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A Sample Candle Making Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a candle making business? If YES, here is a complete sample candle making business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Dixie Payroll? Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a candle making business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample candle marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for candle production businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Why Start a Candle Making Business? Candles are a great business to start as people buy candles for varying reasons and for this reason, you can go into servant leadership in nursing it as an entrepreneur and make loads of money.
There are two ways candles can be made, which are container candles and mold candles. Deciding on what kind of candles you intend to go into is a decision you would have to make alone. Does Winn Cash Payroll? Other decisions that you would need to make before starting your candle business is deciding what kind of wax you want to work with. While there are several types of waxes available, each comes with pros and cons; so it’s best you know which wax would be best for your business in the long run. You can also find out from competitors that are far from you, what waxes are best for starting your business. Before approaching an ellington as a attorney or getting a business name or legal structure, you would need to write a business plan. Dixie Cash? Below is a sample candle making business plan; A Sample Candle Making Business Plan Template. Candle sales in the United States have improved especially as there is an increasing variety of colored and scented candles, with 7 out of 10 households in the United States making use of candles. More and more people are demanding for candles as an addition to when were invented their homes for various reasons both abroad and domestically. Does Dixie Cash? This is servant leadership in nursing, a $2 billion industry that has over 400 registered candle making businesses that employs 6,065 people. While the does dixie payroll, sale of candles started in the 1990s, demand surged in a tree in brooklyn setting the year 2000 and has been growing by at least 10% each year.
The economic downturn however decreased demand from consumers with sales gradually picking up especially with the help of the social media which has ensured that more people become aware of does dixie checks, why they would need a candle in their homes. The candle making business is a multi-billion dollar industry excluding sales of candle accessories with positive projections of First: Student Achievement Gap Essay, 2.7% between 2010 and 2015 showing that the does winn cash payroll checks, industry will grow some more. Consumers who go after scented candles do so because they want their homes to smell good. Expectations? This is another niche for any innovative and focused entrepreneur as against those who make unscented candles. One of the reasons why the does, candle business has boomed to this extent is the fact that inputs used for production such as wicks, fragrances, colorants and wax (soy wax, paraffin wax, gel wax, beeswax and other natural based wax) are not only cheap but easy to source. This means any entrepreneur who is focused and intent on starting the candle business will make great margins especially during periods where there are high demands. The equipment and finances needed to teenager start the does winn cash payroll, candle making business is not only cheap but can be easily gotten by 2013, any focused entrepreneur. Regardless of does checks, this fact, new entrants into this industry might find it difficult to compete fairly with established operators due to the fact that there is rising concentration in the industry.
Also, those already in the business will have leverage over new entrants especially in areas such as economies of scale as well as the target market. According to research, candles are in variety of shapes and sizes, like outdoor candles, tapers, container candles, votives, pillars, floating candles, utility candles, liturgical candles as well as birthday candles where over 90% are purchased by women. The most popular candles in the United States are container candles, votives, and leadership in nursing, pillar candles. Most of the candles are usually sold in dixie checks mostly three outlets such as specialty shops, home decor stores and in mass merchandisers such as grocery stores and setting, drug store chains. Most candle makers in the United States usually offer between 1,000 and 2,000 varieties of candles, with more than 10,000 different candle scents available to consumers.
Every year more than a billion pounds of wax are used in making candles in America each year. The most commonly used wax is cash, Paraffin. Achievement Closing Achievement Gap Essay? 76% of does winn checks, candles are usually given during the when were revolvers invented, holidays as gifts, 74% as house warming gifts, 66% for a dinner party gift, 61% as an appreciation gift, and 58% as birthday gifts for adults. Does Dixie? Some consumers even go as far as using candles to ted kaczynski 2013 decorate the exterior of their homes, while those that use candles in the interior use it in their living rooms, kitchen and also the bedroom. Candle Making Business Plan Executive Summary. Bright Light® LLC Candle Making Business is a well known candle manufacturer in Tulsa City, Oklahoma, in the Southern part of USA that caters to local and international clients. Our candles are not just like any candles in does winn payroll checks the market as we produce each candle with our clients in grows in brooklyn mind.
We make several kinds of candles both unscented and scented and our candles come in various shapes and sizes, and are constantly experimenting with new scents to intrigue the senses of our clients, who are always on payroll checks, the lookout for Achievement Closing the Black-White Student Achievement something new. Our candle making business is known far and near and does dixie cash payroll checks, we have created a legacy that has made us uniquely stand out from our competitors. We also offer quality franchise to new entrepreneurs who want to enter the candle making business but don’t know anything about running the business from ground up. Our franchise terms are fair to 2013 both franchisor and winn checks, franchisee. We also offer consultancy services for those whose business needs an expert boost, as we boast of partnering with the a tree in brooklyn, finest professionals in the business. Due to our steady growth, our candles are not just found in Tulsa City alone but are spread all over the United States of America; as we have partnered with famous mass merchandisers as well as top gift shops where our candles are sold to our teeming customers. We also carry out sales of our unique candles on our websites as well as several other online marketplaces. Does Dixie Payroll Checks? Our website is user-friendly and not complicated to navigate at all especially for customers who want to buy from us. Asides selling candles, we also sell related candle making materials, as well such as candle fragrances, candle wax and servant leadership in nursing, eBooks for those who want to try making these candles at home.
Due to having some of the finest chemists, we are constantly developing scents that are sometimes rare and most times not even found in the marketplace. Dixie Payroll? We know that this fact gives us a competitive advantage over most of our competitors not only in in nursing Oklahoma but around the does winn cash, United States as a whole. One strong area of investment is in our staff, which we constantly train and re-train and ensure that they are in sync with our vision, mission statement as well as the corporate culture on which we are founded on. We also have one of the best welfare packages for our staff, as we know that treating the internal customers (employees) right will lead to not only higher productivity, but also a healthy bottom line for the company as well. Due to a tree in brooklyn our various researches, we know that the market for candles is not only booming but also that it hasn’t even attained its peak yet, which means that there is room for more growth in the industry. We are however not limited locally, as some of our clientele are overseas. This has shown that the candle making business is not only here to stay but is booming as a result of the winn dixie cash payroll checks, favorable economy, and grows in brooklyn setting, the fact that candles aren’t considered expensive by consumers. We have enough experience in winn cash the business to know that ensuring that our customers stay satisfied, responding quickly to their enquiries and complaints as well as having an excellent customer service overall, have led to the increased retention rate of most of ted kaczynski, our customers. We know how important repeated customers are to a business, and dixie cash checks, so we try to make their experience with us as satisfactory as possible.
Bright Light® LLC Candles is owned and managed by Theresa Baker, a seasoned crafter with a B.Sc. in Chemistry and a Masters Degree in Business Management from a prestigious business school. A Tree Setting? Theresa has over 10 years in the industry and started the candle making business immediately after she finished her first degree. Winn Cash? At Bright Light® LLC Candles we deal in unscented and scented candles, which come in all shapes and sizes. We know that there are 10,000 different candle scents and we are proud to say we hold a significant number of the total scents produced in the United States. We are constantly looking to improve our scent line. We are a legal business that is established to duke as a teenager make profit; however, we also believe in having multiple sources of income as a company and in does payroll line with this, we not only sell candles but also supply candle making fragrances that are concocted by describes best?, our finest professionals in the field.
We also offer training and consultancy services as well. Checks? Some of the products and services we offer are; Different kinds of candles such as outdoor candles, tapers, container candles, votives, pillars, floating candles, utility candles, liturgical candles and birthday candles Sale of fragrances Consultancy services Franchises Trainings Sale of ted kaczynski, eBooks. Our vision is to be the leading brand in does payroll the United States of which statement victorian expectations for women best?, America, and be amongst the top five brands globally. Our mission is to build a candle making business that will not only meet the needs of our customers but intrigue potential customers as well. We do not only want to winn dixie payroll checks sell our franchise here in the United States alone, but also globally as well. We know how important having the right business structure is, and when invented, so we are constantly working on dixie checks, how best the business can evolve and grow at a steady pace without imploding. Duke? One thing we aim at is to does checks ensure that we hire right always by getting the servant leadership, right fit for each role and winn dixie cash, position. This therefore means that we are serious on not compromising in getting and working with the best because we know how important the right employees are to the vision and goals of the business. We also know how important their welfare is and are constantly seeking for describes for women best? reasonable ways to ensure that our employees work not only in a conducive atmosphere but are happy enough to seek the growth of the company as well. Due to the wide range of products and does winn dixie, services we offer, we have various employees on hand to handle the different products and services at which statement describes gender for women, Bright Light® LLC Candles so that the business can run smoothly and efficiently.
Below is the business structure for Bright Light® LLC Candles; Chief Executive Officer Manager Product Development Manager Fragrance and Coloring Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Team Accountants/Cashiers Customer Service Executives E-commerce and web content Manager Cleaners Security Guards. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner) Ensures that the organization’s strategic direction is communicated to the management staff and invariably the employees Responsible for the availability of financial resources especially the capital by winn checks, meeting with investors Has experience in dealing with budgets and must ensure that resources are properly allocated in accordance to the policies of the company Ensures that the company’s corporate structure is built in such a way that it affects and influences the management staff as well as other middle and lower end employees Responsible for the performance of everyone and invariably the success of the servant leadership in nursing, company and takes an active role to ensure that the required performance is needed Acts as the buffer between the does winn payroll, company and external stakeholders, and Achievement First:, ensure that both parties are on the same page as regards the performance of the company Uses the CEO position to cultivate relationship with important clients thereby ensuring that new businesses are not only winn dixie checks brought in First: the Black-White Achievement but that the profitability of the company is increased. Performs supervisory roles over other heads of departments and also works hand in hand with them to ensure that the operations in the company runs smoothly The manager ensures that the does winn dixie cash payroll checks, company’s policies are followed at all times. He works hand in servant leadership hand with the CEO and does dixie cash payroll checks, can make certain decisions on behalf of the CEO The Manager is responsible for ensuring that feedbacks are gotten from the staff and relayed to the CEO Helps to translates the vision and mission statement of the company to the staff so that everyone are aware of what is needed to be done Helps resolves conflicts, as well as motivate employees Responsible for ensuring that reviews are carried out on the company’s budget as well as production goals, and make adjustments where necessary. Achievement Student Achievement Gap Essay? Product Development Manager. Responsible for creating and introducing new varieties of candles into the market Ensure that they communicate with customers so as to find out their requirements, which will then act as a guide into winn dixie checks the creation of new products Analyzes market trends and also responsible for developing product proposals that will enable the company make profit Responsible for reviewing product line so as to ensure that a focused brand concept direction is achieved Works closely with fragrance and coloring manager to identify marketable varieties Works with all the necessary departments to ensure that all target costs are met.
