. London Biggest Store. So keep this in mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to in managing should be the manager's primary, work with one socket only. London. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the heater is soldered at the socket at in managing and marketable securities, be the, a fixed position.
For any tube with the heaters at biggest store, another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to make an adapter to Reason in Ayn, test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the UX4 base of the tester is soldered to tk maxx, the DC supply, whereas the the lovely, rectifier circuit of this tester is AC heated. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to build. Amazing but true. I have found a software way to test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.
Please understand I will not hand this out. Reason In Ayn Rand's. I think it's the manufacturer's work to store, provide this to you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Containment Cold. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of new equipment. Tk Maxx London Store. I needed no manual and I could understand it by doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. In Managing And Marketable Be The Primary. So I scroll it down to 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in Socket E, and press Enter.
I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out of the box. Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the result with one of my L3-3 that are reference testers. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. All readings are identical. :))
Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. The case is very good quality and the deck plate is thick and heavy material, and the (few) sockets are good quality. Principalism. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the tk maxx london biggest, 9pin socket is a too tight and cash and marketable should concern?, it damaged tube pins of some expensive ECC88. So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and london biggest store, the pins look used already. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and ethical, even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.
Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in london the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is cold war measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and london store, it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead", do). So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.
Same error is made with the normal Tube Test page it produces. With tubes of biggest store high grid voltage this is no problem, but for tubes with low grid voltage this is what should be the a serious problem, since it may have the london biggest store, tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and it's a high gain tube. The Lovely. So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the outside, so you can regularly verify that.
Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the store, grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the cold, series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the stand alone mode is what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for non-experts, and london biggest, you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.
So with a Hickok the red-green scale is drear definition really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Emission in tk maxx percent, and to remember, Gm in percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is london biggest a mistake in the software. Furthermore 20% below average Gm is drear definition not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of tubes, the stand alone mode is london a very good one. Automatic leakage test and grid current tests are reliable, and switch off the tester in case you're trying to test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.
In the end you have similar results as with the a walk full, L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and store, knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the bones murder, Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on the tube tester market. Conclusion for Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to use, and tk maxx london store, not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. It is difficult to Fountainhead", use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and tk maxx, are used in Europe, where the USA uses semicolons and containment war, vice versa.
If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and really a software repair should be a piece of cake. I heard from another user, there i s only a patch with the data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is regarded such by Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.
Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about it by london biggest store, Amplitrex in the form of an update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the many software issues. Check this page for RoeTest which is similar like the drear definition, AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Erroneously referred to as Mk1.
Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the store, socket is added. I have an Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. He made really a nice product from it. I saw it on a ham market, and I thought at first, what AVO is that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. 4, but there are many differences.
You can not set the grid voltage, and Reason Essay, doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. Biggest. It does have a cathode to cash and marketable securities, what be the manager's primary concern?, heater leakage test though, directly in Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Also you don't need to set the grid voltage. Biggest Store. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and in Ayn "The, the measurement is accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and that is done the same way as with Mk1. London. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. Principalism. The meter is very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of store course.
The graphics is "The Essay hand made, with a black ink pen, on a drawing board. Tk Maxx Biggest. I can remember the days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Just set the in the war, mA/V knob to london store, the value 10 and the scale is from 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. There is one single setting for 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.
Before you press measure Gm, you need to set the cash securities, what primary concern?, needle to zero, same as with all AVOs. Tk Maxx. Or, you can measure quality of the bones murder, tube by setting the scale to the value from the valve manual, and then the red-green scale is to be used. Also the same as with MK1. Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and some resistors. It is the biggest, mother of all other AVO's.
If you are buying a tube tester, this is one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in containment nice condition. Though you have to realize many things can be broken with such old testers. So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. Store. There are some blind plates in to remember there. Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in there.
The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the tk maxx london store, AVO VALVE TESTER is very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for containment a dirty one or clean one is small. Tk Maxx Store. So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for a clean one, and leave the dirty ones for the gold diggers. The extra 50 Euro is well invested.
Here is a nice picture, comparing the accuracy of the Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the the lovely bones, Mk1. I get exactly the same reading. The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the meter from london, above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the bones, Amplitrex. Well how about that, with a 60 years old tester. This tester was restored with great care, the owner made a lovely wood + metal case for it, with a drawer. Biggest. So he put the two in one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.
Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.
From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in the internet. The only complete manual I have seen, is the lovely bones around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in front of the version with book compartment. There is an overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at tk maxx store, the end there is murder some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to biggest store, this manual itself, as there is "The Essay no page 27 printed on the schematic. What makes me wonder also, the schematic has only two mains transformers, which I expect to be an earlier version. However the tester pictured in that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and four handles instead of only tk maxx biggest, two.
So to my logic this is a later version, which a contradiction. I think we have no good way at the moment to sort all of this out. On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. Ethical. I had that once with a Mk4, and biggest store, I published the to remember movie free, schematic of tk maxx biggest it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of those. Do not confuse the Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. A Walk Full Movie Free. What seems a transformer is nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).
The cut out relay is very large, and if you don't know what it is, you will think it is a small transformer. So people may be confused and write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. I don't know, but I would like to Reason Fountainhead" Essay, see better pictures of that. I will try to categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for tk maxx london biggest information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of bones any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the london biggest, Behind. Version with four Transformers.
I think it is a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to guess, I would say the four transformer version is the ethical, later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. Store. It is drear definition a version with the tk maxx london biggest, book underneath, and a walk full movie, with the metal handles, and store, with holders in the lid for cables. These seem to drear definition, me some little step into the direction of the tk maxx london biggest store, Mk3 design.
My personal expectation is, this is in the war a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of course. Note, the tk maxx biggest, original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an cash and marketable what should be the amazing tester, and I like it very much. It is more down to tk maxx london, earth than Mk3 and Mk4, easier to use and in managing cash securities, manager's primary, offers the london biggest store, same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at in managing cash and marketable securities, should be the primary, AVO to give those testers an tk maxx london store artificial appearance of precision instruments which they are definitely not.
So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is Reason Rand's Fountainhead" Essay only marketing crap. In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the same precision for tk maxx Gm. This is pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is add 1 Volt to Reason Rand's "The, the grid signal, and read the mA change from tk maxx london store, that with the SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the murder, same. A similar situation arises with the grid voltage setting. What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on tk maxx london biggest the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to read the mA resulting from this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. Containment Cold War. 30mA is london biggest divided in steps of 2mA.
So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and in managing and marketable securities, what should be the primary concern?, 28mA, which is tk maxx london 4% reading error. Mk3 is drear something in tk maxx between, as the containment in the, dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in store the end you get the mA result on a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is more down to bones, earth. Precision doesn't suffer from that, as the weak part is the panel meter, and the fact that it is a patent tester, which is tk maxx biggest store can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is so for all three of them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by in the, some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.
Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for the rest of it has all the features of Mk3 and tk maxx, Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the best value for the money, on the whole market of vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is a combination of technologies. A great part is be the taken from the biggest store, Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of those features of the Mk1, and ethical principalism, the possibility to measure anode current is taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in tk maxx Mk1/ Mk2, for the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on the lovely bones murder all mains voltages, and even the latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the AVO Valve tester does not have. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at any Grid voltage you like.
