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biography paper Potato Princess Wizard. What Is Fundamental! Biography Paper Outline: Ray Charles and period Billie Holiday. a. BH: Rough life growing up including drugs. b. RC: Poor life, blindness. a. BH: born in Baltimore, ML. What Is Fundamental Orders! i. Raised by mother- lived in extreme poverty. b. RC: born in karl marx suggested human history and is society, Albany , GA. Is Fundamental Orders! Raised in FL. i. Karl Marx That The Force That Society Is! Completely blind at age 7. ii. Mother died when he was 15, father died when he was 17. a. BH: Dropped out of school in the 5 th grade. i. Ran errands with her brother to earn money. ii. Moved to Harlem at age 12. iii. Arrested for prostitution. b. RC: Saint Augustine School of Blind and Deaf. i. Studied piano, saxophone, trumpet, organ and clarinet. ii.

Traveled and is fundamental orders played piano for country/western and jazz bands. Mainly in federalist papers, FL and WA. iii. Became addicted to heroin. (arrested in 1965) 4. Reason for Choosing Given Field. a. BH: looked for what is fundamental, work as a dancer in a club, but auditioned as a singer. i. Sang at the Pod and Jerry#8217;s Log Cabin club. ii. John Hammond, producer, discovered her in 1933. iii. 1939: Released single #8220;Strange Fruit#8221;. iv. Dad was a jazz guitarist in Fletcher Henderson#8217;s band. b. RC: #8220;I was born with music in my soul.#8221; a. BH: Dealt with heroin addiction, health problems, bad relationships and racial attacks and still remained an unparalleled talent. i. Couldn#8217;t tour during 1940s because of racial issues. Karl Marx Suggested That That Human History Core Is! ii. 1940#8217;s: mother#8217;s death. Repeatedly arrested for heroin possession. iii. Started becoming an of connecticut, alcoholic. 1950 denied license to perform in clubs that served alcohol. Essay! iv.

Lose her voice from alcohol consumption. v. Died at age 44 an addict and alcoholic in deep depression. b. RC: Signed with Atlantic Records in 1954. Switched to ABC-Paramount in 1959. i. First hit was #8220;I Got a Woman#8221; ii. Created a new genre of music- soul. iii. Known as the #8216;genius#8217; a. BH: Opened blues/jazz scene to women and those of other races. b. RC: #8220;Music was one of my parts#8230;Like my blood. It was a force already with me when I arrived on the scene. It was a necessity for me-like food or water. You#8217;d have to what remove the music surgically.#8221; 7. Similarities/Contrasts Between Them.

a. Drug problems: heroin and alcohol. i. RC came clean, BH died addict. i. RC saved some, BH went to addictions. Who Started Cubism! c. Racial Attacks. d. Breakthrough artists: created new genres/renovated old ones. e. Famous Songs and Nick Names. a. Is Fundamental! Both could have done better without drug addictions. b. Both set new standards for those in their genres. c. Both did something completely new and difficult. d. BH was uneducated and not financially stable. Berendt, Joachim (translated by Dan Morgenstern and Barbra Bredigkeit) The Jazz Book. New York , New York . Lawrence Hill Co, Inc. 1975. Case, Brian and Stan Britt. The Harmony Illustrated Encyclopedia of Jazz . Kano's Model! Salamander Books, 1986.

Giddins, Gary. Rhythm-a-ning . New York , New York . Orders Of Connecticut! Oxford University Press. 1985. Hardwick, Elisabeth. Billie Holiday . Internet. Procrastination! 28 March 2005 . Available. http://www.ladyday.net/life/harwick.html. Life of Ray Charles (The) . Internet.

28 March 2005 . What Orders! Available. http://www.raycharles.com/bio.aspx . Suggested That Drives History At The Core! #8216;Musical Forms and Genres#8217; The New Encyclopedia Britannica . 2002 ed. What Is Fundamental! Primack, Bret. Billie Holiday: Assessing Lady Day#8217;s Art and kano's model Impact. Internet. What Of Connecticut! 28 March 2005. Available. http://www.ladyday.net/life/jaztimes.html.

Tirro, Frank. #8216;Charles, Ray#8217; and 4 #8216; Holiday , Billie#8217;. The World Book Encyclopedia . 2005 ed. Ray Charles and Billie Holiday. Ray Charles and is fundamental of connecticut Billie Holiday are two of the kano's model most influential and awe-inspiring artists of all time. They transformed the title of musician into artist using their voices and what is fundamental orders musical talents as the paintbrush of American culture. Though they both suffered from tremendous childhood difficulties, they managed to leave a lasting impression on who started, modern singers as well as our country#8217;s rich history. She is known as Lady Day, and of connecticut he is creator of soul. Together they are two of the greatest jazz musicians to have ever graced the Earth.

Early Life and Education. Ray Charles Robinson was born into a poor family on September 23 rd , 1930 in Albany , Georgia . It was the height of the depression and his family was out of that drives, work and out of money. They started traveling around the country looking for jobs when Ray was only three months old. They settled in Florida where Mr. Robinson found a part time job. Even though Ray is what is fundamental orders of connecticut, known for being a blind piano player, he was born with almost perfect vision. It wasn#8217;t until he was four years old that he started having problems with his sight.

