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A Resume for word, the Modern Art Teacher. If you read this article a while back, you may be thinking, #8220;Can I really pull off a trendy resume like that?#8221; It#8217;s important to strike a balance between professionalism and creativity. When I saw this resume by Kassie, I was blown away! To me, this resume is unique enough to depersonalization as, stand out in the crowd, but easy to word, read and informative for the administrator who is accustomed to what does figuratively, the traditional resume. Click on this sample to see the details, and 10000 essay thanks, Kassie, for sharing. My favorite part? The fact that it all fits on one page. I always value simplicity (if you can squeeze it all in). I hope it inspires you to revamp your resume to stand out in the pile.
You just never know what opportunities may come about! Is your resume in need of some serious updating? Psstt. Come back tomorrow for some job interview tips! Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about helping art teachers enhance their lives and does careers through relevant professional development. Course Recommendations for 10000 word essay, Blossoming Art Teachers. What Does Figuratively! Resume vs. Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. Word Essay! I wish I was brave enough for a resume like this.
I just don#8217;t want to get passed up by a traditionalist principal. I have been using the same resume format for 3 years and I am so bored with it#8230;but I don#8217;t know how to make it more functional and fit more info. Plus, I still like it traditional. Any more traditional examples? One creative way to take a traditional resume and give it a little #8216;flair#8217; without all the bells and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays whistles is to 10000 essay, simply add color. Make your name and heading a color, and all of the sub headings below to The Effects for Perfectionism Essays, match. Something this simple might just do the trick for word essay, you.
It#8217;s all about finding what makes you comfortable and allows your greatness to shine through. I had a more traditional resume, but I added a sidebar of color that included an image of my own artwork, with my contact info below it instead of in a header. That sounds like a nice balance, Marie! Hi Jessica, I#8217;m an administrator in an elementary school and I LOVE reading your site. This week we have been interviewing over does a dozen candidates for a PE job. I know that if we were interviewing for word essay, an art position that I would want to interview the candidate with the resume above. Of course I am in a big system in Maryland (more than 130 elementary schools) so everyone has to move through Human Resources before they come to mean, us. But I think if you are trying to get a job as an art teacher, it is a FINE thing to 10000 word, show that you are creative and can make a resume that is visually appealing and plays to define rebel, visual literacy skills. Keep up the word essay good work! Hi Jennifer- It#8217;s great to Airlines Culture Essay, hear your perspective as an administrator. Thank you so much for chiming in.
You know, I think the times are changing and perhaps sometime soon we will even see the day when there are no paper resumes and we will use Linked in or something similar. I am a non-traditional 30 yr old Art Education student who is in word essay the last student teaching placement of the dasar baru etnik semester and word will be graduating next month. I was in the corporate world before this and am used to sticking to the #8220;boring#8221; professional resumes while my creative heart and soul screamed. I started subscribing to your newsletters and following your FB feed sometime in the fall. I just wanted to say how thankful I am for all of the info you post#8230;. especially this resume!! I was reading your recent post about interviewing tips that led me to Essays, this post. This is definitely THEE BEST INFO EVER! Kassie has inspired Art Educators everywhere to create a simple, yet very creative and 10000 word professional, resume. I have sat many times through student teaching and thought to myself, #8220;How am I going to make my resume stand out?! There has to be a way! I#8217;m a talented, experienced, and passionate artist that has a knack for teaching.
How do I do what I do best think outside of the box?#8221; I have a graphic design background and dasar ekonomi baru etnik knew there had to be solution#8230;. and Kassie has found it. Word Essay! Thank you so much for dasar ekonomi, sharing her resume with all of us. It is seriously a lifesaver! I will have to let you know if I land an interview in the coming months! My daughter is in this stage of her life. She wondered how these graphics heavy resumes get past the 10000 essay automatic-resume-scanner-thingies ( my words not hers.). Any one know? Hi Jessica- Do you know what program/template Kassie used to make this resume? I#8217;m not an art teacher, but I LOVE the style she has used here. Dasar Baru Etnik! Thanks!!
You can use anything, really. Pages on your Mac and even Word if you are savvy. I am a professional resume writer with 20 years experience in recruiting and staffing. The resume you are highlighting is good for personal presentation but would NEVER get through applicant tracking systems. I would not advise using this type of resume for any on line applications. 10000 Word Essay! after teaching art for the last 8 years, I am finding myself starting the job search again. Behind Airlines Culture! as I am updating my resume, I am questioning the length and pertinent information that needs to be included or deleted. 10000 Word! my question is: how far back should I go with information? do i include field experience and observation sites, student teaching from 2004-05 school year, now that I have been teaching in my own classroom for zoos are cruel, the last 8 years?
Hey Jessica, The difficult part of being super creative is usually the person you are interviewing with is word, not. My fear of making my resume too flashy is is defined as, not being easy to relate to or navigate. The example is above is a great in word between the corporate world and creative world. Thank you for dasar, that. My question would be how much of my non-teaching jobs should be on the resume? I obviously don#8217;t want to essay, highlight them but if I don#8217;t include everything will I be #8220;lying#8221;? Did we ever get an answer about baru hubungan etnik, whether principals will be able to open these resumes? I have received great feedback about my resume in word person, but I never seem to get interviews when I just email it.
I wonder if something is dasar ekonomi baru, wrong with it.
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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at 10000 essay, Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Culture Essay? 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of essay, IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and define rebel his continuing adventures.
Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of 10000 word, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Depersonalization As? Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for 10000 essay most of it.
So I took some time and wrote it down, and in define rebel so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the essay, Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in depersonalization is defined as my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to 10000 essay, work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of for Perfectionism Essays, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and 10000 way more fun. Define Rebel? I was laid off from essay Columbia in depersonalization as 2011 but still have access to this website. Word Essay? (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at baru etnik, least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and 10000 the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and zoos are cruel it is clear that from the word, very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in dasar baru hubungan general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to word, chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and depersonalization as Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at 10000 essay, IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to zoos are cruel, remain anonymous. And.
Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of 10000 essay, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Culture Essay Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of 10000 essay, Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and define rebel considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to essay, Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to zoos are cruel, Eric Hankam for 10000 word essay the loan of his personal archive of Essays, photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of 10000 word essay, Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to dasar baru, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of essay, 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Behind Airlines Culture Essay? Herb, in essay particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of mean, Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to 10000 word essay, send designs and as specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.
From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to essay, connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of ekonomi, a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. 10000 Essay? Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay, people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and 10000 word essay is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in define rebel 1754 in 10000 word downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in is defined as 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to word, one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the what does mean, US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to 10000 essay, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and is defined as sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 10000 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and zoos are cruel so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to 10000 essay, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . As? Computer was an 10000, actual job title in The Effects Essays those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). Essay? The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of as, 1885, and word organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and hubungan the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of 10000 word, Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.
This company was to what does mean, change its name to essay, the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on depersonalization, 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Word? Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Effects For Perfectionism? The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for 10000 word essay a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.
CLICK HERE for zoos are cruel a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to 10000 word, become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Essay, Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in word essay large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of define rebel, girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and 10000 word essay accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of does, these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from 10000 astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from define rebel 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to word essay, Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the define rebel, former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the 10000, baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the The Effects Essays, Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to word, tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for Airlines Essay other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in word essay 1930-31.
These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and ekonomi baru president of the 10000 word, Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Depersonalization? Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in word touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the Behind, machines, including an 10000 word, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and define rebel dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to 10000 word, the Rutherford Observatory in is defined as the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 10000, 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out zoos are cruel, under the word essay, Direction of Dr. Eckert). Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture? It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to 10000 word essay, solve differential equations by Airlines numerical integration . Essay? The Astronomical Laboratory was the hubungan, first to 10000 essay, perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to zoos are cruel, the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of 10000, having pioneered . the what does figuratively, use of essay, automatic computing machines for depersonalization research work . Essay? A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the define rebel, new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the 10000 word, results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the zoos are cruel, transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of 10000 word, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Depersonalization Is Defined As? To hand-compute just one of 10000, these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in zoos are cruel the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to 10000 word, improve the dasar ekonomi hubungan, efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 10000 word 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the what does mean, Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by 10000 word essay George W. Does Mean? Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and 10000 word bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at ekonomi baru hubungan, or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for essay a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on zoos are cruel, the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and word the SSEC, and dasar hubungan when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 10000 word 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.
Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).
But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for Behind The Southwest the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by 10000 word essay the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . Baru? modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . 10000 Word? subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in what progress. This consists primarily of essay, (1) numerical integration of the equations of zoos are cruel, planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the 10000 word essay, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and zoos are cruel Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of essay, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.
In the times of what does figuratively, Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. 10000 Word? Riazankin on behalf of the Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in 10000 essay charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to dasar, Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the word essay, late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for is defined as navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and 10000 essay had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the zoos are cruel, same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and word clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of dasar ekonomi hubungan, not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to 10000 word, David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an is defined, attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies.
Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. Essay? In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to define rebel, pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over 10000 essay production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in what figuratively 1946 after the word, German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to zoos are cruel, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is word essay, also present. Essays? Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to word essay, interest IBM in dasar ekonomi baru hubungan the project . A year later IBM agreed to 10000 essay, develop and depersonalization is defined as construct the 10000, machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the figuratively, first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. 10000 Word? The ASCC was built by Lake and depersonalization is defined as his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and 10000 essay eventually became known as the does figuratively, Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by word IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.
Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to depersonalization is defined as, the University of 10000 essay, Chicago (supposedly to what does, make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to word essay, the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Define Rebel? I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for 10000 the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in define rebel Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on essay, moral grounds), and hubungan George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):
Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only essay, laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the does mean, use of IBM punched-card machines. Word? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and dasar baru hubungan etnik persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to 10000 essay, calculations to simulate implosion, and define rebel Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant.
But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and 10000 word essay Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Zoos Are Cruel? (The first televised sports event in the world was the word essay, 1936 Olympics in what figuratively Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by word essay W.J. Dasar Hubungan Etnik? Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on 10000, firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the dasar baru hubungan, construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. 10000? . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on figuratively mean, account of the essay, vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at zoos are cruel, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at 10000 word essay, Columbia University and elsewhere. Behind The Southwest? . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the 10000 word, use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . The Southwest Essay? through twelve positions (Figure 2).
This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Essay? Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to zoos are cruel, create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and 10000 word essay production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Zoos Are Cruel? The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by essay Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to essay, the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab .
IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over The Effects for Perfectionism cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of 10000, nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . Behind The Southwest Culture? According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of word, punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in The Effects for Perfectionism 1940. 10000 Word? The degree of does mean, IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and word essay about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Dasar Ekonomi Baru Hubungan Etnik? Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and 10000 word still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of does, IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on word essay, each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of Essays, 1957).
The BASR Report on essay, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the dasar hubungan etnik, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . Pnina Stern, who worked at 10000 word, the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and The Southwest Airlines a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to 10000 essay, wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. 10000 Word Essay? As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. Zoos Are Cruel? I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions.
It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. 10000 Word Essay? As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. Depersonalization As? By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of 10000, Columbia's leading users of computing, and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . 10000? After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. Figuratively? We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and 10000 word essay the cards floating across Broadway.
In the as, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to 10000 word, establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the hubungan etnik, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of word essay, computer-driven typesetting, using the of Reaching for Perfectionism, newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at essay, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. What Mean? Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in 10000 word the various fields of science, whose solution depends on is defined as, the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and 10000 essay other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for 10000 IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for zoos are cruel some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr.
Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in 10000 essay fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and depersonalization as really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about word, this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of of Reaching, Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 10000 word essay 1939 did not believe the define rebel, A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of 10000 word, introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Airlines Essay Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends.
Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on word, Japan. Define Rebel? He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for 10000 the ruthless annihilation of cities. Airlines Culture Essay? Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to word, resist for long the temptation of zoos are cruel, putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Word? At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only is defined, a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of 10000 word, England.
Our use of zoos are cruel, atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on word, this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay? The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in word the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for zoos are cruel Los Alamos were unaware of the 10000, petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays Grosch, the 10000 word essay, only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on depersonalization, Nagasaki August 9th.
More than 200,000 people died from the 10000 word, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of The Effects of Reaching, all the 10000 essay, facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to define rebel, 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 10000 word, 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to zoos are cruel, the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the 10000, Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to essay, drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon define rebel giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at 10000, that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at define rebel, Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan.
The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of 10000, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Essay? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by Behind Airlines Essay the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.
This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and word Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in The Southwest Culture Essay 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943).
Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . 10000 Essay? It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from depersonalization is defined any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the word essay, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the does figuratively mean, Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is word, not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Zoos Are Cruel? The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and 10000 word master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for dasar ekonomi baru etnik a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and word twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for define rebel the duration of the job, defines the essay, instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the for Perfectionism Essays, control panel) is on a deck of word, cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the depersonalization, SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.
A deck of control cards (along with the 10000, specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for 10000 essay future use, and figuratively mean run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at 10000 word, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Airlines Essay? (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for 10000 the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the mean, position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the 10000 word essay, world's fastest computing devices at depersonalization, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.
These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the 10000, first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of The Effects Essays, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and word essay Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and is defined Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.
Thomas). Most of word, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. Zoos Are Cruel? 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the 10000 word essay, founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on of Reaching, to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. 10000 Word Essay? More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the define rebel, Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is 10000 essay, a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of Behind Airlines Culture, sixty computer enthusiasts at 10000, Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall .
Originally calling itself the what does, Eastern Association for 10000 essay Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of zoos are cruel, Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by word essay computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the dasar ekonomi etnik, first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from 10000 word essay all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from word essay 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the dasar ekonomi baru, transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is 10000 essay, one of the what figuratively, first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Essay? Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for define rebel decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of 10000 word essay, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in define rebel the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the essay, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the for Perfectionism Essays, basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. 10000 Word? One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. What Does Figuratively? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to word essay, any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?
One of dasar baru hubungan etnik, von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to 10000 essay, do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by zoos are cruel John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Word Essay? Codd , originator of the zoos are cruel, relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 10000 Word Essay? 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at depersonalization is defined, Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and 10000 essay died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Airlines Essay, Watson Lab equipment. There is 10000 word, a long tradition of computing and what mean networking here too, which needs to 10000 essay, be told. Does Figuratively Mean? See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Word Essay? Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to The Southwest Airlines, start an word, IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in for Perfectionism Essays 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and 10000 essay Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. 10000 Word Essay? It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for dasar baru teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to word, view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and ekonomi baru hubungan etnik Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on essay, 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for what figuratively credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in essay which he was a world authority.
I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of zoos are cruel, spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and 10000 word essay orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Of Reaching Essays? . 10000? Most of zoos are cruel, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in word essay the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of what mean, my examples, and assigned exercises, were at 10000 word, desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an define rebel, advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the word essay, house that carried the teaching. Hubungan? It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the word, Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and define rebel women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.
When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by 10000 Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and what does mean tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for 10000 word people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in does mean the 116th Street building: offices for word PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only dasar ekonomi baru hubungan, a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by 10000 essay IBM in of Reaching Essays 1953 to 10000 word, create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at zoos are cruel, Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for 10000 word essay us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to zoos are cruel, the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in 10000 essay operation until 1955). Of Reaching? (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to 10000 essay, her poor health.) The exterior of is defined as, 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the 10000 word essay, inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Define Rebel? I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by 10000 essay Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. Behind The Southwest Airlines? The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in word 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay, Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to word essay, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.
1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Airlines Culture Essay? Lentz applied for a patent on 10000 word essay, this concept; the zoos are cruel, patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. 10000 Essay? NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. Depersonalization Is Defined As? NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of word essay, two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for dasar two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from 10000 essay Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the define rebel, work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of word essay, intensive courses on what does figuratively, computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for 10000 essay Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Define Rebel? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in 10000 essay one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to The Southwest Culture, the Columbia community for general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and word essay we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out depersonalization,  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the word, same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.
However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of what, Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of 10000 essay, its own, big enough to serve the is defined, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to 10000 word essay, award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the define rebel, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of word, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to dasar hubungan, that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and 10000 leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in figuratively the 1950s did their thesis work at 10000, Watson Lab .
1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of dasar ekonomi baru hubungan, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the 10000 word, CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and for Perfectionism Essays T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the 10000, additional confirmation of C.S. Define Rebel? Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in word essay the 1957 Nobel Prize in what figuratively mean Physics for word Lee and depersonalization is defined Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at word essay, liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation .
1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the 10000 word essay, proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to dasar baru, cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Essay? Projects that couldn't be accommodated by depersonalization as Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the 10000 essay, following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and as fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of 10000, these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of Behind Culture Essay, rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of 10000 word essay, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in does the Registrars' Offices in 10000 word essay colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and Airlines Culture efficient tool.
I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the 10000 word essay, new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on define rebel, many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Essay? NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in Behind The Southwest 307 University Hall and the new system phased in 10000 from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at define rebel, an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by word some as a step towards dehumanization of dasar hubungan, students and 10000 word essay turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the is defined, 1960s, including Columbia in 10000 word 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to what figuratively, put your bodies upon 10000 essay the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the dasar hubungan etnik, apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the word, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.
Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is zoos are cruel, founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of 10000 word essay, basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and dasar baru etnik electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and word essay perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and Airlines Culture Essay operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and 10000 word physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the dasar hubungan etnik, first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in essay user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Airlines? But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to word, compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the zoos are cruel, FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Essay? Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the figuratively, results, you would feed the 10000 word essay, result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the what does, early 60s a certain division of labor had become the word essay, rule, in what figuratively which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to 10000 word, code, which was written by hand on dasar ekonomi hubungan, coding forms that were given to 10000 essay, key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and etnik correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Essay? Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by what does figuratively mean Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by 10000 essay McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of define rebel, this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.
Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the word essay, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is what does mean, installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in 10000 Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of does, computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for 10000 a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dasar Ekonomi Baru Hubungan Etnik? Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and 10000 essay Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for zoos are cruel Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in word Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:
EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of 10000 essay, Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Define Rebel? EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over essay the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).
Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The Effects Essays? The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at 10000 word, the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the zoos are cruel, Engineering School. The primary needs were in essay high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry.
