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Biology OCR Coursework A2 Enzymes Watch. Sociology. Has anyone done this coursework yet about immobilised enzymes and biochemical tests. Have it in are proteins hydrophobic, a few days and need a good grade in theroies, this or I will not get into de la cruz Uni, which Im stressing about now. Theroies. Any advice/ tips/ things to de la cruz, share Thanks in theroies, advance. Cyber Crimes. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to wotsits17. I have the quantitative tomorrow. Theroies. Any hints from for children your teachers or advice for theroies me, as I was in in media, Germany for theroies a study visit during the lesson on Internet Essay, which the theroies practical is based? span Follow 2 followers 0 badges Send a private message to julia, ninah1995162. I have the sociology theroies quantitative tomorrow. Cyber On The. Any hints from your teachers or advice for sociology me, as I was in Workshop, Germany for sociology a study visit during the lesson on for children, which the practical is based? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to bekkii24.

Has anyone done this coursework yet about immobilised enzymes and theroies biochemical tests. De La. Have it in sociology theroies, a few days and need a good grade in this or I will not get into Uni, which Im stressing about now. Any advice/ tips/ things to share Thanks in stereotypes in media, advance. Sociology. We have a brilliant team of Crimes, more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on theroies, The Student Room, helping to de la, make it a fun, safe and useful place to sociology theroies, hang out. 0 new posts Advice on Law Enforcement, which A Level to sociology theroies, drop? Started by: cricinfo Forum: A-levels Replies: 0 Last post: 1 minute ago ?104 (but NEGOTIABLE) en-suite room, Leadmill Point Started by: spinnka Forum: Sheffield Hallam University Replies: 2 Last post: 1 minute ago Girls dating below their league - fact or fiction? Started by: awkwardshortguy Forum: Relationships Replies: 159 Last post: 1 minute ago How do facial beauty spots form? Started by: Fruli Forum: Chat Replies: 3 Last post: 1 minute ago ** Official Investment Banking Summer Internship 2018 Thread ** Started by: martimc Forum: Investment Banking Internships and Work Experience Replies: 4464 Last post: 1 minute ago Gofre's 2017 Smartphone Buying Guide! (Last Updated: June 2017) Started by: Gofre Forum: Mobile phones Replies: 149 Last post: 1 minute ago I need some advice! Started by: CharlotteLM Forum: Fashion and beauty Replies: 2 Last post: 1 minute ago Personal Statement Review Started by: marinacalder Forum: University of Cambridge Replies: 4 Last post: 2 minutes ago Do I even need to buy any medical textbooks? Started by: SGHD26716 Forum: Medicine Replies: 5 Last post: 2 minutes ago Do i have a chance of light colour, getting into sociology Exeter university?

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Essay: Gene transfer techniques pros and cons. Gene transfer is sociology theroies a technique to stably and efficiently introduce functional genes (that are usually cloned) into the target cells. Genetic transfer is the mechanism by which DNA is transferred from are proteins a donor to a recipient. Once donor DNA is inside the recipient, crossing over can occur. The result is a recombinant cell that has a genome different from either the donor or the recipient. Theroies? A recombination event must occur after transfer in order that the change in the genome be heritable (passed on to the next generation).The genes are the blueprints essential to light colour generate all the proteins in sociology our bodies which eventually perform all the biological functions. Therefore, when a gene is cruz efficiently introduced into a target cell of the host, the protein which is sociology encoded by that gene is produced . Gene transfer technologies developed initially as a research tool for studying the gene expression and stereotypes in media, its function.

A range of techniques and naturally occurring processes are utilized for the gene transfer. Techniques are available for sociology theroies, the introduction of DNA into many different cell types in culture, either to study gene function and regulation or to produce large amounts of recombinant protein. Cell cultures have therefore been used on a commercial scale to synthesize products such as antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and viral coat proteins for julia de la, immunization.The most important application of this technology is in vivo gene therapy, i.e. the introduction of DNA into sociology, the cells of live animals in light colour order to treat disease. The extraordinary potential of sociology, altered DNA molecule is to give rise to Law Enforcement new life-forms that are better adopted for survival. Change in sociology theroies base sequence of DNA leads to change in protein causing disease condition which can be corrected by manipulation of gene. Much emphasis has been given to are proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic the gene manipulation in cardiovascular diseases, parkinsons disease, lysosomal disorders, ocular gene therapy and osteoarthritis. Overview of sociology, gene-transfer strategies: Gene transfer can be achieved essentially via three routes. Crimes Internet? The most straightforward is direct DNA transfer, the physical introduction of foreign DNA directly into the cell.

For example, in cultured cells this can be done by microinjection, whereas for cells in vivo direct transfer is often achieved by bombardment with tiny DNA-coated metal particles. The second route is theroies termed transfection, and this encompasses a number of techniques, some chemical and some physical, which can be used to romeo and juliet for children persuade cells to take up DNA from their surroundings. The third is to package the DNA inside an. animal virus, since viruses have evolved mechanisms to naturally infect cells and introduce their own nucleic acid. The transfer of foreign DNA into a cell by this route is termed transduction. The choice of sociology theroies, methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in black stereotypes which transformation will be performed.

It also depends upon the objectives of gene manipulation. The transfection may be either stable or transient. Although, choice of DNA transfer method is very important, the other important steps are selection of gene, isolation of gene, preparing recombinant DNA and selection of transformed cells. The regeneration of sociology, organism with new characteristics is Cyber Crimes on the also equally important. The delivery of genes in vitro can be done by treating the cells with viruses such as retrovirus or adenovirus, calcium phosphate, liposomes, particle bombardment, fine needle naked DNA injection, electroporation or any combination of sociology, these methods. These are the powerful tools for on the Internet Essay, research and have possible applications in gene therapy. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A GENE DELIVERY METHOD. The advancement of new technologies has made gene delivery both more efficient yet more confusing given the formidable array of reagents and methods now available. Determining the sociology theroies best gene delivery approach for julia de la, any particular experiment requires careful consideration of a number of different factors as stated below. 1. Sociology? Cellular Context or Environment The context or environment of the cells (i.e., in vivo vs. in.

vitro vs. ex vivo) to which nucleic acids will be delivered is the first factor to consider when. deciding upon a gene transfer method. The obstacles and challenges posed by delivery to Law Enforcement in. vitro cell cultures are very different than those posed by in vivo or ex vivo cells, and require. different tools and techniques for overcoming them. For example, targeting nucleic acids to. particular cells while avoiding other cells is sociology usually a major concern for in vivo gene transfer.

applications, sometimes a concern for ex vivo applications, but usually not a concern for for children, in vitro. Another important issue that must be addressed when planning in vivo (but not in vitro) gene. delivery studies is the immunogenicity of the gene transfer system. This is particularly important when considering the use of certain viral vectors discussed previously, which may be highly immunogenic. Also related to sociology theroies immunogenicity is the issue of general safety, both for julia de la cruz, the experimenter and for the subject of any study utilizing transfection. Sociology? Almost always, the use of viral vectors requires very extensive safety precautions than does the use of light colour, synthetic transfection methods. 2. Cell or Tissue Type The origin of the cells or tissue to which nucleic acids will be.

transferred is typically the second parameter considered when selecting a gene delivery. method. Theroies? For a number of different reasons, the difficulty of cellular nucleic acid delivery varies. from cell type to cell type. Because of this, it is always important to review the literature to. determine if the cell type of julia cruz, interest has previously been utilized for gene transfer experiments, which exact methods have been used, and what delivery efficiencies were achieved, i.e., what. percentages of cells actually transfected or transduced, with each method.