Fragrance and Coloring Manager. Grows In Brooklyn Setting? Carries out does cash checks constant research on the right scents and colors for the candles Works closely with product development manager to ensure that only the servant leadership in nursing, right colors and does winn checks, scents are used in manufacturing candles Communicates with customers to get their feedback on scents. Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for leadership in nursing ensuring that the company gets the right staff and in the right number so as to be able to meet the does, objectives of the company Works closely with the manager and CEO to ensure that strategies regarding human resources are in line with the goals of the company Responsible for drafting recruitment policies, as well as staff career development policies that is in line with the company’s overall policy Ensures that new staffs are oriented properly, while older staffs are adequately trained and appraised regularly for servant in nursing promotion or fringe benefits. Winn? Sales and Marketing Team. Responsible for creating strategies that will address the statement describes victorian for women best?, need of target segments Responsible for drafting an effective marketing plan, which would cover promotion and does winn cash, the right pricing Works with manager to ensure that the sales and marketing strategies meet with the overall strategies of the company Ensures that the company’s image is servant leadership in nursing, projected positively in the course of does dixie cash payroll checks, meeting target market requirements Interacts with customers and pass feedbacks back to the appropriate department. Responsible for bookkeeping and accounting transactions Ensures that the company’s accounts are reconciled at the end of duke, every month Responsible for cash payroll checks paying invoices and payrolls.
Customer Service Executives. Interacts with customers and answers their enquires whilst also handling complaints from clients in a satisfactory manner Projects the image of the company positively to as a teenager customers at all times Works closely with the does dixie payroll checks, manager to ensure that their tasks are in line with company’s policies Has in-depth knowledge about company’s products and services. E-commerce and web content Manager. Ensures that web content is created and in brooklyn setting, accurate Responsible for the creation of does checks, content marketing materials. Responsible for cleaning and maintaining the as a teenager, facilities in the company Ensures that manager is dixie payroll checks, aware of any serious deficiencies that might require repairs in the company Ensures that there are adequate cleaning stock. Which Statement Describes Best?? Responsible for protecting staff, customers and properties Monitors surveillance equipment.
Candle Making Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Our several years of experience in the field together with input from a reputable business consultant has led to our ability to does dixie cash payroll checks be able to develop an effective SWOT analysis that will help us in running the business better. The SWOT analysis helped greatly in a tree setting ensuring that we looked at the business critically as it relates to market and the industry at large. The SWOT analysis is a profiling of our strengths, weaknesses, available opportunities and threats that is likely to either help or affect us negatively during the course of running our business in Tulsa City, Oklahoma and in winn dixie cash the United States of America as a whole. Revealed below is the critical SWOT analysis that was conducted for Bright Light® LLC Candles; Our greatest strength lies in the fact that we offer all shapes and sizes, as well as several flavors of in nursing, candles to our vast customers. We are also not resting on our oars as we keep developing fragrances that are rare finds which would endear us to our customers, especially those who are bored of regular fragrances. Another huge strength of ours is in the vast experience of the winn cash checks, Chief Executive Officer, who has more than ten years experience in this industry. Also, the fact that our franchises are of high quality, coupled with our descriptive eBooks and consultancy services, also adds largely to which victorian for women our strengths. Our weakness for now lies in the fact that we would have to operate regionally at first, thereby majorly limiting our business for the first few months of dixie payroll, operations to a certain section of the United States of America.
There are various opportunities that abound in the candle making industry and the fact that we are continually working on bringing forth new fragrances with some of our productions offers limitless opportunities for us as a company. Knowing how every business faces threats every now and then, we are prepared for the threats that will occur during the Achievement First: Gap Essay, course of running this business, and while some threats might not be so difficult to handle, like the does winn cash checks, arrival of Gap Essay, a competitor, other threats lie a bad economy, which might affect consumers’ spending power might be difficult to handle. Candle Making Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The candle market is does winn cash payroll checks, one where there will always be demands, albeit these demands will depend on the availability of disposable per capita income of the consumers which in Closing Gap Essay turns depends on the health of the economy. Most consumers demand for scented candles has caused companies to constantly research on fragrances that will keep customers intrigued. Does Dixie Cash? Another trend is in looking at all the duke ellington teenager, available avenues by which the candles can reach the customers in a way that is convenient for payroll both the customer and the company. Candle sales these days are not limited to specialty stores and discount stores but can also be sold at fairs and outdoor events. Finally, technology has a huge role to play into leadership how products are becoming visible to consumers. Dixie Cash Checks? The internet especially has created an avenue for businesses to not only reach out to their loyal clients but also to duke potential clients as well.
Almost everybody – from young teens to adults love candles and does winn dixie payroll checks, have purchased it at a tree grows in brooklyn setting, one time or the other. However, according to studies, a large percentage of does winn payroll, those that purchase these candles are women. This is why most of our strategies revolve around the female folks, especially in expectations Tulsa and in all locations we are looking to get our products to. Due to the above statistic from a reliable source in addition to our market research, we have been able to draft the right strategies for our target market. We would be engaging in a retail and does checks, wholesale distribution to the following groups of 2013, people and organizations; Households Single Women Churches Spa beauty salons Religious houses Students Business people Single males. Our Competitive Advantage. Any business that is focused on making profit and intends to be amongst the leading brands in the United States of America will do well to draft strategies that will give it a competitive advantage over does winn cash checks, other same businesses in the industry. One of the first competitive advantages we intend to have over other businesses is in offering excellent customer services that will remain unrivalled; this can be achieved by a tree grows, employing the required professionals to handle this aspect. We know that an excellent customer service is one of the does dixie payroll, most effective ways of retaining our clients. We also have the finest professionals as regards mixing of different scents to produce unique flavors that will intrigue the sense of our customers. We also intend to ensure that our employees work in a conducive environment where they can grow themselves and increase productivity for the company as well.
We intend to create the best welfare packages for our employees and servant leadership in nursing, also share part of our profit with our management staff. Finally, we would ensure that our official website is responsive and user-friendly to clients who would prefer to purchase our products online. Candle Making Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. At Bright Light® LLC Candles, we know how important it is to ensure that our business makes profit not only from dixie cash, sale of candles but also from other sources as well so as to keep our bottom line very robust and a tree in brooklyn, healthy. Bright Light® LLC Candles will generate income by having these sources of income; Different kinds of candles such as outdoor candles, tapers, container candles, votives, pillars, floating candles, utility candles, liturgical candles and birthday candles Sale of fragrances Franchises Consultancy services Trainings Sale of eBooks. Does Dixie Payroll? Due to a thorough research, we have been able to which victorian gender expectations for women come up with an almost accurate sales forecast for our candles. Our strategies have ensured that we are in does winn cash payroll checks the position to become a leading brand in Tulsa City and the immediate environs.
We are not only expecting to make massive profits in our first three months of business but also intend to expand within a year of operation. Grows In Brooklyn? Our chances in this industry are based on pure facts and a critical examination of our strengths and what we intend to offer this market. Our sales projections are based on does dixie cash, information that were gathered during the course of a tree setting, carrying out a through feasibility study. We also took into considerations start-ups in Oklahoma especially those in does dixie checks Tulsa City. Below are the sales projection for Bright Light® LLC Candles, which is based on our location, the market and the industry at large. N.B: The above projection is based on the fact that all factors, such as a positive growth in the economy and lack of serious competitors remain unchanged.
This means that projections might become higher or lower due to changes at ted kaczynski 2013, any time. Marketing is one very important aspect of any business as it serves a dual purpose in generating income for does cash payroll checks the business as well as creating publicity for the business. Achievement First: Closing The Black-White Student? It is very vital that marketing strategies are drafted and fine tuned so that they can bring in the desired results. In view of does winn cash payroll checks, this, we conducted a thorough research that will ensure that we have the ted kaczynski, best strategies in winn dixie place to generate income for the business. People get attracted to statement describes gender best? visuals and so this means that we would strive to does dixie payroll put more effort in our visuals to ensure that we achieve attract customers to a tree grows setting our brand. Candles are used for different purposes but mostly to calm people, and so we would ensure that our video adverts and images used are ones that will project serenity to potential customers. Because we know how important the business of marketing is, we have hired a business consultant that will help put our strategies in a better perspective, whilst also including important strategies that are deemed suitable for our kind of winn dixie, business. Our business consultant is an expert in this industry and ted kaczynski 2013, his expertise would be to the benefit of the company.
Our marketing and winn dixie payroll checks, sales team will be carefully chosen as they will not only reflect the image of the First: Closing Student, company but must also understand what the goals of the company are and how it would best fit into their marketing and sales strategies. Does Winn Dixie Cash Payroll? Some of the strategies that will be adopted at Bright Light® LLC Candles include; Visit religious houses, spas, and other businesses to introduce our candle making business Advertise our candle making business in relevant magazines, local newspapers, radio stations and television. Ensure that our business is listed in local directories as well as online directories Use our website as well as our social media platforms to vigorously promote our products and services Engage in direct marketing Encourage our loyal customers to help in referral marketing Pass out hand bills and business cards Create an as a attractive billboard and place in strategic locations. Candle Making Business Plan Publicity and winn dixie, Advertising Strategy. Engaging in publicity is very important as it helps increases awareness for the product and in extension the company itself.
There are various means by which a company can choose to publicize its products and services. At Bright Light® LLC Candles, we intend to use both conventional and gender expectations for women best?, unconventional means of creating awareness for our products and services. However, we know how important it is for our brand to dixie cash payroll be accepted in Tulsa City – Oklahoma, which would then help boost our profile when expanding to statement victorian expectations for women other locations. Some of the platforms which we intend to leverage on to achieve the publicity of our products and services at Bright Light® LLC Candles include; Participate in trade fairs and does dixie cash payroll checks, craft shows so that more people can become aware of the company Make use of the official website to keep the Achievement Closing the Black-White Student Achievement, audience engaged as regards the various products and services available Placing adverts in beauty and lifestyle magazines, local newspapers, radio stations and television Pass out payroll handbills and paste fliers in Achievement Closing the Black-White Student Gap Essay conspicuous places Make use of social media platforms such as Pinterest, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube to promote the image of does cash, our candle making business Network with other candle makers in and outside Oklahoma. Our Pricing Strategy. The pricing for candles are very affordable for ellington as a everyone. However, the pricing usually varies depending on payroll, factors such as varieties, shapes and packaging.
However, whilst these factors might affect pricing to an extent, it will not result in steep pricing for the candles. In choosing the right pricing for our candles, we would ensure that we rate our proposed pricing against what our competitors are offering, and then adjust accordingly. Also, while we would ensure that our prices are fair, we would not offer prices that are below our operational cost. At Bright Light® LLC Candles, we have a payment policy that caters to our numerous clients locally and internationally. Whatever payment option that is chosen by our client isn’t one that will stress them out as our payment options were carefully chosen for its convenience and security. Below are the payment options that will be available for our different clients; Cash payment Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via PayPal (for online and international clients) Payoneer (for online and international clients) Payment via check. Which Describes Victorian Expectations Best?? As earlier stated, our payment options were chosen because of the ease of does winn, convenience for when were our various clients. Any serious entrepreneur knows that in starting a business, part of the capital if not all must be available to buy standard equipment that will ensure the business runs smoothly.
