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Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in roman social structure, tusks. Ages of stanislavski, marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to roman structure estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in stanislavski of acting, tusks ( n =9). Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression ( r 2 =0.98) based on social, the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in Alternative Medicine, the age estimation ( r 2 between 0.88 and 0.98). Social! The two estimated 2 k Asp values were identical up to two significant figures. Non Essentialism! The 2 k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.002290.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114 ?yr 0.000044 SE.

The intercept of 0.05800.00185 SE corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value, which is then 0.02900.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and social structure, ( d/l ) 0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of neutral context, narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and roman social, eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and Medicine Essay, 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study. The tusk of the social, narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) was previously thought to be the long horn of a mythical creature: the unicorn. It was mysteriously beautiful and Alternative Essay, its horn was said to neutralize poison. The royal throne of Denmark (1662) was made of 15 unicorn horns, which were of tremendous value. Back then, as today, narwhals were hunted for their valuable tusks. Today, only structure, Inuit in Greenland and stanislavski system of acting, Canada are allowed to hunt narwhals, and the hunt is managed in both countries (NAMMCO 2009 NAMMCO (North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission). 2009 . Annual report 2009. TromsoNorway : North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission . [Google Scholar] ). Ongoing studies of migration patterns (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 2003 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Social! Dietz R . Laidre K.L . Richard P . Merman: Broadway´s! Orr J . Schmidt H.C . The migratory behaviour of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Canadian Journal of social structure, Zoology. Definition! 2003 ; 81: 1298 1305 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Roman Social! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), population sizes (Heide-Jorgensen et al.

2010 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Laidre K.L . Burt M.L . Borchers D.L . The Gilded Age! Marques T.A . Hansen R.G . Roman Social Structure! Rasmussen M . Fossette S . Abundance of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) on the hunting grounds in Greenland . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1135 1151 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Richard et al. 2010 Richard P.R . Laake J.L . Hobbs R.C . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Asselin N.C . Cleator H . Ad Hominem Definition! Baffin Bay narwhal distribution and social, numbers: aerial surveys in the Canadian High Arctic, 200204 . Define The Gilded! Arctic. 2010 ; 63: 85 99 . [Google Scholar] ) and life history (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Roman Social Structure! Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by definition aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) of narwhals contribute to understanding the underlying population dynamics of structure, this exploited species (Reeves Heide-Jorgensen 1994 Reeves R.R . Definition! Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Commercial aspects of the exploitation of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) in Greenland, with emphasis on tusk exports . Social Structure! Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 119 134 . [Google Scholar] ). Define! Sustainable harvest levels are usually calculated from population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on reliable age distributions, are vital (Kingsley 1989 Kingsley M . Population dynamics of the narwhal Monodon monoceros : an initial assessment (Odontoceti: Monodontidae) . Journal of Zoology. 1989 ; 219: 201 208 . Structure! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Estimation of life history parameters for narwhals has been hindered by age the lack of a reliable age estimation technique. Without such a technique, it is difficult to parameterize rates of body growth, age at sexual maturity, longevity and roman, survival rates of the whales.

Traditionally, ages of marine mammals have been estimated by counting dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) in teeth, usually consisting of an Medicine opaque and a translucent layer deposited annually (Dietz et al. Structure! 1991 Dietz R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Harkonen T . Teilmann J . Stanislavski! Valentin N . Age determination of European harbour seals Phoca vitulina L . Sarsia. 1991 ; 76: 17 21 . Social! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Non Essentialism! Teilmann J . Roman Social! Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. Non Essentialism! 1994 ; 39: 187 193 . [Google Scholar] ; Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 1852 . Roman Social Structure! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Define! Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Roman Social! Aquatic Mammals. Voice! 2007 ; 33: 293 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Social Structure! Narwhals are born with two maxillary, elongated teeth embedded in the upper jaw. The left tooth erupts through the lip in males, and as the Essay, whale grows older this becomes a long, spiralled tusk (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Handbook of marine mammals.

Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . Social Structure! London , 1989 ; 145 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Normally, the non essentialism, right tooth remains inside the maxilla in males. In females, both teeth usually stay embedded in social, the maxillae. Non Essentialism! Anomalies such as females with tusks or males without a tusk or with two tusks are reported in the literature but occur infrequently in roman social structure, narwhal populations (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Alternative Essay! Narwhal Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Handbook of marine mammals. Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Roman Social Structure! Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 176 . Ad Hominem! [Google Scholar] ). Besides being expensive to purchase and difficult to prepare for counting GLGs, tusks almost exclusively represent only the male part of the population. Attempts have been made to estimate age by counting GLGs in embedded teeth. Roman Social Structure! However, due to occlusion of the pulp cavity and define, thereby cessation of deposition of growth layers, only a minimum estimate of age can be obtained from these teeth for adults; reliable estimates can be obtained only for young individuals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue.

1980 ; 3: 119 132 . Roman! [Google Scholar] ). A different method is needed to obtain age estimates for the mature component of the narwhal population, including both males and females. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in several age estimation studies of cetaceans (Nerini 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Medicine Essay! Report of the International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 448 . [Google Scholar] ; George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Social Structure! Age and define age, growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 580 . [Google Scholar] ; Olsen Sunde 2002 Olsen E . Sunde J . Age determination of minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) using the aspartic acid racemization technique . Sarsia. 2002 ; 87: 1 8 . Structure! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . On Ethel Merman: Broadway´s Voice! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). This technique relies on the fact that in metabolically inactive tissues, the l -form of social, aspartic acid converts to the d -form at a constant rate over time, a process known as racemization (Masters et al. 1977 Masters P.M . Bada J.L . Zigler J.S . Aspartic acid racemization in non essentialism, the human lens during ageing and in cataract formation . Nature.

1977 ; 268: 71 73 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The age of an individual can be estimated when the rate of racemization, the initial ( d/l ) 0 value for the species and the individual d/l ratio are known. The most stable proteins of the body are found in teeth and eye lens nuclei, and that is why these tissues are often used in AAR age estimation studies (Bada et al. 1980 Bada J.L . Brown S . Roman Social! Masters P.M . Age determination of marine mammals based on aspartic acid racemization in the teeth and lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 113 118 . [Google Scholar] ). Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature. 1983 ; 303: 418 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from non essentialism, West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Social! Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used AAR to Essay Voice estimate ages of narwhals from teeth and eye lens nuclei. Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature.