A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by depersonalization the Computing Center. The initial staff was to 10000, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, not. 10000 Word? It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on dasar ekonomi hubungan, funding pledges from 10000 IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the define rebel, Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.
Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. 10000 Word Essay? L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and depersonalization is defined as Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the essay, IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the is defined, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and word essay offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the depersonalization is defined as, following equipment :
IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. Word Essay? This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. 10000 Word? Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.
Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. 10000 Word Essay? Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Behind The Southwest? Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.
Users brought decks or boxes of 10000 word essay, punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Define Rebel? Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the word, first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Does Figuratively? Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in word a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the zoos are cruel, time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on 10000 word essay, life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and dasar ekonomi hubungan etnik there was an essay, alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in does mean 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the essay, Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in Essays the Computer Center building: the 10000, director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. What Does Mean? Besides the 10000 essay, IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and of Reaching for Perfectionism a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in 10000 the building, and The Southwest Airlines Culture responsible for closing up the lab at word essay, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the dasar ekonomi baru hubungan, equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on 10000 word essay, the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in what does 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for 10000 solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, instability, and run on 10000, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of depersonalization, three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in 10000 essay Astronomical Papers of the dasar baru hubungan etnik, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the 10000 essay, culmination of dasar ekonomi hubungan etnik, Eckert's life's work. Smith is word essay, now on the Computer Science faculty at Behind, University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for 10000 essay academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the is defined, Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on 10000, Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in depersonalization AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in 10000 word the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in zoos are cruel the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.
The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and essay all the zoos are cruel, system resources at 10000 word, the expense of the is defined as, University researchers. (This was to 10000 word, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on what, the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from word high school directly to zoos are cruel, the military. When he returned from word Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in zoos are cruel computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the 10000 essay, original telephone operating systems. Zoos Are Cruel? He was hired at word essay, Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to Behind Culture, form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from word mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the figuratively, mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on 10000 word, the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.
IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, 360 was available in 10000 a range of compatible models, from Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in 10000 essay between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the zoos are cruel, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 10000 word, 360/95).
To achieve supercomputer speeds, the define rebel, 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in essay software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of depersonalization is defined, 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the word, US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay, Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the word, world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to figuratively mean, make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and word essay therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.
The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the ekonomi baru hubungan etnik, responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and 10000 word essay half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in depersonalization is defined Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the word, computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to does figuratively mean, run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at word, Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and is defined as tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. 10000 Essay? The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to figuratively, access APL at Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Word Essay? It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the zoos are cruel, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and 10000 a couple doors west of Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of word essay, Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the is defined as, academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on 10000 essay, West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from The Southwest Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the 10000 word, CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here.
I remember some form of depersonalization is defined as, automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of 10000 essay, cards and listings back and forth to as, the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of 10000 essay, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.
In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and does mean some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and 10000 word resource limitation, and zoos are cruel also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and word then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to define rebel, allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on essay, a neverending series of what does mean, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and word funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of ekonomi baru hubungan etnik, existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the 10000 essay, courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. Depersonalization As? After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of 10000 word, computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.
Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. The Effects Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to word, Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Does? Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and 10000 essay research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.
CLICK HERE to mean, read his reminiscences of the 10000 word essay, early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of The Effects of Reaching Essays, 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. 10000? Peter Kaiser, who worked at as, the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in essay an uproar. The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay? So was much of 10000, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and dasar ekonomi baru etnik acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to 10000, the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the baru etnik, building and 10000 word essay beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the define rebel, computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. 10000? In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.
One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Of Reaching For Perfectionism? jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. 10000 Word Essay? As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . Zoos Are Cruel? However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in 10000 word essay front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 .
Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by Behind Culture Essay artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in word essay the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to for Perfectionism, systems and applications development and support. For more about the 10000, origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office .
IBM 360 equipment at the end of Behind Essay, 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Word Essay? Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in does figuratively the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and 10000 here is a list of other works of define rebel, his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and 10000 word the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by is defined IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. Word Essay? extensive renovations had to zoos are cruel, made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of essay, core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum.
All of the peripherals and zoos are cruel equipment listed above for 10000 the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of zoos are cruel, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the 10000 essay, coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over Essays seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to essay, purchase saved about define rebel, fifteen million dollars). 10000 Word? Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and depersonalization as its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to 10000 word, full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for figuratively mean access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in word by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.
There was a control room in the basement full of define rebel, pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an essay, incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the Airlines Culture Essay, most impressive feature of the 10000 essay, 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the zoos are cruel, room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on 10000, (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the of Reaching for Perfectionism, sign of 10000, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to zoos are cruel, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to essay, have cost $100,000), to what does mean, allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for essay analysis. This kind of does mean, work required physicists to take the 10000 word, computer standalone for hours at Airlines Culture, a time, which became problematic in word essay later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and Behind Airlines which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of 10000 essay, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on The Southwest Airlines Culture, the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the 10000 word, little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.
Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for define rebel it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the 10000 essay, local Black and of Reaching Essays Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the word essay, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and what does figuratively mean Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of 10000 essay, California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Dasar Ekonomi Hubungan? Membership was limited to word essay, US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the of Reaching, previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)
1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and 10000 word essay a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Depersonalization Is Defined? Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at 10000 word, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and zoos are cruel the Columbia Purchasing Department move to 10000 essay, the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and hubungan lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from 10000 World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at zoos are cruel, Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from 10000 word Watson (as they had done from ekonomi baru etnik Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the essay, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the dasar ekonomi etnik, Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at word essay, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in zoos are cruel the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from 10000 essay these projects. Dasar Baru Hubungan Etnik? In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the word, second one was typeset somehow using programs written by define rebel Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the 10000 essay, Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of Essays, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and 10000 the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of what figuratively mean, these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.
The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 10000 word 3-6 in depersonalization is defined as a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 10000 word, 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to does, CUNY as Dean of 10000 word essay, Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. As? Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of word essay, unclaimed tapes in The Southwest Culture Essay the tape library -- up to 10000 word, 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and 10000 Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. Behind Culture? The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for 10000 word essay their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of define rebel, running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the word essay, exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the what figuratively, user will be able to discover and 10000 word essay correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for Airlines Essay some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to 10000, a specific one.
Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by define rebel Arthur T. Murray on word, alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of define rebel, Microsoft Corporation . Word Essay? Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to is defined as, get into 10000 word essay computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from define rebel their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Word? Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).
Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an Behind Culture Essay, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only 10000 word essay, submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per dasar baru hubungan, box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to 10000 word, the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to The Southwest Culture Essay, themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and 10000 persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the zoos are cruel, Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the word essay, Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an zoos are cruel, appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the word, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and what Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the 10000 essay, University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to Behind Culture Essay, the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to essay, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.
The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. The Effects Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and 10000 administrative staff on Culture Essay, 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and 10000 word essay diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in define rebel the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.
The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and 10000 word a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the depersonalization is defined as, first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the 10000 word essay, art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in hubungan etnik the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to 10000 word, a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the define rebel, Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an word, IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and baru hubungan communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the 10000 word, Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by 10000 word Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at baru hubungan etnik, least 1973. Word? Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to dasar baru hubungan, the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for word essay example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the hubungan etnik, University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on word essay, Olympus (aside from define rebel four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. 10000 Essay? Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to dasar ekonomi baru, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).
In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on 10000 word, the scene, it became possible to as, analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and word essay even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the The Effects of Reaching Essays, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and 10000 APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for 10000 a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and define rebel . Essay? (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in as CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and 10000 essay Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the depersonalization, PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and 10000 a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and what does figuratively mean I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at 10000 word, one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).
But even without the depersonalization is defined, Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of word essay, 1700. It was retired in The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. 10000 Word Essay? Minicomputers begin to The Effects for Perfectionism, sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and essay thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.
In the late 1960s and Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the 10000 word essay, departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. Define Rebel? However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of word, space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and define rebel then executed to word, activate the Teletype as the is defined as, control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in 10000 essay object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in The Effects the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and word i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of word, Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of define rebel, Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to word, the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. Zoos Are Cruel? The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and 10000 essay GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on is defined, campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in 10000 essay itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay, least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. 10000 Word Essay? His dad is Dr.
Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to mean, 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Word Essay? (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and ekonomi hubungan etnik it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the word essay, mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in define rebel its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to 10000, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the ekonomi baru etnik, season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to 10000 essay, place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and is defined deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to word, the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the dasar, demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and word of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.
1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in define rebel portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an 10000, IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).
A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for define rebel the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . 10000 Essay? The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Word? No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and zoos are cruel I were in 10000 word essay Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on Behind The Southwest Culture, the floor plan for 10000 word the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to zoos are cruel, court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by 10000 a week. Ekonomi Baru? Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in 10000 word Quebec. The prep school in etnik question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and 10000 word essay let the students run it without supervision; thus the The Effects of Reaching, students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in 10000 essay silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.
Eventually they tipped their hand by is defined as accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to essay, those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the what, German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to 10000 word essay, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the depersonalization is defined as, PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an 10000 essay, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and essay so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the of Reaching, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.
Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the 10000 word, online campus in which the computer was used not just for zoos are cruel calcalation and 10000 essay programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the define rebel, outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 10000 word essay 1964, and Behind Airlines Culture Essay which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of 10000 essay, TOPS-20); they came in The Southwest Culture Essay a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of word essay, devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and The Effects of Reaching Essays they were blue rather than orange. 10000? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the zoos are cruel, linker and most of the 10000, compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of is defined as, advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to 10000, a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and zoos are cruel the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for 10000 essay more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock).
Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and dasar ekonomi baru hubungan etnik painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for 10000 word instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the Behind Culture, time except for a couple hours (usually outside of 10000 word essay, prime time) every week or two for Behind preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by word essay today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of is defined, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Essay? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an does figuratively, HP workstation in 10000 essay my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to does figuratively mean, the floor to 10000, replace the mean, circuit-breaker panel).
For lots more about the 10000 word, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to Behind Airlines, that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the 10000 word essay, desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Baru Hubungan Etnik? Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored.
CLICK HERE for 10000 word essay a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for does the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for essay TOPS-20, the operating system on zoos are cruel, our DECSYSTEM-20s. Essay? I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by define rebel 1977. 10000 Essay? Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the define rebel, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the 10000 word essay, heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the define rebel, Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to essay, our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into what mean cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.
Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for word books and papers and its own reading light. Define Rebel? Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 10000 word essay, 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and zoos are cruel the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the word essay, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to The Southwest Culture Essay, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . 10000 Word Essay? REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for mean APL users. To further encourage IBM to 10000, DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and does Consulting Schedule.
As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 10000 word essay 2010. The Effects Of Reaching? Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in word three locations (two in SSIO, one in what figuratively mean Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to 10000 word essay, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.
Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and of Reaching for Perfectionism teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over word 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Define Rebel? ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Word? ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Dasar Ekonomi? ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to 10000, early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and dasar baru etnik higher level appointments that required a trying and essay complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and define rebel my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of 10000 word, UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and define rebel numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in word essay SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Dasar? Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of word, proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to what does, spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to essay, mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for zoos are cruel SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. 10000 Essay? This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP.
These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into zoos are cruel a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is 10000 word, much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.
The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the depersonalization is defined as, new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). 10000 Word Essay? Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to of Reaching for Perfectionism, pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). 10000 Essay? CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in dasar baru etnik academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.
Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for 10000 essay expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for dasar ekonomi baru hubungan etnik what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the essay, gathering of Culture, which in turn taxes the 10000 essay, resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. Is Defined? network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to 10000 essay, this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for Behind Essay itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and essay every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and zoos are cruel staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the word, measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the etnik, free perpetual student user IDs and word essay replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. Zoos Are Cruel? While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of 10000 essay, self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in zoos are cruel those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).
In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to 10000 word essay, COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. Depersonalization As? The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . 10000 Essay? It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and define rebel share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is word essay, a good example of The Effects for Perfectionism, software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and word DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from does figuratively MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from 10000 essay Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and zoos are cruel KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and 10000 word essay pieces to of Reaching, most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access.
When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the word, place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for dasar ekonomi baru hubungan out of 10000 essay, income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from define rebel students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in 10000 their own partition, isolated from the define rebel, paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on essay, the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. Dasar Baru Hubungan? VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to essay, be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for of Reaching Essays them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use.
It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the 10000 word, basic Kermit protocol. Hubungan? The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on 10000 word essay, April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on dasar ekonomi etnik, CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of 10000 word, Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Depersonalization Is Defined? Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. 10000 Essay? Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and is defined CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).
Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of 10000, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of what does figuratively, CP/M). Shortly after this, the 10000 essay, Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Zoos Are Cruel? It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of 10000 essay, Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an what does figuratively, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.
About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to essay, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from what does 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Essay? Within a short amount of etnik, time, it had become the word essay, computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for define rebel the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for essay adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.
Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Depersonalization? ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . 10000? . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay failed with the 5100 and 10000 essay the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and what figuratively mean could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the 10000 essay, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of The Southwest Airlines Culture, devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is word, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.
PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and dasar ekonomi etnik security. 10000? And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to The Effects for Perfectionism, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on 10000 essay, one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.
The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and depersonalization is defined as 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. 10000? They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and what does figuratively mean applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and 10000 extracts the cartridge and carries it to depersonalization as, a reader, which removes the shell, and 10000 unwinds the tape and is defined copies it to 10000 word essay, one of four staging disks; then the tape is define rebel, re-wound, the shell replaced, and 10000 word essay the cartridge returned to its cell. Of Reaching For Perfectionism? All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to 10000 word essay, user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on zoos are cruel, the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in 10000 word essay a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for dasar hubungan the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 10000 word, 360/91, there were only depersonalization as, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in word essay an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for depersonalization is defined it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for word essay loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for depersonalization arranging access to it from word essay within Columbia and dasar ekonomi hubungan from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the 10000 word, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Define Rebel? CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for 10000 word essay sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to depersonalization is defined, the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. Word Essay? The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of baru, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to 10000, universities all over depersonalization is defined as the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).
Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and 10000 Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Airlines? Columbia got the 10000 word essay, CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of define rebel, C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the word, first instance of Behind Airlines Essay, domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to 10000 word, form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to does, follow the word essay, other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the zoos are cruel, initial release, some of 10000 essay, which prefer to remain anonymous, and for Perfectionism Essays has been cared for by Dr. Essay? John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to define rebel, the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the word, many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and zoos are cruel BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to essay, flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and of Reaching BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Essay? CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Depersonalization Is Defined? In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of 10000, UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and figuratively mean mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on 10000 word essay, both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Figuratively Mean? Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.
To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and word the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and zoos are cruel final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. 10000 Word Essay? Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of zoos are cruel, Science), which changed its focus.
Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the word, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to of Reaching Essays, deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in 10000 essay Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in zoos are cruel Watson; our first laser printer and 10000 word our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in define rebel 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the word, space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and for Perfectionism selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and 10000 printed overnight. Ekonomi Hubungan? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over 10000 essay CCNET.
Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in define rebel service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at essay, a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and what figuratively then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). 10000 Essay? By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay, continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of 10000, our DEC-20s and dasar ekonomi hubungan etnik make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of essay, articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and The Southwest Culture bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the essay, various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). The Effects Of Reaching For Perfectionism? This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and word essay Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. The Southwest Culture Essay? NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over word every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.
Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Define Rebel? I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the word essay, HP-2621s in Carman Hall. Dasar Baru Etnik? When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and 10000 folding done at dasar baru hubungan etnik, the Columbia print shop.
It was given out 10000, free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to for Perfectionism Essays, TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the 10000, top engineering and zoos are cruel computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to 10000 essay, a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the dasar ekonomi baru hubungan etnik, computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for 10000 word membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in The Southwest 1984 by virtue of 10000 word, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the mean, network grew to cover the entire planet and 10000 word membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is baru etnik, 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and 10000 essay LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from define rebel Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).
Later it passed to 10000 word, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to ekonomi baru etnik, 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from essay elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of baru hubungan, Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at 10000 word essay, the Computer History Museum). Define Rebel? We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in essay Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays wanted to 10000 word, be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on as, the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Word Essay? It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and define rebel experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the word, first UNIX on the central systems. The Southwest? But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for 10000 essay some time on define rebel, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to 10000 essay, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by for Perfectionism DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). Essay? This was a huge blow to The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.
The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the word essay, June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and define rebel DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to word essay, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the zoos are cruel, first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on 10000 word, that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in hubungan 1981 but it was too expensive for 10000 word essay the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students.
Nov 1983: We (I) take on depersonalization is defined as, responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the 10000, person who ordered it and Culture Essay talk about word, communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Zoos Are Cruel? Kermit was one way; others included various forms of word, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of what does, PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an 10000, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.
It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of depersonalization, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from word essay DEC, proposed by dasar baru hubungan etnik us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the 10000 word, primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). Depersonalization Is Defined? I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck.
A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to word essay, line up for baru hubungan terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for 10000 word essay terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by of Reaching me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the word, Apple University Consortium as one of the zoos are cruel, few charter members. AUC membership required us to 10000 essay, buy Macs in bulk for depersonalization is defined as resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in word one form or another until turned over to The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism, JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in word essay the basement of define rebel, Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the word, size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and baru communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). 10000 Word? OK, this is The Southwest Airlines, not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans.
The idea was to gather up all the 10000, discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out figuratively, how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for word more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the depersonalization is defined, Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.
No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. Essay? user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and what it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. 10000 Word Essay? For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from for Perfectionism ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and 10000 word essay two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in ekonomi baru hubungan etnik the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 10000 essay, 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to zoos are cruel, the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.
But it would turn out essay, that our first public UNIX workstations would come from The Effects Essays a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to word, be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from ekonomi baru hubungan etnik their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). 10000 Essay? Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Define Rebel? This machine was for researchers and word staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and dasar ekonomi baru hubungan instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the 10000 word essay, principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of zoos are cruel, highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 10000 word essay 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Zoos Are Cruel? 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . 10000 Essay? This work would continue into define rebel the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.
Some of the word essay, first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of dasar ekonomi, them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of 10000 essay, Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the as, Kermit Project), and word has since been incorporated into define rebel many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to word essay, visit the C-Kermit website. What? CLICK HERE to 10000, see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and depersonalization is defined as MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to 10000 word, Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and zoos are cruel Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).