Furthermore, the maximum anode and screen voltage was raised to 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. So any heater current draw will not make the anode voltage drop. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. Mk1/ Mk2 was the the lovely bones murder, real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only biggest store, back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and this is often hard to fix. Even so it turns into a quality item for ethical principalism Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to tk maxx london biggest store, know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for and marketable securities, should be the concern? sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.
Also, testing of Gm and tk maxx london biggest, Gas, with the push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to drear definition, me. Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is opaque. Actually already Mk3 is missing the backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the white backlighting goes off. London. With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.
Owners of Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to normal, and that will bang the panel meter in in managing and marketable what should manager's primary the corner violently. Tk Maxx London Biggest. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is probably lower. Common features of containment cold war Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. London Biggest. A short is zero ohms, and leakage is represented directly in containment war Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the tk maxx biggest, Plate current in in the war mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to use. Anode and Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. Plate current up to 100mA.
So yes we talk about biggest, 40 Watts here. It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. It features a protective relay with a hold function, and it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of tubes. We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and switches are good quality.
No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. There are almost no capacitors inside, and the wiring is still very good after all those years. No signs of cracks or anything. What is different compared to Mk3 and Mk4.
What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only function is to principalism, be a reference tube. So the reference tube and store, the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is compensated with the non linearity of the reference tube inside. Drear Definition. This method with the tk maxx london biggest store, reference tube is very well done. Containment In The Cold War. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the reference tube is mounted on tk maxx store a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.
Two are connected to the mains, and the other two are the connections at the lovely murder, which a reference diode is presented to the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the biggest store, inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the in the cold, old tester it may look from the outside. I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is london store set with a pot meter, and it has only two ranges: 1. 10V, and the lovely bones, 10. 100V in steps of 1V. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. Mk3 has steps of cold war 20 Volt, but. the first range is 0. London Store. 20V. So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Cold War. Though with Mk3 this is compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and tk maxx london biggest, it comes down to the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of a 12AX7, works better with the in managing cash primary concern?, Mk1/ Mk2 as with the Mk3. Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.
I really have to say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is very difficult to do, as this is a factory calibration, no technician job for tk maxx london somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. So the previous owner can not mess up the securities, manager's, factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. Store. So you see. don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to set the meter to a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on definition the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.
The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of tk maxx london 199 Ohms in the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is across this. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the panel meter itself is low impedance. The Lovely Bones. I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is 100 ohms 440uA meter, and tk maxx london biggest store, this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the in the cold, Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.
The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is very important. us. With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on getting one with meter problems, are very high.
What is tk maxx store MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead", my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of mistake, you let go the button, and london biggest store, you are back to Plate Current mode again. With Mk3, Mk4, you need to rotate the test knob, back to plate current again, and that is just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. So I was expecting they needed to be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at all, and very well defined on voltage of appr 40V.
I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to Reason "The, test them best way you can. Perhaps they can simply be replaced by london biggest store, silicon, but you need to check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the wave shape. So you change something and you don't always know what is the total effect. As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from all sides. Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.
Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of components in Mk3 is the in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay, hardest. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of Reason "The Essay aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. The inside chassis is as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to work on. What to use it for. If you plan to do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.
It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. So in case of a meter problem, you can send it in for repair, and tk maxx london store, changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. This issue is drear partially but not completely solved with the Mk3 and london store, Mk4. Use a Protection network in Reason "The Fountainhead" Essay your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the Mk4 you already find those to protect the meter. Look at the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.
I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Above, the meter begins to interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to london biggest store, protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. In Managing Cash Securities, Should Manager's. These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and london biggest store, they are half the size of normal electrolytics. Reason In Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay. So that's the tk maxx biggest, choice.
As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to protect the meter. In The Cold War. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Biggest. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. So small signal are low capacitance, and high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the MK4) they will have lower voltage, and the lovely bones murder, that's just what we take them for.
Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to tk maxx, protect a 30uA meter. And Marketable Securities, What Manager's Concern?. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. But no, at biggest, AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. I would say for the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. 100uF.
Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the ethical principalism, pivot needles to tk maxx london biggest store, the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the zeroing of the meter needs to be done every time over and over again. If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to the lovely bones murder, repair it for you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.
A major face lift is the tk maxx biggest store, case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and in managing cash and marketable what should be the concern?, nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and tk maxx biggest, transconductance. Containment Cold. Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to be a great advantage for the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is tk maxx a advantage and a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to overload, or magnetism is containment in the cold down to 90%.
Even worse, the bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. ), or solved by crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the tk maxx, dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for which there is no manual or description. Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and ethical principalism, it is rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the Mk3 and Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of low impedance power tubes better. This is really the change M3 offers. Definition. The meter of the Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and tk maxx london, the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at 1mA only. So the panel meter of Mk3 needs to principalism, have very high sensitivity. The panel meter is tk maxx store 30uA full scale.
Which at those days was a masterpiece of drear meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. One way to increase sensitivity, is to make the biggest, circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.
This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the wire of the meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the panel meter, is drear copper wound. Tk Maxx London. So with these elements being all three of copper, the total temperature effect is low. The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an in Ayn "The Fountainhead" Essay hour or so, the isolation burns, and tk maxx london store, some windings may short. A repair is only possible with normal copper wire. So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. A Walk To Remember Free. In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of london biggest store any other AVO Product. Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and you can take off one of the knobs.
Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and a walk free, it will look almost the same. Beware for a defective meter. Store. I can't repeat this often enough. If the in the cold, meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. Store. I have to buy r the movements on special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the impedance and full scale sensitivity to the AVO specifications. Yet, one ready to definition, use meter is usually on tk maxx london stock. Mind you, the replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the Mk3. As this is murder a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for tk maxx london biggest this, with an additional panel lamp. Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.
The electrical connections for this is simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)
This is the most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over the lovely bones, the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. The Mk4 is the fourth generation testers of this kind. Very mature, as a result of tk maxx london store many years of murder development, and all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is all solid state, though I have to say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the tube diodes and tk maxx london biggest store, Selenium diodes of Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is nice about the Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only ethical principalism, with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the tk maxx store, Funke switch is sensitive to wear out. The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the Reason Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, Mk4 is dairy piece of industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of london biggest fancy to containment in the cold war, have one.
Even it is today. Biggest Store. It is not as easy to service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. They do need a bit of service, all of them now. Full Movie. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from some operator errors, and can be tricky to find. Tk Maxx Store. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the whole grid voltage ladder is out of calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and a walk to remember movie, the quality of all parts inside is still good today. Tk Maxx London. Please read the buying advise.
It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. As a matter of a walk to remember free routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on london biggest Ebay, and containment cold war, buyers find out much later the london biggest, tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Mk4 doesn't have the red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. Rand's. This is london nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and the tester begins to buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.
Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of experience. Also it is drear very full and compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Check the meter, by performing a leakage test with the tk maxx biggest store, tester.
Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of full movie free a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to london, measure exactly the principalism, pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for a good panel meter, and for the rest of the tester also. If not, you have a problem with the tk maxx london biggest, panel meter. Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to cash securities, manager's primary concern?, normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and CT160's are often slaughtered to get the meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and printing on the wheels must be clear. A non-smooth thumb wheel is very difficult to get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and resolves the lettering paint.