1983 ; 303: 418 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used the human racemization rate in social structure, teeth, whereas Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Of Acting! Age-specific growth and roman, remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated a rate based on a combination of narwhal and fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) data. The rate of racemization has been shown to differ among species, mainly driven by core body temperature (Garde 2011 Garde E . 2011 . Non Essentialism! Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros . PhD thesis, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen . [Google Scholar] ; Rosa et al. 2012 Rosa C , Zeh J , George J.C , Botta O , Zauscher M , Bada J . O'Hara, T.M . 2012 . Age estimates based on aspartic acid racemization for bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) harvested in 19982000 and the relationship between racemization rate and body temperature . Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). It is therefore important to social structure estimate a specific racemization rate for the narwhal based directly on narwhal data. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for the narwhal by regression of GLGs in tusks against aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. We anticipate that this rate will be useful in ad hominem definition, future large-scale studies of life history and population dynamics of narwhal populations. Tusks and both matching eyes from 11 narwhals were purchased from the Inuit hunt in north-west and East Greenland in the period September 2006November 2010 (Table 1). Eye samples from two whales (ID nos. 4080 and 4084) were discarded as it was uncertain whether the tusk and roman structure, eyes came from the same individual. Eight of the remaining nine whales were males. We believe the ninth whale (ID no.

4075) was a female: the Inuit hunter that caught this individual also provided ovaries together with the tusk and eyes. Tones Context! Body lengths of the whales ranged from 306 to 491 cm (Table 1). Aspartic acid racemization rate in social, narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of ad hominem, growth layers in roman structure, tusks. Table 1 Data on stanislavski, the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. Note that tusks nos. Structure! 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the definition, bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the tusks in the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in roman social structure, tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to GLG.

Tusk preparation and counting of dentinal GLGs. Total tusk length, external tusk length (portion protruding from the melon of the whale), tusk mass, tusk diameter at the melon front, total length of the pulp cavity and diameter of the pulp cavity at the melon front were measured (Table 1). Some tusks were purchased while still embedded in the skull, and these were removed after gentle maceration of the skull in 38C water for five days. Each tusk was cut into two longitudinal sections using a jigsaw (Fig. 1). The surfaces were polished using sheets of very fine sandpaper, and the gilded age, the tusks were placed in a wooden container lined with plastic where they were soaked in 12% acetic acid for fourfive days, after which they were rinsed with water and left to dry for one day. This procedure made individual GLGs more visible by revealing troughs and ridges, thereby facilitating counting. Social! Growth layers were counted, and their individual widths were measured with a digital micrometer in order to estimate a standard width of GLG that might help in identifying GLGs and rejecting secondary lines. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by ad hominem definition counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig.

1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. Roman Structure! 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and non essentialism, nodes or marks in roman, the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows). Fig. 1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. Merman:! 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. Roman Social Structure! (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows).

It was noted whether the neonatal line, the tip and the root of the proximal part of the tusk (the part originally located within the head of the whale) were present (Fig. 1a, b). A single, experienced tooth-reader trained in reading beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) and narwhal teeth (not tusks) was chosen to read the narwhal tusks as less-experienced tooth-readers of harp seal ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ) teeth have been shown to be less accurate and neutral tones context, more negatively biased (Garde et al. 2010 Garde E . Social Structure! Frie A.K . Dunshea G . Hansen S.H . Kovacs K.M . Lydersen C . Harp seal ageing techniquesteeth, aspartic acid racemization, and stanislavski system of acting, telomere sequence analysis . Journal of roman social structure, Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1365 1374 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Frie et al. 2011 Frie A.K . Fagerheim K . Essay On Ethel Broadway´s! Hammill M.O . Kapel F.O . Lockyer C . Stenson G.B . Rosing-Asvid A . Svetochev V . Social! Error patterns in age estimation of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ): results from a transatlantic, image-based, blind-reading experiment using known-age teeth . ICES Journal of Marine Science. Non Essentialism! 2011 ; 68: 1942 1953 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). GLGs were counted on both sides of structure, each of the longitudinal sections, and each GLG was marked with a pencil for bookkeeping and to check for consistency in their classification. GLGs of each of the longitudinal sections were read several times, and consistent readings with the most GLGs were accepted as the best estimates.

This was done to Essay Broadway´s diminish the risk of roman social structure, un-counted GLGs due to non essentialism uneven sectioning of the tusks. Roman Social Structure! One GLG consisting of a small dense dark layer and a wide paler layer (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Neutral Tones! Teilmann J . Social! Neurohr B . Age estimation of non essentialism, white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 193 . [Google Scholar] ) was assumed to represent one year in the whale's life, as shown for the closely related beluga (Stewart et al. Social! 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Often the beginning of a GLG was marked with a node in the cementum; in cases where the GLGs were less discernible, this node could be used as guidance for determining the neutral tones context, start of the GLGs (Fig. 1c). There was also some layering in the cementum, but the layers were less easy to count and the cementum appeared to have far fewer GLGs than the more protected dentine. Social! Secondary lines were frequently present, and care had to neutral be taken to make consistent readings of social, standard width GLGs (Fig. 1c).

Growth of the narwhal tusk is shown as a plot of tusk length (cm) versus GLGs for Essay Merman:, each of the 11 narwhal tusks used in this study. Structure! One GLG is age, assumed to constitute one year of social structure, growth. Eye dissection and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Eyes were frozen at ?20C upon collection. In the Alternative, laboratory, eye lenses were dissected out social of the eyes. The lens layers surrounding the Medicine, nucleus were thoroughly removed, like layers of an onion, leaving only the nucleus for further analysis (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). One eye, rather than both eyes, from each whale was analysed, as no significant difference between eyes from the structure, same individual narwhal were found in a previous study (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Essay! Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Roman Social! Forchammer M.C . Define The Gilded Age! Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Hydrolysis of samples and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed following the procedures of Zhao Bada ( 1995 Zhao M . Roman Structure! Bada J.L . Determination of ?-dialkylamino acids and their enantiomers in geological samples by definition high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with a chiral adduct of o-phthaldialdehyde . Journal of Chromatography A. 1995 ; 690: 55 63 . Roman Structure! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from Essay on Ethel Merman: Voice, West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Roman Social! Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . Definition! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Roman Social Structure! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Eye lens nuclei were hydrolysed in 1 ml 6 M HCl for 6 h at 100C. An Agilent 1100 Series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Walbronn, Germany) was used for the chromatography and data analysis. Detection was performed using fluorescence (excitation = 340 nm, emission = 450 nm). The column was a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18, 4.6?150 mm, with particle size of 3.5 m. The HPLC-measured d/l ratios were calibrated using series of d/l standards: 0.5/99.5, 1/99, 2/98, 5/95, 10/90 and Merman: Voice, 15/85.

This series was run at the beginning and end of each HPLC run. The measured d/l ratios from the eye lens nuclei were recalculated using the calibration equations (linear regression) for the d/l standards. Narwhal racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. Eye lens nuclei d/l ratios were regressed against the number of GLGs in tusks to obtain a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals (Table 1). Social Structure! Included in Alternative, the regression were d/l ratios from two near-term foetuses (=0 years old) and 13 young narwhals classified to age based on length and month of death (age range: 0.52.5 years old; length range: 175298 cm; Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Roman Social Structure! Forchammer M.C . Medicine Essay! Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Roman Structure! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The slope of the regression line equals the Essay Merman:, 2 k Asp value, corresponding to twice the structure, racemization rate. The intercept of the line corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value.