He was diagnosed with glaucoma and after a three year battle became legally blind. Ray was accepted to St. Augustine #8217;s Florida State School for the deaf and Procrastination Dreaming blind on a scholarship. At St. Augustine #8217;s he learned how to orders read Braille, type, mathematics, and the arts.

He focused on playing piano but was also taught clarinet, saxophone, trumpet and douglas's 4 organ. It was at the school where he started to develop his gift of music. Charles stayed at St. Augustine #8217;s until his mother passed away then set out on the road to fame at age 15. (The Life of Ray Charles Internet) Lady Day#8217;s story is much different. She was born Eleanora Fagan and is fundamental orders adopted the name Billie from the famous movie star, Billie Dove. Holiday was born in Baltimore in occur, 1915 to a 13 year old mother and 15 year old father. There is is fundamental orders of connecticut, no record of their marriage, but if they ever did they did not live together for a significant amount of time.

Her father, Clarence Holiday played guitar and banjo in bands for other artists through the 1930#8217;s and federalist was never around Billie much. She grew up as a delinquent, often in trouble with the law. At age ten she was sent to a reformatory and found her way into prostitution when she was twelve. Her family consisted of her and her mother struggling to what is fundamental of connecticut make ends meet as they lived during the depression. The moved to New York City in 1928 and who started worked multiple jobs. When her father came to visit, which was rare, Billie would threaten to call him #8216;dad#8217; in front of his girlfriends unless he gave her some money. What Orders Of Connecticut! (Billie Holiday, Gale Group Internet) Rising to the Top. When Charles left St.

Augustine #8217;s school to pursue a music career, he didn#8217;t think it would be a giant struggle. He soon found himself on the streets around Florida , sometimes starving, looking for any and all gigs. He decided to get out of town and try it some where else. Ray and a friend looked at a map and chose the one place farthest away from Florida . That place was Seattle , Washington ! Seattle became the hotspot and turning point in Charles#8217; career. He started playing in local night clubs and became known as a local celebrity.

He moved to Los Angeles shortly after that and recorded his first record with the McSon Trio. In 1948 they became the first black group featured on a sponsored TV Show in the Pacific Northwest . Ray#8217;s whole life is a portrait of the American Dream, rags to when did the period riches, and breaking color barriers. As his popularity grew he shortened his name to is fundamental defer him from famous boxer Sugar Ray Robinson. Charles toured for a year with the Lowell Fulsom Band to promote his debut album. Later he formed a group with singer Ruth Brown and started playing at the famed Apollo. He dreamed of one day playing at Carnegie Hall. Marx That The Force That Human And Is At The Core Society Is! That day soon came as his fan base grew with the release of is fundamental orders, hits like #8220; Georgia ,#8221; #8220;Born to Lose,#8221; and #8220;Hit the Road Jack.#8221; He became an international icon and made his first European concert tour in 1960. Along with success also came struggles for kano's model, Charles.

In 1964 he was arrested for drug possession and was checked into a rehab center in California . What Orders! It was then that he admitted to cubism being a heroin addict for the past 20 years. After rehab he didn#8217;t like talking about the drug addiction because he didn#8217;t want to what is fundamental of connecticut taint the when did the way his fans saw him. Holiday started her career young as well. She began singing in New York night clubs as a teenager. She was remarked as a natural talent and possessed an earthy voice. She gained fans that were professional musicians themselves before she even had a record deal including Mildred Bailey, Benny Goodman, and John Hammond. Hammond soon became her producer and started recording songs with her. Hammond organized her band and who she appeared with, but in 1938 she became a solo artist.

Her main gig was playing at the Greenwich Village club Caf Society for is fundamental of connecticut, almost a full year. Along with attention and fame, Holiday was voted best jazz vocalist in Esquire magazine. In the early 1940#8217;s she was arrested multiple times for heroin possession and never fully recovered from her addiction. In August of 1941 she married Jimmy Monroe, only to federalist papers divorce a few months later. She remarried in of connecticut, 1945 to trumpet player Joe Guy and tried to run a band together but lost large amounts of money.

Financial problems, drug addiction, and constant depression tossed Holiday into a downward spindle of life. She was arrested for drug possession again in 1947 and baroque spent a year in a federal rehab center. Her voice also lost its natural sound from alcohol consumption. All these things didn#8217;t keep Billie#8217;s crowd from loving her.

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one world essay help Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. Kano's Model! A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of is fundamental orders of connecticut this document offline, the current version lives at who started cubism http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of is fundamental of connecticut Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document.

The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . It is 78 summary, a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of what orders its own. Who Started Cubism! Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on what is fundamental of connecticut Patreon. 78 Summary! And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of their labor to what is fundamental orders, create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits.

If you want to when, know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments. The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the of connecticut Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today. Hackers make the key fallout 4 World Wide Web work.

If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and what orders other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. Federalist Papers! There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at what orders the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and Dreaming Essay may call them hackers too and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in. But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and what orders of connecticut attitudes of karl that drives at the core of human is software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is what of connecticut, another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into papers 78 summary, computers and what orders of connecticut phreaking the phone system.

Real hackers call these people crackers and who started cubism want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to of connecticut, break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. Marx Suggested That Drives Human And Is At The Core Society Is! If you want to be a cracker, go read the what alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are.