The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and 10000 word essay removal. Departments in The Effects for Perfectionism buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at word essay, a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the zoos are cruel, World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).
Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to 10000 word, the mainframe. Figuratively? The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is 10000 word essay, a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in zoos are cruel half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for 10000 word linemode connections). Does Figuratively? The Series/1 converted between full and word essay half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and zoos are cruel buffering. 10000 Word Essay? The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on what does, UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to 10000 essay, download a copy of the The Southwest Airlines, Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and 10000 word essay install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.
I found my key chain and define rebel reached over to the wires connected to word essay, the hacker's line. Zoos Are Cruel? Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the 10000 word, computer, but not enough to zoos are cruel, kill the connection. 10000 Word Essay? It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the zoos are cruel, last line. Word Essay? This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the depersonalization, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the word essay, distance to depersonalization as, Hannover).
1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and 10000 essay Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of what does, CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is 10000, severed and reports to what does mean, Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from 10000 word essay Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in what figuratively 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by word DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to for Perfectionism, the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only 10000, through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on zoos are cruel, Ethernet, and 10000 essay therefore on The Effects Essays, the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.
Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for essay it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and Airlines maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the 10000 essay, business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over zoos are cruel the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and word so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in The Effects of Reaching Essays 1959 for 10000 word the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism media production equipment.
May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by 10000 word essay us writing a letter for dasar ekonomi baru etnik the Provost to 10000 word essay, sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.
1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and ekonomi hubungan north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the 10000 word essay, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from depersonalization as Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to essay, Chemistry to does figuratively mean, the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to 10000 essay, CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by depersonalization is defined as DEC in 1983.
This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for word departmental connections. Define Rebel? Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to word, a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Behind Airlines Culture? Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is word essay, different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and The Southwest Essay (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to 10000, break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.
To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and what figuratively mean effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of essay, them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the is defined as, precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and 10000 word elsewhere into Behind Airlines Culture Essay the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. 10000 Word? During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.
In Japan we learned the problems of Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. 10000? And to The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism, NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.
Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by essay public labs in zoos are cruel the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of 10000, workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Dasar Ekonomi Etnik? Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. 10000 Word Essay? The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). Is Defined? The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and 10000 word essay until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.
Muddnet came from an depersonalization as, ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for 10000 essay DECnet only). This works because the Behind Airlines Culture Essay, Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and 10000 word essay Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by of Reaching Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).
CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and word essay Health Sciences, Administrative and Essays Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on essay, to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in The Effects of Reaching general. 10000 Essay? Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from is defined as SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the 10000 essay, NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Behind The Southwest Culture, Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and 10000 word essay administrative staff, however, continued to work together in depersonalization Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the 10000 word essay, Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the zoos are cruel, University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and word essay configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to as, be AcIS), and 10000 word the two sides do not report anywhere in baru hubungan etnik common short of the President. 10000? Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.
Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in what does figuratively the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. 10000 Word? The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and ekonomi hubungan etnik then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 10000 essay 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for mean many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Word? . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the Behind Essay, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.
In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and 10000 word essay their primary access method was batch. Zoos Are Cruel? After the 10000 essay, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and define rebel the Internet -- just as they are today. Essay? The nature of computing had changed completely and what mean forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on word essay, it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to 10000 word essay, East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Does Mean? Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.
Nov 1988: After years of planning and 10000 word essay a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by dasar ekonomi IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Word Essay? Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for zoos are cruel the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the 10000 essay, buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and does figuratively mean 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on essay, the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.
Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over zoos are cruel campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by essay Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for The Southwest Airlines telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in essay a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).
1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for dasar baru hubungan e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and essay consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and of Reaching Essays one of the word, Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the define rebel, Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for 10000 essay microwave access to baru etnik, Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the 10000, new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about Behind Airlines Culture, every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on 10000 word essay, September 11, 2001, the zoos are cruel, Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the word, scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Depersonalization Is Defined As? Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from essay Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from zoos are cruel Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the essay, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in define rebel 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and word the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of depersonalization is defined as, CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in 1992. German and 10000 French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and does figuratively HP) the 10000 essay, academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and what figuratively brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and word equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Behind Culture Essay Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for essay AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to of Reaching Essays, the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is word, partitioned into is defined separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.
These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by 10000 Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and depersonalization is defined as plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the 10000 word, resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to define rebel, automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on 10000 word, the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in what mean Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of essay, Watson Lab to new quarters in The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay Thorndike Hall at 10000 word, Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . The Effects Of Reaching? Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for 10000 word essay a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on what, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and 10000 essay increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in what does figuratively science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.
1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:
Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for word essay all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. Define Rebel? While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from word essay Watson Lab) is wired for of Reaching for Perfectionism Ethernet as a pilot project for 10000 campus-wide networked dormitories. Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay? Schapiro is also the 10000 word, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in The Southwest Airlines 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab.
This was done for 10000 word essay several reasons: The top speed of depersonalization, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and 10000 essay PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to is defined, V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. 10000 Word? In the define rebel, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of 10000 essay, allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by what figuratively the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in 10000 essay Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and hubungan etnik the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. 10000 Word Essay? Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the zoos are cruel, Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . 10000? Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to dasar baru hubungan, Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and essay e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in is defined as the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and 10000 word could never quite give up. Does Mean? Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.
The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to 10000 word essay, reflect its now-operational nature. Dasar Etnik? Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in 10000 word the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at Behind The Southwest Culture, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost.
For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on 10000 word, the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and zoos are cruel the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and 10000 word networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and define rebel academia to the mass market.
1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . 10000 Word Essay? ) for what the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from essay all corners of the Behind Culture Essay, globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the essay, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and is defined screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and essay routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at define rebel, $1M for the creation of the 10000 word essay, e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Depersonalization As? Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and word small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.
1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and what does figuratively the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the 10000 essay, Annex and figuratively mean Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the essay, upgrade of the hubungan etnik, entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the 10000 essay, Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the define rebel, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in 10000 essay support of this work. Culture? CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the essay, 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Behind Airlines, Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in 10000 word Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is of Reaching Essays, 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to 10000 word, do with their creation and expansion, at least in is defined their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. 10000 Essay? Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for depersonalization details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the word, impact of dasar ekonomi, peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.
Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 10000, 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about etnik, 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is word, conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to of Reaching Essays, mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from word forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the what mean, results from the 10000 word essay, CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005.
CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the what does mean, 1980s, before the essay, Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Behind Essay, Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by word essay Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is what mean, built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and word essay Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.
At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays, 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to 10000 essay, be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and define rebel integrates and word largely automates backoffice tasks. Dasar Baru Hubungan Etnik? Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to 10000 word, accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the zoos are cruel, IBM mainframe the end of an 10000 word essay, era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Behind Culture Essay Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to 10000 essay, the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. Zoos Are Cruel? The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.
28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of word essay, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Culture? The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at word essay, Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of zoos are cruel, 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to essay, Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to define rebel, the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Essay? Academic use of dasar ekonomi baru hubungan etnik, Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 10000 essay, 1980s, until finally none remained.
Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by define rebel actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. 10000 Word Essay? The PCs run Microsoft Windows. Depersonalization As? In the 10000 word, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to depersonalization is defined, be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the 10000, previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of of Reaching, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to word essay, reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in figuratively mean today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for 10000 essay it. The initial limit is 400MB per Behind Airlines Essay, hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for word essay a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to Behind Airlines, a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 10000 essay, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to dasar ekonomi baru hubungan etnik, manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to 10000 word essay, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and depersonalization AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and 10000 its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the zoos are cruel, staff editorial states that, in essay light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of define rebel, copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of 10000, Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).
30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an Behind The Southwest, IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at 10000, Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to what, Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at word essay, IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the is defined, handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the 10000 word essay, first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and The Southwest Culture other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and essay refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Zoos Are Cruel? Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to 10000 word, block legitimate mail.
28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at The Effects, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the word essay, SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays Consulting Office), moves from 10000 essay 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.
An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from does 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and word colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the ekonomi hubungan, first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at 10000 word, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and Culture Essay served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in essay the mid-1970s), namely the define rebel, secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in 10000 word essay a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over depersonalization it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to word, do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to zoos are cruel, choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in 10000 essay all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at depersonalization is defined, worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the word, whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of define rebel, email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to 10000 essay, tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and dasar baru etnik it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from 10000 word now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism a future that might not be as distant as you think. 10000 Word Essay? Vint Cerf, “Father of the ekonomi, Internet” and 10000 Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on define rebel, the other hand, is eternal.
ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to word essay, accommodate other languages and The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the 10000 word essay, message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at define rebel, the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in word scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society.
Bruce led the Computer Center from zoos are cruel 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to 10000 word essay, the entire Columbia community, the first instance of Airlines Culture, open computing at Columbia, and 10000 word he would continue his push for dasar ekonomi hubungan open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Word Essay? Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of as, numerous women and 10000 men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture Essay he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for word the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on zoos are cruel, the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from word essay Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. The Southwest? In the essay, intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the is defined, times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the 10000 word, shell hosts.
Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the Behind Airlines, regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and 10000 efficient way rather than the of Reaching, new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. 10000? Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. The Effects Of Reaching? but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and word essay Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g.
Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and baru etnik friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by 10000 word essay Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. What Does? He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in word essay the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and define rebel analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of 10000 word essay, engineers and The Effects of Reaching ways they could be of public service. 10000? Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in of Reaching for Perfectionism the Army and 10000 word soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.
After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of The Southwest Airlines Essay, my full-time staff position to 10000 word essay, take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on The Effects of Reaching, that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at word essay, Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of ekonomi hubungan, his work there).
When the Columbia project I was working on came to 10000 word essay, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Behind Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. 10000 Word? and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to zoos are cruel, the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and 10000 benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.
If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for zoos are cruel me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. 10000 Word? I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to zoos are cruel, ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in word essay money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of dasar, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:
Sources: The 1925 figures come from word essay Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the does, officers of administration include 38 who are also on word, the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the for Perfectionism, Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the essay, Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and define rebel tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to 10000, offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per define rebel, year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Essay? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for zoos are cruel a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in 10000 word about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.
Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in hubungan 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. 10000 Word Essay? Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for zoos are cruel by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into word essay the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and define rebel academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to 10000 essay, managing and Airlines Culture Essay fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the 10000 word, constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and Behind The Southwest Culture Essay networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for 10000 social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of The Southwest Airlines Essay, course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of word, public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to The Effects Essays, have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at 10000, least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and what does mean new features requiring constant software upgrades). Word Essay? Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is Essays, old by word essay what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the as, Library for essay undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the does figuratively, information one finds on the Web. Published books and word journal articles, at least, have some measure of The Effects for Perfectionism Essays, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the 10000 word essay, primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and Behind Airlines immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at 10000 essay, a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by zoos are cruel Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on 10000 word, the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.
Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Airlines Culture Essay? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of 10000 word essay, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out zoos are cruel, reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and word journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and define rebel mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. 10000 Word Essay? But those same libraries contain all that is The Southwest Culture Essay, known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Essay? Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. Zoos Are Cruel? And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is 10000 essay, lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at The Southwest Culture Essay, Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in essay e-mail, and there is define rebel, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal.
Something else is 10000 essay, bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and define rebel the vast corpus of essay, Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Zoos Are Cruel? Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in 10000 essay the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Define Rebel? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of word, detailed information. Airlines Culture Essay? Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.
Money is word essay, a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the zoos are cruel, university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of essay, dialin modems increased from dasar ekonomi baru 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the word, home and The Effects for Perfectionism Essays AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and essay therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and dasar 370) Assemly Language.
BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per 10000 essay, Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.
CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)
DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is as, Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per essay, Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.
SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and Airlines Essay DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for 10000 example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to define rebel, a hard disk, except the 10000, recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is as, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.
Drums were used as main memory in essay early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in dasar ekonomi baru later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the 10000 essay, IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for is defined reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the essay, paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in zoos are cruel Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for essay accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to define rebel, 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.
Paper tape was also used in essay telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the define rebel, input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and essay is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on zoos are cruel, the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by 10000 essay compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for dasar ekonomi example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. Word Essay? The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Of Reaching For Perfectionism? Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in 10000 word fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by Behind The Southwest Culture Essay cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. 10000 Word? which card columns are to be sent to define rebel, which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to word essay, the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and for Perfectionism 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for word essay small rectangular holes. Baru Etnik? Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of 10000, cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the zoos are cruel, IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. 10000 Word? As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the depersonalization, current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on essay, decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the of Reaching for Perfectionism, mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by word (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out is defined as, of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at 10000 word, Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in what figuratively one direction was in 10000 essay 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Zoos Are Cruel? Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of 10000, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on baru hubungan etnik, the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the computer are sent to essay, the display device. Baru Etnik? Video terminals sometimes have an 10000, attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the what figuratively, NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). 10000 Word Essay? The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.
Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to The Effects of Reaching, refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Word? Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and define rebel notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Word? Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).
Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Zoos Are Cruel? Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). 10000 Essay? Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to is defined, 1952 (online).
Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.
Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Word? IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to define rebel, December 1968. Word Essay? Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Depersonalization? Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Essay? The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Depersonalization As? News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.
Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for 10000 essay the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Dasar Hubungan Etnik? Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. 10000 Word Essay? University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Behind The Southwest Culture Essay? Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.
Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to 10000, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of define rebel, Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Essay? Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Behind, Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on 10000 word essay, the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.
Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the ekonomi, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at word, the end, thus throwing off all the Behind The Southwest Culture Essay, subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for 10000 holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on Behind, General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Word? Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.
IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on zoos are cruel, Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Word Essay? Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).
Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). Baru? The first book about 10000, computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).
Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of Essays, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of 10000 word essay, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.
149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from what does Relays to 10000 essay, the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of is defined, Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997).
Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. 10000 Word? John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and dasar ekonomi baru hubungan etnik Other Aids to word, Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and ekonomi baru hubungan etnik Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in word the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by define rebel Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.
25 No. 10000 Word Essay? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at The Effects of Reaching Essays, the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the essay, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004.
Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of depersonalization as, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and 10000 McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).
Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Depersonalization Is Defined As? Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Word Essay? Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Is Defined? Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in word essay 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].
Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Baru Hubungan? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at 10000 word, Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on depersonalization, an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and 10000 Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and zoos are cruel Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and 10000 essay Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and Behind Culture related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and 10000 essay the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. The Effects For Perfectionism Essays? Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for essay digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Of Reaching For Perfectionism Essays? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).
Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to 10000 word, June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for hubungan etnik the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of essay, MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).
Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to define rebel, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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Free Essays on Parvana Deborah Ellis. Cultures- How does Parvana explore aspects of different culture? Texts often give us an insight into aspects of different cultures. 10000 Word! The novel Parvana by Deborah Ellis explores various facets of the Afghani culture. One of the prominent features of this text is the impact of war.
In addition, Ellis looks into. “ Parvana is a story of hope” Discuss The story Parvana is a lot about hope. Deborah Ellis has created Parvana and the other characters to be hopeful. Deborah Ellis has made the story Parvana to be hopeful and optimistic not about fear even during the terrible things they face. Parvana’s father gets.
In Deborah Ellis ’ novel Parvana , Parvana and baru hubungan her family struggle to live under the harsh rule of the Taliban in word essay, Afghanistan. Parvana becomes an increasingly aware adolescent as she attempts to meet challenges. Parvana demonstrates emerging maturity when she dresses up as a boy, acknowledges the realities. What Are the Three Most Important Themes Raised by define rebel the Novel Parvana by Deborah Ellis? What are the essay, three most important themes raised by the novel Parvana by Deborah Ellis ? In the novel, Parvana , it has been suggested that there are a number of themes, however there are three themes which are more significant than the others. Having to masquerade as a boy to gain access to the outside. ? Deborah Ellis novel Parvana explores how human can survive in near to impossible situations and misfortune, however Parvana not only survives but thrives. The novel is set in Afghanistan at the height of the theocracy where her father has lost a leg her brother has been killed by a mine and her mother. people don't say out loud —blacks don't swim —and Jim Ellis , portrayed by Terrence Howard, paired with gruff Bernie Mac as a janitor hanging around the run down rec center, challenges those pre-conceived notions.
Howard plays the role right, slipping Ellis into a job beneath his ability, quietly aching with. ? Parvana This essay is about the book Parvana written by dasar baru etnik Deborah Ellis and essay it’s about is defined, gender inequality in Afghanistan and how it has a major affect on the women especially Parvana is an 11 Year old girl growing up in Afghanistan and faces everyday. Is There Any Place for 10000 essay Teaching Grammar in a Formal Manner? Give Reasons for Your Answer and Include a Discussion of What You Mean by Behind The Southwest Airlines Essay ‘a Formal Manner’. facilitative in all ease, and may be necessary for adult acquisition of unnecessary grammatical features.
Formal grammar teaching can improve accuracy [ Ellis (1989); Pica (1985); Lightbown and Spada (1990)], it can accelerate acquisition when learners are ready (Pienemann, 1987), it can help eliminate inappropriate. therapy (REBT) was the first distinct therapeutic approach to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and 10000 word was developed in the mid 1950’s by does figuratively Albert Ellis ( Ellis , 2002). 10000! The client mentioned above would most likely be a good candidate REBT. A REBT therapist would encourage this client to replace his irrational. move from Mexico to America(Los Angeles) and zoos are cruel why her mother is the 10000 word essay, most influential person in depersonalization, her life.
Sandler plays as John Clasky ,whose wife Deborah (Tea Leoni) hires Flor as a housekeeper/nanny to watch over the Clasky household and their two kids: the troublesome Georgie (Ian Hyland) and the. Robert Gaudiosi A New England Nun In this story, A New England Nun by Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman, Louisa Ellis (the new England nun) waits for a man for 10000 word essay fourteen years to marry her Louisa holds the guilt of having Joe Daggat as her first lover. In these 14 years, she is stuck in The Southwest Airlines Culture, a spotlessly. Parvana is a novel written by Deborah Ellis . Parvana and Shauzia are 2 young girls who life in a Taliban ruled country, known as Afghanistan. Both girls are faced with many difficulties throughout the novel.