A linear regression assumes that explanatory variables are measured without error. Violation of this assumption can lead to biased results and Medicine Essay, underestimation of the standard errors. The explanatory variable is age, estimated from either length or GLG counts, both subject to error. The possible bias and standard errors were quantified via bootstrapping. Each bootstrap data set was created as follows: to the d/l ratios were added a normal random variable with mean 0 and SE equal to social structure the residual SE from the ordinary regression assuming no error on non essentialism, the age estimates.

The age of the social structure, 15 foetuses and young whales were drawn from Alternative, a uniform distribution on an interval given by the estimated age0.5 years, and then rounded to the nearest half-integer value. For whales where age was estimated by GLG counts, simulated values were rounded to the nearest integer. The uncertainty in the GLG counts was larger and based on whether the tusk was complete or not. If the roman structure, neonatal line, the tip or the base were missing (Table 1), the uncertainty was increased. Non Essentialism! Uncertainty was also based on the readability of growth layers, especially concerning the two oldest tusks with many GLGs. Structure! The uncertainty was evaluated for each tusk, so the bootstrap study used different uniform distributions for each whale. The number of bootstrap replicates used was 10 000. Tusk lengths ranged from 34 to 255 cm (Table 1). Tusk diameter (mm) measured at the melon front ranged from 12 to 63 mm. Length of the pulp cavity was between 56% and 100% of tusk length; the shortest tusk (34 cm) had the lowest percentage pulp cavity, and the longest tusk (255 cm) had a pulp cavity running through the entire tusk.

Tusk mass ranged from neutral tones, 0.06 to 7.45 kg. Six out of nine tusks were worn at the tip but were complete and structure, included the Alternative Medicine, neonatal line. Roman Structure! The tip of the longest tusk (ID no. 4076) was broken off as well as being worn: it lacked the neonatal line and several GLGs. The tip of the second longest tusk (ID no. 956) was also worn, and it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was still present. However, based on how it was worn, we assumed that, at most, only the neonatal line and a few, if any, GLGs were missing. Alternative! To estimate the number of missing GLGs in tusk ID no. Social! 4076, it was compared with tusk ID no.

956, which was of almost the same length and diameter. Non Essentialism! It was concluded that the missing tip of ID no. 4076 contained 10 GLGs. Fifty GLGs were counted in roman structure, the tusk, giving a total of 60 GLGs after adding the missing 10. The root of the proximal part of the tusk from whale ID no. 888 was partly destroyed during maceration, which complicated counting GLGs. The count of 24 GLGs may therefore be a minimum estimate for this tusk.

The proximal parts of system of acting, tusks with ID nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were lost, having been cut off by the hunters during removal. By comparing these three tusks with other tusks, we estimated that 5 7 cm was missing in social structure, each case (Table 1). However, for stanislavski system, the abovementioned four tusks, we assumed only a few, if any, GLGs were missing. GLGs were counted in all 11 tusks, and counts, or age estimates, ranged from 5 70 GLGs (Table 1). Tusk growth in length for the 11 tusks ranged between 3.54 and 9.11 cm ?yr with an average of 6.33 cm ?yr . The two largest and oldest tusks were growing the roman structure, least per year (range: 3.54 4.25 cm ?yr ). The remaining tusks grew between 5.38 and 7.73 cm ?yr except for tusk with ID no.

974 that had the fastest growth of 9.11 cm ?yr . Width of individual GLGs did not diminish with age but varied between years (range for all tusks: 0.76 3.96 mm). Tusk lengths versus number of GLGs are shown in Fig. 2. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig. On Ethel Voice! 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to social constitute one year of Voice, tusk growth. Fig. Roman! 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of Alternative Essay, tusk growth. Standard curves and linear regression equations.

The d/l standard series was used to produce two standard curves for each HPLC run. For each run, linear regression equations were calculated by regression of theoretical d/l ratios versus the measured d/l ratios from the d/l standards. The coefficient was r 2 =0.99 for each run. Roman Social! Individual d/l ratios were recalculated using the Medicine Essay, equation with a slope closest to 1 (range: 1.1295 1.2187) from each run. Estimating the social structure, racemization rate and on Ethel Merman: Broadway´s Voice, ( d/l ) 0 value. The slope of the regression line (=2 k Asp value) including nine whales with tusks and social structure, 15 foetuses and young whales was estimated to be 0.002330.000080 SE with an define intercept of 0.05790.00179 SE ( r 2 =0.98). Social Structure! The residual SE in the regression was 0.0073. The racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value were, therefore, 0.00117 ?yr 0.000040 SE and 0.02900.00089 SE, respectively.

For the bootstrap study, the simulated age for whales ID nos. 950 and 951 was drawn from a uniform distribution centred at ad hominem their estimated age1 year; for whales ID nos. 841, 953 and 974, an uncertainty of3 was used; and for whale ID no. Social Structure! 4076, an uncertainty of 5 was used. Finally, for whales ID nos. 4075, 888 and non essentialism, 956, the values given in Table 1 are minimum values, with a possible underestimate of up to five years. Therefore, for these three whales a number between 0 and 5 was added, with linearly decreasing probability.

The average estimate of the slope was 0.002290.000089 SE, and social, the average intercept estimate was 0.05800.00185 SE (Fig. 3). The r 2 was in all cases between 0.88 and 0.98. We finally estimate the racemization rate to the gilded age 0.00114 ?yr 0.000044 and the ( d/l ) 0 to structure 0.02900.00093. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks.

Fig. 3 Regression line from the non essentialism, bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on length. Roman Social Structure! The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Fig. 3 Regression line from the bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and system, estimated age based on length. The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and roman, the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Eleven narwhal tusks and matching eyes were sampled for the purpose of estimating a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regression of GLGs in ad hominem, tusks against d/l ratios in social, eye lens nuclei. Eyes from two whales were discarded, as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Thus, samples from nine whales remained for analysis. Non Essentialism! The sample size is less than optimal, but the costs and difficulties of obtaining whole tusks and matching eyes preclude a more extensive sampling programme.

Furthermore, a high incidence of broken tusks in adult males (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Roman! Aggressive tusk use by tones the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) impedes sampling of old and complete tusks. The tusks in this study were not all complete (Table 1), which complicated the counting of GLGs, and there were some evident differences in the readability of the tusks that were impossible to quantify. Furthermore, it could only roman social structure, be assumed that one GLG represents one year in narwhals. A deposition of one GLG per year in narwhal tusks is stanislavski system of acting, supported by analogy to other odontocete species (Hohn 2009 Hohn A.A . Age estimation . Encyclopedia of roman, marine mammals2nd edn. Definition! Perrin W.F . et al. . Structure! Academic Press . San Diego , 2009 ; 11 17 . [Google Scholar] ), and especially to non essentialism the narwhal's close relative, the beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology.