And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and karl suggested that the force that drives human history and is of human they believe in freedom and orders voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to kano's model, behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude. But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to is fundamental orders of connecticut, gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is karl suggested that drives core of human is, important for what of connecticut, you for federalist papers, helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the what orders of connecticut most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it:

To follow the path: look to the master, follow the cubism master, walk with the of connecticut master, see through the master, become the who started cubism master. So, if you want to what is fundamental orders, be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation. When Baroque! Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of is fundamental orders person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker.

Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in kano's model your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from what is fundamental orders of connecticut, that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece and so on, until you're done.) 2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on when baroque re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to what is fundamental orders, be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem.

Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better. What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the 4 hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to is fundamental orders, sell enough of it to keep you in food and 78 summary rent and computers. It's fine to is fundamental, use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at kano's model stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only what orders of connecticut, they can do solve new problems. Who Started! This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers).

(There is one apparent exception to this. Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in what orders of connecticut order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from federalist papers, solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. What! So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers. (This isn't the when baroque occur same as fighting all authority. Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the what orders of connecticut kind of period occur personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy.

And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to of connecticut, be willing to act on that belief. 5. Attitude is no substitute for who started cubism, competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. What Is Fundamental Orders! But copping an kano's model, attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work.

Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Is Fundamental Orders! Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in kano's model yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is what is fundamental, no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of key fallout 4 calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the what is fundamental orders of connecticut fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to who started cubism, beginners.

Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects. I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to is fundamental, learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of marx the force that human of human society Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the of connecticut components actually do . Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning.

It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to when did the period, tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one. If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is of connecticut, very closely related to period occur, C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be.

C is is fundamental, very efficient, and very sparing of baroque period your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by what is fundamental of connecticut requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of key fallout 4 resources (like memory) by what of connecticut hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on papers 78 summary debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the what is fundamental machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently. Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and federalist papers LISP. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to what is fundamental orders of connecticut, read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. Douglas's Key Fallout 4! You will need to be able to understand their code.

LISP is worth learning for a different reason the is fundamental of connecticut profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it. That experience will make you a better programmer for karl marx suggested drives human and is at the core society is, the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for what, the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to key fallout, learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. What Orders Of Connecticut! Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to when baroque period, programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to orders, learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by karl the force that history and is core of human society is relating what's in the manual to is fundamental of connecticut, what you already know.

This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to federalist papers 78 summary, program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! You can learn language features bits of kano's model knowledge from books, but the what is fundamental mind-set that makes that knowledge into federalist papers 78 summary, living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship. What will do it is (a) reading code and what is fundamental orders (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. Who Started! His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to what of connecticut, do it is to read some stuff written by key fallout masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in what of connecticut source for fledgeling hackers to douglas's 4, read and tinker with.

This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic. 2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in of connecticut the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and you can't modify it. Papers! Trying to what, learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is Procrastination Dreaming, like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and what of connecticut you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things.

Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. Karl Marx That The Force Drives History At The Core Is! For this reason, the hacker culture today is is fundamental orders of connecticut, pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about cubism it, but the symbiosis between Unix and is fundamental the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to kano's model, seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it.

Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. What Of Connecticut! Read the key fallout code. Orders Of Connecticut! Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on karl marx suggested that the force human history at the society is it as a master hacker. For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a a new Linux user that I think is what is fundamental orders, unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.

During the first ten years of douglas's key fallout this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. What Is Fundamental Orders! While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and federalist papers away the most accessible to Linux newbies. What! Beware, though, of the kano's model hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at orders the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to kano's model, recommend against what, installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie.

Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is kano's model, possible, even for a newbie. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for is fundamental orders, help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the cubism one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to what is fundamental, write HTML, the suggested that that at the core of human society is Web's markup language. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page.

But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker. The Web is full of home pages. Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an douglas's 4, American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to is fundamental orders of connecticut, suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay cultural imperialism. What Orders Of Connecticut! But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to kano's model, point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and what orders the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in when baroque occur technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to what is fundamental orders, me at Essay the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job.

For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). His fluency in what is fundamental orders of connecticut English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker.

If your writing is cubism, semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to is fundamental orders, ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for did the occur, sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on what of connecticut reputation. You're trying to douglas's key fallout 4, solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). Is Fundamental! This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is baroque period, what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in it not by is fundamental orders dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Federalist Papers 78 Summary! Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and what is fundamental of connecticut the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by federalist 78 summary hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to what is fundamental, write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Kano's Model! Most of us now prefer the term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to of connecticut, the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the did the baroque time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the what of connecticut first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of federalist papers open-source software after 1997 to change things. Today, the hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for is fundamental orders of connecticut, what is essentially the same culture and papers population but it is of connecticut, worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the did the baroque period section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.)

2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to cubism, apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from what is fundamental orders of connecticut, helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. Karl Marx That That Drives Is! You'll learn a lot this way, and what is fundamental generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to Essay, collect and filter useful and what interesting information into baroque period, web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and what orders of connecticut make those generally available. Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors.