Certain cell types are often described as notoriously difficult to sociology transfect. These include primary cell cultures of Law Enforcement Workshop Essay, many varieties. Successful gene transfer to theroies such cells. usually requires a good deal of light colour, research before selecting any particular gene delivery method. 3. Delivery Efficiency For most applications, transfecting or transducing as many cells as.

possible is preferred, especially when it is necessary to detect the theroies presence of rare transgene. products. Thus, it is important to determine the level of delivery efficiency required for a given. application before deciding on a particular gene transfer method. Light Colour? In most cases, it is found that. viral vectors provide the highest delivery efficiencies. Sociology Theroies? For some commonly used and easily transfected cell lines, cationic lipids nearly match viral vectors in their gene transfer efficiency, while providing safer and much quicker procedures.

4. Julia De La Cruz? Stable vs. Transient Gene Delivery Gene transfer procedures are frequently categorized. by whether the delivered gene remains separate from the host cell chromosome or whether it is integrated into the host cell chromosome. In the first case, known as transient gene delivery, expression of the transgene typically dissipates after a given period of time usually within. several days because the expression vector is either degraded or expelled from the host cell. In the second case, known as stable gene delivery, expression of the transferred gene is.

prolonged, or stable, because the vector is theroies integrated into the host cell chromosome. Obviously, different applications require different time periods of transgene expression. Thus, a careful. comparison between different gene delivery methodologies will allow a suitable choice for. generating the desired transient or stable expression.

In the case of viral vectors, determining whether a particular virus is suited for stable or transient. transduction is simply a matter of learning the general characteristics of the vector. In the case. of chemical or physical/mechanical gene transfer, determining whether a given method is. suitable for transient vs. stable delivery may be as easy as reading sales literature from the. manufacturer or checking primary research literature.

5. Type of Delivered Molecule Another factor to consider when selecting a gene delivery. method is what type of nucleic acid or other molecule is being transfected or transduced. Cruz? For. example, a reagent that efficiently delivers plasmids may not efficiently deliver DNA. oligonucleotides. It is theroies frequently easiest to simply review the literature to de la learn what methods have been used successfully, and to sociology theroies contact other researchers who have experience delivering the molecule of are proteins or hydrophilic, interest. 6. Cytotoxicity Another issue that comes up frequently when choosing among different gene. delivery methods is the cytotoxicity of the various methods and reagents. Some methods, such.

as electroporation and gene guns, can be extremely harsh on cells and often result in the death. of a majority of cells. Also, the DEAE-dextran can be quite harsh on some cell types, especially. when a DMSO or glycerol shock step is used as part of the sociology theroies procedure. In some applications, such as when a small number of transfectants are required from a recalcitrant cell type, this is.

not a problem. In the majority of are proteins hydrophobic, applications however, a high percentage of sociology theroies, cell death is light colour simply. not acceptable. The plethora of available cationic lipids and polymer reagents have varying. degrees of theroies, toxicity with different cell types, and their concentrations during transfection can be. optimized as needed to Law Enforcement Workshop minimize cell death. 7. Suspension vs. Sociology? Adherent cells Most commonly transfected cells grow and are. transfected while attached to some type of support, whether that support is the tissue from. which they are derived, some inert membrane or scaffolding, or the surface of a tissue culture. plate.

Less common are cells that grow while suspended in medium, such as those derived from. blood and other bodily fluids. Suspension cells are generally more difficult to transfect; therefore, it may be necessary to rely on harsher gene delivery methods, such as. electroporation, gene guns, microinjection, or viral vectors for acceptable transfection levels. Also, some cationic lipids can effectively transfect suspension cells, and should be tried when. possible due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. 8. Expertise The degree of difficulty in Law Enforcement Workshop performing the sociology various transfection techniques can. vary significantly, and Law Enforcement Essay, therefore the expertise and experience of the researcher is usually an. important factor to consider. For example, methods like microinjection viral transfection methods are invariably more complex than cationic lipids and polymer reagents. Sociology Theroies? Also, of the chemical methods, calcium phosphate co-precipitation can be quite tricky due to its sensitivity to slight changes in experimental conditions.

9. Essay? Time Another important factor to consider is the time required for gene delivery. Viral. methods, while highly efficient, can be quite time consuming, typically taking anywhere from two weeks to one month to complete. Sociology? In contrast, chemical and physical/mechanical methods can usually be completed within a few days, but frequently provide lower transfection efficiencies. Cruz? Thus, it is not uncommon to have to weigh the benefits of sociology, faster results and less labor against the benefit of higher efficiency. 10 Cost Finally, cost can be a major factor when deciding on the best gene delivery.

method for a given application. The most expensive methods tend to be the. physical/mechanical methods, such as electroporation and gene guns, due to the specialized. equipment they require.Viral gene delivery is perhaps the second most expensive method, since it requires the vector reagents, extensive time and labor to Crimes on the complete lengthy vector preparation procedures, as well as proper disposal of viral waste materials. The third most expensive gene delivery methods utilize polymers and cationic lipids, which do not require any specialized equipment or lengthy viral vector preparation steps. Such reagents typically cost in the hundreds of dollars, depending on theroies the number of transfections to be completed.

Finally, the least expensive methods utilize calcium phosphate, which is a cheap and abundant mineral, and naked DNA, which obviously requires no transfection reagent cost, but can be highly inefficient. GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES. Transformation is the naturally occurring process of gene transfer which involves absorption of the are proteins hydrophobic genetic material by a cell through cell membrane causing the fusion of the foreign DNA with the native DNA resulting in sociology the genetic expression of the received DNA. Transformation involves the uptake of naked DNA (DNA not incorporated into structures such as chromosomes) by competent bacterial cells. Cells are only competent (capable of taking up DNA) at a certain stage of their life cycle, apparently prior to the completion of cell wall synthesis . Transformation is usually a natural method of gene transfer but as a result of technological advancement originated the artificial or induced transformation. Thus there are two types called as natural transformation and artificial or induced transformation. Are Proteins? In natural transformation, the foreign DNA attaches itself to sociology theroies the host cell DNA receptor and with the in media help of the sociology theroies protein DNA translocase it enters the host cell. The presence of nucleases restricts the entry of two strands of the DNA, destroys a single strand thus allowing only one strand to julia de la enter the host cell. Any DNA that is theroies not integrated into the chromosome will be degraded. Light Colour? This single stranded DNA mingles with the host genetic material successfully.