2006 ; 84: 1840 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Structure! Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )a quest for validation of Voice, dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and until proven otherwise this is the structure, most likely deposition rate. Tusk growth per year differed among the 11 tusks. The two largest and oldest tusks had the lowest growth rate, which is probably because growth in length ceases with age while growth in circumference and in weight increases (Table 1). Two racemization rates were estimated: one based on assuming that the age was known without error; and system, one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the roman, uncertainty in the age estimation. Uncertainty of the GLG estimation was mainly based on define the gilded age, whether the tusk was complete or not.

The two oldest tusks had increased uncertainty because either the neonatal line was not present (ID no. 4076) or it was uncertain whether it was present or not (ID no. Social Structure! 956), and the neonatal line needs to be visible to obtain reliable age estimates based on GLG counts (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of Voice, white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 193 . [Google Scholar] ). Another reason was that GLGs in teeth from old animals are more difficult to social discern and tones context, count due to compact layering, wear of the teeth and often broken tips (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Roman Social Structure! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Luque et al. 2009 Luque P.L . Pierce G.J . Learmonth J.A . Santos M.B . Stanislavski System! Ieno E . Lopez A . Reid R.J . Rogan E . Gonzales A.F . Boon J . Roman Structure! Law R.J . Lockyer C.H . Dentinal anomalies in teeth of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) from define age, Scottish waters: are they linked to sexual maturation and environmental events? . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2009 ; 89: 893 902 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Roman Social! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The two estimated 2 k Asp values are, however, almost identical. In order to recognize the uncertainty in the age estimates based on length and GLGs, we propose the 2 k Asp value of 0.00229 and the ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 from the bootstrap study to be used in future age estimation studies of narwhals. Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Essay On Ethel Merman:! Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and social, remarkable longevity in Essay, narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.

2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated the roman social structure, ages of 75 narwhals using AAR with a racemization rate estimated by Essay linear regression using age estimates based on body length from the same 15 young narwhals used in this study and age estimates of roman, 13 fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) from Nerini ( 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 448 . [Google Scholar] ) based on counts of non essentialism, earplug laminations. The combined narwhalfin whale 2 k Asp value of 0.00209 is lower than the present one of social, 0.00229. This could potentially be a result of using data from two species with different ( d/l ) 0 values, but could also be caused by define the gilded a lower core temperature of fin whales (36.1C, from structure, George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Stanislavski Of Acting! Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . Structure! O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of non essentialism, bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. Structure! 1999 ; 77: 571 580 . [Google Scholar] ) than that of narwhals. However, the core temperature of the beluga whale, the the gilded, narwhal's closest relative, has been measured to 35C (Katsumata et al. 2006 Katsumata E . Furuta C . Katsumata H . Watanabe G . Taya K . Roman Social! Basal body temperature method for detecting ovarian cycle in captive beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) . Journal of Reproduction and Development.

2006 ; 52: 59 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and on Ethel Voice, we assume narwhal core temperature to be similar. But, this is only speculation as no records of narwhal core temperature are available in roman, the literature. The 2 k Asp value estimated here is specific to on Ethel Merman: Broadway´s narwhals and should as such be a better proxy for the value in narwhals than one based on narwhal and fin whale data combined. Structure! Both the 2 k Asp values from Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Neutral Tones! Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from roman social structure, West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and the present one rely on definition, indirect estimation of social structure, ages either through difficult GLG readings of narwhal tusks, body lengths or uncertain counts of earplug laminae in fin whales; they also rest on the assumption that one GLG is deposited per year throughout the life of the animal. Ideally, racemization rates could be derived from known-age animals in captivity or animals marked somehow early in their life. However, neither fin whales nor narwhals are held in captivity, nor are wild individuals being marked as young whales. Even if either of these approaches were technically feasible, a substantial number of animals would be required, ideally spanning the full longevity, to calculate authentic racemization rates. The estimated racemization rate and the ( d/l ) 0 value have different effects on AAR age estimates.

AAR age estimates of older individuals are influenced mainly by the racemization rate, while age estimates of young animals are affected primarily by the ( d/l ) 0 value (George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Ad Hominem Definition! Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 580 . [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, when using the AAR technique it is social, also significant that a reliable ( d/l ) 0 value for the species is available. Non Essentialism! Dentinal GLGs can be examined in cross-sections of roman social, embedded narwhal teeth, but occlusion means that only a minimum GLG count can be obtained from older whales (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 132 . [Google Scholar] ). However, the dentinal layers representing early years (before sexual maturity) are readable in embedded teeth and can apparently provide reliable age estimates of young narwhals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 132 . [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, for future studies it is recommended that both eyes and embedded teeth be collected so that both methods of age estimation of define, young narwhals can be used to roman social derive an improved estimate of the ( d/l ) 0 value. To summarize, in this study we have estimated a species-specific 2 k Asp rate of 0.00229 and a ( d/l ) 0 value of system of acting, 0.0290 for narwhals by regression and bootstrapping of aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against GLGs in tusks. These estimates are the first based entirely on narwhal data. Roman Social Structure! Though we recognize the small sample size as well as problems associated with using incomplete tusks, we nevertheless propose that these values be used in stanislavski system, future AAR ageing studies of narwhals. But we also emphasize the need for collection of embedded teeth, intact tusks and matching eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study and for examining both methods of age estimation. Thanks to Jeppe Mohl for cutting and preparing the narwhal tusks, and to social Nynne Hjort Nielsen, Marianne Andersen and Kirsten Andersen for Essay Broadway´s, assistance with eye dissections and HPLC analysis.

Importation of samples into Denmark was authorized by social structure CITES permits IM 0721-199/08, IM 0721-200/08, IM 0330-820/09 and IM 0330-819/09. Funding for ad hominem, this study was obtained from the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources and structure, the Danish Cooperation for the Environment in the Arctic. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from Alternative, North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in social, this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. Age! 5, 6 and roman social, 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the tusks in the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is Alternative, abbreviated to GLG. a Measured at the melon front.

b D/L ratios corrected according to regression equations. c Data not available. Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.

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add essay link Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Remember: an essay should not be merely a list of notes and sub-headings followed by a list of roman social, dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the text with no explanation of what they are doing there. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative (see our sections on How to write a paragraph and ad hominem definition How to write an essay). Using the right linking words helps you to organize what you have to say about a text. It also helps you introduce and structure develop the essential ideas that will form the basis of your essay in a tightly connected structure and as short a space as possible. On Ethel. Linking words and social other connecting devices help you carry over context from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, in roman, a way that allows the stanislavski reader to better understand your ideas. Since your reader does not see the world exactly as you see it and does not necessarily make the roman social structure same mental connections you make, linking words also help you to articulate your ideas and communicate them to definition other people in a way that supports a clear and persuasive argument.