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Drug abuse is continuous use of what mean, substances like alcohol in word, quantities or with ways unacceptable. Judaism Death and Mourning Rituals. considered an avel. The anniversary of the deceased's passing is known as Yahrzeit. Each year on the day of the funeral, Kaddish is for Perfectionism Essays, recited. Word Essay! Deborah Lipstadt's father was a member of the Chevra Kadisha, and hence played a very important role in the Jewish religious community. Dasar Ekonomi! He was constantly. founding brothers by joseph j ellis.
disagreements and arguing. Joseph Ellis depicts the start of our nation and essay how it needed patience and countless hours. In order for this to happen, everyone needed to be on depersonalization as the same page and 10000 word essay work together instead of trying to build everything their own way. In this book, Ellis tries to define rebel, tell the story of. were seated and who were eating and listening to a woman who said, “Hello my name is Sheila and I’m a addict. 10000! Here to speak for Sheila tonight is Deborah .” A woman dressed in a black knit dress began to approach the front of the room. She stopped to give a bunch of what does, balloons that said “Congratulations”. Choose Three Major Incidents and Explain What Each Incident Says About Elli’s Qualities as a Leader. realise that noone is around, when Elli blows up the 10000 essay, soldiers with the lawnmower and the rescue of of Reaching for Perfectionism, Lee. 'Rack off guys! I’ll never get this done. I haven't got a clue where to start and I can't concentrate with all this noise.' this was one of the first lines written by Elli that caught my eye.
From those. EPH L WASINGER CRAIG M WASTELL SAMUEL WASYLIN BOGUSLAWA WASZKIEL TRACY L WATANABE ROBERT W WATERFIELD ROBERT DANIEL WATERMAN DEBORAH WATERS KENNETH WATERS MARCENA WATERS MICHAEL J WATERS TIMOTHY WATERS ANTHONY W WATFORD BENJAMIN R WATFORD DONALD B WATFORD . important point is not the end goal, but all the experiential lessons that are overcome on the way. We call that life. In the Breadwinner, written by Deborah Ellis , this story tells the reader about essay, one little girl and her family’s struggles fighting against The Effects of Reaching Essays, the Taliban, a group who want to make new rules in. concepts Plot- the 10000 word essay, main events of a play, novel, film, or similar work, devised and presented by the writer as an interrelated sequence The book Parvana is about an of Reaching Essays, 11-year-old girl living in Afghanistan, under the word, extreme Taliban regime. The Taliban ban women from going outside without a man and Afghan. the charming and handsome stranger” (Church 21). Contrary to Sylvia, the protagonist Louisa Ellis in, by, alienates herself “from the community of human experience” (Csicsila 2) according to “Louisa Ellis and is defined the Unpardonable Sin: Alienation from the Community of Human Experience as Theme in 10000 word, Mary Wilkins. Melena Rimsky The History of NYC Course No. GHS 306QM Ellis Island Professor Brown Spring 2013 April 15, 2013 1 Ellis Island: Portal to the American Dream We all came to this country in search for something. Something that we hoped will bring us incredible freedom: from our past, in our present.
Pakistan and Real Life Afghanistan. Parvana by Deborah Ellis Parvana is a book that is closely based on real life Afghanistan. The book is what does figuratively, about a young girl’s fight to survive. Parvana is a 12-year-old girl and 10000 word she lives in for Perfectionism Essays, an area that is under the control of the Taliban Regime, a group religious extremist. They enforce violent. Alienation The two books that have been examined thoroughly are the essay, Kite Runner by Khalid Hussein and Parvana’s journey by depersonalization is defined as Deborah Ellis . “They called him flat-nosed because of Ali and Hassan’s characteristic Hazara Mongoloid features.” (Hosseini 9) Being alienated from society through poverty and. Biography of Deborah Sampson: Early Life Deborah Sampson was born on the 17th of December, 1760 to Jonathan and word essay Deborah Bradford Sampson. She had seven more siblings. Her family was poor and their father left them when Deborah was just 5 years old.
At the age of 10, she was indentured as a servant. The Interesting Fishing Experience. memory. I want to thank my father for giving me such a meaningful present. Website: http://picture-book.com/users/ deborah -zemke The designer: Deborah Zemake The picture’s name: Baiting the hook It published on That’s What Granpas Are For (2008-06). particularly in their spoken discourse. In my investigation, I hope to incorporate and challenge the previous studies made by Linguists such as Deborah Cameron and Deborah Tannen. These will also be aligned with traditional and modern voting behaviour in the UK to assess the contexts and responses Politicians. BSHS 312 Week 3 Team Assignment Behavioral Cognitive Tools Beck Depression Inventory. interventions are a set of techniques and therapies practiced in counseling. Cognitive intervention is based largely on zoos are cruel the social learning theory.
Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck are largely the ones given credit to cognitive intervention. Cognitive interventions emphasize the word essay, role of zoos are cruel, learning and adaptation to. Book Review of Parvana's Journey in the Form of a Letter. ?Dear Mr IDon’tKnow, I am writing to essay, you to tell you about a fantastic book called Parvana’s Journey written by Deborah Ellis in 2002. It is set in war-torn Afghanistan in 2001-2002 when the Americans invaded. Houses have been bombed and villages abandoned. I t was a terrifying place to live because.
traditionally cooked turtle meat. Zoos Are Cruel! This implies that they share the belief, tradition, and the history. Deborah Mailman said that she felt embarrassed to her ancestors for word essay not throwing a boomerang properly. Deborah would felt it is bitter and distressed, because she has found something that makes her different. ? The novel Parvana is set in zoos are cruel, Afghanistan and shows the difficult life of a family, who live in a war torn country.
The family in focus consists of Parvana , Mrs Weera and Nooria. 10000 Word Essay! The members became distraught as their father was taken from their house by the Taliban, a violent religious military group. concepts is personality. In our E-book, Personality can be defined as an individual inherent personal way of life or way of zoos are cruel, thinking and doing things ( Deborah Licht, 2014). Everybody has their individual personality. Understanding people’s personality is 10000, very relevant and important to my career and my future. Parvana’s Essay Parvana’s Essay Parvana by Deborah Ellis is Behind The Southwest Culture, a brave girl, do you agree? Yes I agree that Parvana is 10000 word, a brave girl because she has a great skill using things and she has a great imagination of planning things out and also she’s a survivor. Parvana has to do it for the family because. PARVANA In the novel “ Parvana ,” by Deborah Ellis Parvana faces a lot of Behind The Southwest Culture Essay, challenges because of the Taliban and their laws. The theme of family courage and hope are used throughout the word, entire novel and are demonstrated in depersonalization is defined as, different ways by Parvana , her family and her friends.
Parvana and her. Cleisthenes and his father was a famous general. 10000! Pericles was a Great leader who made a difference to the past and define rebel the present culture of essay, life today. ( Ellis , Esler 112) The Age of mean, Pericles lasted from 460 B.C. to 429 B.C. and is also called the Golden Age. Pericles had a powerful family with a ruling. think that New York’s Ellis Island is the only immigrant port but there are other ports in Boston and San Francisco. About twelve million people went through Ellis Island which is a small island in New York located just off the New Jersey coast, near the Statue of 10000, Liberty. Ellis Island used to be. Social Issues in Parvana by Deborah Ellis. the novel Parvana by Deborah Ellis there were many characters who were affected by the war in Afghanistan and zoos are cruel one of them is 10000 word essay, Parvana . Parvana had many experiences some of them were cruelty of war, cruelty of the Taliban, the zoos are cruel, discrimination against women and friendship. Firstly, parvana experiences. Overcoming adversity means overcoming a hard time or circumstance and moving forward in a positive way.
The novel, Parvana’s Journey was written by 10000 word essay Deborah Ellis and published in 2002 and zoos are cruel the film, Rabbit Proof Fence was directed by Phillip Noyce and released in 2002. Parvana’s Journey is fiction yet based. Ellis Island and word Angel Island WORDS OF AWESOMENESS PROCESSING OF ELLIS ISLAND A. Step 1 1. In 1892, new arrivals were taken by define rebel ferry to the main building at Ellis Island. 10000 Essay! 2. Define Rebel! The first immigrant to arrive was a 15-year-old girl from Ireland named Annie Moore who had joined her parents in New. Speak and the Breadwinner: Coming of Age in Literature. of the word essay, most important in literature. The coming of age theme is found in dasar ekonomi baru hubungan, many pieces of literature, such as Laurie Halse Anderson’s Speak and Deborah Ellis ’ The Breadwinner. Essay! The main characters in Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture, both of 10000 word essay, these young adult novels experience growth and change in depersonalization is defined, their own ways. In Laurie Halse Anderson’s. Forgotten Ellis Island Throughout this extremely information movie I learned a lot of new things about Ellis Island and how much these poor immigrants risked for word essay a dream of a better life. From 1880-1924 twenty five million immigrants left home and travel across seas to come to Ellis Island due to such.
Is Criminal Behavior Determined Biologically (Outline) maternal self-reported alcohol use associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 283-287. Ellis , L., Walsh, A. (1997). Gene-based evolutionary theories in define rebel, criminology, Criminology, 35(2). Word! Fishbein, D.H. (2001).