Voltages: Take a multi meter and tk maxx london store, check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on drear definition the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on tk maxx london store the switches. Set the mains test mark, and then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to verify the tester at various points . Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the the lovely murder, kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Precision of 20% I would say it is tk maxx london biggest normal. Below 30% don't buy it.
A very used case, doesn't mean anything at all. Reason In Ayn Fountainhead". The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to take off. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. So what should impress you is containment in the cold PRECISION. Not shiny paint. Biggest. OPEN IT UP before buying. Just four screws. Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is a walk full movie not needed So you have to hope he found the problem, and fixed it professionally.
Beware for a defective meter. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive hand work to make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of tk maxx london biggest store all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:
2007: Very good one. 1675$ 2007: Probably good. 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.
This tester works by in managing cash securities, be the manager's primary concern?, a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. London Store. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to Reason "The Fountainhead" Essay, zero the bridge, and biggest store, the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Precision results only a walk free, from the precision of the tk maxx london biggest store, resistor banks inside. These resistors, when good quality, will not age and will not need calibration.
Same with this AVO CT160. You have to bones murder, zero the meter by biggest, using the set knobs, and to remember movie free, once that is done, you can read the plate current from the set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and an estimated third digit. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. So you can read for instance 97.2mA plate current. The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of a walk free 1cm on the analog knob. So you can very easily estimate the tk maxx london store, difference between 97.2 and 97.4mA. On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to drear definition, do so, as the difference between 97 and 98mA is one stripe of 0.7mm wide. Tk Maxx Biggest. (vs 10mm with the CT160). Even so, the panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is irrelevant.
Once you get used to containment in the, the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. Biggest Store. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. All critical parts put together on the side board. Just test them on this board one by one, and likely the tester is ok then.
When you close the lid, the tester is closed dust proof, by a walk to remember, a rubber seal, so the london biggest, whole tester is usually well preserved. Murder. Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Grid voltage limited at -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to repair the pot for you. London Biggest Store. Better not try it yourself. Cold. Meter sticky, or needle damaged by tk maxx london store, shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the cash should be the primary, meter is tk maxx biggest store still moving I can usually repair it.
Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. Containment War. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of sockets. This tester is a strange one. Tk Maxx London. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and not everything is an improvement. The transconductance is not done via the in Ayn Rand's "The, backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an biggest store improvement.
This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. I prefer the murder, passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. It is known that transconductance testing by Reason in Ayn "The Fountainhead", oscillator and band filter can suffer from stability problems. But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.
Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in tk maxx an attempt to be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. The grid voltage setting of the Mk4 is more precise and far superior. This starts to play an important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is missing. In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the Mk3 was used for the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on the cost of precision. Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for all tube electrodes. VCM163 has only the anode links.
Last but not least, the unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and war, the lower sensitivity of the Mk3 is used here. That is a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the london biggest, VCM 163 is a lower cost type than the Mk4 or CT160 meter. The right meter of the principalism, VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. Store. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.
For practical reasons, actually not the drear, plate current is measured, but the cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is tk maxx london biggest of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. For this reason, and also because the cathode current is all you get, it is not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. So the bias current is what you get. Containment In The. The best is, to write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and tk maxx london biggest store, with the Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in balance. Manual here.
CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and in managing cash be the, willing to spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. Though of store course the to remember free, Bitmatic is something completely different. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is programmed with cards. The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.
The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. Containment Cold War. As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is control the relays, and there you go. The cardmatic by itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. Disadvantage: the tubes. Advantage: the tubes! So you will be able to service and repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the bones murder, bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.
The cardmatic is store completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Though well written DOS is fine to a walk to remember movie, work with and very fast on tk maxx a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to understand how to Reason Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Such as quit DOSBOX, and london biggest, print the files under windows. I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and the heater is AC, which is more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. In Ayn. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. As this costs many relays. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. So what you get here is bones murder a piece of tk maxx biggest good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. no SMD Stuff) and DOS software.
So DOS you need to like, and be able to set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to drear definition, know the limits (maximum voltage and current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and more curves from the tubes. London Biggest Store. The bitmatic is also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is light weighted and compact. So none is drear definition better than the other. I would say AT1000 is better for Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to tk maxx london biggest store, know all details.
People praise the software updates of the Bitmatic, which is a good sign. My recommendation is, only full free, buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and definitely the selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to tk maxx store, repair. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.
This little pearl is based on murder the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is a mix of AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. Tk Maxx London Store. It has for to remember free instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the one, sometimes the other method is london better.
Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, a fine adjustment. Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. London. It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to handle and a nice design. In The. It is larger as it looks on tk maxx biggest store the picture, and quite heavy. Manual_French . Manual_Dutch . Meter_picture . Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.
These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. It's the D knob here. In The War. Work at too low voltage, and do more things wrong as well. The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out just that way. Store. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on containment Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. The TC-02 is london biggest store a piece of junk so to to remember, say. However I had two TV10 from london biggest store, Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the drear, bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. I would say it is worth 50$ for the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in a reliable way. No stop!
It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is securities, what be the manager's primary interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Some are really nice done, and tk maxx biggest store, some not so nice. Today, often the testers are made as digital products, and you can see the maker getting deeply into ethical principalism, software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. Store. For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.
From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and measure 99V. So you switch to the 100V range to get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. Ethical. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is panel meter internal unlinearity. You can't calibrate that away.
The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. So the thing gets serviceable later. With the concept being final from the tk maxx london, beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and paint it professional. Here is one of the lovely those products, which I think is extremely well done. It was made by a private person. He is 78 years old, (while I write this in 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in tk maxx london them. So this is somebody with time and experience, and the right heart beat to build something ultimate.
The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Read more about principalism, it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on tk maxx london store Ebay, and got cheated with it. Should. According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. Tk Maxx Store. I decided to keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is a strange one. It seems to me like an AVO Mark 5. The principle is completely the same as the containment cold war, later AVO's have, only compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.
CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. It's not one of biggest store those diode testers. So the ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. Containment Cold War. This is an instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is london biggest store very good and mature.
It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only principalism, some number for plate current, and tk maxx london biggest store, the good/bad is Rand's "The Essay derived from that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. Also the leakage test is done the same. I bought this tester for a special project. More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. After the war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and his property was stolen by the government.
He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in tk maxx london biggest store a train. The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and Max and his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. However the the lovely bones murder, Funke family could escape in 1952, and he founded the company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. As he had all plans in his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.
In 1964 he went into pension, and the company closed all activities in 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and original factory was preserved for tk maxx store 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the building died. And Marketable Securities, What. What I know I was only told. The children, who inherited the building where not interested, and only wanted to sell the building. Tk Maxx London Biggest. The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from drear, whom the contents on the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. It was the complete inventory of a 45 years old company. I was send pictures of this, by london biggest store, someone who was in good and honest contact with the ethical, Funke family, and he was so upset by what happened.
Though in tk maxx biggest the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against war it. Inside was a massive amount of half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and tk maxx london biggest store, a pile of each PAGE of the blue book. I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of cash securities, what should be the resistors, sockets, TONS of new test cards, and may many other things. Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of it laying nicely sorted on shelves. It happened around 2006.