Note that connecting words and phrases are aids to writing, not ends in themselves. Structure. Therefore, they should not be used excessively. In the following text, the linking words have been deleted. Try to reorganize the following sentences into a well-structured paragraph by choosing the most appropriate linking words from the list below. Remember that each point has to have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow. The paragraph is not a complete text; it is excerpted from Elizabeth Grove-White's York Notes on Virginia Woolf's novel, To the Lighthouse : In all novels incidents, actions, thought and descriptions are related, ------ narrated, by an agent who is known as a narrator. The reader, -------, sees the events of a novel to a greater or lesser degree through the eyes, ------- point of view, of the novel's narrator.

It is obvious, -------, that the narrator is an extremely significant element in considering a novel, -------- it is the define narrator who decides what to show or tell us, --------- what emphasis is to be placed on an event or character, -------- it is the narrator's language that describes events and characters. [again, and, because, consequently, however, or, therefore, yet, whereas] BAC1 students in English Literature MUST click HERE to do this exercise interactively and will have to enter their ULg identifiant and mot de passe to access the roman structure page. Others, whose work need not be monitored, can click here. Alternative Medicine Essay. Though poorly written, the paragraph below is not completely nonsensical. However, it lacks the roman structure connective devices holding ideas together. Read the text carefully and try to non essentialism work out how it can be improved by means of social, linking words and non essentialism phrases. When you have made your choices, scroll down the page and social click on the link to check your answers: One effect of Virginia Woolf's choice of the multiple point of view narrative mode is tones context immediately obvious when we examine the characters and characterisation of To the Lighthouse. These characters are observed in action, or reflected in the consciousness of themselves and others. Their very perspective on external reality serves to define them. We cannot speak with confidence of Mrs Ramsay's goodness without acknowledging the reservations imposed by social structure herself and stanislavski system the other characters upon that goodness.

We must take into account the characteristic quality of Mrs Ramsay's view of the world. It is impossible to roman structure make any clear-cut distinction between the characters in this novel and its narrative mode. Virginia Woolf's method of stanislavski, creating the characters in To the Lighthouse is a cumulative one. Our knowledge of the roman structure characters depends on the accumulated impressions of them we receive from their own reflections and observations and from the responses they elicit from the other characters. The reader is obliged to re-create for himself the characters of this novel. Click here to see another version of the same paragraph, one in which the connective devices linking the sentences help readers move easily from one idea to age another. Read Philip Larkin's poem, This Be the Verse carefully. Write a short analysis of the roman poem (150 words) paying attention to its basic ideas, its main thesis, supporting arguments and conclusion(s) (see also our section on Paragraphs). Before you begin this exercise, you may want to keep the following recommendations in mind: (1) Think about the key points and issues considered in the text. (2) Select the ones that deserve to be included in the limited space of a one or two-page paper. Non Essentialism. (See also our section on social Relevance and Selection) (3) Organize them into a logical sequence in the form of an outline or a diagram containing the basic ideas you intend to develop. (4) Articulate your thoughts and arguments in a way that is Alternative Medicine clear , logical and persuasive with the help of the right linking words . Social. Commonly Used Connecting Words and Phrases. * To show similarity : similarly, likewise, in Alternative Essay, a similar manner, like, in the same way, analogously. * To compare or show contrast : however, nevertheless, rather, whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, on the contrary, by social structure comparison, compared to, up against, balanced against, vis a vis, although, conversely, but, meanwhile, in contrast, after all, otherwise, alternatively. * To express an alternative : or, either . . System Of Acting. . or, whether . . Roman Social Structure. . or. * To express concession : granted, naturally, of course, one may object that . Neutral. . . * To introduce a new point : furthermore, moreover, in addition. * To place what you have just said in a particular context : in this connection, in this perspective. and, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further, furthermore, next, what is more, moreover, as well as, in addition, first (second, etc.), not only . . . but. * To prove your point : because, for, since, for the same reason, obviously, evidently, indeed, in social structure, fact, in any case, that is, demonstrably. * To show cause and effect : as a result, consequently, hence, due to, in the gilded age, view of, on account of, accordingly, for this reason, therefore. * To give an example or an illustration : for example, for instance, in this case, in social structure, another case, take the case of, to illustrate, as an illustration, to take another example, namely, that is, as shown by, as illustrated by, as expressed by.

* To repeat , insist and/or refer back to an earlier point: as I have said, in brief, as I have noted, as suggested above, as has been noted. definitely, extremely, indeed, absolutely, positively, obviously, naturally, always, never, surprisingly, emphatically, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably, without reservation, perenially, forever. * To conclude a paragraph or an essay: thus, lastly, in system of acting, brief, in short, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude, in conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said. The words listed in roman social structure, each section have different meanings and are not interchangeable. If you have doubts as to the exact meaning of a connective, check them in your dictionary and/or in the Essay writing section of your Robert Collins . More exercises on linking words: BAC1 students in English Literature should click HERE to do these supplementary exercises interactively . The ULg identifiant and mot de passe is required to non essentialism access the page. Others, whose work need not be monitored, should click here.

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English and Comparative Literary Studies. This handbook is a guide that I’m hoping will enable you. It is geared, in particular, towards the seventeenth-century literature and culture module but I hope you will find it useful at other times too. I would like to stress, though, that it is not the roman social structure only way to do things. It may be that you have much better ideas about non essentialism, what makes for a successful essay and have tried and tested methods of executing your research. There isn’t necessarily a right way and so I hope you will not see this as proscriptive and limiting. You should talk to roman structure, all your tutors about what makes for Alternative Essay, a good essay to get a sense of the different ways that you might construct an roman social structure essay.

1. Essay writing (p.2) 2. Close reading (p. 4) 4. Constructing an Essay on Ethel argument (p. Roman! 8) 5. Help with this particular assessment (p. 9) 6. Grade descriptions (p. 10)

1. ESSAY WRITING (and historicist writing in particular) Essay writing has four stages: reading, planning, writing and proof-reading. Excepting the last, you may not find that they are not particularly discrete but rather interlinked and mutually informative. If any stage is skipped or done badly, though, it will impair your work. 1) Read the text and make sure you understand it. Use the Oxford English Dictionary online to look up any words you don’t understand or if they are operating in an unfamiliar context. Available on the Warwick web: http://www.oed.com. 2) Do a close reading. Make a list technical features (cf. the neutral page in this booklet entitled ‘close reading’; refer to the section on poetic form in structure the back of your Norton Anthologies pp.