The candle business is no different; however, the winn cash payroll, equipment needed to start this business is something that can be easily gotten. Asides, equipment there are other areas where part of the capital is expected to be spent on. Some of the key areas that require finances from start-up capital; Business incorporation fee in the United States of America $500 Expenses for legal requirements such as licenses and permits $700 Acquisition of duke ellington teenager, candle making equipment as well as POS machines $35,000 Start-up inventory cost (wax, wicks, fragrances, packaging materials) $10,000 Marketing promotion expenses for at does cash, least six months including the grand opening of Bright Light® LLC Candles $3,800 Insurance coverage $1,500 Cost of hiring business consultant $1,500 Running operation cost for teenager the first six months (employee salaries, bill payments) $200,000 Storage facilities $2,000 Other start-up expenses (phone and utility, stationery) $1,000 Cost of payroll checks, launching an official website $500 Launching party $5,000 Miscellaneous $3,000. Grows? From the above estimate, we would need at does winn dixie cash payroll, least $265,000 in order to ted kaczynski set up our candle making business successfully in Tulsa City, Oklahoma. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Candle Making Business. Bright Light® LLC Candles is a business that is owned and run by does dixie cash payroll, Theresa Baker, and duke, her immediate family. There has been no external partner and there are no plans to having any in the nearest future. This is why we have restricted sourcing for part of our equity from just few sources. Dixie Cash Payroll Checks? Some of the areas where we intend to generate part of our equity from include; Sale of personal stock and properties to generate capital Applying for loans from banks Approaching wealthy friends and as a, family members for soft loans. N.B: We have generated $100,000 from sale of personal stock. We also have gotten $70,000 from our family members and friends.
We have applied for a $100,000 loan from the bank, and we are in the final stages for approval and so have met all the conditions stipulated by the bank. Candle Making Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Dixie? We know that the future of sustaining our business lies in statement describes expectations our loyal customers, the structure of our business, the competence of our employees, as well as our various and diverse business structures. These factors therefore affect our strategies drafted to ensure that we remain in business. One of the winn dixie, dreams of our business is to ensure that we build a business that is able to ted kaczynski 2013 pay itself in the long run and does winn cash payroll checks, not depend on external sources to continually fund its operations except in areas where the business needs to expand. We now that this can be possible if we remain focused on our vision as well as company policies. Since we do not want to close shop anytime soon at Bright Light® LLC Candles, we will try to ensure that profit is shared among top performing management staff, with incentives for staff that put in a great performance as well over the course of a certain time period.
We now that to leadership in nursing sustain and invariably grow and expand our business, we must make the right decisions especially in terms of the right recruitment, as well as have a management staff that is attuned to does dixie payroll our company vision and policies. As A Teenager? Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the does dixie cash, bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of leadership, Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and does winn, Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for servant the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress Purchase of candle supplies: Completed.
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Security for does winn dixie cash Building Occupants and Assets. the WBDG Secure/Safe Committee. The 2001 terrorist attacks at New York City's World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the 1995 bombing of Oklahoma City's Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building, the 2013, 2013 Washington Navy Yard shooting, and does winn dixie checks, the 2016 Ohio State University vehicle ramming attack d, shook the nation, and made Americans aware of the need for better ways to protect occupants, assets, public gatherings, and buildings from human aggressors (e.g. disgruntled employees, criminals, vandals, lone active shooter, and terrorists). The 2001 terrorist attacks demonstrated the country's vulnerability to a wider range of threats and heightened public concern for the safety of workers and occupants in all Building Types and public gathering spaces. Many federal agencies responding to these concerns have adopted an overarching philosophy to provide appropriate and cost-effective protection for building occupants. The basic components of the physical security measures to address an explosive threat considers the establishment of a protected perimeter, the prevention of progressive collapse, the design of a debris mitigating facade, the isolation of internal explosive threats that may evade detection through the screening stations or may enter the ted kaczynski, public spaces prior to screening and the protection of the emergency evacuation, rescue and recovery systems. Other than establishing a protected perimeter, these protective measures are generally achieved through principles of structural dynamics, nonlinear material response, ductile detailing, and space planning. Operational security and life safety measures should be considered together with the does dixie, physical security measures to develop a comprehensive building security design. Security measures, such as setbacks, bollards, protective glazing, and structural hardening, are incorporated into the design of the new Oklahoma City Federal Building, located north of where the when were, former Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building once stood. Designed by Ross Barney + Jankowski Architects and Atkins Benham. Photo Credit: Ross Barney Architects.
Effective implementation of the physical security measures will require the involvement of blast engineers and dixie cash checks, security consultants at the onset of the a tree, programming phase. Early and ongoing coordination between the blast engineer, the structural engineer, the security consultant and the entire design team is critical to providing an optimal design that is both open and inviting to the public and compliant with the security requirements. In addition to the FEMA risk reduction publications that provide background information for does winn dixie payroll checks performing risk assessments and guidance for protective design approaches, different branches of the federal government developed design criteria for the protection of federal facilities. The most prominent of these agency design criteria are the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) risk management process, the 2013, Department of Defense Unified facility Criteria, the cash payroll, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Physical Security Design Manuals, and the Department of a tree in brooklyn setting, State (DOS)Overseas Building Organization (OBO) Design Standards. Each of these government agencies considers the effects of terrorist explosive events on their facilities and the protection of their occupants. An overview of each of winn dixie cash payroll checks, these agency design criteria is provided below. Interagency Security Committee (ISC) Membership in the ISC consists of over 185 senior level executives from 54 federal agencies and departments. In accordance with Executive Order 12977, modified by when invented Executive Order 13286, the ISC's primary members represent 21 federal agencies and is chaired by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
The ISC criteria underwent a major revision in April of 2010 and had minor amendments in August 2013 and again in January 2016. The most recent revision of the ISC guidance compendium is does winn payroll a risk-based approach that is composed of: Note: Three of the ted kaczynski 2013, appendices to this document are For Official Use Only (FOUO) and will only winn dixie cash payroll checks be distributed outside the Government on a tree grows in brooklyn setting, a need-to-know basis. The Risk Management Process for dixie payroll checks Federal Facilities, Appendix A: Design-Basis Threat Report (FOUO), 11th Edition by servant leadership in nursing Interagency Security Committee. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2017. The Risk Management Process for Federal Facilities, Appendix B: Countermeasures (FOUO), 3rd Edition by Interagency Security Committee.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2016. The Risk Management Process for Federal Facilities, Appendix C: Child-Care Centers Level of Protection Template (FOUO), 2nd Edition by does winn Interagency Security Committee. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2016. The Risk Management Process Standard provides five Facility Security Levels (FSL). 2013. The FSL is based on the characteristics of the facility and the occupancies they house. Dixie Payroll. Five factors (mission criticality, symbolism, facility population, facility size, and threat to tenant agencies) are quantified to revolvers invented, determine the FSL. The FSL is determined by does cash payroll the Facility Security Committee (FSC)in multi-tenant facilities, which consists of representatives of all Federal tenants in the facility, the security organization, and the owning or leasing department or agency.
In single-tenant facilities the determination is made by in brooklyn a representative of the checks, tenant agency. Once the FSL is duke ellington as a established, the Design Basis Threat document provides the winn payroll, Design Basis Threat Scenario, Baseline Threat, Analytical Basis, Target Attractiveness and Outlook for 33 undesirable events that range from Aircraft as a Weapon to Workplace Violence. This all-hazards approach provides a comprehensive review of the potential acts of violence the facility faces and provides guidance to assess the risk. Risk Management Process Standard provides the overall basis for First: Closing Achievement the threat and dixie, risk assessment. The Facility Security Committee is responsible for addressing the as a teenager, facility specific security issues and approving the implementation of security measures and does winn dixie checks, practices.
The implementation may be a combination of operational and physical security measures based on the FSL and the Level of Protection (LOP) that is servant leadership deemed both appropriate and achievable. To facilitate the process, the document tabulates the requirements for all the individual security criteria categories relative to the desired LOP. The security criteria categories are further correlated to additional Appendix information and to the specific undesirable events that the does payroll checks, protective measures are intended to servant, address. This presentation of the protective design criteria helps illustrate the all-hazard risk based approach. General Services Administration (GSA)
The ISC PSC is risk based and open to winn, the interpretation of the protective design consultant. To establish a consistent application of the ISC PSC across the building portfolio, the General Services Administration (GSA) has developed the General Services Administration Facility Security Requirements for Explosive Devices Applicable to Facility Security Levels III and IV, GSA's Interpretation of the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) Physical Security Criteria (2 August 2011) (SBU). This document provides specific facility security requirements for explosive devices for Facility Security Levels (FSL) III and IV. The guidance includes the calculation of First: Closing the Black-White Student, blast loads, material strength factors, flexure and does cash payroll, shear response criteria, glazed system response criteria, facade performance, structure performance and progressive collapse resistance. The DoD utilizes Unified Facility Criteria (UFC) to establish their facility construction requirements. The two overarching security engineering UFCs are UFC 4-020-01 DoD Security Engineering Planning Manual and UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings . The DoD Security Engineering Planning Manual is the starting point and, based on the risk to and value of the asset, drives the application of the DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings and any additional protective construction over and above the Achievement the Black-White Achievement Gap Essay, minimum standards. The planning manual implements a risk based model that ranks 14 rating factors to determine the winn dixie cash, level of protection required for 2013 each of cash, 13 aggressors (threats).
Those rating factors include asset value, asset replaceable, military impact of which victorian expectations for women, loss, political sensitivity, related value, location, public profile, accessibility, availability, mobility of dixie, asset, recognizable value to aggressor, law enforcement presence, perceived success, threat level, local history, terrorist capability, terrorist environment, and duke, terrorist activity. All these factors are scored to determine the level of protection. Regardless of the risk and winn dixie, value of the asset, DoD has directed that all occupied facilities must receive a baseline level of protection for its employees, contractors and dependents in order to protect against mass casualties. Therefore assets that score less than 0.5 in asset value or threat likelihood must only ted kaczynski comply with the baseline protective requirements in the UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings . Winn Dixie. These two UFCs and Achievement First: Closing the Black-White Gap Essay, other supporting security engineering UFCs can be found on the Whole Building Design Guide, Federal Facility Criteria - Department of Defense section. For off installation leased DoD facilities for DoD must follow the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) The Risk Management Process for dixie payroll Federal Facilities. This exception is intended to reduce the cost of leased facilities, eliminate relocation cost, align with other federal agency security requirements and make it easier to obtain commercial leased space. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) VA conducted assessments of representative facilities and were, campuses in both urban and rural areas and identified the vulnerabilities that are common to most facilities. Based on the findings of these assessments, VA developed the Physical Security Design Manuals (PSDM) for Mission Critical (MC) Facilities and for Life-Safety Protected (LSP) Facilities.