The artificial or induced method of transformation is done under laboratory condition which is either a chemical mediated gene transfer or done by electroporation.. Theroies? Genetic engineers are able to induce competency by putting cells in certain solutions, typically containing calcium salts. At the entry site, endonucleases cut the DNA into fragments of 7,000-10,000 nucleotides, and the double-stranded DNA separates into single strands. The single-stranded DNA may recombine with the hosts chromosome once inside the Cyber Internet cell. This recombination replaces the gene in the host with a variant albeit homologous gene. DNA from a closely related genus may be acquired but, in general, DNA is not exchanged between distantly related microbes. Not all bacteria can become competent. Conjugation is a means of gene transfer in many species of bacteria.

Cell-to-cell contact by a specialized appendage, known as the sociology theroies F-pilus (or sex pilus), allows a copy of an F- plasmid (fertility plasmid) to transfer to a cell that does not contain the plasmid. Romeo? On rare occasions an F-plasmid may become integrated in the chromosome of its bacterial host, generating what is known as an Hfr (high frequency of recombination) cell. Such a cell can also direct the synthesis of sociology theroies, a sex pilus. As the chromosome of the Hfr cell replicates it may begin to cross the pilus so that plasmid and chromosomal DNA transfers to the recipient cell. Such DNA may recombine with that of its new host, introducing new gene variants. Plasmids encoding genes for virulence factors antibiotic-resistance are passed throughout populations of bacteria, and between multiple species of cruz, bacteria by conjugation. In the laboratory, conjugation can be used to transfer disrupted genes on sociology theroies a self-transmissible plasmid, to light colour develop a mutant strain. A gene of interest from a recipient E. coli strain is cloned into a self-transmissible vector and maintained in a donor strain for genetic manipulation. The deleted gene construct is then transferred by theroies conjugation from the donor strain back into the recipient strain. Transduction is Internet Essay another method for transferring genes from one bacterium to another; the transfer is mediated by bacteriophages. A bacteriophage infection starts when the virus injects its DNA into a bacterial cell.

The bacteriophage DNA may then direct the synthesis of new viral components assembled in the bacterium. Bacteriophage DNA is replicated and theroies, then packaged within the phage particles. Early in the infective cycle the phage encodes an enzyme that degrades the DNA of the host cell. Some of these fragments of bacterial DNA are packaged within the black in media bacteriophage particles, taking the place of phage DNA. As the number of phages increases it breaks open (lyse) the cell. When released from the infected cell, a phage that contains bacterial genes can continue to infect a new bacterial cell, transferring the bacterial genes. Sometimes genes transferred in this manner become integrated into the genome of their new bacterial host by sociology homologous recombination. Romeo? Such transduced bacteria are not lysed because they do not contain adequate phage DNA for viral synthesis and these phages can enter an alternate life cycle called lysogeny. In this cycle, all the viruss DNA becomes integrated into the genome of the host bacterium. Sociology Theroies? The integrated phage, called a prophage, can confer new properties to the bacterium. Researchers use transduction as a means of gene transfer as it requires a media like virus for transferring genes from one cell to the other.

Viruses are thus as a tool to light colour introduce foreign DNA from the selected species to the target organism. There are two types of transduction called as generalized transduction in which any of the bacterial gene is transferred via the sociology theroies bacteriophage to the other bacteria and are proteins or hydrophilic, specialized transduction involves transfer of limited or selected set of genes. Viral vectors for gene transfer: The use of viruses as vectors for transduction, i.e. the introduction of genes into animal cells by sociology theroies exploiting the natural ability of the are proteins virus particle, within which the transgene is packaged, to adsorb to the surface of the cell and gain entry is being employed . Due to the efficiency with which viruses can deliver their nucleic acid into cells and the high levels of replication. and gene expression it is possible to achieve, viruses have been used as vectors not only for gene expression in cultured cells but also for gene transfer to living animals.

Four classes of viral vector have been developed for use in human gene therapy and have reached phase 1 clinical trials. These are the retrovirus, adenovirus, herpesvirus and adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors . Before introducing the individual vector systems,we discuss some general properties of viral transduction vectors. Transgenes may be incorporated into. viral vectors either by addition to theroies the whole genome or by replacing one or more viral genes. This is Workshop generally achieved either by ligation (many viruses have been modified to incorporate unique restriction sites) or homologous recombination. For many applications, it is favourable to use vectors from which all viral coding sequences have been deleted.These amplicons (also described as gutless vectors) contain just the cis-acting elements required for sociology, packaging and light colour, genome replication. Sociology Theroies? The advantage of such vectors is their high capacity for foreign DNA and the fact that, since no viral gene products are made, the vector has no intrinsic cytotoxic effects. The choice of vector depends on Law Enforcement Workshop Essay the particular properties of the sociology virus and the intended host, whether transient or stable expression is required and how much DNA needs to be packaged. For example, icosahedral viruses such as adenoviruses and retroviruses package their genomes into preformed capsids, whose volume defines the maximum amount of foreign DNA that can be accommodated. Black? Conversely, rod-shaped viruses such as the baculoviruses form the sociology capsid around the genome, so there are no such size constraints.

There is no ideal virus for gene transfer each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In recent years, a number of hybrid viral vectors have been developed incorporating the beneficial features of two or more viruses. 1) viral vectors that especially efficient at transducing the intended cell type but not other cell types. 2) retroviruses are particularly proficient at romeo, delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 1) cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. 2) viral vectors may be highly immunogenic. TRANSFECTION BY CHEMICAL METHODS. One of the methods of gene transfer where the genetic material is theroies deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of julia, studying various functions of proteins and sociology theroies, the gene is transfection.

This mode of romeo for children, gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. When transformation is carried out in eukaryotic cells it is theroies termed as transfection. 1) Calcium phosphate mediated DNA transfer. The process involves a mixture of isolated DNA (10-100ug) with solution of. calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. . When the two are combined, a fine precipitate of the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged phosphate will form, binding the DNA to be transfected on its surface .Cells are then incubated with precipitated DNA either in solution or in tissue culture dish. A fraction of cells will take up the hydrophobic or hydrophilic calcium phosphate DNA precipitate by a process not entirely understood but thought to be endocytosis. Transfection efficiencies using calcium phosphate can be quite low, in the range of 1-2 % . It can. be increased if very high purity DNA is used and the precipitate allowed to form slowly. 1. Theroies? Frequency is very low.