2944-52). Ask yourself: ‘how does the text achieve its effects?’ Then ask yourself: ‘how do those poetic effects relate to the meaning of the definition text?’. 3) Do some research, particularly on the historical theme, period, cultural group that you’re interested in. You could begin with a general history and then do a literature search for more specialist books and articles. It may help you to narrow your research to a particular theme or idea that is suggested, hopefully by your reading in 1) and 2). Roman Social Structure! Rather than trying to find out about the non essentialism whole of seventeenth-century culture, limit your research to the restoration, cavalier culture, medicine, the family or whatever. Roman! (See the handout on research). 4) Be careful when you take notes so that you will make no mistake, when you come to non essentialism, writing and roman, referencing your work, about what is your work and what is someone else’s.

Read and be clear about the university’s rules on plagiarism which are laid out in the blue booklet ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’ which you can get from the stanislavski of acting general office. 1) Begin by making a spider plan of all your ideas and social structure, the relationships between them. IF YOU DON'T LIKE SPIDERS FORGET THIS BIT. 2) Then write out a paragraph (which you will not include in your essay necessarily) called ‘MY LINE OF ARGUMENT’. This will be information to yourself (so it can be very boringly and functionally written) about what you intend to say. Ideally this should be a single big idea, which you can sustain for the length of the definition essay, made up of stages that can be demonstrated with reference to the passage in question. It may well be that you want to write something similar to this ‘line of argument’ paragraph, only in a more dynamic and elegant way, for your introduction.

See the page entitled ‘constructing an argument’ that has an roman social example of Alternative Medicine Essay, a ‘line of argument’ paragraph. 3) Then write out roman a linear plan of system, your essay with a logical ARGUMENT, an roman social argument that is assertively stated and then proved through the Essay on Ethel course of your piece. Roman! TIP: try not to separate out style, content and context; discuss them together to show how the relate to one another. You are aiming to produce something that identifies and describes both the wood and non essentialism, the trees; indeed, the trees are your evidence for the existence of the wood! You need to put together a big argument out of lots of roman social, bits of evidence. 1) Everyone has his or her own way of writing. I sometimes find it easier to Merman:, write the roman social structure middle of the essay first and then come to the introduction last, which is perhaps the hardest bit to write. Stanislavski Of Acting! You may find that your ideas change and are worked out more fully as you start to write. In which case go back to structure, B) and produce another plan.

Present your ideas as a finished thought, rather than a thought process. 2) Keep yourself closely to your argument by imagining your reader. Perhaps a friend, a tutor or a parent might serve: imagine them behind you as you write asking ‘SO WHAT?’, making you insist on its relevance and trying to non essentialism, prove a particular point. Imagine that you are a newspaper editor writing a polemic, trying to roman social structure, convince your readership of on Ethel Merman: Broadway´s, a particular point of view. 3) Inventing a title and writing an introduction. You should try to roman social, make your essay interesting to an examiner. Which do you think is the best of these three titles: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘Discuss the Essay Broadway´s question of race in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘The “gallant slave”: the idea of the noble savage in roman Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’.

Similarly with the introduction. The first sentence should grab the examiner immediately. Which is a better first sentence: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko was published in 1688 and is a prose work about define, Surinam’; ‘At the social structure heart of neutral, Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko stands the deep paradox of the ‘royal slave’. 4) Using secondary literary criticism. Social! It is, of course, good to read lots and to incorporate that reading into your work. What you are attempting to do, though, is to the gilded age, position your independently arrived at ideas in relation to roman structure, other critics in ad hominem definition the field. You shouldn’t be deferential or let the ideas of others drag you off course. Social Structure! You should USE other people’s work in non essentialism the service of roman structure, your own argument. Of Acting! For example, you might disagree with a critic; you might apply their theory about one text to another; you might say that their work hasn’t gone far enough in its assessment.

Never use a quotation from someone else to clinch an argument: just because someone famous has said x or y it doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily true. I sometimes find it useful to structure, write a draft of my paper that includes no secondary reading at all, basing it just on my general knowledge of the critical field. I then do some detailed research in secondary criticism before writing a second draft. This means that the agenda is not dictated by other scholars, and ensures that I use them rather than becoming their spokeswoman. Make sure, of course, that all your reading is properly referenced to avoid a charge of define the gilded, plagiarism. 1) Check the spelling: in particular the names of the author and the text that you’re looking at MUST be spelled correctly. 2) Check your punctuation. Roman Structure! If you don’t know how to use particular punctuation marks please get a book and Alternative, learn how. In particular the social structure misuse of define age, apostrophes is deeply irritating to an examiner. The Collins gem guides are really good also Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves is roman, fun and informative.

3) Make sure that you get hold of the blue booklet, ‘Essay Writing and ad hominem definition, Scholarly Practice’, from the general office. You must use the reference guide in there. Social Structure! I favor the MHRA guidelines; you may prefer the Alternative Essay MLA style. If you do reference a website it is best to put it in a footnote rather than the text were it looks ugly. You should always include some close detailed analysis of the roman social literary text(s) that you’re discussing in your essay. This demonstrates your sensitivity to the forms, textures and ideological purpose of language. You should aim to system, show the relationship between form and meaning, between the text and its world. Before you can put together an argument about the relationship between a text and social, its time you will need to do some close reading, compiling a list of technical features in definition a text or an structure excerpt from a text. Choose excerpts that relate to themes or passages that interest you. Then you can develop a checklist of features to look for.

Use this as a guide but you may want to add to, or amend it. *** What you see will be very different from Medicine Essay what other people see. Social Structure! So, although it looks like a slightly dry exercise, this is where your ideas, your originality will come from. Close reading, in any module, will make your essays sparkle. Ad Hominem! *** #61623; Prose, drama or poetry? #61623; Genre? (e.g. is it panegyric, epic, restoration comedy or what ever) #61623; Does it remind you of anything?

Can you compare or contrast it with something of a similar date? Or, alternatively, compare it with something of a similar genre from the previous or next decade, for example, in order to investigate change over time. #61623; Poetry: metre, rhythm and rhyme. Look at the section on poetic form at the back of the roman social structure Norton Anthology (p. 2944) and other guides. Don’t just describe metre etc but ask yourself how it works in that particular passage. How are units of meaning created by ad hominem, the line divisions? When a poet downplays or emphasizes a particular word through positioning it in a particular way, what effect does it have? How does the poet manage tone, pace and register with his use of rhyme and rhythm? iF THESE FEATURES ARE NOT IMPORTANT IN YOUR PIECE IGNORE THEM.

#61623; Drama: look at the length / speed of the speeches, the stage directions, the structure entrances and Alternative Essay, exits. #61623; Prose: rhetorical features and clause structure are the things to look out for in particular. Are the sentences complex or simple? Is it in hypotaxis or parataxis? What about word order and syntax, is there anything unusual or unexpected there? #61623; What is the overall structure of the roman social passage / text?

Are there abrupt changes or a progression from one idea to another? #61623; What other structures are there? Symmetries, comparisons and contrasts, digressions, asides, repetition. Is there any dialogue? Are the arguments circular or progressive? #61623; Are there any words you don’t fully understand? If you aren’t in a closed exam you could look them up in the Oxford English Dictionary online. This would also give you a sense of the other meanings that that word might have. Are there any puns? #61623; Think about grammatical features: tenses, conditional constructions, the passive voice.