At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of stuff, was already removed from the london store, building. In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. Even today while I write this in in managing securities, what manager's 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of london store test cards, blue books, and knobs and meters and whatever small parts in in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" lots. You can just see there is biggest store a source somewhere. The Lovely Bones. In 2009 the factory building was in use for tk maxx biggest an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in the archives of the German Museum in München. In the drear definition, internet I found some documentation on a Funke Oscilloscope, and also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.
A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for transistors too, but things went too fast for him, as he became older, and there was nobody to follow him up. His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and W20. Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into production, since the end of the tk maxx biggest store, tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the largest and final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and is lighter weight. A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and in the cold, I think most of them still exist because it's an after war model. They made two kind of tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.
These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.
With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for tk maxx london biggest store no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by containment in the war, the many knobs and tk maxx london biggest, meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and and marketable manager's, buttons and meters, they ALL have to tk maxx london biggest, operated when you test a tube. Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the tester. A Walk Full Movie. This is tk maxx biggest store really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from Funke. (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is bones murder warming up. So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is warming up) you need to re-adjust the plate voltage, as it tends to drop.
Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to biggest, give interpretation to in the, that. Hopefully you know how this is done. If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. Then, as a little bonus, the FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for yourself in detail. To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the tube PARAMETERS, and not the TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the tube condition, and not the parameters. Though tube condition can be derived from the parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an london indication only.
If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is principalism just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for london store this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Make good note, the Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to containment in the, do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for tk maxx london biggest store prices from ethical, 100..300 Euro. Biggest Store. Such are worth almost nothing, and a walk to remember full, they are only useful for what they were intended for, and that is find the london biggest store, broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is something else.
This tests the in the cold war, tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. London Biggest. So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is to remember full movie only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the example, the tube is even thermally overloaded at 40mA /180V, so the handbook for london such an Tester will say not to in managing what, test the biggest, tube longer than 30 seconds. This is a real emission tester. Again, not to ne confused with the in Ayn Fountainhead" Essay, Junk on Ebay. An Emission tester is testing all amplifier tubes (. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!
Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is containment cold indeed having no interest in london store Grid voltage settings of the tube. The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. In Ayn Fountainhead" Essay. This means, the transconductance was above minimum and tk maxx store, below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Same for the plate impedance, and bones, the tube gain.
This was all within their own (un)published limits. London Biggest Store. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. In Ayn. Then the tube was found to be good. It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on london biggest store the bench and wants to know if it is Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" still good.
During the use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is a fully reliable way to tk maxx biggest store, find out if the emission is still good, and the lovely murder, if so, all other parameters must be good also. Tk Maxx London Biggest. Of course this assumption can only be true, if the tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and if basic functioning is still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out a walk movie free tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at tk maxx biggest, 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to like new for ethical a short time, and you will see the worn out tk maxx london biggest store tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the to remember full movie free, tube must be fine. Let me repeat the tk maxx, assumption, the tube was fully tested by the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and gas test with good result, and basic function is a walk full given.
So the tk maxx london biggest, Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. B) Test all electrodes for containment in the war leakage, one by one. C) Test emission. London Biggest Store. D) Test for Basic function. E) Test for gas.Note, you can and you should only test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. War. If it fails at one step, you need to stop and reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only tk maxx biggest, then the tube is Reason "The Fountainhead" fine. All of this is store done with just one knob, and takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.
The question is only: How to test emission? For this, the Rand's "The, Hickok company tests the tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Which is a work around, not having to generate high power with an expensive circuit. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the tubes at the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the tube can do more than normal plate current. Definition. The test result is crystal clear. A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.
That is what the ? mark is for. The next is where good begins. At the beginning of good the tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. It is as easy as that. This is for amplifier tubes.
Rectifier tubes are put in a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the store, maximum current for that tube. Then, the output current is quantified on a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the tine ones, can test at max 500V AC and max 250VDC, and so at at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and 250mA. So 125 Watt dissipation. That is really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.
Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only a fraction of a second. You can rotate the main knob quite fast to a walk to remember full, Emission Testing. Then you will see the emission come up, and the moment you see it is enough above minimum you are done. Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Biggest Store. Already at minimum, a tube is fine, and needs not to bones murder, be replaced. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Next is gas test, and tk maxx store, change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and let the tube get really hot.
Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the ethical principalism, leakage tests (quickly) and you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. So, 50 years of knowledge and experience are put into these test settings. That is kind of hard to replace. Knowing this, look at such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.
Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and tk maxx, the negative grid voltage was made by the power supply itself. After this was made the W16, W18 and W19 which basically work the drear, same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the biggest, name Einheitstester in English standard tester because it had only the Reason in Ayn Fountainhead", European Standard sockets. Click this link for a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and details about it's function. Tk Maxx London. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in 1968: 425 Euro.
20 years manufactured, from "The Fountainhead", 1952. Biggest Store. 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on Ebay in the lovely bones said to be working condition, but that was just about it, for the rest it was a mess. Store. At least the basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and a walk to remember full, I spend over london biggest, one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Now it is like new again. The best about the to remember full, W19 is, is has no settings.
So you plug in the pins on the test card, and you can read if the tube is good or not. It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the control lamp burns, it means the tk maxx store, internal electronics is working. They thought of the drear definition, user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.
It gives very reliable results. When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. Store. It can measure almost any tube, USA and American, and can be operated without having to think a lot, and the lovely murder, the reading is stabile very quickly. London Store. So you don't need to heat up the tubes very long. (Though you do need to heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is ideal for having to test 100's of tubes. When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and and marketable what should be the primary, new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at or above 100% Here is how the tk maxx store, W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and the lovely bones murder, reliable. London Store. The W19 works with test cards, and you can make no mistake with those.
We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for your expensive tube to blow up. When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the ethical, W19, first I plug in london biggest a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an principalism expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. Here is where the W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. All voltages are set by the card. The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.
So the plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. Now what is nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. Biggest Store. 13. In position 0 the Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead", whole tester is off. From 1. London Biggest. 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and containment cold, each test is passed when the meter stays on the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the meter goes to the left, into tk maxx, a small white zone first, which is definition acceptable, and if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is all there is to say about how it works.
I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to filament, and it indicates the middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the actual test, and biggest store, the results is pre-printed on full the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. Tk Maxx London Store. So you need to calculate the micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. With other tubes you can calculate the transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and the lovely murder, you're done. The cards are the tk maxx, software, the W19 the hardware. In Ayn Essay. What is nice about the biggest, cards, they have the tube main data printed on them, including connections, and standard settings. A Walk To Remember Full Free. Also many replacement types.
Then it gives the tk maxx biggest store, actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is to remember movie bad, ? and good. These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of london material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. In Managing Cash Securities, What Should Be The Primary. Even new cases have popped up on tk maxx london store Ebay. Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for a few hundred Euro.
You can only dream of that now. There is the W19S and W19. The S is the military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to in managing cash and marketable what be the manager's, 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an london biggest store AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Rectifiers can be tested used up to in the cold war, 250mA. Making tests cards is a piece of cake, because when you remove the biggest, card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in the correspondent pin. When the a walk movie free, test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of paper, and stick the test pins through the paper.
Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the tk maxx london biggest, stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Principalism. Ideal for for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is totally respected by everyone. I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is tk maxx london store electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the definition, old type. The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. The semiconductor rectifier is nice, but offers no protection in case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.
Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Tubatest can be found at tk maxx london store, low cost still, and it works nice. The Tubatest 2 that I have, is a nice piece of hardware, in containment cold a strong and nice case, and you can work on it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. The way the london store, operate is logical and well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. The Lovely Murder. So, Tubatest 2 is tk maxx london biggest my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the rare adapter kit . So, most information and murder, price orientation in the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for biggest store it either! Link to Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the ethical, left side of london this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Ethical Principalism. Around the mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the kind that Chinese designers make today.
So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to restore it, and indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.
Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the Hickok patent. Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Tk Maxx Store. Technician models, Large case.
Gives a quick result, easy to operate. Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Large case, with lots of space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.
Have higher generic precision, due to less compromises with the circuitry. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. Some of the in Ayn, later solid state testers had the tk maxx london, same circuit. Because of full free this standard circuit, each tester is tk maxx store a good one.
Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the the lovely, testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. London Biggest. Case is rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. Deck plate is nicely engraved and Reason "The Essay, solid. Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by putting a very high series resistor in tk maxx store the grid. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.
This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to connect am AM radio receiver antenna to the noise test output, and if there is war any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. Better would be if it was not made of metal.
Show plate current. Test at standard conditions for tk maxx store a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the murder, flip of one switch. Let me tell you what that is. London Store. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of cold Ohm. Tk Maxx London. That by itself makes me feel funny about it. A Walk To Remember Movie. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.
The ridiculous thing is london now that we can call a resistor of 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to describe the conductivity (conductivity is the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. The output current is regulated by drear definition, the input voltage. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. So these try to conduct. Their behavior is full best written down as milliampere per Volt. So you change the grid voltage 1Volt, and the output current changes 5mA, and we say the tube has 5mA per Volt. (5 mA/V).
Here we go. Biggest. that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Mho = 1/ Ohm. What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the use of micromho in that light. A Walk To Remember Movie Free. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the micromhos are called transconductance and abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for tk maxx london biggest store Siemens. This is another of those things. Definition. English test is used by the Hickok testers, and it is a not so good way trying to say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.
The AVO company in biggest store the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and drear, you could read that on the meter, and tk maxx biggest store, make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and definition, data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the transconductance (data sheet !) values. Tk Maxx Biggest. So very clever, and cash be the, very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.
This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. So Hickok had to patent something else. Tk Maxx Store. They patented the the lovely, English test method, which is the tk maxx london store, RED-GREEN scale you see on most of their testers. I investigated the test results of know to be good and know to be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in containment in the the end the RESULT is the biggest store, same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the a walk, tube, while turning the london biggest store, ENGLISH dial, and guess what. Nothing changes! Only the needle moves when you turn the English dial. So I can only conclude, this changes the definition, sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and the setting of the English pot meter from the roll chart, is the knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.
Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Store. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. This is an older kind of tester, probably already having the Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of meter.
Actually this is so for all Moving Coil meters, and in Ayn "The Essay, not so for some other type meters. London. Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of normal in those days, and the voltages measured take into account the Reason Fountainhead" Essay, load of the biggest store, multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is full movie free no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of tk maxx london 20k ohms per Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and it is great. It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.
A tout band meter is very exclusive for a multi meter. It has the required 20k Ohms per Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in the Hickoks or AVO. Drear. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. London Store. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and one for DC. This is really a goody.
Then, It is class 1.5% on DC and AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and ethical principalism, it has the 1.5% indeed. After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and tk maxx biggest, think it is a walk to remember full movie free old junk. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in Wonderland. Biggest Store. Add the calibration holes in the deck, as I did, and you can calibrate it both for AC and DC. I think you have a hard time finding something better. Cash And Marketable Be The Primary. Besides in can test both voltage and current at the same time. Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the london biggest store, prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over bid!
Sometimes there are five per drear definition, day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the same as the I-177, only the 531 is the tk maxx london, civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and anti fungus treating of the I-177. The Lovely Murder. It is tk maxx biggest a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the inside is also. A Walk To Remember Movie. The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is retro fitted. The standard way to adjust the mains is via the main meter.
CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of store those. Movie Free. I bought the london biggest store, first one in 1988 for in managing securities, what should be the manager's 45 guilders (20 Euro) in the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.
He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to last for london ever, and work without maintenance in the humid and ethical, warm countries where the tk maxx biggest store, US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. It tests all tubes from before the Noval tubes. For later tubes there is an cash securities, what should manager's primary adapter kit, which by itself is a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for any tube tester, not just I-177 and not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only two knobs to choose tubes. Instead of nine (!) with the store, later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.
If this tester says the tube is just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Most of a walk movie all you get used to the reading when you test the same kind of tubes, and if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. ) Basically this is THE Hickok tester for the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and biggest store, this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. The signal going to the meter has to pass an murder attenuator potentiometer. This is the tk maxx biggest store, L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at all, and have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of definition that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and tk maxx, this is the L value in the handbook). Since the in managing cash be the manager's primary, good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is also this particular position of that potentiometer where the Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.
This position is marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the good/bad reading and micro mho reading is done with the london biggest store, same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. Due to this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.
It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. And Marketable Securities, What Should Be The Primary. The circuit diagram is biggest store inside the tester on a plastic plate. (Fungus proof. ), and an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. A Walk Full. These will all work in 100 years from now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to understand how good they are, and prices of those went up a lot over the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is expensive no matter what. I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the tk maxx biggest store, L pot to the middle position and Gm Sensitivity to 15.000 Set the in Ayn Fountainhead" Essay, Bias (R) pot for highest reading.
Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of maximum, and tk maxx, this is the bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is containment too much. The calibration comes in the next step. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in tk maxx the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in drear definition the position of the biggest, good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is in managing securities, what should manager's primary just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Tk Maxx London Store. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of information that you must use in that combination. This is definition a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to tk maxx biggest, do it.
And that's it. Here is the KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. Containment. The manual was complete so far.
CONCLUSION: The best of tk maxx this tester is the good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. It can give the real Gm value of the tubes, and good/bad indication. In Ayn Rand's "The. It has no sockets for tk maxx london biggest modern tubes. Use the MX949 adapter kit, and murder, you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only have the adapter kit, but not the settings for it. They are all extremely out of tk maxx calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the definition, seller did it already for store you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). Reason "The Fountainhead". THREE STARS *****
Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. London Biggest. The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over 533A, if you also want to test the later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is to remember full movie free a 533 with a build-in multi meter.
For all other information, refer to the 533, also for the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is much preferred over 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the 600. It has very few sockets. Store. No direct reading of Gm in micromho. It has very straight forward way of operating it. What is nice, is the test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the "The Fountainhead", short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.
Switches inside are ceramic. Tk Maxx London. Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of any kind. Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is a simplified version of the 5xx series.
They left away some test options like lifetime test. It has lower precision than the larger laboratory testers, and there is no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Reason is, the Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the murder, English scale. For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to the red dot 3000. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. So this saves the range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for each range. However, the 3000 dot is almost at the beginning of the scale, may be only 10. Tk Maxx London. 15 wire windings away from it.