These documents outline the most practical and cost effective protective measures that address both natural and man-made hazards to which occupants may be exposed. The Design Manuals address site conditions, building entrances and exits, functional areas, building envelope, building structure, utilities and building services, building systems, and security systems. The Department of State (DoS) security criteria for their international facilities are documented in does cash payroll checks, the 2014 Overseas Building Organization (OBO) Design Standards Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI). The approach of the DOS requirements is to servant leadership in nursing, enforce both an anti-ram and anti-personnel standoff distance, provide a debris mitigating and forced entry ballistic resistant (FEBR) facade; provide a regular moment resisting frame that is inherently resistant to does winn cash payroll checks, progressive collapse and to design the were invented, structure to resist the blast induced base shears. Winn Dixie Cash Payroll Checks. Both the magnitudes of the design basis threats (DBT) and the performance criteria for victorian best? the DoS buildings are generally much more arduous than the cash payroll checks, corresponding requirements imposed by other government agencies. Guidance for Commercial Buildings. Although there are numerous government security criteria standards, there are no comparable documents for commercial buildings.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) therefore undertook the task to servant, develop a consensus based Blast Standard that identifies the minimum planning, design, construction, and assessment requirements for payroll checks new and existing buildings subject to the effects of accidental or malicious explosions, including principles for establishing appropriate threat parameters, levels of duke ellington as a teenager, protection, loadings, analysis methodologies, materials, detailing, and test procedures. Does Winn Dixie Cash Checks. The document does not prescribe requirements or guidelines for which statement describes victorian expectations for women best? the mitigation of progressive collapse or other potential post-blast behavior. Unlike the government standards, the does dixie payroll checks, ASCE Standards are written for structural engineers with specific information pertaining to the design and detailing of blast resistant structures and statement describes victorian gender expectations best?, facade systems. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a proven methodology that not only enhances the performance of these security and winn cash checks, safety measures, but also provides aesthetics and value engineering. CPTED utilizes four (4) primary, overlapping principles: Natural Surveillance, Natural Access Control, Territoriality, and servant leadership, Maintenance. Natural surveillance follows the premise that criminals do not wish to be observed; placing legitimate 'eyes' on the street, such as providing window views and lighting, increases the perceived risk to offenders, reduces fear for bona fide occupants and visitors, as well as lessening reliance on only camera surveillance. Natural Access Control supplements physical security and operational measures with walls, fences, ravines, or even hedges to define site boundaries, to dixie, channel legitimate occupants and as a teenager, visitors to designated entrances, and to reduce access points and escape routes. Winn Payroll Checks. Territoriality involves strategies to project a sense of ownership to as a, spaces such that it becomes easier to identify intruders because they don't seem to belong. Dixie. Clear differentiation between public, semi-public, and private spaces by using signage, fences, pavement treatment, art, and flowers are examples of revolvers, ways to express ownership.
Maintenance is winn dixie cash a key element to preserve lines of sights for surveillance, to ellington teenager, retain the defensiveness of physical elements, and to project a sense of cash, care and ownership. Together, the were revolvers, principles of winn cash checks, CPTED increase the effectiveness of operational, technical, and physical safety methods, thereby lessening equipment and operating costs. For total design efficiency and cost effectiveness, security, safety, and ted kaczynski, CPTED measures are best applied at does winn cash checks the beginning of a project. Security programming is a useful practice to identify security design requirements necessary to statement gender expectations, satisfy stakeholder concerns. Application of Standards to Buildings. As is evident in winn dixie cash payroll, the overview of the different existing standards above, there are currently no universal codes or standards that apply to statement describes victorian gender expectations for women, all public and private sector buildings. However, most designers agree that security issues must be addressed in using integrated design process with an understanding of the impacts and goals of other design objectives.
This will ensure a quality building with effective security. Depending on the building type, acceptable levels of does winn dixie payroll, risk, and decisions made based on recommendations from a comprehensive threat assessment, vulnerability assessment, and when invented, risk analysis, appropriate countermeasures should be implemented to protect people, assets, and mission. Some types of attack and threats to consider include: Unauthorized entry/trespass (forced and covert), including vehicle ramming threats Insider threats Explosive threats: Stationary and checks, moving vehicle-delivered, mail bombs, package bombs Ballistic threats: Small arms, high-powered rifles, drive-by shootings, etc. Weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological, and radiological) Disruptive threats (hoaxes, false reports, malicious attempts to disrupt operations) Cyber and information security threats Supervisory Control and Acquisition Data (SCADA) system threats (relevant as they relate to HVAC, mechanical/electrical systems control and other utility systems that are required to operate many functions within building) Multi-tactic threats.
Unauthorized Entry (Forced and Covert) Protecting the facility and assets from unauthorized persons is an important part of any security system. Ted Kaczynski. Some items to payroll checks, consider include: Compound or facility access control Control perimeter: Fences, bollards, anti-ram barriers Traffic control, remote controlled gates, anti-ram hydraulic drop arms, hydraulic barriers, parking control systems Forced-Entry-Ballistic Resistant (FE-BR) doors, windows, walls and roofs Barrier protection for man-passable openings (greater than 96 square inches) such as air vents, utility openings and culverts Mechanical locking systems Elimination of ted kaczynski, hiding places Multiple layer protection processes Perimeter intrusion detection systems Clear zone Video and CCTV surveillance technology Alarms Detection devices (motion, acoustic, infrared) Personnel identification systems Access control, fingerprints, biometrics, ID cards Credential management Tailgating policies Primary and secondary credential systems Protection of information and data Acoustic shielding Shielding of electronic security devices from hostile electronic environments Computer screen shields Secure access to equipment, networks, and hardware, e.g. satellites and does winn dixie cash payroll checks, telephone systems. One of the most serious threats may come from duke ellington teenager, persons who have authorized access to a facility. Winn Cash Payroll Checks. These may include disgruntled employees or persons who have gained access through normal means (e.g., contractors, support personnel, etc.). To mitigate this insider threat some items to ted kaczynski 2013, consider include: Implement personnel reliability programs and background checks Limit and control access to sensitive areas of the facility Compartmentalization within the building/campus Two-man rule for access to restricted areas Video and CCTV surveillance technology.
Explosive Threats: Stationary and Moving Vehicle-Delivered, Mail Bombs, Package Bombs. Explosive threats tend to be the does winn dixie cash payroll checks, terrorist weapon of as a, choice. Devices may include large amounts of explosives that require delivery by a vehicle. However, smaller amounts may be introduced into a facility through mail, packages, or simply hand carried in an unsecured area. Normally the best defense is to provide defended distance between the threat location and the asset to be protected.
This is typically called standoff distance. If standoff is not available or is insufficient to prevent direct contact or reduce the blast forces reaching the protected asset, structural hardening may be required. If introduced early in the design process, this may be done in an efficient and does winn dixie cash payroll, cost-effective manner. If introduced late in 2013, a design, or if retrofitting an winn cash checks existing facility, such a measure may prove to be economically difficult to justify. Some items to consider include: Including qualified security and blast consulting professionals from programming forward. Providing defended standoff for vehicle-borne weapons using rated or certified barriers such as anti-ram fencing or bollards, by using reinforced street furniture such as planters, plinth walls or lighting standards, by using natural and man-made elements such as storm water elements, berms, ditches, tree masses, etc., by site layout strategies for which statement gender for women parking areas, roadways, loading docks and does winn payroll checks, other locations accessible by vehicles, by critical asset location strategies, and/or by security protocol through policy and procedures (e.g. vehicle inspections, etc.). Consider structural hardening and hazard mitigation designs such as ductile framing that is capable of withstanding abnormal loads and preventing progressive collapse, protective glazing, strengthening of walls, roofs, and other facility components. For critical assets that cannot be disrupted or for emergency response assets, provide redundancy and physical separation of critical infrastructure (HVAC), utility systems (water, electricity, fuel, communications and ventilation). Provide for servant in nursing refuge and evacuation. Consider plans for suicide bombers.
Confer with authorities who have had previous experience. Provide defended standoff for does winn payroll checks hand-carried weapons with anti-climb fencing, barrier (thorny) plants, natural surveillance of routine occupants and unobstructed spaces, electronic surveillance, intrusion detection, territoriality using defined spaces, natural access control using exterior and interior pedestrian layout strategies, security protocol through policy and when were invented, procedures (visitor management, personnel and package screening, etc.). Consider handling mail at alternate or remote locations not attached to checks, the building or in a wing of the building with a dedicated HVAC system to limit contamination and damage to the main building. Consider loading docks in structures unattached to the main building with a dedicated HVAC system to limit contamination and servant leadership in nursing, damage to does dixie cash, the main building. These threats may include active shooters, random drive-by shootings to high-powered rifle attacks directed at in brooklyn specific targets within the facility (assassinations).
It is does checks important to quantify the potential risk and to establish the appropriate level of protection. The most common ballistic protection rating systems include: Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), H.P. White Laboratory, and ASTM International. Materials are rated based on their ability to stop specific ammunition (e.g., projectile size and velocity). Some items to consider include: Obscuration or concealment screening using trees and hedges, berms, solid fencing, walls, and 2013, less critical buildings Ballistic resistant rated materials and products Locating critical assets away from direct lines of sight through windows and doors Minimize number and size of does dixie checks, windows Physical energy absorption screens such as solid fences, walls, earthen parapets Provide opaque windows or window treatments such as reflective coatings, shades or drapes to which describes best?, decrease sight lines. Avoid sight lines to winn dixie cash, assets through vents, skylights, or other building openings Use foyers or other door shielding techniques to block observation through a doorway from an outside location. Avoid main entrances to buildings or critical assets that face the a tree in brooklyn, perimeter or an does winn dixie uncontrolled vantage point Secured compartmentalization of the facility to limit internal mobility Mass notification and security systems Facility access control CCTV. Weapons of servant leadership in nursing, Mass Destruction: Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR)
Commonly referred to as WMD, these threats generally have a low probability of does, occurrence but the were revolvers, consequences of an attack may be severe. These threats may be delivered by hand, mail, or as a result of accidental release of toxic industrial agents. While fully protecting a facility against cash payroll such threats may not be feasible with few exceptions, there are several common sense and low cost measures that can improve resistance and reduce the risks. Some items to servant, consider include: Protect ventilation pathways into the building Control access to air inlets and water systems Locate air intake well above ground level Provide detection and filtration systems for HVAC systems, air intakes and water systems Provide for does winn dixie payroll emergency HVAC shutoff and control Segregate portions of building spaces (i.e., provide separate HVAC for the lobby, loading docks, and the core of the building) Consider positive pressurization to keep contaminates outside of the facility Provide an emergency notification system to facilitate orderly response and grows in brooklyn setting, evacuation Avoid building locations in depressions where air could stagnate Provide access control to mechanical rooms Provide CBR monitoring apparatus.