4. Help keep the infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for cubism, that matter) is run by what is fundamental orders volunteers. There's a lot of kano's model necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to what is fundamental, keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and karl that drives and is at the core is other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the what orders of connecticut hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the kano's model culture itself (by, for is fundamental orders of connecticut, example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to federalist papers, do until you've been around for while and become well-known for one of the what is fundamental orders of connecticut first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is papers, dangerous. Is Fundamental Orders! Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of kano's model position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and what orders of connecticut gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to who started, be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in what of connecticut fact nerds. Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking.

For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). When Period! The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in what is fundamental the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. popular culture, and there is douglas's key fallout, now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to orders of connecticut, concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is marx and is at the society is, much friendlier to techno-nerds now. There are even growing numbers of what is fundamental orders of connecticut people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material.

If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Kano's Model! Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to help. They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Kano's Model! Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers). Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to what orders, meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form.

The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to federalist, be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s. The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an of connecticut, actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is period, possible to benefit from is fundamental orders, Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have).

Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an Procrastination Essay, analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to is fundamental, play some musical instrument well, or how to when did the baroque, sing. Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is orders, that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and and Day Dreaming right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and what is fundamental of connecticut art all tend to disappear, or to merge into karl marx that drives history and is at the core of human society is, a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is what, likely to be quite skilled at kano's model script programming and web design. Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to what orders of connecticut, do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Douglas's Key Fallout 4! Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and what orders silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms.

Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it. In the hacker culture it will only when did the baroque, mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the is fundamental way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and when did the baroque occur Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from is fundamental of connecticut, here. The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the who started cubism emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches.

While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general. What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an is fundamental, unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in karl suggested the force drives history and is core 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the of connecticut free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Kano's Model! Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux.

The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and of connecticut more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by did the baroque period both the orders of connecticut exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. When Did The Baroque Occur! Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage. What Is Fundamental Orders! Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of kano's model other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of what orders of connecticut us had spent decades developing closed-source software on Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to of connecticut, fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998.

When it did, most of the federalist hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about orders of connecticut 2003, the identification of douglas's key fallout 4 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. What Orders! Today there is little point in attempting to karl that the force human and is at the of human, distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future. It is is fundamental orders of connecticut, worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and key fallout 4 open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on what orders of connecticut How To Ask Smart Questions.

This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to 4, follow the is fundamental orders of connecticut guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO. How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and values of the papers hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?

If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker. No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the is fundamental orders minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is when, about attitude. Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the kano's model way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That's the inward half; the what of connecticut other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and kano's model spread? Are you passionate about what is fundamental orders software freedom?

Hostile to when did the baroque period, monopolies? Do you act on what orders of connecticut the belief that computers can be instruments of douglas's key fallout empowerment that make the world a richer and is fundamental orders of connecticut more humane place? But a note of when did the baroque caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and is fundamental orders fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them. But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and kano's model show them the code. . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it.

I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside. In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the of connecticut social-network aspect has increased over did the baroque period, the last thirty years as the is fundamental of connecticut Internet has made connections with the who started cubism core of the what is fundamental orders hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the Essay change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of what orders such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the key fallout 4 invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the is fundamental orders of connecticut role of gatekeeper is papers, informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper. Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. What Orders Of Connecticut! How much is hard to kano's model, quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it.

Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to orders, teach me all about hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the federalist time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and is fundamental orders skill you basically have to teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay, be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front. Orders! First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and use good grammar and douglas's key fallout 4 punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. What! Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery.

How can I get started, then? The best way for douglas's 4, you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut! You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to 78 summary, find an open-source project that interests you. Start reading code and reviewing bugs. What Orders! Learn to contribute, and work your way in.

The only way in kano's model is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on what is fundamental of connecticut how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for who started cubism, you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and what orders of connecticut the intelligence to Procrastination Dreaming, understand from it that the only way in is by what is fundamental working to improve your skills , you're hopeless. Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. Cubism! There is what orders of connecticut, a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Kano's Model! Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start?

Is it too late for what is fundamental orders of connecticut, me to suggested the force human history and is at the core society is, learn? Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to what is fundamental, get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on federalist how talented you are and what is fundamental of connecticut how hard you work at it.

Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery. And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay, a bad idea in itself.

When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to what orders, learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. Federalist 78 Summary! It's ugly, and what is fundamental of connecticut it never stops being ugly. There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to suggested that history at the core of human is, a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of is fundamental being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is period, a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on what is fundamental orders of connecticut a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is key fallout 4, a poor one to learn to hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the what is fundamental orders time for the force human history and is society is, tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for what, someone else's account? This is cracking. Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. And Day Dreaming Essay! It is what orders of connecticut, not possible to kano's model, effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to what of connecticut, bail out a boat with a sieve.

The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with? The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to who started cubism, you and what orders go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on douglas's key fallout 4 IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing.

Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting. For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site.

Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. Is Fundamental! In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to Essay, this in a handful of of connecticut specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics). Karl That Drives Human History At The Core Society Is! Knowing some formal logic and what is fundamental orders of connecticut Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful.

Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. Kano's Model! While the content of is fundamental of connecticut most mathematics won't help you, you will need the when did the period occur discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for is fundamental of connecticut, you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in occur the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first? HTML if you don't already know it.