2. Integrated genes undergo substantial modification. 3. Many cells do not like having the solid precipitate adhering to them. and the surface of their culture vessel. 4. Integration with host cell chromosome is random. 5, Due to above limitations transfection applied to somatic gene therapy.

This technique is used for introducing DNA into mammalian cells. This process has been a preferred method of identifying many oncogenes. 2)DNA transfer by DAE-Dextran method: DNA can be transferred with the help of DAE Dextran also. DAE-Dextran may be used in the. transfection medium in which DNA is present. This is a polycationic, high molecular weight substance and julia de la, is convenient for transient assays. The negatively charged DNA binds to the polycation and the complex is taken up by the cell via endocytosis.

If DEAE (diethylaminoethyl )-Dextran treatment is coupled with Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO) shock, then upto 80% transformed cell can express the transferred gene. The advantage of this method is that, it is sociology cheap, simple and can be used for transient cells. which cannot survive even short exposure of calcium phosphate. The major advantages of the technique are its relative simplicity and speed, limited expense, and remarkably reproducible interexperimental and intraexperimental transfection efficiency. Disadvantages include inhibition of cell growth and or hydrophilic, induction of heterogeneous morphological changes in sociology theroies cells. Furthermore, the concentration of serum in the culture medium must be transiently reduced during the transfection. It does not appear to be efficient for the production of stable transfectants. For cells that grow in suspension, electroporation or lipofection is usually preferred, although DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection can be used. Transfer of DNA by polycation-DMSO: As calcium phosphate method of DNA transfer is reproducible and efficient but there is narrow range of optimum conditions.

DNA transfer by. Another polycationic chemical,the detergent Polybrene is carried out to increase the adsorption of DNA to the cell surface followed by a brief treatment with 25-30% DMSO to increase membrane permeability and or hydrophilic, enhance uptake of sociology theroies, DNA. In this method no carrier DNA is required and stable transformants are produced. This method works with mouse fibroblast and light colour, chick embryo. LIPOSOME MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER. Liposomes are spheres of lipids which can be used to transport molecules into the cells. These are artificial vesicles that can act as delivery agents for exogenous materials including transgenes.

They are considered as spheres of lipid bilayers surrounding the molecule to be transported and promote transport after fusing with the cell membrane. Liposomes for use as gene transfer vehicles are prepared by adding an appropriate mix of bilayer constituents to an aqueous solution of DNA molecules. In this aqueous environment, phospholipid hydrophilic heads associate with water while hydrophobic tails self-associate to exclude water from within the lipid bilayer. Sociology Theroies? This self-organizing process creates discrete spheres of continuous lipid bilayer membrane enveloping a small quantity of DNA solution. For Children? The liposomes are then ready to be added to target cells. Germline transgenesis is possible with liposome mediated gene transfer.Lipofection is the most common and generally utilized gene transfer technique in the recent years and it utilizes cationic lipids. The combined DNA and cationic lipids act instantaneously to form structures called as lipoplexes that are more complex in structure than the sociology theroies simple liposomes. Cationic lipids have a positive charge and these form cationic liposomes which interact with the negatively charged cell membrane more readily than uncharged liposomes. This leads to black a fusion between cationic liposome and theroies, the cell surface resulting in quick entry by endocytosis and the delivery of the DNA directly across the plasma membrane.

Cationic liposomes can be produced from a number of cationic lipids that are commercially available and sold as an in vitro-transfecting agent, termed lipofectin. However this pathway would usually result in light colour the fusion of lipoplexes with lysosomes and undergo degradation. This problem is overcome by utilizing the theroies neutral helper lipids, which are generally included along with the cationic lipid. This allows entrapped DNA to escape the endosomes, reach the nucleus and get access to the cells transcriptional machinery.The endosomal structure is destroyed by increasing the osmotic pressure created by the lipids buffering action within the endosomes and by black stereotypes in media the fusion of the lipid with the endosomal membrane. The ability of a lipid to destroy endosomes is theroies one of the main characteristics of a transfection reagent. 2. Long term stability.

4. Protection of nucleic acid from degradation. 5. particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 6. Cruz? cationic lipids effectively transfect suspension cells. 1) Cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. A rapid and simple technique for introducing genes into a wide variety of microbial, plant and animal cells, including E. coli, is electroporation. Electroporation uses electrical pulse to produce transient pores in the plasma membrane thereby allowing macromolecules into the cells. These pores are known as electropores which allow the molecules, ions and water to pass from one side of the membrane to another. The electropores reseal spontaneously and the cell can recover. Sociology Theroies? The pores can be recovered only if a suitable electric pulse is applied .The formation of electropores depends upon the cells that are used and the amplitude and Cyber Crimes Essay, duration of the electric pulse that is applied to them. When subjected to electric shock, cells take up exogenous DNA from the suspending solution. Once inside the cell, the DNA is sociology integrated and the foreign gene will express.

A proportion of these cells become stably transformed and can be selected if a suitable marker gene is carried on the transforming DNA. Light Colour? The most critical parameters are the intensity and duration of the sociology theroies electric pulse, and these must be determined empirically for light colour, different cell types. Electric currents can lead to dramatic heating of the cells that can results in cell death. Heating effects are minimized by using relatively high amplitude, a short duration pulse or by using two very short duration pulses. However, once optimal electroporation parameters have been established, the method is simple to carry out and highly reproducible. Many different factors affect the efficiency of electroporation, including temperature, various electric-field parameters (voltage, resistance and capacitance), topological form of the DNA, and various host-cell factors (genetic background, growth conditions) and post-pulse treatment. General applications of electroporation. 1. Introduction of exogeneous DNA into animal cell lines, plant protoplast, yeast protoplast and bacterial protoplast. 2. Electroporation can be used to increase efficiency of transformation or transfection of bacterial cells. 3. Wheat, rice, maize, tobacco have been stably transformed with frequency upto 1% by this method.

4. Genes encoding selectable marker may be used to introduce genes using electroporation. 5. To study the transient expression of molecular constructs. 6. Electroporation of sociology, early embryo may result in the production of transgenic animals. 7. Hepatocytes, epidermal cells, haematopoietic stem cells, fibroblast, mouse T and B lymphocytes can be transformed by this technique. 8. Naked DNA may be used for gene therapy by and juliet for children applying electroporation device on animal cells. Advantages of sociology theroies, electroporation. 1. Cyber Internet Essay? Method is fast. 3. Applied for a number of cell types. 4. Simultaneously a large number of cell can be treated. 5. High percentage of stable transformants can be produced.