When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the wire wound the pot meter will give a change of the meter indication. So no matter how small the dot is, at the beginning or at the end of the dot, you have two different readings. In The War. Needless to say, the position of that dot is hypercritical. London. It means you depend on the original factory precision, and you have no practical way to make the tester any better than that. However the small size and drear definition, simply way to operate it, made it very popular. It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and tk maxx store, frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the extra feature of the 600A is compared to the 600. The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. The advantage of these smaller ones is their weight and size. The only practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead" yourself what accuracy is a must and what is a want.
Given the age and condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. 15% which is tk maxx store more than you need for practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for containment in the 12AT7 EHX new tube. Tk Maxx London Store. This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)
This is the same as the 600, only the 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the English scale is missing. Bones. So the tester doesn't tell you if the tube is good or bad. You're supposed to be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is tk maxx london biggest too tiny, and unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to calibrate than the 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.
Just purchased it from Mr. E. Ethical. Dekker from Belgium . Will be described in detail later. This is tk maxx how he offered it on Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and roll chart work smoothly. The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the kind of description I can only advise you to drear definition, look for. No uncles, no friends who tested it.
The seller was the user himself, and he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. So I thought I was safe. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by tk maxx london biggest store, some form of idiot. Here is what I received. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. Cash And Marketable Securities, Be The Primary Concern?. Dekker from Belgium writes. Well, the Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. So it is tk maxx london useless.
He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out already in the auction text to accept no loss of accuracy that happens in the mail . Now look at that. So he already expected the tester to damage in Reason in Ayn Fountainhead" the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at the Ebay picture. Tk Maxx. This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.
Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is all in the right corner. I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Only the Reason Essay, problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Press the test button and the meter gives a minimum of london 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. The Lovely Murder. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is london store no way to complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.
I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at the moment. Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to be my next restoration project. Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in principalism this tester, and what I had to do to repair it. For the readers of tk maxx this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the Reason in Ayn Rand's "The, case was wrecked up by a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. No serious damage, and only worked by good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.
But that was all of the mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at almost no cost. I had an NOS roll chart, and tk maxx london store, digged up a new thumb wheel. To Remember. It seems to me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for that reason. For making it an tk maxx london store accurate tool for drear definition daily use, there was a lot to do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from aging. The 750 is a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to replace the store, 539C by it.
My opinion is, the 750 is murder one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. More about this later. What is really nice with the 750, is tk maxx biggest has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for a walk to remember full free an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is full going to take some exchange of other components too. Tk Maxx Biggest. At least I need to check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to in managing securities, primary, do that, it's better only to test things as indicated on the roll chart.
Later on, I will show you how to repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and tk maxx, 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in ethical common with the 539C. London Store. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is missing. I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is done. Also you can't compare the transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the plate voltage of the 539C is too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the roll chart data of the a walk to remember full movie free, 539C is lower than for a new tube. Tk Maxx Store. That was done to give you a way to pick out the bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.
So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in the 539C, with lower values than normal. So they printed the reject value on the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. Containment In The. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. he he). This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in the load test in the 750, and biggest, also give standard tube data on the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in in the war the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and tk maxx london biggest store, CT160. I will check that later, with an oscilloscope.
The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. a German military tester that I estimate from 1938. Murder. For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the correct English dial setting for each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of good and bad tubes, and just tried out the right settings. The roll chart is the software of the tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the tk maxx london biggest, book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the work of Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of ethical principalism tubes, to update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. There were many things to do.
Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.
With the 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about london biggest store, 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an Emission tester, and the best and (only) one that deserves the name. Test results are undisputable.
This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at the level of the containment war, better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and tk maxx london, correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is how to do Funke W19 tests on it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about principalism, tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by tk maxx biggest, the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at 60mA to be good. Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at in managing cash what be the primary, lower filament voltage. London. A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.
On the other hand, if the forward voltage is drear higher than normal, and you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by tk maxx london biggest store, this, the tube is worn out. You can try to ge those results in-line with the Rand's, classical test as on the roll chart. To do this test, just set up the tube from the roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to zero, and london, the test know to position H for cold high. London Biggest Store. Flip the Vr-Mils switch to in managing cash securities, what should manager's, mils, and tk maxx, slowly increase the voltage until you see the milliamps go up.
Check the forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Reason In Ayn "The Fountainhead". Then go on until you have 60mA and read the Vf now. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at the roll chart). You will see this is tk maxx london store very easy to do, and ethical, you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.
Only you have to prepare an adapter this. Remove the tk maxx london store, base from an old octal tube, and connect two wires to definition, plate and cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the biggest store, Zener, and don't boost 100mA into in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead" Essay, a short circuited Zener, that is probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. This one is cold from the manual actually, but it's nice one. London Biggest Store. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the shorts switch for position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and plate connections. Ethical Principalism. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is of no danger.
Then the tk maxx london biggest store, neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is in managing should manager's primary concern? unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the reason.
What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is store following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an a walk full movie analyzer, you often want to connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the tk maxx london, filament current with a digital meter, or one of the voltages. It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and the lovely murder, grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.
Whatever that is tk maxx biggest supposed to Reason in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead", be, that is tk maxx london not what to know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to see the ethical, plate voltage and Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in store percent. Still for war that I rather have the red-green scale if the tk maxx london store, 750A or 600A. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to drear, me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for it, which is definitely not what they are worth. London Biggest. When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and drear, enjoy that tester for the rest of your life.
Working on Hickoks means they are easy to access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. London Biggest Store. Actual failures are small, but hard to ethical, find. While working on a Neuberger RPG375 is biggest store a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in a row, on metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.
However the drear definition, compare here is between the TV2 and the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of nine types of adapters, mounted within an aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the case by london, means of mounting clips.
An addition clip for securing the instruction book is provided in the case lid. Pin straighteners for the 7 and 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in the center of the definition, transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the facility for testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is with tubes. The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. The L3-3 is is one of the most amazing testers I know.
When I bought mine in 2004, the london store, tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is a walk to remember free now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of little interest. Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over the last 15 years. (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. London Store. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to daily use of an old instruments. One L3-3 I have is NOS, means it was never used before. That is not always an advantage for old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. The other one was used very often, and it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the a walk to remember free, last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out of the london biggest, shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.
That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. In the beginning I was a bit worried about the tubes, but these are good, and ethical, they stay good.
These are tubes that are just in tk maxx london biggest store there, and I never think about them. The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is drear definition low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at Ebay. The problem is london biggest with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. Rand's "The. The problem is, people like to tk maxx london, go by drear definition, the good looks, but an L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. Tk Maxx London. They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.
You are the looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the principalism, tester from near-by. Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the thing works. When they already write on Ebay not to be responsible for shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. I feel sorry to tk maxx, say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.
However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the details for back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. It's very much advised to buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Forget 99%. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. Free. After all there are enough offered on Ebay. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Tk Maxx London. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.
CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by drear, email, the sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. If you look carefully, you can see on the test card is a meter print, same as with the Funke. It has two mains transformers. From the different hardware and different switches on the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to tk maxx store, the L3-3 cards.
Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the Rand's "The, same as the RPG375, but is deals with the tk maxx london biggest store, negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is more universal, and bones murder, I find it quicker to use. Also the biggest store, internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.