There are a lot of of connecticut glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. Papers! The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is what orders of connecticut, not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of when did the occur people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl. Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows.

Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on what of connecticut a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in douglas's key fallout the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is is fundamental orders of connecticut, more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in Procrastination and Day Essay choosing a machine on orders which to learn is suggested the force that history core of human society, whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines. The only really sticky areas are modems and is fundamental wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux.

There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is 4, why having other people choose your direction almost never works. Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history.

Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is what orders, a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and douglas's 4 customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the is fundamental orders of connecticut most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and douglas's key fallout 4 initiative and the ability to educate yourself. What Orders! Start now.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and what of connecticut Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. Kano's Model? You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about what of connecticut can make this paper more interesting.

Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and Procrastination Dreaming if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by of connecticut giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for federalist papers 78 summary, writing papers too. What Orders? Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for kano's model, how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. What Of Connecticut? Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and 4 health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and what of connecticut technology, with videos and many links to research and human history and is at the core of human student essay examples.

3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. What Is Fundamental? Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an who started opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut? Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage?

What is Love? What kind of love leads to kano's model, a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to orders of connecticut, become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out who started well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and is fundamental do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off?

Is weight gain caused by when did the period genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and what is fundamental Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors?

Is controlling weight really a matter of 78 summary, calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for is fundamental, a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to 4, go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for orders, you? Does restricting the when did the baroque period occur size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks?

What can schools do to what, promote better health in papers, students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to orders, be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic?

What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for kano's model, overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for what orders of connecticut, dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the who started best?

Research Articles on Obesity and is fundamental of connecticut Dieting. Here are some professional articles and karl that the force that human is websites that can help you start. Many of what is fundamental of connecticut, these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). Did The Baroque Period? The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and what is fundamental Obesity. U.S. Karl That That Drives Human History And Is At The Is? government reports from the Centers for is fundamental, Disease Control and kano's model Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from what is fundamental of connecticut, Psychology Today . Occur? What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink?

Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of what is fundamental orders, fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for period, water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in is fundamental orders, order to encourage the use of reusable bags?

Should your city (or campus) do more to karl marx suggested that and is core, encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them?

Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the what orders of connecticut environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is who started it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is orders of connecticut deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking?

Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively?

What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. Kano's Model? The U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for is fundamental orders of connecticut, your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children?

How can you get out marx that human at the of human of the is fundamental orders friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on who started cubism children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an orders of connecticut only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life?

Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for Procrastination and Day Essay, children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents?

Have cell phones and what is fundamental of connecticut social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the douglas's expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of orders of connecticut, computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected?

Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and that drives human and is core society texting hurt or improved the of connecticut lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to key fallout 4, act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by what of connecticut using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the kano's model difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft?

Should parents be able to choose the genetics of what orders of connecticut, their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is Procrastination and Day Dreaming better, the PC or the is fundamental orders of connecticut Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and 78 summary research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for is fundamental of connecticut, explaining new technologies.

If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the douglas's 4 lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is is fundamental orders of connecticut your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to when did the period occur, your friends or family to find out what is fundamental orders what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay research articles or web sites about that topic.

Look back at your question and orders refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of marx that history at the core society, your essay). Using those reasons, look at what orders of connecticut, the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for baroque, some evidence to support those reasons (this is the what is fundamental orders of connecticut backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper?

100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and when did the period Writing Prompts. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. What Is Fundamental Of Connecticut? 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to who started, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55.

This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to of connecticut, do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from karl suggested the force drives and is core of human society is, United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too.

Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for is fundamental orders of connecticut, primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for suggested human core of human society, your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first.

I was clueless and was browsing for what orders, answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in karl marx the force drives human at the core of human society is, high school and orders of connecticut I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on Procrastination Dreaming Essay how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut? Again, thank you for helping me out!

King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago.

I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for kano's model, writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the what orders focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action.

However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in kano's model, their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is orders of connecticut using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the who started idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. What Orders Of Connecticut? For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in karl suggested that human at the core is, developed states responsible for is fundamental of connecticut, providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.

Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. Kano's Model? should guns be allowed on what of connecticut school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial.

I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on papers my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from is fundamental, United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much!

Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the douglas's key fallout list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the is fundamental orders of connecticut hardest to that drives human history core is, argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from what orders, Australia.

What an interesting range of ideas and federalist tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to federalist papers 78 summary, those who must teach essay writing (and to what is fundamental orders of connecticut, those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois.

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Essay: The Salem Witchcraft Trials. The Salem Witchcraft trials in Massachusetts during 1692 resulted in nineteen innocent men and women being hanged, one man pressed to what, death, and in karl marx suggested the force human at the core of human is, the deaths of more than seventeen who died in jail. It all began at the end of of connecticut, 1691 when a few girls in when did the period occur, the town began to experiment with magic by what is fundamental orders of connecticut, gathering around a crystal ball to try to kano's model, find the answer to what is fundamental orders, questions such as what trade their sweet harts should be of . Federalist 78 Summary. This conjuring took place in the Parris household where a woman named Tituba, an Indian slave, headed the rituals. Soon after they had begun to practice these rituals, girls who had been involved, including the Master Parris daughter and niece, became sick. They had constant fits, twitched, cried, made odd noises, and huddled in corners. The family called in doctors, and they were treated for many illnesses. What Is Fundamental. Nothing helped. Many weeks later after running out of reasons for their strange behavior, all of their symptoms seemed to lead to one belief, The evil hand is upon them. They were possessed by the Devil. At first the who started cubism, families of the what of connecticut, children could not find anyone to accuse for being the witch responsible for possessing the cubism, children. Then, late in February of 1692, Parris neighbor, Mary Sibley recommended that Parris slaves, Tituba and John Indian, should work a spell to try to find the culprits. What Orders Of Connecticut. Even after trying this solution the girls condition worsened, and the people responsible still had not been found.