Is the passage in on Ethel Broadway´s Voice the first, second or third person? Perhaps there are tense or person shifts; what effect do these produce? #61623; Look out for predominance: several superlatives or comparative adjectives and adverbs; a lot of words that mean a similar thing, repetitions of possessive pronouns or what ever. #61623; What kind of social structure, language is being used? i.e. what register is it in? Is it elevated or earthy, legal or lyrical, rhetorical or religious? Why? #61623; Look for particular rhetorical features: metaphor and simile, hyperbole and litotes, personification, metonymy and so on. #61623; Look at punctuation (but be careful: it could be the intervention of a printer or a later editor).

Look out for: enjambment, parentheses, direct speech? When the the gilded punctuation is sparse, why? Is it because there is a proliferation of conjunctions that resist punctuation like, for social structure, example, the word ‘and’. This may indicate parataxis or a very conversational style. #61623; Look out for define age, allusions and references, often to roman, the bible or classical stories. If you don’t know them and you’re not in a closed exam, look them up in a reference dictionary or on the internet. #61623; What is the tone of the passage? Is it homiletic, comic, anxious, melancholy or ironic?

How is this effect created? #61623; Where else does that poet use similar phrases, ideas, patterns and non essentialism, images? What does it say about his or her concerns and roman social, art? TIP: Don’t make simple associations between sense and sound. For example, whilst there are a lot of stanislavski, warm words that begin with ‘m’ (like, for example, milkmaid, mother, magic etc) there are also some, like ‘malice’, ‘muscular’, ‘murder’ which evoke quite different associations. You then need to roman, think how those technical features, which you’ve noted construct the neutral meaning of the passage / text.

Do not think about form and content as separate things as if form were a kind of cloak in which meaning is dressed: they are organically connected. Above and beyond that you will also need to think about how that text (both its form and its meaning) relate to the particular concerns and fashions (literary, political, philosophical etc) of its time. You might think about the way in structure which repeated ideas in your text / excerpt link to significant contemporary discourses. Look for Medicine Essay, substituted vocabularies: i.e. Roman Social! when love / sex is Essay on Ethel Broadway´s, discussed with the language of money / credit for example. Could that be related to roman social, prevailing economic trends and ideas? When you are constructing your ARGUMENT and writing your essay, consult your close reading list. Not everything there will be relevant to your ARGUMENT; you only want to Alternative Essay, include the roman social things that relate, that offer evidence for a particular point of neutral tones context, view about how the roman structure text is placed culturally, politically, socially and / or historically. Research is crucial for ad hominem, any essay and requires a certain amount of roman social, initiative. You will partly have to learn by trial and error.

Here are a few tips and ideas, though. Read both narrowly (and address the theme of your essay) and also widely. So if you are, for example, researching infanticide, also research the family or law / crime. When you research a context it might be worth look at the work of philosophers, painters, and of acting, theologians and see what they were saying / doing in this period. An essay which looked at the early modern patriarchal family in the light of Robert Filmer’s political tract Patriarchia, for example, would be much more interesting than one that only looked at modern historians’ account of the early modern family. Roman Social Structure! An essay that discussed the panegyric written to, or on a particular king, alongside the of acting portraits that were painted of him could also be very suggestive.

EEBO might be very useful here at helping you to find out about, say, sermon culture or advice literature. (look at the last page of this booklet for roman social, some help here). Think of some the stanislavski system of acting areas, themes, historical moments, authors and roman structure, ideas that you want to find out about. List them as key words. For example: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, race, royalism, restoration, early modern, colonialism, slavery etc Do not be limited here. Think of terms / phrases that will give you some background too. How about ‘cheap print’, ‘renaissance politics’ etc Then begin on the computer. Be careful of stuff that you find on the ordinary WWW. It is not usually very reliable. Often this is stuff that people can’t publish in proper books.

Use it is a guide and be very critical. 1) http://www.jstor.org (through the Warwick network only). Here you can read articles from reputable, peer-reviewed journals on line. An excellent starting point. Try various combinations of your search terms in either the Basic search (will give you hundreds of stanislavski of acting, items) or in the advanced search form (which will give you much narrower and probably more useful stuff. Try it out; go to structure, the advanced search form: A) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the Essay on Ethel word ‘Behn’. Then tick the box marked ‘title’ and then also the box marked ‘article’. Roman Social Structure! Press the tones context ‘Search’ button. See if you can identify any articles with a particularly historicist bent.

B) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the words ‘White’ and ‘Black’ and ‘England’. In the box marked ‘exact phrase’ enter ‘Seventeenth-century’. Press search and see what you get out. Social Structure! Try other, similar search terms. C) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Royalist’. In the box marked ‘at least one of these words’ enter the words ‘print culture’. Perhaps limit to articles by checking the neutral tones context relevant tick box. Press search and social, see if any of those are useful. [you will see that sometimes you have to do some considerable sifting to find good things.] 2) The Modern Language Association of America database direct access from the Warwick network at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/electronicresources/databases/#m.

The bibliographic databases are listed alphabetically so scroll down to ‘M’. Select ‘MLA’. This will give you the reference only (although Warwick may provide a link to system of acting, the on-line journal). You may find that some of the things that are listed you won’t be able to get because Warwick doesn’t subscribe to that journal or perhaps the item is a doctoral dissertation from another institution. Don’t worry, you’re not expected to read everything under the sun. Leave those things that you can’t get.

Try it out: put in roman social the search terms ‘Aphra’, ‘Behn’ and ‘race’ into the keywords box. Press search and see what you get. 3) Historical abstracts: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/subjects/arts/elecresources/#databases_internet. Again, use this database to help you compile a list of articles or books that you could look at either on-line, if Warwick has a link, or in the library. Ignore the things that you can’t get hold of. A) Put the system of acting search terms ‘restoration’, ‘race’ and ‘England’ into roman social, the keywords box. Press search. B) Put the non essentialism search terms ‘early modern’ and ‘print culture’ into the keywords box.

Press search. Again you will have to decide what’s useful / relevant. 4) Use the library catalogue, don’t limit yourself to books about English. Put in search terms that will give you books on the historical background that you’re looking for. Once you have found one book on the shelf look around in that same area for others that will be related by roman social structure, subject. 5) Look on your reading list for general background books. CONSTRUCTING AN ARGUMENT. Producing a successful argument is a process that has a number of stanislavski system of acting, stages. Often you will understand your argument better after you have started writing. It is important that you go back and re-plan your work, taking into account your new findings. You will need to develop a provisional thesis, however, so that you have somewhere to start: a focus for your close reading and research.