1)Limited effective range of. 1 cm between the electrodes. 2)Surgical procedure is required to place the electrodes deep into the internal organs. 3)High voltage applied to tissues can result in irreversible tissue damage as a result of thermal heating. The technique has high input costs, because a specialized capacitor discharge machine is required that can accurately control pulse length and amplitude.

4) Larger numbers of cells may be required than for other methods because, in many cases, the most efficient electroporation occurs when there is up to sociology 50% cell death. Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample. Ultrasonic frequencies (20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication . Sonoporation, or cellular sonication, is the use of these ultrasonic frequencies for modifying the romeo permeability of the cell plasma membrane. This technique is sociology theroies usually used in molecular biology and non-viral gene therapy in order to allow uptake of large molecules such as DNA into the cell, in a cell disruption process called transfection or transformation. Sonoporation employs the are proteins hydrophobic or hydrophilic acoustic cavitation of microbubbles to enhance delivery of such large DNA molecules. Although the early results could achieve only 10- to sociology theroies 30-fold increases in Cyber Crimes Internet transfection efficiency in vitro, technical refinements have lead to enhancements of up to several thousand fold in vitro ,sufficient to encourage ultrasonication mediated gene transfer in vivo. 1) It is non-invasive and well tolerated, 2)extraordinary safety record over a wide range of sociology theroies, frequency and intensity. 3)high levels of julia, public acceptability and understanding.

there are highly sophisticated, flexible, cost-effective and readily available diagnostic and therapeutic systems that can achieve site-specific transfer of ultrasound energy almost anywhere in the body, except perhaps the lung. 4) The bioactivity of this technique is sociology theroies similar to, and in some cases found superior to, electroporation. 5) in vivo is relatively nontoxic. 1)Extended exposure to low-frequency (MHz) ultrasound has been demonstrated to Cyber Crimes Internet result in complete cellular death (rupturing) as well as microvascular hemorrhage and disruption of tissue structure, thus cellular viability must also be accounted for when employing this technique. 2) Whether ultrasound affects later steps in the transfection process, particularly plasmid entry into the nucleus, remains unclear. Sonoporation is theroies under active study for the introduction of light colour, foreign genes in tissue culture cells, especially mammalian cells.

Sonoporation is also being studied for use in targetedGene therapy in vivo, in a medical treatment scenario whereby a patient is given modified DNA, and an ultrasonic transducer might target this modified DNA into specific regions of the patients body. In microinjection DNA can be introduced into cells or protoplast with the help of very fine needles or. glass micropipettes having the diameter of 0.5 to sociology theroies 10 micrometer. The DNA may be directly delivered into the nucleus or in stereotypes the cytoplasm. Some of the sociology theroies DNA injected may be taken up by are proteins the nucleus. The desired gene in the form of plasmid or alone is injected directly into the plant protoplast. Injection into sociology, the nucleus is more efficient than that into the cytoplasm. Micro-injection is for children carried out with automatic equipments (robotics) using a micro-needle. Computerized control of holding pipette, needle, microscope stage and video technology has improved the efficiency of this technique.

Advantages of microinjection. 1. Frequency of stable integration of DNA is far better as compare to theroies other methods. 2. Method is are proteins or hydrophilic effective in transforming primary cells as well as cells in established cultures. 3. Sociology? The DNA injected in romeo this process is subjected to less extensive modifications. 4. Sociology Theroies? Mere precise integration of recombinant gene in limited copy number can be obtained.

2. Skilled personal required. 3.Has not been successful for many plant cells . 4. Embryonic cells preferred for manipulation. 5. Knowledge of mating timing, oocyte recovery is essential. 6. Method is useful for protoplasts and not for the walled cells. 7. Black In Media? Process causes random integration. 8. Rearrangement or deletion of host DNA adjacent to site of integration are common.

9. The technique is laborious, technically difficult, and sociology theroies, limited to the number of cells actually injected. Applications of microinjection. 1. Process is applicable for plant cell as well as animal cell but more common for animal cells. 2. Technique is ideally useful for producing transgenic animal quickly. 3. For Children? Procedure is important for gene transfer to embryonic cells. 4. Applied to inject DNA into sociology theroies, plant nuclei. 5. Method has been successfully used with cells and protoplast of. tobacco, alfalfa etc. Fig: microinjection in mouse egg. Biolistics or particle bombardment is a physical method that uses accelerated microprojectiles to.

deliver DNA or other molecules into intact tissues and cells. Biolistics transformation is relatively new and novel method amongst the light colour physical methods for artificial transfer of exogenous DNA. The nucleic acid is delivered through membrane penetration at a high velocity, usually connected to microprojectiles like microscopic particles of tungsten or gold coated into cells using an sociology theroies, electrostatic pulse, air pressure, or gunpowder percussion. As the particles pass through the cell, the light colour DNA becomes free to integrate into the plant-cell genome. The gene gun is a device that literally fires DNA into target cells . The DNA to sociology be transformed. into the cells is Law Enforcement Essay coated onto microscopic beads made of sociology theroies, either gold or tungsten. Beads are carefully. coated with DNA.

The coated beads are then attached to romeo the end of the plastic bullet and sociology, loaded into. the firing chamber of the gene gun. An explosive force fires the bullet down the barrel of the gun. towards the target cells that lie just beyond the end of the or hydrophilic barrel. When the bullet reaches the end of. the barrel it is caught and stopped, but the DNA coated beads continue on toward the target cells. Some of the beads pass through the cell wall into the cytoplasm of the target cells.

Here the bead and. the DNA dissociate and the cells become transformed. Once inside the target cells, the DNA is. solubilised and may be expressed. 1. Biolistics technique has been used successfully to transform soyabean, cotton, spruce, sugarcane, papaya, corn, sunflower, rice, maize, wheat, 2. Genomes of subcellular organelles have been accessible to genetic. manipulation by biolistic method. 3. Mitochondria of plants and chloroplast of theroies, chlamydomonas have been. 4. Method can be applied to filamentous fungi and yeast (mitochondria).

5. The particle gun has also been used with pollen, early stage. embryoids, meristems somatic embryos, plant cells, root section, seeds and pollen. 6. This approach has been shown to be effective for transferring transgenes into mammalian cells in vivo . 1. Requirement of protoplast can be avoided. And Juliet? Unlike electroporation and microinjection, this technique does not require protoplasts or even single-cell isolations and is applicable to even intact plant tissue. 2. Walled intact cells can be penetrated. 3. Sociology Theroies? Manipulation of genome of subcellular organelles can be achieved. 4. This is also a highly mechanized or robotic mediated technique in which the. speed of the micro-projectile particles is controlled by foolproof mechanisms.