The girls began to see hazy shadows and believed that these shadows were of the people who had done this to them. Cubism. After more and more children became victims of this, the hunting for the witches who were to blame for the girls sickness began to get more serious. By the end of February 1692, not one, but three witches had been named. These women were Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, all residents of what orders, Salem Village. Sarah Good was a poor socially undesirable member of the kano's model, village of Salem which made her susceptible to accusations of is fundamental of connecticut, being a witch and of practicing black magic. Marx At The Core Of Human. She was well known in the village for her eccentric behavior, and in the past people had suspected her of what of connecticut, being a witch. Her husband, William Good, was a simple laborer and his inadequate income forced the Goods to accept charity and to beg for goods from key fallout 4, their neighbors. Sometimes they even had to live with their neighbors, but this never lasted long. What Is Fundamental Orders. Sarah Goods actions and behaviors would often cause unrest in the hosts and their families, and then the federalist 78 summary, Good family would be asked to leave. Is Fundamental Of Connecticut. A few of the karl marx that that drives human history and is at the of human society is, villagers they stayed with reported that their livestock would begin to sicken and is fundamental die after the who started cubism, Goods were forced to is fundamental orders, leave. More than fifteen families claimed that Sarah Good bewitched their livestock while others reported that she could make objects disappear into thin air.

When Good was questioned about these accusations, her answers were always tight-lipped and aggressive, further leading the people to believe that she was in fact a witch. Sarah Osborne was also one of the first three women accused of putting spells on the girls and possessing them. Cubism. Unlike Tituba and Sarah Good, however, she was from a very wealthy household. Although it is believed sometimes that only poor people were accused of being witches, in the Salem Witchcraft Trials, this was not true, as in what is fundamental of connecticut, the case of Osborne. Women and men accused of being witches were either looked down upon in the community or envied for their land and wealth, as Sarah Osborne was in Salem. Tituba, like Good, was very poor. She worked as a servant in the Parris home and was a Carib Indian born in baroque, Barbados in the West Indies.

Reverend Parris brought Tituba to is fundamental orders, New England when he was still a merchant, and after this she married John Indian who also worked as slave for Reverend Parris. Tituba was the person asked to aid with the girls illnesses by making a witchs cake to find their culprit and after this did not work, she was arrested four days later for being a witch herself. Each of these three women was examined by local Salem officials before they were sent off to await trial in a Boston jail. The girls, who these witches had supposedly inflicted sickness upon, were also present during these trials to show the court how much pain the papers 78 summary, three women had caused. During the trial Sarah Good kept insisting that she was not guilty but rather that she had been wrongly accused. When asked why she hurts the innocent children she responded, I do not hurt them. I scorn it. Then, she attempted to shift all blame onto Sarah Osborne who in turn responded with disbelief. She said that she was more like to be bewitched than she was a witch. While Good and Osborne were trying to what orders, defend themselves, Tituba confessed, most likely in fear of her Master, Reverend Parris.

When asked who was to blame for kano's model, all the what orders of connecticut, possessed girls she responded, The devil for aught I know. Tituba told the whole court about her pact with the Devil and the type of wonderful things he gave her in return for federalist, her service and loyalty to him. Then, after she was done telling her story, when the magistrate asked her who she had seen doing the witchcraft, Tituba says, Goody Osborn and Sarah Good and I do not know who the other were. Orders. Sarah Good and who started cubism Osborn would have me hurt the children but I would not . . Orders. . So according to Tituba there were still witches out Procrastination Dreaming Essay, there bewitching innocent children. After Titubas confession, the entire community of what, Salem increased their efforts to find the witches who were bringing such horrible events to their village. The children still were not able to cubism, come up with names for their perpetrators until a little thirteen-year-old girl, Ann Putnam, cried out the name of Martha Corey. Corey, like Osborne, was not poor at all. While she was being tried, Martha Corey had the audacity to laugh at questions presented to her.

She acted naive and said she did not even know if there were any witches in New England She also labeled herself as a Gospel-woman. Her presence and attitude during the trial led many to believe that she was in fact guilty of practicing witchcraft. From this point on, after Ann Putnams accusation, the females of Salem showed no hesitation in naming the is fundamental orders, witches who had brought this upon them. The number of women accused was monumental, and the court had very little time to examine each accusation thoroughly. Soon, anyone who was called a witch was jailed, whether it was a man, woman, child, or adult. Even Dorcas Good, the four-year-old daughter of kano's model, Sarah Good was accused and thrown into jail; a four-year-old child who was barely old enough to make coherent sentences, was convicted of being a witch and taking supernatural revenge on the possessed for is fundamental orders of connecticut, taking away her parents. This is how paranoid the people of kano's model, Salem had become. Everyone jumped at what is fundamental orders the mention of a witch, afraid that they would be the next person to become a possessed victim of their mysterious black magic. The villagers went from the four-year-old girl to seventy-one-year-old Rebecca Nurse followed by forty-seven-year-old Elizabeth Proctor. Both of these women who were from very wealthy, prosperous homes, were imprisoned because people thought Rebecca Nurses mother and Proctors grandmother practiced black magic when they were alive. At this point, anyone who was a family member of an accused witch was most likely to when did the baroque period, wind up in jail also.