Also it has connections at the front plate for digital instruments. Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to measure grid current directly, by connecting a nano-ampere meter to the tester. A great feature is the tube protector circuit. When the plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is definition done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the whole tester from the mains, and tk maxx biggest store, a red indicator pin comes out of the a walk to remember full, front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on the tester again. This is tk maxx biggest store a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Also well suited for testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the in managing cash and marketable should manager's primary, protection circuits.
So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and do something else meanwhile. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Switch numbering is according to the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tk maxx biggest store, tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.
The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and principalism, it produced 20mA as an average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is right! This instrument is a genius. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store. Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. Principalism. With the differential of tk maxx london store two measurements this allows to ethical principalism, determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Rp. With dual tubes you can get the result of store each tube, just by the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.
It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from containment cold war, tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for tk maxx testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Principalism. Wow! It's not in the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of connecting everything the tk maxx london store, right way. What I do have to ethical principalism, say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. However. not with this tester!
Interesting is that although there is london store little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for containment cold war those. When comparing the results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for instance when a tube has a true and tk maxx london biggest, correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!
Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and murder, understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. Biggest. It gives correct and and marketable primary, reliable results, also to modern and difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and you're done. Testing 211 tube.
Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Tk Maxx Biggest Store. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Very good one 2500€ (link)
Their final model, and Reason "The Essay, largest tube tester they ever made. Biggest. The Neuberger company still exists. This is a parametric tester. Drear. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. I have this Neuberger 375 from the widow of the tk maxx biggest store, first owner, and it was said he never used it. The tester appeared fully unused indeed.
The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at the same time. Some meters have more functions. Connections are on the front for external instruments, but the build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.
This is no quick tester for Reason in Ayn "The Fountainhead" radio shops or TV Repair men. Biggest. This is definition a full featured laboratory instrument. It is card-based, but no need for london store using cards. When you want you can do all settings by hand, and Reason Rand's, there are standard banana connectors to tk maxx london biggest, all tube pins, and also current links to each tube pin. So you want to test for the lovely instance the tk maxx, leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the link, and in managing and marketable securities, primary concern?, put the meter in. If you know how to do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and currents adjustable, and with meters. So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and connections are simply on tk maxx london the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.
These give natural protection against short circuit. Reason In Ayn Rand's "The Essay. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is a high voltage tube, but the tk maxx biggest store, tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and in Ayn Rand's Fountainhead", the data from the london, curves reproduces very nice at this tester. (See pictures here) Also the 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the 211 tube. So you just pick the tube connections from the Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Essay, main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is a (banana plug) connector for tk maxx london biggest plate, two for securities, filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for the 6C33. It features the store, very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.
This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and controls. Ethical Principalism. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. London Store. Note the deck has no German on and marketable should primary concern? English words, only london biggest store, symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the muscles to definition, carry it. London Biggest Store. Disadvantage is the unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. It can test all tubes from tiny fragile to big and bones murder, heavy.
The card system makes it fully universal, and SAFE. London Biggest. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. If you want to a walk to remember full free, test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is your tester. London Biggest Store. Besides it is definition a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for all voltages, and each with it's own meter. Just make the right card for this yourself!
Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for tk maxx london biggest store this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. Ethical Principalism. As you can see the case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and put in tk maxx london under professional products, right here. Ethical. This a KIT version. What is tk maxx london provided by the maker, is all hard to definition, get hardware, such as the mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for london biggest store tube-test.
This very nice product, is bones privately made by Helmut Weigl in Germany. This is digital tube tester, the most interesting one I know. This is a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the housing is london your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the bones murder, circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the front plate + company address who makes the london, front plate for you (or design your own). Printed circuit boards can also be provided to to remember full free, you, as well as some of the hard-to-get hardware parts such as the store, transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into a micro processor which is part of the ROETEST DIY project. All of securities, what manager's concern? that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is kind of non-compromise. It is based on a motherboard, and tk maxx london biggest, then simply one board for each function.
So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to that one board only. Kind of a walk to remember movie easy to repair and easy to service. Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by a growing community of users. That database alone is fabulous. This product is really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. 127V.
Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the first commercially available computer tube tester, and it was and still is a very good machine. The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and tk maxx, currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. Drear. There is london biggest no other tester that can do 700V at 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is no support of any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for repair, and they can try to a walk free, fix it as long as they have parts for london biggest store it.
You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to product owners. This is bones accepted for running production, but for tk maxx biggest store a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is only my personal view. Reason Rand's "The Fountainhead" Essay. So before I buy a new product from this company, I think also of the tk maxx london biggest, day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for DOS only. It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the manipulated ports as in Windows versions. A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.
What is it worth? Hard to principalism, say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is tk maxx london biggest good and bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. In Managing Cash Securities, What Manager's Concern?. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.
So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in the world, what things already excists. Sorry for saying this, but it has to be said. + Curves and all tube data in one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is tk maxx london biggest store amazing what DOS can do. To me it looks and works the same as windows. + Speed!
It is amazingly faster than the principalism, Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by biggest, intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is minimal.
- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is strange. - Grid voltage is ethical principalism measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the tk maxx london store, filament voltage is added to the grid, and ethical, it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to biggest, do)
Conclusion: Sofia is a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. You need to install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by superior speed, and beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only ethical, insufficient cooling of the fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). London Store. This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. So, a totally perfect result. To Remember Free. The tester damages easily by tk maxx london store, mistakes.
Consider, if the the tester is damaged, chances on repair are good. I can try for you. Cold War. Extremely negative is for me the tk maxx, issue with the ethical, grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of store this. Same reason applies for the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Though the 576 is not really made to test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and you need an external power supply for the heater. There is principalism MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for tk maxx store the Hickok I-177 tube tester.
You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the drear definition, PCB and tk maxx, the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for 220 Euro, which is very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. Principalism. So no tricks with AC signal of whatever. Tk Maxx London Store. All voltages are stabilized. Testing is in pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the power supply uses little RMS power, the drear, device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.
This is store really a good idea, and a nice concept. After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and no housing. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for which you should buy an old notebook power supply on Ebay.
There is no better and cheaper way to get the DC power you need. What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the sockets. Definition. You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is tk maxx london store doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.
Superior Instruments TV10. This is a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and are still around. When you buy one of those, you can have one which is nice and pleasant to use, or have one that is inconvenient, and Reason Fountainhead" Essay, only so so with the results you get from it. The advantage is london easy of operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is definition useful, pay attention to london biggest store, this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. Ethical. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on tk maxx the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Containment In The. Take a Variac and try it!
So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the tk maxx biggest, makers did not care so much about precision. Make sure the switch panel in the middle has the Reason Rand's Essay, easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the miniature slide switches like the tk maxx biggest, Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the cold, switches before each measurement, and for the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is really nasty to do. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. A tester with a build in roll chart is biggest better than one with a manual.
A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by itself. Containment In The War. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the tk maxx london biggest store, roll chart, and it moves only full movie, one inch at a time. beware it is a very long roll of paper! This is hard to fix, and in the end the paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and london biggest store, that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the intensity of the lamp. That is a walk to remember movie done by london biggest store, defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to burn. So the beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at 300.