5) It is light colour also gaining in use as a method for sociology theroies, transferring DNA construct into light colour, whole animals. 6) This technique is fast, simple and safe, and it can transfer genes to a wide variety of tissues. 7)there appears to sociology be no limits to the size or number of genes that can be delivered. 1. Integration is light colour random. 2. Requirement of equipments. 3.It can be a challenge to obtain a sufficient number of theroies, cells modified by and juliet for children this method to see a biologically significant effect. A new technique is presented to incorporate exogeneous gene materials (DNA) into cells with a microbeam irradiation from an uv pulsed laser. A frequency-multiplied Laser, 355 m wavelength, 5 ns pulse duration, punches a self-healing hole of submicrometer aperture in cell membrane under selected irradiation conditions.

At the site of the beam impact, due probably to local temperature changes, the cell membrane modifies its permeability. Sociology Theroies? As a consequence of the Law Enforcement hit, circular areas, whose radius may be apparently regulated by sociology theroies changing the irradiation time and/or the radiation intensity (energy), appear on the wall, last for a short time and fade spontaneously . It takes a fraction of black stereotypes in media, a second for the aperture to close, long enough to allow the theroies foreign DNA, contained in the medium, to slip into the cell. It is well established that a strong pressure wave, known as a laser-induced stress wave (LISW), accompanies laser-induced plasma. We have extended their method to deliver macromolecules, such as genes. Plasmid DNA (circular DNA residing in bacterial cytoplasm) is used as a vector of the romeo and juliet gene of interest. Sociology? We inject the plasmid into target tissue, on which a laser target is placed, and subject the target to irradiation with a high-intensity, nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma and hence an LISW. By placing optically transparent material on Law Enforcement Workshop the target, the plasma is confined, resulting in an increase in sociology the LISWs impulse.

Interaction of light colour, tissue cells with the LISW allows plasmid to enter the cytoplasm. 1) it only takes advantage of the presence of phenol-red, a normal cell medium component, with no need of addition of extraneous substances; (2) it is a very mild treatment virtually suitable for any cell type and. (3) it allows transfection of selected cells even in the presence of theroies, cells of different type (providing that they are morphologically distinguishable). 4) . it is rapidly replacing virus mediated techniques as they have serious side effects caused by immune response and limited targeting characteristics rendering them inappropriate for clinical application. 5) The method offers a clear advantage over existing methods: increases the and juliet success rate of DNA transfection as well as the efficiency of sociology, cell modification by orders of magnitude. 6) . Romeo And Juliet For Children? It enables minimally invasive tissue interaction. Thus there are a number of ways by which the genes can be introduced into the cells. With the advent of molecular tools and technologies it is now comparatively easy to theroies introduce gene into cells without losing its integrity and biological activity. Moreover the recent development in molecular biology has made the transfer of light colour, gene with great accuracy to the target cell. The transfer of gene through different gene transfer technologies has cured a number of sociology theroies, diseases. Are Proteins Hydrophobic Or Hydrophilic? Research is on progress to sociology cure those diseases which cannot be cured by using drugs.

Moreover the Law Enforcement Workshop treatment of diseases by sociology theroies gene transfer provides better result for a prolong period of time. It is the need of hour to discover new and cheap method of gene transfer technologies so to make the treatment of the diseases a little easier and affordable. Improvements in gene transfer are required in terms of transfection approaches to stereotypes allow improved transgene uptake efficiencies. 1)Society of Applied Sciences. Gene Transfer Technologies and their Applications: K.H.KHAN.

Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India. 2)Principles of sociology theroies, gene manipulation: R.W.Old ,S.B. Primrose and Workshop, R.M.Twymann sixth edition,chapter 10 and 11. 3) BIOTECHNOLOGY 2020-From the Transparent Cell to. the Custom-Designed ProcessProf. Gerhard Kreysa Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr.h.c.

Dr. R??diger Marquardt. 4) INTRODUCTION TOBIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING. 5)From genes to genomes- concepts and applications of sociology, DNA technologyJeremy W Dale, Malcom von Schantz. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of julia de la cruz, us is qualified to sociology theroies a high level in hydrophobic our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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Mars Facts: Life, Water and Robots on the Red Planet. Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. Befitting the red planet's bloody color, the sociology Romans named it after their god of war. The Romans copied the ancient Greeks, who also named the and juliet planet after their god of war, Ares. Other civilizations also typically gave the sociology theroies planet names based on its color for example, the Egyptians named it Her Desher, meaning the red one, while ancient Chinese astronomers dubbed it the fire star. The bright rust color Mars is known for is due to iron-rich minerals in its regolith the loose dust and rock covering its surface. Hydrophobic! The soil of sociology theroies, Earth is a kind of regolith, albeit one loaded with organic content. According to NASA, the iron minerals oxidize, or rust, causing the hydrophobic soil to look red. The cold, thin atmosphere means liquid water currently cannot exist on the Martian surface for any length of time.

This means that although this desert planet is just half the diameter of Earth, it has the same amount of sociology theroies, dry land. The red planet is home to both the highest mountain and the deepest, longest valley in the solar system. Olympus Mons is roughly 17 miles (27 kilometers) high, about three times as tall as Mount Everest, while the julia de la Valles Marineris system of valleys named after the Mariner 9 probe that discovered it in 1971 can go as deep as 6 miles (10 km) and sociology, runs east-west for roughly 2,500 miles (4,000 km), about one-fifth of the or hydrophilic distance around Mars and close to the width of Australia or the distance from Philadelphia to San Diego. Mars has the largest volcanoes in the solar system, including Olympus Mons, which is about 370 miles (600 km) in diameter, wide enough to sociology, cover the Workshop Essay entire state of New Mexico. It is theroies a shield volcano, with slopes that rise gradually like those of Hawaiian volcanoes, and was created by eruptions of lavas that flowed for long distances before solidifying. Mars also has many other kinds of volcanic landforms, from light colour, small, steep-sided cones to enormous plains coated in hardened lava. Some minor eruptions might still occur on the planet. Scientists think the Valles Marineris formed mostly by rifting of the crust as it got stretched.

Individual canyons within the theroies system are as much as 60 miles (100 km) wide. They merge in the central part of the Valles Marineris in a region as much as 370 miles (600 km) wide. Large channels emerging from the ends of some canyons and layered sediments within suggest the canyons might once have been filled with liquid water. Channels, valleys, and gullies are found all over Mars, and suggest that liquid water might have flowed across the planet's surface in recent times. Some channels can be 60 miles (100 km) wide and 1,200 miles (2,000 km) long. Water may still lie in cracks and pores in underground rock. Many regions of Mars are flat, low-lying plains. Law Enforcement Workshop! The lowest of the sociology northern plains are among the hydrophobic flattest, smoothest places in the solar system, potentially created by water that once flowed across the Martian surface. The northern hemisphere mostly lies at a lower elevation than the southern hemisphere, suggesting the theroies crust may be thinner in black in media, the north than in the south. This difference between the north and south might be due to theroies, a very large impact shortly after the birth of Mars. The number of are proteins hydrophobic, craters on Mars varies dramatically from place to sociology theroies, place, depending on how old the surface is.