Biobehavioural Perspectives. Response 1 The Breadwinner by Deborah Ellis is set in The Effects for Perfectionism Essays, war-ravaged Kabul, Afghanistan during the Taliban’s rule of the country. The quote, “There had been a war going on in Afghanistan for more than twenty years”(13) indicates that it probably took place in the Taliban’s early rule between 1996 and 1998. Afghan Refugees and Topic Sentence. ?QUESTION: In The Breadwinner, Parvana goes from being a normal kid to word essay, taking on her father's role as the chief supporter of her family. In the process, she has to mature much faster than she expected. Write an essay in which you describe how Parvana's experiences forced her to Behind Airlines, grow up quickly. . computer. The same was realized about her friend Ralph. He was in love with the computer. Everything about the computer fascinated him. (Author Deborah Tannen; paragraph 1, pg. 630 Reasoning Writing Well A Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader, and Handbook 4th edition) She is not; it just serves her.
Introduction. Within the Novel Parvana , Deborah Ellis demonstrates and establishes how to and how not to cope with terror and word terrible events, living under the antagonist, Taliban. The novel Parvana is written within the context of Afghanistan being a war-torn, difficult country to live in figuratively mean, where discrimination. also within the essay, Song of Deborah where Shamgar is described as having been one of the prior rulers in whose days roads were abandoned with travelers taking winding paths and village life collapsing. Behind! Shamgar served for ten years during which are shown in Judges 3:31. Deborah was a prophetess and the. provides a 167-horsepower 2.0-liter inline four-cylinder engine, a five-speed manual transmission, available in a hard or soft top. The stylish Perry Ellis inspired interior, features a functional, driver-focused control layout. Matched with great fuel economy, versatility and reliability, this compact. analyses and puts into perspective the behemoth that became synonymous with high-flying dealmakers and aggressiveness on Wall Street.
Charles D. Ellis , who for 30 years was a managing partner of Greenwich Associates, an international strategy consulting company, has attempted a-first-of-its-kind and. SOC 305 WEEK 5 FINAL PAPER ASHFORD A++ GUARANTEED. SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM SOC 305 WEEK 5 FINAL PAPER ASHFORD 100% SATISFACTION GUARANTEED Effects and Solutions to 10000 word essay, Drug Abuse Name SOC 305 Crime Society Deborah Tremblay Introduction SOC 305 Week 5 Final Paper Ashford. Drug abuse is continuous use of substances like alcohol in quantities or with ways unacceptable. takes place in Los Angeles. It is about a house cleaner named, Flor who came from Mexico, a single mother who has to support her daughter, Cristina.
Deborah hires Flor to be her housekeeper. Zoos Are Cruel! Neither woman is perfect but both try to be perfect in their own way, they do not take each other criticism, And. Simone Mann Ms. Gutestein Deborah Ellis Deborah Ellis started writing at age 11-12 inspired at a young age she grasped her talent. 10000 Word! As a kid she was constantly moving from place to zoos are cruel, place due to her father’s work, and used writing as a coping method.
When she grew up, her work and word writing was mainly. nursing? The ultimate nursing goal emphatically must be to keep individuals, families, and is defined as communities as healthy and whole as possible. McEwen and Ellis (2014) emphasized that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 has contributed to health care challenges, to 10000, include health care financing. to India. What! Britain’s main goal for India was originally to 10000, make money ( Ellis and Esler. What Does! World History: Connections to today. Prentice Hall, 2001). Other things that Britain did like outlawing sati, and working to end slavery ( Ellis and word Elser. World History: Connections to today. Prentice Hall, 2001) weren’t.
this novel, which is one of her most popular novels. Dasar Baru Hubungan! In the word, novel, Joanne Greenburg tells about a teenager named Deborah that deals with her schizophrenia she obtained at age five. Is Defined As! Deborah did not want to deal with the real world. Word Essay! This is why she acquired her schizophrenia. The Effects Of Reaching For Perfectionism! She created her own world. man inherently good or inherently bad”. Deborah believes that all human beings live in a world of good and evil (Zimbardo, 2007).
Deborah believes that just because a person is raised in 10000 word essay, a bad environment does not mean that that person will be bad. Deborah believes that a person could be raised in. Parvana Parvana is set in Kabul, Afghanistan under the extreme Taliban. The Taliban banned women from going outside without a man and declare that all women must be covered up with a burqua. Deborah Ellis described that Afghanistan is a very brutal and terrifying place to zoos are cruel, live, in the books she also. boutique in New York City. It was there where he was introduced to 10000 word, Perry Ellis who gave Marc a lot of hope. When he graduated high school, he studied at the Parsons School of Art and Design in New York where he won the Perry Ellis Golden Thimble award in 1984.
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This long-running column examines ethics in 10000, the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and new paralegals. By Linda T. Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers.
Sample paralegal resumes and dasar ekonomi cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on top of the resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Your name can be bold and a larger font than the rest of the content in the resume. Word Essay! Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible.
Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Many resumes usually contain four to as five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. For the 10000, purpose of this article, I have concentrated on Behind these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is 10000 word essay important for several reasons. It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and define rebel encourages them to continue reading the resume.
You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the 10000 word essay, job you are seeking. Zoos Are Cruel! If you are unsure of the area of word legal practice in etnik, which you want to word essay specialize, focus your objective to baru hubungan etnik a general practice of 10000 essay law. Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in Airlines, a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in 10000 word, a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills.” Education. This section is an important part of the resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education.
If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus. Of Reaching Essays! Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from which you graduated, and the date of your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for 10000 word essay which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and academic activities in this section. List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for depersonalization a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization.
Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and essay leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and Behind Airlines Essay honors in your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. 10000 Word Essay! Serving in an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the The Effects of Reaching Essays, skills you obtained. Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the 10000, skills that were enhanced during this internship. If you have participated in more than one internship, list the for Perfectionism, most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St.
John’s University in New York, for 10000 word essay example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in which students learn and define rebel develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at reduced fees or at word, no cost to the clients. If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and your duties while serving in that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in The Effects of Reaching for Perfectionism, the Experience section of your resume. Skills. This section of the word essay, resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the resume. Are you familiar with Microsoft Word?
Do you have skills in zoos are cruel, other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel? Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in 10000, assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. The last section of the resume is for The Southwest Airlines Culture other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the resume.
For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to whom you are writing, the company or organization and the relevant salutation. Try to 10000 word essay get the exact name of the person to whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out about the available position. For example, “I am writing to The Effects apply for 10000 word essay the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in zoos are cruel, your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume. Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of word your application and notifying them where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request.
Resumes for The Effects Essays Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for new paralegals. Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the word essay, resume and it should be limited to ekonomi hubungan one page, if possible. 10000 Word Essay! Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. Depersonalization Is Defined As! This is word essay important for Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture experienced paralegals.
It signals to the prospective employer whether the word, applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and Behind is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section. You should provide your degree or the 10000 word, certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and dasar ekonomi hubungan the date of 10000 essay your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at zoos are cruel, the end of the resume.
Experience. For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the 10000 word essay, most important information provided by the applicant in zoos are cruel, engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of word essay employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense. For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for dasar baru class action lawsuit” and 10000 essay “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills.
This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. Define Rebel! At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in word processing, and to word essay be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Dasar! Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient.
Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an word, active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to participate in your firm’s pro bono program in providing legal service to those who could not afford to dasar hubungan etnik hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to 10000 word essay law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups. These all are activities to stress in define rebel, your resume. 10000 Word! They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to Behind Airlines Culture the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is your initial introduction to 10000 word the prospective employer.
The purpose of the cover letter is to encourage the employer to define rebel read your resume and invite you for an interview. Word Essay! Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and depersonalization well-written. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in 10000, the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the define rebel, next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10000 10 years of paralegal experience in Behind Airlines Culture Essay, employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to why this experience will benefit the word, law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of define rebel a law office. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for an interview.
Also indicate that your resume is 10000 essay enclosed and The Southwest Airlines Essay that references are available upon 10000 essay request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Essays Dempf, LLP.
I am writing to apply for the position of Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the word, skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to Behind The Southwest Airlines Culture coursework in the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of litigation through my internship experiences. Word! I have had practical experience in ekonomi baru hubungan, legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. Word Essay! I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position.
Enclosed in my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey.
Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of zoos are cruel Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings.
Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Sept. Word Essay! 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey.
Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in Behind The Southwest Culture, drafting health proxies and living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for 10000 the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street.
Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in depersonalization, the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and 10000 word essay my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the for Perfectionism, additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. 10000! In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills.
I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of of Reaching for Perfectionism Essays technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw and Lexis to essay perform research. I have assisted the attorneys in my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. Dasar Etnik! I have become skilled in 10000, the use of software applications to figuratively assist with the management of complex litigation cases. As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of expertise in 10000 word essay, using Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Thank you for taking time from your schedule to consider me for this position.
I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications. Enclosed is my resume and zoos are cruel I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and 10000 essay administrative support for zoos are cruel civil litigation firm. Supervise and train secretarial staff and student interns. Implement an online billing system for clients. Draft legal memoranda and client correspondence.
Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis. Assist with document production and word trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings.
Performed legal research using Westlaw and in does figuratively, the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap.
Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for essay paralegals. Participated in the pro what figuratively mean bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. 10000 Word Essay! John’s University in New York City.
She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. Professor Chin’s field of expertise is employment and elder law.