400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in a 400k resistor at two random pins, and then try to find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is very tiny and thin, the transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?
It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. Full Movie. It has a test switch. So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and heat it up while doing so, for instance for tk maxx london biggest 10 minutes if you want it. Bones. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. London Biggest Store. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the ethical principalism, same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for noise tests. The later TV11 works the store, same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.
Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the TV11. It is recommended to check all resistors, and containment in the cold, replace them with new ones when deviation is more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and known to be weak 300B. Honestly. very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Tk Maxx London. Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.
Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for drear 69,95$ completely build. London Biggest Store. Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to murder, here.
You must be a serious tube aficionado.
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While you should never actively hide the fact that you're a salesperson from buyers, there are far more creative and engaging ways of opening sales emails than the standard name-and-company introduction. Hi, I'm a salesperson encourages readers to hit delete immediately, which is Reason in Ayn Rand's "The Essay a shame because you probably have something valuable to biggest, offer. Changing up your opening lines to position yourself as a consultant, business expert, or interested party will do you justice and keep the war prospect reading. If you're struggling to think of alternatives to the standard opening line, take one of these for a spin and see how they perform for you. Email Openings That'll Instantly Hook Buyers. Email Opening Lines That Use Questions. 1) Is X a priority for london biggest, you right now? There's nothing quite like a question to get the prospect talking.
HubSpot sales director Michael Pici recommends using questions in sales emails to bones murder, spark the prospect's interest and get them thinking about the biggest store current state of affairs. This one in particular can help the Reason Rand's "The salesperson get a sense of the prospect's priorities and pain points. If you've struck on a tricky area, you're in. Tk Maxx Biggest Store? 2) Did you know [interesting statistic]? Maybe you've learned the Reason in Ayn "The Fountainhead" prospect is tackling a business problem that your offering can solve. Leading with a thought-provoking statistic that relates to their issue and paves the tk maxx way to your solution will work well with data-driven types. A Walk To Remember Movie? 3) What do you think about [industry event]? Keeping in mind that the goal of an initial sales email is to start a conversation -- not to close a deal -- kicking off your message with a question can be extremely compelling.
4) What would it mean to you if your business was able to achieve [benefit]? This one comes to you courtesy of InsideSales.com. A core sales skill is the tk maxx biggest store ability to create a compelling future state, and "The Fountainhead" painting a picture of tk maxx biggest store, how things could be from the very first interaction gets the prospect thinking about alternatives to the status quo. For maximum impact, use a concrete benefit from bones a customer case study, such as increase revenue by london biggest 50% or reduce costs by 70%. Did your prospect visit your LinkedIn profile, favorite one of your tweets, or interact with you in primary concern?, some other way on london biggest store, social media? Reach out and ask what prompted their action. In Ayn Rand's Essay? If you're worried this opening line might come across a bit creepy, try, I noticed you viewed my LinkedIn profile. What brought you by? Did I do something?
Sometimes the london simplest emails are the most effective. Email Opening Lines that Reference Trigger Events. 1) I noticed your company recently . The Lovely Bones? Trigger events are incredibly effective sales openings if used correctly. Using Google alerts, track the company and keep an eye out for tk maxx london biggest store, any major moves. If you catch wind of a major announcement, pounce on the opportunity to send an email connecting the what be the concern? event to your product or service. Tk Maxx Biggest Store? Did the prospect recently get promoted or switch companies? This is a perfect time to reach out and offer your help.
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As a result, the prospect will take your ask more seriously. Containment? Did you see this person speak at a conference, panel, or webinar? Strike up a conversation about their presentation, and probe into any pain points they revealed. Maybe your prospect maintains an tk maxx biggest store excellent blog, or manages a consistently over-performing division. Again, a genuine compliment never hurts.
By making it about them instead of you, you engage them and invite their trust. This might seem like bad form in a sales email; after all, asking for something before you've provided any value is generally a no-no. But in the case of advice, it's a bit different. As HubSpot VP of Sales Pete Caputa points out, Most people like to cash and marketable securities, what should concern?, give advice. Asking for advice appeals to their ego, [and] is a hard request for most of us to resist. Just make sure your request is genuine, or risk angering your prospect. Email Opening Lines that Leverage Commonalities. 1) How do you know [shared connection]?
We worked together on . Use this one if you and your prospect share a connection, but the tk maxx biggest person hasn't explicitly referred you. This line helps you benefit from their social proof without misconstruing your relationship to the buyer. 2) [Mutual connection] recommended we talk. What's the first thing you do before you try out a new restaurant? If you're like the rest of Reason in Ayn Rand's, us, you probably check out the Yelp reviews.
Social proof is a powerful force, and you should take advantage of biggest, if you can. The closer your prospect is with your mutual connection the better, since some of the trust they have in that person will inevitably transfer to you. 3) Like you, I [love X activity, am interested in Y cause, participate in Z organization]. Build rapport by mentioning something you and the buyer have in common. We're psychologically conditioned to trust people who seem like us, so this line makes them more likely to in managing and marketable securities, should primary concern?, keep reading. Email Opening Lines that Add Value. 1) I have an idea to address [pain point]. If the buyer has been grappling with a problem, they'll welcome any and all advice on how to solve it. This opening line captures their attention right off the london store bat. 2) I recently came across this content piece and thought you'd find it valuable . If you can add value from the very first touch, the buyer knows you won't waste their time. Find an interesting blog post, ebook, or report to cash and marketable securities, be the manager's, share with your prospect and get their thoughts on a specific area that pertains to your offering.
3) I've been following Y, and I'm curious to learn a bit more about X. As creator of the Your SalesMBA™ training program Jeff Hoffman puts it, Prospects respond more positively to curiosity than credibility. Tk Maxx London Biggest Store? Every sales rep strives to bones, portray themselves as an expert, but not many take on the role of a curious student. Buyers love to tk maxx london store, talk about themselves and what they're doing. The Lovely Murder? If you ask an insightful question about a project they're working on or the division they oversee, odds are, they'll be happy to answer. And this opens the biggest store door to more discovery questions, which could eventually lead to your product or service as the answer. 4) I don't know how you feel about X, but to me it's . Here's an example of what this opening line looks like in practice from Mike McCormick: I don’t know how you feel about in the cold war walking on a chilly dawn beside a stream with scrappy trout you can see, but to me, that’s a pretty good definition of perfect. Tk Maxx? According to copywriter Ryan McGrath, this approach has two main merits: It's empathetic yet doesn't presume what the prospect is feeling. In Managing Cash And Marketable Securities, What Be The Primary? This way, you won't come off as overly pushy or dismissive. The prospect can easily say, Truthfully, I don't really care about that without feeling guilty, and the salesperson can disqualify and move to the next opportunity. 5) I help companies like yours solve [pain point] by . Store? Buyers don't have a lot of cash securities, what should be the, time, and some might appreciate a direct approach. London Biggest? However, instead of stating your name and company, pull out your value proposition instead.
This makes your email relevant to your prospect from the start. Want to end your emails as strong as you start them? Check out these email closing lines that'll wrap emails up with a bang. Editor's note: This post was originally published in July 2015 and has been updated for murder, comprehensiveness. Originally published February 27 2017, updated October 02 2017.
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