Much of the surface of the southern hemisphere is extremely old, and so has many craters including the planet's largest, 1,400-mile-wide (2,300 km) Hellas Planitia while that of northern hemisphere is are proteins hydrophobic younger and so has fewer craters. Some volcanoes have few craters, which suggests they erupted recently, with the resulting lava covering up any old craters. Some craters have unusual-looking deposits of sociology theroies, debris around them resembling solidified mudflows, potentially indicating that impactor hit underground water or ice. Vast deposits of what appear to be finely layered stacks of water ice and dust extend from the julia de la cruz poles to latitudes of about 80 degrees in both hemispheres. Theroies! These were probably deposited by the atmosphere over long spans of time.

On top of much of these layered deposits in both hemispheres are caps of water ice that remain frozen all year round. Additional seasonal caps of frost appear in the wintertime. These are made of black, solid carbon dioxide, also known as dry ice, which has condensed from carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, and in the deepest part of the winter, this frost can extend from the poles to latitudes as low as 45 degrees, or halfway to the equator. The dry ice layer appears to have a fluffy texture, like freshly fallen snow, according to the report in the Journal of sociology theroies, Geophysical Research-Planets. Mars is much colder than Earth, in large part due to Cyber on the, its greater distance from the sociology theroies sun. The average temperature is about minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 60 degrees Celsius), although they can vary from minus 195 F (minus 125 C) near the light colour poles during the winter to as much as 70 F (20 C) at midday near the sociology equator. The carbon-dioxide-rich atmosphere of Mars is black also roughly 100 times less dense than Earth's on average, but it is sociology nevertheless thick enough to support weather, clouds and winds. The density of the atmosphere varies seasonally, as winter forces carbon dioxide to freeze out of the Martian air.

NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter found the first definitive detections of carbon-dioxide snow clouds, making Mars the only body in the solar system known to host the unusual winter weather. The red planet also causes water-ice snow to fall from the clouds. The dust storms of the Mars are the Cyber Internet Essay largest in the solar system, capable of blanketing the entire red planet and lasting for months. One theory as to why dust storms can grow so big on Mars starts with airborne dust particles absorbing sunlight, warming the Martian atmosphere in their vicinity. Warm pockets of air flow toward colder regions, generating winds. Sociology Theroies! Strong winds lift more dust off the ground, which in turn heats the atmosphere, raising more wind and light colour, kicking up more dust.

The axis of Mars, like Earth's, is tilted with relation to theroies, the sun. This means that like Earth, the amount of sunlight falling on certain parts of the planet can vary widely during the year, giving Mars seasons. However, the seasons that Mars experiences are more extreme than Earth's because the red planet's elliptical, oval-shaped orbit around the sun is more elongated than that of any of the other major planets. When Mars is closest to the sun, its southern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, giving it a short, very hot summer, while the northern hemisphere experiences a short, cold winter. When Mars is farthest from the sun, the julia cruz northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, giving it a long, mild summer, while the southern hemisphere experiences a long, cold winter. Atmospheric composition (by volume):

95.32 percent carbon dioxide, 2.7 percent nitrogen, 1.6 percent argon, 0.13 percent oxygen, 0.08 percent carbon monoxide, minor amounts of water, nitrogen oxide, neon, hydrogen-deuterium-oxygen, krypton, xenon. Magnetic field: Mars currently has no global magnetic field, but there are regions of its crust that can be at least 10 times more strongly magnetized than anything measured on Earth, remnants of an sociology theroies ancient global magnetic field. Chemical composition: Mars likely has a solid core composed of iron, nickel, and sulfur. The mantle of Mars is probably similar to Earth's in that it is composed mostly of de la, peridotite, which is made up primarily of silicon, oxygen, iron and sociology, magnesium. The crust is de la probably largely made of the theroies volcanic rock basalt, which is also common in the crusts of the romeo Earth and the moon, although some crustal rocks, especially in theroies, the northern hemisphere, may be a form of andesite, a volcanic rock that contains more silica than basalt does. Internal structure: Scientists think that on average, the Martian core is about 1,800 and 2,400 miles in diameter (3,000 and 4,000 km), its mantle is about 900 to 1,200 miles (5,400 to 7,200 km) wide and its crust is about 30 miles (50 km) thick. Average distance from the sun : 141,633,260 miles (227,936,640 km).

By comparison: 1.524 times that of Earth. Perihelion (closest) : 128,400,000 miles (206,600,000 km). By comparison: 1.404 times that of stereotypes, Earth. Aphelion (farthest) : 154,900,000 miles (249,200,000 km). By comparison: 1.638 times that of theroies, Earth.

The two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, were discovered by American astronomer Asaph Hall over Workshop the course of a week in 1877. Hall had almost given up his search for a moon of Mars, but his wife, Angelina, urged him on he discovered Deimos the sociology next night, and Phobos six days after that. He named the moons after the black stereotypes sons of the Greek war god Ares Phobos means fear, while Deimos means rout. Both Phobos and Deimos are apparently made of theroies, carbon-rich rock mixed with ice and are covered in in media, dust and loose rocks. They are tiny next to Earth's moon, and are irregularly shaped, since they lack enough gravity to pull themselves into a more circular form. The widest Phobos gets is about 17 miles (27 km), and the widest Deimos gets is roughly nine miles (15 km). Both moons are pockmarked with craters from meteor impacts. The surface of Phobos also possesses an intricate pattern of grooves, which may be cracks that formed after the sociology theroies impact created the moon's largest crater a hole about Law Enforcement Workshop, 6 miles (10 km) wide, or nearly half the width of Phobos.

They always show the same face to Mars, just as our moon does to Earth. It remains uncertain how Phobos and sociology, Deimos were born. They may have been asteroids captured by Mars' gravitational pull, or they may have been formed in orbit around Mars the Essay same time the planet came into existence. Sociology! Ultraviolet light reflected from Phobos provides strong evidence for its capture origin, according to astronomers at the University of Padova in Italy. Phobos is light colour gradually spiraling toward Mars, drawing about sociology theroies, 6 feet (1.8 meters) closer to the red planet each century. Within 50 million years, Phobos will either smash into Mars or break up and form a ring of debris around the planet. Both moons are potential targets for romeo, exploration. One NASA plan envisions bombarding Phobos with small, spiky spherical rovers called hedgehogs. The first person to watch Mars with a telescope was Galileo Galilei, and in the century after him, astronomers discovered its polar ice caps. Sociology Theroies! In the 19th and 20th centuries, researchers believed they saw a network of long, straight canals on Mars, hinting at for children civilization, although later these often proved to be mistaken interpretations of theroies, dark regions they saw.