You don’t need to argue that history is important for the study of roman social, literature. You can take that as a given and move on non essentialism to say something a bit more sophisticated about how the roman social structure particular poem / play or prose piece you’re working on Alternative intersects with a particular set of events or ideas in a specific historical moment. A good argument should be fairly specific rather than general and comprehensive. In particular, when writing a historicist essay, do not list the ways in which one text is embedded in its period. Instead choose one of those ways and research it in more depth. So, rather than writing about, say, Ben Jonson’s interest in Anabaptists, Spanishness, alchemy, the plague, etc in The Alchemist, choose one of these themes and find out about it in the historiography of the seventeenth century and couple this research with a close reading of those sections of the roman structure play that treat that theme. Your readings of the text and the history of the times should suggest your detailed argument. Don’t think of your argument first and then try to press it onto the play or poem you’re interested in; allow your idea to grow out of your reading. Below is my best attempt at a LINE OF ARGUMENT for an essay on Alternative Essay Rochester and Milton. Structure! Again, I should stress that this is only by Alternative, way of demonstration what I would do.

This is very different from social what you would do. There is no one way and your ideas will be as interesting / valid as mine. Don’t think that you have to produce something the same, or even necessarily similar I have done this just to give you an example of what I mean. I have tried to ad hominem, construct an argument which uses both close reading and historical context. Imagining the future in the restoration: a critical comparison of the poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of social structure, Rochester and John Milton. Line of Argument: This essay will argue that Rochester’s poetry is not only everywhere fascinated by time, regularly exploring what it is and how it operates, but that this interest betrays his sophisticated engagement with contemporary political philosophy.

It will closely interrogate the ad hominem forms of several of roman social, Rochester’s time-related poems for their political sensibilities. It will then contrast those poetic forms and political sensibilities with those in the poetry of John Milton and especially Paradise Regained. Milton as I shall show with the use of historical evidence is very differently socially and politically placed, indeed at the other end of the ideological spectrum from the Earl of Rochester. I shall show that the difference is one of dispossession (Rochester) and providence (Milton). Rochester’s narrators exist in fear of, and stanislavski, subject to an arbitrary and absolute future; Milton’s Paradise Regained, on social structure the other hand, asks an imagined republican reader to wait in anticipation of a future in which God will deliver their political success. I shall explore the way in which Rochester’s pessimism the idea and tone of dispossession in non essentialism his poetry and Milton’s optimism the visionary quality of his providential allegory stand in contrast to the respective fortunes of the political groups to which those poets actually belonged and at the particular times when the poems I’m discussing here were written and published: i.e. Rochester’s being part of the royal court and Milton’s being displaced from social his office at the restoration of Charles II. Define Age! This will arrive at, by roman, way of conclusion, the Essay Merman: Broadway´s demonstrable sadness of some of social structure, Rochester’s verse which indicates the complex circumspection with which he viewed his own aristocratic, political community and non essentialism, its limited expectations of monarchical authority. HELP FOR THIS PARTICULAR ASSESSMENT. Details of roman social structure, what you are expected to do are on age the departmental website at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/english/undergrad/modules/second/en228/assessedessay2/ There you will find a list of social structure, texts and details of how to find them on EEBO (Early English Books Online).

Their website is at: http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home. You need to download those texts, read them and then choose one to write about. You could also read the essays, published on the EEBO website, by previous Warwick students that have won prizes for their attempts at this assignment. http://www.lib.umich.edu/tcp/eebo/edu/edu_win_03.html. You might also use EEBO in your essay research. Try the subject list in particular.

If you get yourself to ad hominem, the search form at http://eebo.chadwyck.com/search you can click on roman social the link marked ‘select from a list’ next to the subject keyword box. This has all sorts of interesting categories: look up, for example, ‘anti-catholicism’ or ‘restoration’, ‘credit’ or ‘murder’. I would like you to do what you can in terms of placing the text of your choice, and researching it. Then I’d like you to come and see me at the end of term with a title and a line of argument. You could also, if you wish, bring a longer essay plan.

This is Isabel talking to her group. Non Essentialism! We will all be available on email over the holidays--do ask. Gabriel won't be here after the holidays--he lives in London--but do come and see me, his group, if you need a person to talk to. USING THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY. The OED can be found online (through the Warwick network) at http://www.oed.com. When we read an edited text we often have a helpful gloss which an editor has provided so that words and phrases that we don’t understand are defined for social, us. In this assignment you will have to put together that gloss for yourself and the best way to tones, start to structure, do that is with the OED. The OED is an extraordinary resource that will give you assistance in all sorts of ways.

For example: a) it will obviously help you to the gilded, understand words which you don’t understand or unusual applications. It will also help you to structure, find obsolete and dialect words. b) it will help you to see how words have changed their meanings or emphases over time. c) it will help you to ad hominem, identify puns. Social! There may be sexual or religious connotations to a particular word that we may have lost. Alternative! Some times our modern definitions will co-exist with old, and roman structure, now obsolete meanings. d) it will tell you the earliest use of a particular word. This is neutral context, useful for working out social structure which of several definitions might apply to the word you’re looking at. Look at the examples, that is the quotations that are given, and note their dates. It may be that you find that the word was new or recently borrowed from non essentialism another language.

Click the ‘date chart’ button to see the roman uses represented on a time line. It may be that you will find that a word is used differently and in different contexts at different points of the seventeenth century: what might the use of a particular word / phrase tell us about an author’s engagement with political, historical or sociological movements? e) Look at define the gilded, the etymology: this might tell you about how the text you’re looking at engages with particular fashions or imperial encounters. Look up, for structure, example, ‘chocolate’ where does the word come from? At what period does it come into the language? f) the examples given in the dictionary will also help you to see how other contemporaries used the word or phrase you’re interested in, and in what sort of contexts it came up. In this way it can operate as a concordance. You should investigate the concordances available in the library, by the way. Similarly they will give you a sense of how a particular word or phrase is used elsewhere.

You should use the OED not just to look up words that you don’t understand but also other words, especially those that are used in an unfamiliar way. You will find more interesting things if you look up lexical, rather than grammatical words. That means verbs, adjectives, adverbs and nouns rather than prepositions, articles and pronouns. You need to Alternative Medicine, remember that there was no standard spelling in the early modern period; the move to roman structure, standardize spelling did not occur until the middle of the eighteenth century. This means that when you have a word you don’t understand it you may not get an adequate definition by putting it in on Ethel Merman: Voice exactly as it is into the OED search box. Try that first but if it isn’t found, or you get a definition that is social structure, not right (i.e. the examples indicate that its earliest use was a lot later than your text) you should try different spellings. In particular the vowels are often interchangeable. Try every vowel combination that you can think of. Alternative Essay! Try substituting ts and cs, us and vs and other related consonants. Try out the OED. Look up the following words: how have their meanings have changed?

Where do the words come from? How were the words used at social, different points in history? And in the seventeenth century in non essentialism particular? Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.

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