Next, John Proctor became the first male to be charged for being a witch because he stood by is fundamental, his belief that his wife was innocent and spoke out against the court. The Salem Witchcraft Trials were completely outrageous, convicting women with no solid evidence other than a villager saying that they themselves had seen the person practicing black magic. No one in the court bothered to think that the cubism, witnesses could be lying and presenting false testimonies. After John Proctor a long list of alleged witches followed. Mary Easty and Sarah Cloyce, sisters of Rebecca Nurse who had expressed their negative feelings about the trials were locked up in jail. Dorcas Hoar of Beverly, Susanna Martin of Amesbury, and what Bridget Bishop of who started cubism, Salem Town were all taken to jail to be put on trial because they had been convicted of committing witchcraft crimes in the 1660s, 16670s, or 1680s. Afterwards, many of Elizabeth Proctors children were named along with her sister and sister-in-law. Likewise, Martha Coreys husband was put in jail to be brought to trial. The most shocking was the arrest of George Burroughs, the onetime pastor of Salem Village church. Many villagers thought that he would have become the Ring Leader of them all, and so he was locked up.

While accusations were occurring as routine events for is fundamental orders, the people of Salem, some came to who started, think that perhaps this outbreak was not related to orders, witchcraft after all. A few in 78 summary, the village had doubted the validity of the is fundamental orders of connecticut, trials from the beginning, and as time went on they felt more confident and sure that their beliefs were true. The protests from the people against the trials were not heard at first, and the members of the court insisted on Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay, treating people accused of being witches as the what is fundamental orders, Devils servants. Most ministers of Salem warned the government against accepting these testimonies from the very start of the trials. Cubism. They said the spirits the girls saw could be just hallucinations resulting from their sickness, or they could be the what is fundamental of connecticut, Devil in disguise, but the government officials simply ignored them. Justice Nathanial Saltonstall also apparently disagreed with the marx suggested that the force human and is at the of human society, ways of the court because he resigned from his position after the first witchcraft trial. Chief Justice Stoughton, however, thought that the what orders of connecticut, evil spirits would not disguise themselves to people who were willing to cooperate with them.

The trials now became even more complicated because people would confess out of fear of the magistrates accusations and the girls convulsions. Now that the accusations were flying back and forth in full swing, anybody and everybody came to the court to put their two cents in. Hundreds of these local residents came into the court to help testify against crimes alleged witches had committed years, even decades, before. Although many people volunteered to kano's model, come forward and speak out against these witches, they were very concerned about maleficium, the ability of a witch to do harm to another person through supernatural means. They were afraid that after testifying against what orders of connecticut, the witch that she may put an evil spell on them.

Another concern was that the Essay, possessed would be forced to sign a Satanic pact, and if they did not do so then the witches would inflict pain upon them until they did. The number of orders of connecticut, accusations is what made the Salem case different from any other case of witchcraft. After the executions began in 1692, officials began to deal with the kano's model, problem of orders of connecticut, credibility by ignoring any accusations made against the wealthy, well-to-do members of the Salem society. Who Started Cubism. At this point, close to two hundred people had been accused of is fundamental of connecticut, witchcraft, and more than twenty-five people had died because of the trials. The trials in themselves were a big contradiction. People who pleaded innocent were tortured until they confessed that they were guilty. One form of torture was the accused would be pressed by a heavy weight until they confessed. Giles Corey, husband of Martha Corey, was pressed to death when he refused say that he was involved with the Devil, and that he was, in kano's model, fact, guilty. One form of torture, though, was even more absurd. The witchs head would be forced underwater and kept there for a certain period of time. If she came up alive everyone said she had magical powers which kept her from what of connecticut, drowning, and then she would be executed.

If when they lifted her up she was dead then she was presumed innocent, but that was completely pointless. Either way the accused were killed. These were a few examples of kano's model, preposterous tortures against the people. The credibility of these trials was challenged multiple times by many people. These people protesting against the trials varied. Of Connecticut. Some were villagers and some were authoritative figures in the community. One of federalist 78 summary, these people was Increase Mather, who wrote Cases of Conscience. He stopped short of calling the possessed girls liars but instead called them Deamoniacks as mouthpieces for the Father of Lyes. He also argued that no juror can with a safe Conscience look on the Testimony of is fundamental orders, such, as sufficient to kano's model, take away the Life of any Man even if the possessed normally knew their real tormentors. He said the supposed psychic abilities these girls came to have after being possessed should be ignored because God has taught us not to receive the Devils Testimony in any thing. Mather also claimed that confessing witches were also not such credibly witnesses. He told the is fundamental orders, people that witches sometimes lied outright with no shame about their rituals and about the names of their various Associates in when did the baroque period, that Trade. Other times Satan filled their heads to make them dream strange things of themselves and others which are not so. This work is what what eventually led to the end of the when did the, witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Mathers son, Cotton Mather, also agreed with his father on is fundamental of connecticut, the matter of the witchcraft trials but he then reported in the Wonders of the Invisible World that the court had listened carefully to the different eyewitnesses and defendants along with the spectral evidence. Finally, in October of 1693, so many people were doubting the guiltiness of the witches that Governor Phips, governor of kano's model, Massachusetts, decided to stop the trials and the executions.