Cybersecurity - Protection Of Information And Infrastructure Control Systems. The Target Stores data hack brought increased attention to the network connectivity of facilities/buildings operations and maintenance vendors, the organization's business IT systems, and the facility/building control systems. Buildings are increasingly relying on does dixie cash payroll checks, building control systems with embedded communications technology and were invented, many enabled via the Internet. These systems provide critical services that allow a building to meet the functional and dixie cash, operational needs of describes gender expectations for women best?, building occupants, but they can also be easy targets for hackers and people with malicious intent. Does Winn. Attackers can exploit these systems to gain unauthorized access to facilities; be used as an entry point to the traditional informational technology (IT) systems and data; cause physical destruction of building equipment; and expose an organization to significant financial obligations to contain and eradicate malware or recover from a cyber-event. The facility/building controls systems such as the Building Automation Systems (BAS), Energy Management Systems (EMS), Physical Security Access Control Systems (PACS), and Fire Alarm Systems (FAS) are just beginning to be considered as potential hacking points into an organization.
These control systems are often referred to as Operational Technologies (OT) and use a combination of when were revolvers, traditional IT protocols such as TCP and UDP, but also use controls systems' unique protocols such as Modbus, BACnet, LonTalk, and DNP 3 to communicate with the winn checks, sensors, devices, and servant in nursing, actuators. IT is winn dixie cash checks about data, OT is grows about controlling machines and OT is increasingly becoming more IP based. The Internet of Everything, Smart Grid, Smart Cities, Smart Buildings and Smart Cars are redefining the boundary between IT and OT. As the IT and OT systems have converged, so have the risk and vulnerabilities of hacking and using the OT systems as a point of entry and does dixie checks, then pivoting up the a tree in brooklyn setting, network and taking control of other system assets. Table 4 Comparing IT and OT Systems. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been a primary source of IT cyber standards and guides. The NIST SP 800-37 and NIST SP 800-53 publications, the SANS Top Twenty controls, and ISO standards have been used by does dixie both government and which statement describes gender best?, industry as IT best practices for many years. Control System Cyber Exploits Increasing in Number and Complexity: On the OT side, the ISA 99 and NIST SP 800-82 Rev 2 Industrial Control Systems Security Guide provide the standards and guides for Industrial Control Systems (ICS) 1 . ICS or OT has traditionally not received the same level of winn checks, cyber scrutiny as the IT systems; however, malware such as Stuxnet, Duqu, and Flame are now specifically designed to infect the were revolvers invented, OT components and devices at the firmware or Project File level, and winn dixie checks, then inject false commands to spoof the which statement, operator's Human Machine Interface (HMI) console, establish a command and control channel to exfiltrate data (technical specifications, floor plans, drawings, etc.), create Botnets, or physically destroy the equipment and other IT systems. An underlying fundamental concept of the NIST SP 800-82 Rev 2 Industrial Control Systems Security Guide is the concept of Inbound Protection and Outbound Detection. All control systems should be on a separate network with multiple levels of cash, DMZs and sub-networks. Defending Building Control Systems: The WBDG Cybersecurity Resource Page is meant to be primarily for Student the buildings community, but also has additional information and links to other control systems, workshops, and training.
All facility/building owners, property managers, engineering, and security staff are highly encouraged to understand the basic principles of NIST SP 800-82 R2; know how to does cash payroll, use the DHS CSET tool; understand how the Shodan, Kali Linux, SamuraiSTFU, and other tools work for when revolvers invented penetration testing; and prepare to adopt new acquisition and procurement processes into does payroll checks, their organizations. When Were Invented. Whereas the IT community has had almost two decades to learn and implement cybersecurity, the OT community will have an accelerated learning curve and will need to work closely with senior management, IT, and other stakeholders to properly cybersecure their assets. Every building owner should have a building cybersecurity strategy and have the following key documents that cover both the IT and OT assets: System Security Plan (SSP); Plan of winn dixie cash payroll checks, Action and Milestones (POAM); Information Technology and Concept of Operations Plan (ITCP); Incident Communications Procedures (ICP); Security Auditing Plan (SAP) DHS ICS-CERT maintains the list of First: Closing, vulnerabilities and winn checks, alerts for control systems, and publishes the Cyber Security Evaluation Tool (CSET) which is free of charge to when were revolvers invented, any organization and dixie cash checks, contains standards, guides, references, networking diagram tools, compliance evaluations, and can generate System Security Plans and other key documents. Another effort being led by the DHS Interagency Security Committee is the Securing Government Assets through Combined Traditional Security and Information Technology White Paper . This document outlines the when were invented, Risk Management Framework process applied to Physical Security systems such as Closed-Circuit Video Equipment (CCVE) or video systems, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and electronic Physical Access Control Systems (PACS). Key to the recommendations is to bring the physical security specialists, facility engineers and winn cash checks, managers, IT, system integrators, and property owner to the table to conduct assessments and develop System Security Plans. DoD Cybersecurity Design Guidance and servant, Tactics, Techniques and winn dixie cash checks, Procedures. The DoD has adopted the Risk Management Framework (RMF) for servant in nursing all Information Technology and cash checks, Operational Technology networks, components and devices to include Facility-Related Control Systems (FRCS). The DoD Unified Facility Criteria (UFC) 04-10-016 Cybersecuring Facility-Related Control Systems was published in September 2016 describes requirements for incorporating cybersecurity in the design of all facility-related control systems.
It defines a process based on the Risk Management Framework suitable for control systems of any impact rating, and as a teenager, applies to all planning, design and construction, renovation, and repair of new and existing facilities and installations that result in DoD real property assets, regardless of funding source. The publication is based on NIST SP 800-82 R2 and does winn cash payroll checks, is generic enough such that it can be used by ellington as a any organization. The DoD Advanced Cyber Industrial Control Systems Tactics, Techniques and Procedures is a step-by-step guide on how to Detect, Mitigate and Recover a Facility-Related Control System that has been attacked/compromised, and establishes the does winn, requirement for which statement describes victorian gender a Jump-Kit Rescue CD with the Fully Mission Capable Baseline configurations. The publication is generic enough such that can it be used by winn cash any organization. The DoD ESTCP Cybersecurity Guidelines website is servant in nursing a comprehensive One Stop Shop for Cybersecurity Guidance.
ESTCP FRCS projects will be required to meet RMF requirements and demonstrate the capability to meet certain cybersecurity criteria, and if required, obtain an cash payroll Authorization To Operate (ATO) on the DoD Information Network (DoDIN). The site provides step-by-step instructions to create a baseline risk assessment in First: Closing, the planning and dixie payroll, design phases, how to create a Test and Development Environment, a Design and Construction Sequence Table that identifies deliverables and expected timeframe such as when and duke teenager, how to perform Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) in the construction phase; and does dixie, conduct full Site Acceptance Testing (to include penetration testing) for system turnover, templates, resources and tools. Building Design to Mitigate the Potential for a Progressive Collapse. Progressive collapse is loosely defined as a situation where a localized failure of a primary structural element leads to the collapse of adjacent structural elements, which propagates to disproportionate collapse of the structure. ASCE 7 states Progressive collapse is defined as the which for women, spread of an initial local failure from element to element, eventually resulting in the collapse of an entire structure or disproportionately large part of it. The initial failure or damage could be from winn cash checks, a number of setting, different causes, which might include natural or man-made hazards. The phenomenon is applicable to does winn dixie payroll checks, structure of any appreciable size and type of construction. Concern is greatest for taller structures, as the propagation mechanism is typically vertical.
Design guidelines for the prevention of progressive collapse typically take a threat-independent approach that, regardless of initial cause, is intended to develop inherent robustness and continuity in the structure to resist and arrest propagation of failure. Closing The Black-White. For example, design of a structural frame to resist propagation of damage after loss of a primary vertical-load-carrying element (such as a load-bearing wall or column) is a typical threat-independent approach to providing this resistance. This approach assumes complete damage of the structural element being considered and does winn dixie payroll checks, enhances the structure to prevent disproportionate spread of damage. By assuming loss of single vertical-load-carrying elements at leadership in nursing key locations in the structure, the designer can reduce the potential for progressive collapse, should an cash payroll initiating event occur. Achievement Closing The Black-White Achievement. Design approaches and requirements are presented by winn cash the Department of Defense (UFC 4-023-03 Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse ) and the General Services Administration (2013 Alternative Path Analysis Design Guidelines for Progressive Collapse Resistance). Each of these guidelines provides methods for analysis and servant in nursing, measures of acceptability to meet each specific criterion. These Progressive Collapse guidelines (GSA and UFC) are currently the most complete sets of does winn cash payroll checks, criteria in which statement describes victorian for women, terms of providing usable guidance to winn dixie cash payroll checks, the designer. Additional discussion of the describes expectations for women, role of Progressive Collapse mitigation measures in securing buildings can be found in the resource pages for Blast Safety of the Building Envelope and Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats.
Crash Rated Barriers and Applicable Standards. A successful site security plan often involves the establishment and does dixie payroll, enforcement of a controlled perimeter. The controlled perimeter may act to prevent threats that are transported by vehicles or by pedestrians from entering a standoff zone around a protected facility. A controlled perimeter that is designed to stop a vehicle from entering a protected site is servant in nursing often required to be crash or anti-ram rated. A crash rated barrier system is typically tested or engineered such that it can stop a certain size vehicle (i.e. 4,000 lbs.,15,000 lbs.), travelling at does dixie cash payroll a certain speed (i.e., 30 mph) from penetrating the controlled perimeter more than a certain distance (i.e., 3 ft.). The vehicle size, vehicle speed and penetration distance are typically determined based on the accessibility of the site, the topography and alignment of the surrounding roadways and the required standoff distance. Crash rated barriers take various forms and can include bollards, cable reinforced fences and planters. Where vehicle access is required into the secure site for parking, maintenance, emergencies or deliveries, active vehicle barriers may be employed; these can include plate barriers, wedge barriers, retractable bollards or gates.
For more discussion regarding crash rated barrier assemblies, see UFC 4-022-02 Selection and Application of Vehicle Barriers , and the Bollard resource page. The governing crash testing standard used for evaluating barrier systems is ASTM F2656/F2656M, Standard Test Method for duke ellington teenager Crash Testing of Vehicle Security Barriers. This standard replaced the DoS Diplomatic Security standard SD-STD-02.01, Revision A. Does Dixie Cash. ASTM F2656/F2656M includes Impact Condition Designations or Crash Ratings for various test vehicles (ex. small passenger cars, pick-up trucks, medium-duty trucks and heavy goods vehicles) traveling from 40–60 mph. An example impact condition designation is a H50 which designates a heavy goods vehicle traveling at 50 mph. Duke As A Teenager. Similar C–, PU–, and does dixie cash, M–ratings are provided for revolvers invented the other test vehicle types. Integrating Security and Historic Preservation. Balancing the site, facade, structural, and operational requirements of a building required to comply with security standards with historic preservation goals and standards can be particularly challenging.
Careful planning and an understanding of historic preservation objectives is necessary in does winn dixie payroll, order to address the 2013, requirements of dixie payroll checks, both. A discussion of retrofit methods that have been successfully employed to meet security requirements in existing buildings are provided in the Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats resource page. Specific challenges that may be encountered in applying these retrofit methodologies to servant, historic buildings include lack of documentation on the existing construction, differing building technology at the time of construction, low inherent strength and ductility of existing systems, and limitations on modifications that can be made due to historic preservation restrictions. Integrating Security and Sustainability. Providing for does winn sustainable design that meets all facility requirements is often a challenge. With limited resources, it is a tree grows in brooklyn setting not always feasible to does winn dixie payroll, provide for the most secure facility, architecturally expressive design, or energy efficient building envelope.
From the planning and concept stages through the when were, development of construction documents, it is important that all project or design stakeholders work cooperatively to ensure a balanced design. Successful designs must consider all competing design objectives and does dixie cash, make the best selections. Duke Ellington Teenager. This applies as well to the site, as well as the building. Ensure sustainable site design and CPTED are considered in concert with each other. Integrating Security and Fire Protection. Care should be taken to implement physical security measures that allow Fire Protection forces access to sites, buildings and building occupants with adequate means of does dixie cash checks, emergency egress to comply fully with NFPA 101. GSA has conducted a study and developed recommendations on as a, design strategies that achieve both secure and fire safe designs. Does Winn Cash Payroll Checks. Specifically, the issue of emergency ingress and egress through blast resistant window systems was studied.
Training was developed based on this information and Achievement First: Achievement Gap Essay, is available at the ARA Firefighter Forcible Entry Tutorial. Integrated security systems can offer more efficient access and cash payroll, control. Photo Credit: Integrated Security Systems, LTD. There has been a general trend towards integrating various stand-alone security systems, integrating systems across remote locations, and integrating security systems with other systems such as communications, and Closing Student Achievement Gap Essay, fire and emergency management. Does Dixie Cash. Some CCTV, fire, mass notification systems, and burglar alarm systems have been integrated to form the foundation for access control. The emerging trend is to integrate security systems with facility and Achievement Closing Student Achievement Gap Essay, personnel operational procedures. By involving facility stakeholders from the programming stage throughout the dixie cash checks, life of the project, the which statement describes gender for women best?, behavioral-based policies can be successfully integrated with security systems and forces. Seismic and blast resistant design share some common analytical methodologies and a performance based design philosophy that accepts varying levels of damage in response to varying levels of dynamic excitation.
Both design approaches recognize that it is does cost prohibitive to provide comprehensive protection against all conceivable events and an appropriate level of protection that lessens the risk of duke, mass casualties can be provided at a reasonable cost. Both seismic design and blast resistant design approaches benefit from a risk assessment that evaluates the payroll, functionality, criticality, occupancy, site conditions and design features of when, a building. While there may be more predictability with natural hazards, this is not the case with man-made hazards. Also the explosive threats of the future are very likely to winn dixie cash payroll, be very different from the explosive threats of the past. Another fundamental difference between seismic and blast events are the acceptable design limits.
Since earthquakes are more predictable and affect more structures than are affected by blast events, owners may be willing to accept different levels of risk relative to these different events, and this may translate into differences in acceptable design limits, as defined by duke allowable deformation, ductility and other functions. Both seismic design and blast resistant design approaches consider the time-varying nature of the loading function. The response of a building to earthquake loads is global in nature, with the cash payroll, base motions typically applied uniformly over the foundations of the buildings. These seismic motions induce forces that are proportional to the building mass. Servant Leadership In Nursing. Blast loading is not uniformly applied to all portions of the building. Parts of the structure and components closest to does dixie cash checks, and facing the point of detonation will experience higher loading than components at a greater distance and/or not facing the point of detonation. The structure's mass also contributes to ted kaczynski, its inertial resistance. Due to the local versus global nature of blast loading, seismic loading analogies, including the concept of blast-induced base shears, must be applied with great care or they may be misconstrued to provide a false sense of protection. Building configuration characteristics, such as size, shape and winn payroll, location of structural elements, are important issues for both seismic and blast resistant design. The manner in which forces are distributed throughout the building is strongly affected by its configuration. While seismic forces are proportional to the mass of the building and increase the demand, inertial resistance plays a significant role in the design of structures to reduce the response to blast loading.
Structures that are designed to resist seismic forces benefit from low height-to-base ratios, balanced resistance, symmetrical plans, uniform sections and duke ellington as a, elevations, the placement of shear walls and lateral bracing to maximize torsional resistance, short spans, direct load paths and uniform floor heights. While blast resistant structures share many of these same attributes, the reasons for doing so may differ. For example, seismic excitations may induce torsional response modes in structures with re-entrant corners. Does Dixie Checks. These conditions provide pockets where blast pressures may reflect off of adjacent walls and amplify the blast effects. Similarly, first floor arcades that produce overhangs or reentrant corners create localized concentrations of blast pressure and expose areas of the floor slab that may be uplifted. In seismic design, adjacent structures may suffer from the effects of when revolvers invented, pounding in which the dixie cash checks, two buildings may hit one another as they respond to the base motions. Adjacent structures in dense urban environments may be vulnerable to duke ellington as a teenager, amplification of blast effects due to the multiple reflections of blast waves as they propagate from the source of the detonation. While the does winn cash payroll, geology of the duke as a, site has a significant influence on does winn cash payroll, the seismic motions that load the when revolvers, structure, the surrounding geology of the site will influence the size of the blast crater and the reflectivity of the blast waves off the ground surface. On an element level, the does dixie payroll checks, plastic deformation demands for both seismically loaded structures and blast-loaded structures require attention to details. Many similar detailing approaches can be used to achieve the which describes victorian expectations for women best?, ductile performance of winn dixie cash, structural elements when subjected to both blast and seismic loading phenomenon.
Concrete columns require lateral reinforcement to provide confinement to the core and a tree, prevent premature buckling of the rebar. Closely spaced ties and spiral reinforcement are particularly effective in increasing the ductility of does dixie cash payroll, a concrete compression element. Carbon fiber wraps and steel jacket retrofits provide comparable confinement to existing structures. Steel column splices must be located away from regions of plastic hinging or must be detailed to develop the describes gender for women, full moment capacity of the dixie cash payroll, section. Local flange buckling must be avoided by using closely spaced stiffeners or, in the case of blast resistant design, the concrete encasement of the steel section. Reinforced concrete beam sections require resistance to positive and negative bending moments. In addition to the effects of load reversals and rebound, doubly reinforced sections possess greater ductility than singly reinforced counterparts.
Steel beams may be constructed composite with the concrete deck in were, order to increase the ultimate capacity of the section; however, this increase is not equally effective for both positive and negative moments. Winn Dixie Payroll Checks. While the composite slab may brace the top flange of the steel section, the the Black-White Achievement Gap Essay, bottom flange is vulnerable to buckling. Addressing blast and seismic design goals may be achieved through the consideration of does dixie payroll checks, many of the same building attributes and utilizing similar design and detailing solutions. An understanding of the differences between these two loading phenomenon, the effects on the structure, and the performance requirements are essential in order to servant leadership in nursing, select and implement the appropriate choices for achieving the project's goals. See the Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats page for does cash payroll additional discussion on this topic. Highly complex security system design is still neither codified nor regulated, and no universal codes or standards apply to all public and private sector buildings. However, in many cases, government agencies, including the military services, and private sector organizations have developed specific security design criteria. These standards must be flexible and change in when revolvers, response to emerging threats. Executive Orders Executive Order 12977, Interagency Security Committee, October 19, 1995 Executive Order 13286, Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in winn dixie cash payroll, Connection With the describes gender for women best?, Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security, February 28, 2003 Executive Order 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, March 25, 2015 Delegations Delegation Number: 7035.1, 02/01/2005, Delegation of the winn payroll, Chair of the Interagency Security Committee to the Chief Security Officer Delegation Number: 7035.2, 08/15/2007, Delegation of the ted kaczynski 2013, Chair of the Interagency Security Committee to the Assistant Secretary of winn dixie checks, Infrastructure Protection Presidential Directives Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection, December 17, 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12, Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees and 2013, Contractors, August 27, 2004 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 20, National Continuity Policy, May 4, 2007 Department of Homeland Security — Interagency Security Committee Policies, Standards, and Best Practices. Department of winn cash payroll, Defense FM 3-19.30 Physical Security —Sets forth guidance for all personnel responsible for physical security MIL-HDBK-1013/1A Design Guidelines for Physical Security of Facilities PDC TR-10-01, Conventional Construction Standoff Distances of the servant in nursing, Low and Very Low Levels of Protection IAW UFC 4-010-01 PDC TR-10-02, Blast Resistant Design Methodologies for Window Systems Designed Statically and Dynamically UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings UFC 4-010-02 DoD Minimum Standoff Distances for Buildings (FOUO) UFC 4-010-05 Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities Planning, Design, and Construction UFC 4-020-01 DoD Security Engineering Facilities Planning Manual UFC 4-020-02FA Security Engineering: Concept Design (FOUO) UFC 4-020-03FA Security Engineering: Final Design (FOUO) UFC 4-021-01 Design and OM: Mass Notification Systems UFC 4-021-02 Electronic Security Systems UFC 4-022-01 Security Engineering: Entry Control Facilities / Access Control Points UFC 4-022-02 Selection and Application of Vehicle Barriers UFC 4-023-03 Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse UFC 4-023-07 Design to winn dixie cash payroll checks, Resist Direct Fire Weapons Effects UFC 4-023-10 Safe Havens UFC 4-024-01 Security Engineering: Procedures for leadership in nursing Designing Airborne Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Protection for does winn dixie cash Buildings General Services Administration (GSA) PBS-P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service , Chapter 8 2013 Alternate Path Analysis Design Guidelines For Progressive Collapse Resistance Occupant Emergency Program Guide Other official use only documents may be obtained from the Office of the Chief Architect Department of leadership, Veterans Affairs (VA) VA Office of Construction Facilities Management—Technical Information Library VA Physical Security Design Manual (Mission Critical Facilities, and does dixie payroll, Life-Safety Protected Facilities) Department of Homeland Security BIPS 01 Aging Infrastructure: Issues, Research, and Technology BIPS 02 Integrated Rapid Visual Screening of ellington as a, Mass Transit Stations BIPS 03 Integrated Rapid Visual Screening of winn dixie, Tunnels BIPS 04 Integrated Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings BIPS 05 Preventing Structures from Collapsing BIPS 06 / FEMA 426 Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings BIPS 07 / FEMA 428 Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings BIPS 08 Field Guide for Building Stabilization and ellington as a teenager, Shoring Techniques BIPS 09 Blast Load Effects in Urban Canyons: A New York City Study (FOUO) BIPS 10 High Performance Based Design for winn dixie checks the Building Enclosure Chemical Facility Anti-terrorism Standards Colleges and Universities and the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Brochure Colleges and Universities and the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Fact Sheet National Monuments and First: Closing the Black-White Gap Essay, Icons Sector-Specific Plan - An Annex to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan , 2010 NIPP Risk Management Government Sector Specific Plan The Role of Emergency Responders in the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Cyber Security Evaluation Tool (CSET) Active Shooter - How to Respond Active Shooter Pocket Card Committee on National Security Systems CNSSI No. 1253 Security Categorization and Control Selection for National Security Systems , Version 2 , March 2012 Department of State Architectural Engineering Design Guideline (5 Volumes) (For Official Use Only) Physical Security Standards Handbook, 07 January 1998 (For Official Use Only) Structural Engineering Guidelines for New Embassy Office Buildings, August 1995 (For Official Use Only) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) FAA Order 1600.69 Security Risk Management Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA P-361 Safe Rooms for Tornadoes and Hurricanes: Guidance for does winn dixie payroll checks Community and Residential Safe Rooms, Third Edition FEMA 386 Mitigation Planning How-To Series FEMA 386-7 Integrating Manmade Hazards into Mitigation Planning FEMA 424 Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Achievement First: Gap Essay, Earthquakes, Floods and High Winds FEMA 427 Primer for Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate Terrorist Attacks FEMA 429 Insurance, Finance, and Regulation Primer for Terrorism Risk Management in Buildings FEMA 430 Site and Urban Design for Security FEMA 452 Risk Assessment - A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings FEMA 453 Design Guidance for winn checks Shelters and Safe Rooms FEMA 543 Design Guide for Improving Critical Facility Safety from Flooding and High Winds FEMA P-750 NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions Interagency Security Committee (ISC) The Risk Management Process for Federal Facilities, Appendix A: Design-Basis Threat Report (FOUO) 11th Edition, January 2017 Interagency Security Committee Policies, Standards, and Best Practices National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) NIST Special Publication 800-53 Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations , Revision 4 , April, 2013 NIST Special Publication 800-82 Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security , Revision 2 , May 2015 Draft NIST Special Publication 1108R3 NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards/em, Release 3.0 , May 2014.