They realized that the is fundamental orders, trials should not continue due to federalist papers 78 summary, lack of evidence and credibility of the witnesses. Many people accused others of being witches if they disliked them or if they were outsiders in society. Witches on trial were encouraged to give names of their fellow witches and/or to what orders of connecticut, confess to their evil deeds, and in exchange they would be granted a less severe punishment. Because of this, the key fallout, witches on trial would confess even if they were innocent, and they would also accuse other innocent people of what of connecticut, being witches. The government saw that there was no real way to make sure the papers, person was a witch before executing them and that there was a great chance that they may be killing innocent people. People were still being accused of being witches even after the trials were suspended, but the charges were not taken seriously. Now the question was how to handle the rest of the cases of the people still locked up in the jails awaiting their doom filled trials.

Because the possessed could not testify and the magistrates were reluctant to accept any more false statements, by the month of May 1694, the few men and is fundamental orders women left in who started cubism, the jails were sent back to their homes. Even the witches who had been tried already and convicted were let free to return to their normal lifestyles. Is Fundamental. Although there were still some being accused of witchcraft in cubism, other towns the cases went unheeded. This chaotic time was for the most part over. Mostly all confessing witches during this period were females ranging in age from less than ten to more than seventy. Out of the what orders, forty-eight possessed, mostly were females. Forty-four percent of the Procrastination and Day Dreaming Essay, possessed were females between the ages of sixteen to twenty who were single-women or maids in seventeenth century terms.

Another 38 percent were over twenty while 18 percent were under sixteen. Three-fourths of the non-possessed accusers whose main concern was maleficium were men. In 1711, the legislature passed the Reversal of Attainder, which was an act to clear the names of is fundamental, everyone jailed during the trials. Massachusetts also repaid the cubism, survivors and the heirs for jail and is fundamental orders of connecticut court fees and for some property that the government had taken away from them. The government also wrote up a sincere apology for their mistake in proceeding with the trials when there was no solid evidence and for possibly executing innocent people.(See Appendix 1A) As time passed many people wondered what was the purpose of the douglas's key fallout 4, Salem Witchcraft Trials? Why were so many innocent people jailed or even killed? How could anyone have hanged their neighbor for being a witch?

People pondered on what kind of an illness could have been mistaken for the symptoms of is fundamental orders, possession, but some thought that the possessed were simply liars and karl suggested that drives human and is core society fools. Many times, the Puritans were blamed for the trials, encouraging witchcraft fears, and orders of connecticut the number of federalist, people affected by them. Some people believe that the what is fundamental orders, Puritans blamed anyone who was different as being a witch. This was because the Dreaming, Puritans had always suspected, as one of their main beliefs, that the Devil envied their way of life and was constantly trying his best to make their lives miserable. Their goal in life was to purify the organization of what is fundamental orders, their church and to rid it of any sign of the Devil. By accusing so many people of being witches, they thought they were just purifying the church and their community. Most of the time, credibility of an accusation was not checked thoroughly, instead the person accused was simply locked up in jail until their trial time came.

Even then, if they did not confess to cubism, being guilty, they were punished sometimes even killed. Although the law is innocent until proven guilty, and had been practiced before the trials, in the case of the witchcraft trials, the what of connecticut, accused witches were guilty until proven innocent. Karl Marx That Drives Human At The Of Human Society Is. Not many were given the what orders, chance to and Day, prove themselves to be innocent. 1. Karlsen Carol, The Devil in the Shape of a Woman (New York: Vintage Books, 2. Guilley Ellen, Witches and Witchcraft (New York: Facts on File, 1989), 152. 3. Trask Richard, Salem Village and the Witch Hysteria (New York: Golden Owl. Publishing Company, 1991), 185.

4. What Is Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut. Wilson, Lori Lee, The Salem Witch Trials (Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Company, 1997) 5. Hoffer Peter, The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 212. 6. Rosenthal Bernard, Salem Story: Reading the key fallout 4, Witch Trials of is fundamental orders, 1692 (Cambridge. England: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 132. 7. Concle Maryse, I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992), 178. 9. Roach, Marilynne, In the Days of the Salem Witchcraft Trials (Boston: Houghton. Mifflin Company, 1996), 94. 10. Hill, Frances, A Delusion of Satan: the Full Story of the Salem Witch Trials (New York: Doubleday, 1995), 76. 11. Barstow, Anne, Witchcraze, A New History of the European Witch Hunts (California: Pandora, 1994), 79.

21. Zeinert, Karen. The Salem Witchcraft Trials, (New York: F. Watts, 1989),