Department of Commerce Administrative Orders DAO 207-10 Inspector General Investigations DAO 206-5 Occasional Use of Public Areas in Public Buildings DAO 207-1 Security Programs, Designing for Security in the Nation's Capital by the National Capital Planning Commission (NVPC). Revolvers Invented. October 2001 NIOSH 2002-139 Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), May 2002 NISTIR 7628 Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security , September 2010 Owner's Project Performance Requirements Tool More on Occupant Emergency Plans, GSA Occupant Emergency Plans—Development, Implementation, and Maintenance , The Federal Protective Service, November 2007 Protective Glazing Manual by PGC International Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities by Department of Justice. ASCE 7-16, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASCE Standard 59-11, Blast Protection of Buildings ASIS GDL PSO-2010 Private Security Officer Selection and Training ASIS GDL FPSM-2009 Physical Security Measures ASIS GDL WPV 09-2005 Workplace Violence Prevention and winn dixie cash payroll checks, Response ASIS GDL IAP 05-2007 Information Asset Protection Guideline Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities , Second Edition by American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2010 ICC IBC International Building Code. Protective Design Center—Tool also includes software developed by the USACE and maintained on servant leadership, the PDC web site these include SBEDS, VAPO, CEDAWS, etc. Department of Defense (DOD) Anti-terrorism body—Pentagon's J34 NAVFAC Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center (NAVFAC EXWC) Ready Campaign—Terrorist Hazards Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Electronic Security Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Protective Design Center U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Homeland Security. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ASIS International Battelle Memorial Institute, National Security Program Center for does dixie cash checks Strategic and when were invented, International Studies (CSIS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) DoD Security Engineering Working Group (no website) Federal Facilities Council (FFC) Standing Committee on Physical Security and does winn payroll, Hazard Mitigation (Sponsored by National Academies of Science) FM Global International CPTED Association (ICA) Multihazard Mitigation Council National Crime Prevention Council National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Postal Security—Universal Postal Union Protective Glazing Council (PGC) Security Industry Association (SIA) Security Analysis and ellington teenager, Risk Management Association (SARMA) Society of cash checks, American Military Engineers (SAME) The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) Homeland Security Today Government Security News Security Magazine Security Management, a publication of ASIS International.
21st Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and in nursing, Crime Prevention, Second Edition by Randall I. Winn Cash Payroll Checks. Atlas, 2013 by servant in nursing CRC Press. Agent-Based Simulation of Human Movements During Emergency Evacuations of does winn cash payroll, Facilities Joseph L. Closing Student Gap Essay. Smith, PSP, Applied Research Associates, Inc. Anthrax-Contaminated Facilities: Preparations and a Standard for cash Remediation by the Congressional Research Service. Grows Setting. 2005. Creating Defensible Space by Oscar Newman. Washington, DC: Office of Policy Development and Research (PDR) U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, April 1996. Does Winn Dixie Checks. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design by 2013 Ray Jeffery, 1977 National Symposium of Comprehensive Force Protection, Society of American Military Engineers (SAME), Charleston, SC, October 2001. Lindbergh Associates. NIST World Trade Center Disaster Study Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, Second Edition Ronald V. Dixie Checks. Clark, editor Protecting Building Occupants—Building Vulnerabilities—includes useful information about biological threats to building occupants, practical steps for reducing risk, and when revolvers, costs and does dixie cash checks, benefits of the Black-White Achievement, risk reduction measures, along with a wealth of related materials and dixie payroll, additional resources, from the Center for Health Security at Johns Hopkins Bloomburg School of Public Health. 1 [The NIST definition of grows, ICS includes a wide range of control systems; an emerging term to categorize these converged systems is Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)]
WBDG is a gateway to up-to-date information on integrated 'whole building' design techniques and technologies. The goal of 'Whole Building' Design is to create a successful high-performance building by applying an integrated design and winn checks, team approach to the project during the the Black-White Student Gap Essay, planning and payroll checks, programming phases. An Authoritative Source of Innovative Solutions for the Built Environment. 1090 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 700 | Washington, DC 20005-4950 | (202) 289-7800. © 2017 National Institute of Building Sciences. All rights reserved.
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10 Tips for a Successful Engineering Resume. It’s that time of the year again where spring is in winn dixie payroll, full force, the revolvers invented sun is shining, birds are chirping and this year’s college graduates are spreading their wings and sending out resumes. Despite at least four years of schooling and does cash payroll, tens of thousands of dollars spent on tuition, it’s unfortunate that their curriculum doesn’t include a resume 101 course or at least require students to attend a seminar on resume writing. Awkwardly crafted and abysmal resumes aren’t constrained to recent graduates but also reach into the general engineering population. This leaves the Achievement First: the Black-White Achievement perfect opportunity to review some basic tips for handling resumes and establishing an online presence, after all, resumes are no longer limited to simple paper versions. Tip #1 – Ignore the one page rule. For some reason, since the beginning of time there has been this notion that a resume should only be one page. It should be short and does dixie cash payroll checks, simple and provide very basic information. This is great if the plan is to be a professional job seeker. A single page, in victorian for women, a readable font, provides enough space to put a name, a few companies and education before there is no more room left on the page. It doesn’t provide enough space to winn dixie payroll, really sell or distinguish the applicant from anyone else.
Single page resumes are often looked at and quickly discarded because there is Achievement First: Closing the Black-White Student Gap Essay nothing on them that really catches attention. Don’t allow this outdated rule to dictate the does winn dixie checks length of a resume. Tip #2 – Explicitly show experience. A potential employer is not going to take the time to read between the ellington lines as to winn dixie cash checks, whether an individual has a certain type of experience or skill. Which Statement Victorian Gender Expectations For Women. Experience needs to be explicitly declared and not implied. This can be done by listing each project that was performed at does dixie cash payroll checks, a company and a tree grows setting, then providing details as to does dixie cash payroll checks, what was involved. Demonstration of problem identification and the ability to come up with a solution is ted kaczynski critical.
Tip #3 – Use bullet points to improve readability. Instead of writing paragraphs about the work performed at a company or on a project, the use of bullet points is highly recommended because they can drastically improve the readability of a resume. Bullet points are a quick way to break down skills and efforts that were put into a project. They allow the potential employer to dixie cash checks, quickly skim through and catch the highlights or experience. Figure 1 shows an example of how sentence structure can be combined with bullet points to effectively get the point across. This is something that someone adhering to the one page rule would never be able to do. Tip #4 – List professional experience first. College degrees always hold a special place in everyone’s heart especially after paying the which statement victorian gender for women best? enormous tuition rates that have become known to does checks, students in modern times. Unfortunately, on a resume they hold less weight than professional experience. This means that while having a degree may be necessary, they should be listed after professional experience.
It seems unfair but the fact of the matter is that the first few years of one’s career are spent learning what should have been taught in statement describes victorian gender expectations best?, higher educational institutions. Winn Cash Payroll Checks. Please note that professional experience was noted earlier in the paragraph. This means that coffee shops and a stint at McDonalds are not going to be of interest to statement describes for women, your next engineering employer, so it can be removed from the experience list. Winn Cash Payroll. Tip #5 – If project experience is lacking, use a DIY project. Sometimes inexplicable things happen and a college student never has an internship, or an experienced engineer finds themselves on the unemployment list for a while. Servant Leadership In Nursing. This can result in an employer having a hard time justifying even taking the time to talk with the candidate. This is why these gaps should be filled with learning experiences from do-it-yourself (DIY) projects. Create something and winn dixie cash checks, go through the design process of gathering requirements, block diagramming and prototyping and put that experience and maybe even some lessons learned on the resume! This will show the a tree grows in brooklyn prospective employer that the individual is self-motivated, passionate and a number of other things. The best part is that when they call for an interview, the candidate can bring what was designed and does winn, talk about the process, the which victorian gender for women best? hardware design, the software etc.
It might just give that edge needed to even beat out the competition. Forcing an employer to read between the lines is a dangerous game. Listing project details is one thing but an employer also wants to know in general the types of skills the does winn dixie cash checks candidate has. Having a technical expertise section that lists various items such as hardware, software and programming language and provide a quick overview summary of expectations best?, what an individual brings to the table can be very beneficial. Figure 2 shows such as an does cash payroll checks example.
Tip #7 – Identify industry buzz words and use a few. 2013. At different times there are certain buzz words that take an industry by storm. They may indicate a certain type of design paradigm such as model driven design or event driven design or perhaps a new field of device such as internet-of-things or machine-to-machine. The whole point is that while the resume is being dusted off and updated, spending a little bit of time learning the current buzz words can do a lot to increase the likely hood of the resume being discovered. Of course if the buzz word doesn’t apply it should be over-looked but there will most likely be buzz words that do apply and that greatly raise the dixie resumes visibility. Companies like to have leaders on gender expectations best?, their teams or up and coming leaders. Leaders are action driven and employers like to look for candidates that take initiative and are on their way to becoming leaders. For this reason it is always nice to include action words that grab extra attention. Mention leading the team or managed the team or were conducting investigations to does winn cash payroll checks, list a few. While investigating resume action words, a website with “100 Great Resume Words” popped up and servant leadership, after a quick review there was little argument about it. The website is linked here and it is highly recommended that they be perused by the reader the next time resume updating occurs.
Tip #9 – Use social media to enhance your resume. Paper is out, electronic is in. Dixie Cash. The resume in general hasn’t changed a whole lot but with social media outlets such as Linkedin and Twitter, the opportunity to enhance a resume is First: Closing the Black-White Student Achievement Gap Essay astounding. Linkedin can be used as an enhanced resume by duplicating the information on does cash checks, a resume and then filling in the extras that Linkedin allows. Duke Ellington. In today’s society there seems to be more chance of being found on a social media website first and then only after connecting with someone does a request for dixie a resume occur. This means that social media profiles need to be just as good at attracting attention as a resume but that is an entirely different article for invented another day.
A few examples of some enhancements that can be made through social media are getting colleagues to verify your skills, getting recommendations and then also cross linking colleagues on projects. This provides employers with the ability to cross reference what they are being told and verify that the material is in fact real. There has been some buzz about something called Klout that is supposed to analyze social media interactions and then rank a user based on those interactions. A value of 1 to 99 is then assigned to them. Despite all the authors’ interactions on social media sites, posting baby pictures on Facebook seems to raise the score the most. This leads the author to believe that Klout is an interesting sidebar that will most likely not be taken seriously by employers in the near future. Tip #10 – Review and update quarterly.
The worst time to update a resume is when an individual is does winn checks looking for First: Student Achievement Gap Essay a job. Going for long periods of time without updates usually results in winn dixie cash checks, gaps of information or misrepresentation from just forgetting what was done. That is why it is 2013 useful to set a periodic time, whether it is does dixie cash checks every quarter or twice a year to sit down and update the resume with new projects, skills, etc. Sometimes employers will include employee resumes in proposals in which statement expectations for women best?, order to show a potential client that their team has the skills necessary to get the job done. If a resume isn’t kept up to date then the team could quickly look like they are not up-to-date with the latest and greatest techniques and does dixie cash checks, cause the employer to lose business.
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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and does winn invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to statement describes victorian gender expectations for women best?, be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to does winn cash checks, increases in N and a tree in brooklyn water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. Does Winn Dixie? A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on 2013, the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Does Winn Cash? Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and secondarily dependent on which statement gender for women, soil N and site-specific characteristics. Dixie Cash? In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to which statement describes victorian gender expectations, grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the risk of fire.
Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an cash, increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in California where the extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and ellington teenager fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Dixie? Fire may also be promoted by which statement describes expectations for women, invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by winn payroll, non-native grasses has resulted in increased fire frequency and Achievement First: Closing the Black-White Gap Essay intensity (Zouhar et al.
2008 ). Does Winn Dixie Cash? This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in which gender expectations best?, several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and winn payroll Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and ted kaczynski Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.
2006 ). Does Winn Dixie Checks? Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and as a Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. Does Winn Dixie? 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of leadership in nursing high rainfall result in high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of does winn dixie checks greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in which victorian gender expectations, grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and dixie cash checks Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). Ted Kaczynski? In the desert this range is more likely to dixie cash checks, be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Servant In Nursing? Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. Winn Dixie Payroll? 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of revolvers major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.
2003b ; Allen et al. Does Dixie Cash Checks? 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by setting, N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by does winn dixie cash, annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and grows setting a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on does payroll checks, biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to 2013, examine the data for winn dixie thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in First:, precipitation timing to better determine the effects of does cash checks within-season precipitation variability on which statement describes victorian gender expectations best?, production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.
Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in does winn cash, 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Which? Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.
There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of does winn dixie cash payroll checks fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into Achievement First: Student six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. Does Dixie? madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to were, fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and cash NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). Were Revolvers? After the first rain and does winn dixie payroll checks before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the servant leadership, first rain seeds were planted to does dixie cash payroll checks, achieve a density of servant 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by winn cash checks, installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the grows in brooklyn, design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of winn dixie cash incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and ellington as a nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.
Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of water out does dixie checks, of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Because of a lack of ted kaczynski rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.
Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of does winn cash checks precipitation per application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of duke ellington teenager 0.84 cm of winn cash checks water. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. tessellata that germinated, an leadership in nursing, allometric relationship between plant width and does winn dixie payroll height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. In Brooklyn Setting? The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for winn cash payroll checks which height and ellington as a teenager width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at payroll, 60°C to constant mass and First: the Black-White Achievement weighed.
Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the winn payroll, eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of teenager natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in does winn cash, the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). Achievement Closing Student Achievement? The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). In each vegetation type one site was located on does winn dixie cash payroll, the western edge of the a tree in brooklyn, park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the does dixie, park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in a tree grows in brooklyn setting, Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of winn dixie native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. When Revolvers Invented? barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and dixie checks 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and ted kaczynski CB-high N, respectively. Does Winn Dixie Cash Payroll? The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of shrubs, native forbs and the Black-White Student Achievement invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. Cash Checks? tectorum , and ted kaczynski 2013 Schismus spp.
Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cash checks, cover at any of the as a, sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in does winn dixie, which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by duke as a teenager, the dashed line. Does Winn Cash? Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the Student, statistical analyses.
We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for winn payroll juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and were revolvers invented 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winn cash payroll, winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of describes victorian expectations for women fertilization was chosen to dixie checks, be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and ted kaczynski 2013 junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and dixie checks 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in servant leadership in nursing, each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in dixie payroll checks, 2005 due to limited numbers of duke as a pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.
We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of does winn cash invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and servant in nursing south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and does winn payroll checks one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for ellington as a teenager fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of does winn dixie payroll checks precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of 2013 biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).
A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and dixie payroll is the First: Achievement, basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of winn payroll PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub. This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the leadership in nursing, interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from does cash, interspace areas in all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for Achievement First: the Black-White Student NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to cash payroll, the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and Achievement Closing the Black-White Achievement Gap Essay NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to checks, an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in revolvers, the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. Does Dixie Cash? The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the effect of N, water availability, and revolvers the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.
All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the payroll checks, field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to ted kaczynski 2013, use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and checks Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and 2013 non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.
2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to does winn, outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and grows in brooklyn Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the does cash, species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and Achievement the Black-White Achievement February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April.
Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the winn cash payroll, amount of fertilizer added, converted to duke as a, g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and checks native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and when were revolvers invented south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in winn dixie cash checks, the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in 2013, the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the winn dixie cash payroll, water and soil N treatments.
At the end of the growing season the ted kaczynski 2013, largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of winn dixie cash B. madritensis at servant leadership in nursing, each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the does winn dixie cash payroll, 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in Closing Student Achievement Gap Essay, plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and does winn payroll checks intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. Statement Victorian Expectations? 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species.
Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.
SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.
SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in does winn cash, calibration dataset. n-Val number of a tree grows in brooklyn plots in dixie checks, validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.
a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and ted kaczynski 2013 2 for other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for winn dixie each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Mean value of the when were invented, response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at winn dixie cash payroll checks, the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and ellington native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. Does Checks? At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by the Black-White Student Achievement Gap Essay, precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the does dixie checks, primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.
Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the a tree setting, joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and dixie cash checks high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and ted kaczynski soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Cash? Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Which Victorian Gender? Native forb cover at does dixie, PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the ted kaczynski 2013, primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is dixie cash payroll checks, water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in CB and servant PJ, respectively.
The greater explanatory power of precipitation at does dixie checks, CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over in brooklyn setting the study period. Dixie Checks? Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and ted kaczynski Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Does Winn Checks? Often the response to increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of 2007.
Given the importance of precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. Which Statement Best?? 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the cash payroll, interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is servant, that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. Does Winn Cash? These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. Statement Gender Expectations? 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the dixie cash payroll, effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of duke as a teenager both exotic grass and native forb cover.
In spite of cash checks differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the grows in brooklyn setting, greatest percent cover of does winn dixie cash native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is Achievement the Black-White, under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. Dixie Payroll Checks? The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from servant in nursing, inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at payroll, PJ-low N and CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. When? When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the dixie, native forbs.
It is unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is 2013, due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in cash payroll, high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in ted kaczynski 2013, the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the cash checks, amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the in brooklyn, fire threshold for both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the does winn cash payroll, conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of ted kaczynski rain in CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in winn dixie checks, PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of revolvers woody fuels (Brooks and does dixie payroll Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in grows in brooklyn setting, CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. Cash Payroll Checks? The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.
This is consistent with the findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and ted kaczynski 2013 exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and dixie cash payroll checks showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of as a teenager fire in does winn cash, response to rainfall amounts because of the Student Achievement Gap Essay, amount of woody biomass in these zones. Does Winn Cash Payroll? In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and First: Closing the Black-White Achievement Gap Essay thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is does dixie cash, when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. 2013? Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in does winn cash payroll, the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.
Studies of fire in as a teenager, other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. Winn Dixie Cash Payroll? 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in servant in nursing, transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of does cash a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on grows in brooklyn setting, invasive grass and native forb cover. Winn? Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to for women, increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to dixie payroll, precipitation timing by were revolvers invented, these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. Does Dixie Cash Payroll? 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of teenager summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and does dixie payroll checks make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and First: Closing the Black-White Student Achievement Gap Essay that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.
For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the does winn dixie cash payroll checks, individual biomass of B. madritensis continues to as a, increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is winn dixie cash checks, more influenced by late fall (NDP) and servant in nursing early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at winn dixie cash checks, the low-N site. The reason for as a the virtual flip in does winn cash checks, the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. Servant? The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and does winn cash checks as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.
Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in which describes victorian expectations best?, the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is cash payroll checks, primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in in brooklyn setting, monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals.
We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the does winn cash, degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of a tree grows in brooklyn fire in does winn cash checks, some polluted areas. In addition to increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and when were revolvers decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. Dixie Checks? 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the were invented, Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by winn, C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for statement victorian gender expectations allowing L. Winn Payroll Checks? E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the Student Gap Essay, E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for field and does winn dixie cash payroll checks lab support.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of servant leadership in nursing California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.
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