Robot spacecraft began observing Mars in and juliet for children, the 1960s, with the United States launching Mariner 4 there in 1964 and theroies, Mariners 6 and 7 in 1969. They revealed Mars to be a barren world, without any signs of the life or civilizations people had imagined there. In 1971, Mariner 9 orbited Mars, mapping about 80 percent of the planet and discovering its volcanoes and canyons. NASA's Viking 1 lander touched down onto the surface of Mars in romeo for children, 1976, the first successful landing onto the Red Planet. It took the first close-up pictures of the Martian surface but found no strong evidence for life. The next two craft to successfully reach Mars were the Mars Pathfinder, a lander, and Mars Global Surveyor, an sociology orbiter, both launched in 1996. Stereotypes In Media! A small robot onboard Pathfinder named Sojourner the first wheeled rover to explore the surface of another planet ventured over sociology theroies the planet's surface analyzing rocks. In 2001, the United States launched the Mars Odyssey probe, which discovered vast amount of Law Enforcement, water ice beneath the sociology theroies Martian surface, mostly in or hydrophilic, the upper three feet (one meter).

It remains uncertain whether more water lies underneath, since the probe cannot see water any deeper. In 2003, the closest Mars had passed to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, NASA launched two rovers, nicknamed Spirit and Opportunity, which explored different regions of the sociology theroies Martian surface, and both found signs that water once flowed on the planet's surface. In 2008, NASA sent another mission, Phoenix, to land in the northern plains of Mars and search for water, Two orbiters NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and ESA's Mars Express are keeping Mars Odyssey company over the planet. In 2011, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission, with its rover named Mars Curiosity, began to investigate Martian rocks to determine the geologic processes that created them and find out in media more about the present and past habitability of Mars. Among its findings is the first meteorite on sociology theroies the surface of the red planet. In September 2014, India’s Mars Orbiter Mission reached the red planet, making it the hydrophobic or hydrophilic fourth nation to successfully enter orbit around Mars.

Robots aren’t the only ones looking to buy a ticket to Mars. Theroies! A workshop group of government, academic, and industry scientists have found that a NASA-led manned mission to Mars should be possible by the 2030s. But NASA isn’t the only one with Martian astronaut hopefuls.. The Mars One colony project is looking to send private citizens on a one-way trip to the red planet. Mars could have once harbored life. Some conjecture that life might still exist there even today.

A number of researchers have even speculated that life on Earth may have seeded Mars, or that life on Mars seeded Earth. The most public scientific claim for Essay, life on Mars came in 1996. Sociology Theroies! Geologist David McKay at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston and his colleagues focused on rocks blasted off the surface of light colour, Mars by cosmic impacts that landed on Earth. Within they found complex organic molecules, grains of a mineral called magnetite that can form within some kinds of theroies, bacteria, and tiny structures that resembled fossilized microbes. Julia! However, these claims have proven controversial, and there is no consensus as to whether they are signs of life. Mars may have possessed oceans on sociology theroies its surface in the past, providing an environment for life to develop. Although the red planet is a cold desert today, researchers suggest that liquid water may be present underground, providing a potential refuge for any life that might still exist there. The rover Curiosity has found evidence for a lake that could have once supported life on the red planet, after previously establishing that the planet had the key ingredients present for life to evolve.

Enthusiasm and excitement on Earth over hydrophobic the possibility of life on the red planet are revealed by sociology the flurry of de la, excitement that greets interesting objects spotted by orbiters and landers. Theroies! While the Face on Mars garnered attention for the past four decades after it was first spotted by Viking 1, rovers today show close-ups of objects such as a weathered Martian rock claimed to be a ‘thigh bone’ and a likely shiny rock that raised furor on the internet as a UFO light. Read about and see pictures of more than 40 missions to romeo, Mars. Follow the rover Curiosity as it makes its way across the Martian terrain. Learn more about Mars at NASA's Solar System Exploration website.

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Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Employers in sociology theroies, search of an administrative assistant usually look for candidates with a fearless approach to new software platforms, a sense of de la cruz flexibility, and a friendly, positive attitude. So as you hit the job market, you#8217;ll need to find a way to show off these specific traits in your resume. Start by drafting a brief summary of your most relevant qualifications, and then present a series of subheadings that highlight your education, past positions, and special talents that your employers are likely to find valuable. Don#8217;t skip any capability related to event planning, communication, or budget and schedule management. Use this administrative assistant resume example as your guide. Administrative Assistant Advice nbsp; Interested in an administrative assistant role? An administrative assistant handles a variety of important everyday tasks, and theroies, play an important part in helping businesses and organizations run smoothly. The resume examples below are geared specifically for de la, a range of administrative assistant positions, including secretaries, executive assistants, personal assistants, and more. Choose from multiple resume template options and find the best choice to help you create your polished, professional resume.

Click on any of theroies these resume examples to get started. Resume Tips for Administrative Assistant nbsp; When it comes to finding jobs as a administrative assistant, or in any part of the light colour, country for that matter, it will all come down to the actions that you decide to sociology theroies take. With a bit of preparation and a deep understanding of the local job market, you can easily simplify your job search. Here are some tips that you may want to follow the next time you look for jobs as a administrative assistant. Julia Cruz! 1. Use your personal network. Friends, family members, and former clients can sometimes help you find employment. These people can alert you to jobs that may not have been posted online yet.

2. Revamping your resume before a job search is sociology theroies always a great idea. Your resume is your first opportunity to make a good impression, and a poorly written resume can doom your job search no matter how experienced you are. Julia De La! 3. Boosting your online presence can be an effective way of luring potential employers. Companies are increasingly turning to the internet to find new talent and employees. 4. Keeping a positive attitude in theroies, the face of unemployment can be a difficult, but necessary task. If you approach your job search with pessimism, you will make an unpleasant situation even worse. 5. After losing a job, many people choose to become their own boss.

Self-employment can seem like an unlikely option at first, but if you possess marketable skills and are proteins or hydrophilic, expertise, it can definitely be something to consider. Administrative Assistant Job Seeking Tips nbsp; Your search for jobs as a administrative assistant, or any other part of the country for sociology, that matter, can be greatly expedited with the Law Enforcement Workshop, help of a well-written resume. No matter what industry you work in, your resume will decide whether or not you get called in for an interview. Here are some practical, yet highly effective resume techniques for sociology, jobseekers. 1. Never include the reason why you left your previous jobs. If a hiring manager doesn#8217;t agree with or understand your reasoning, he or she may toss your resume aside. Only give this information if you are asked for it directly. Stereotypes! 2. Be sure to theroies include all of your current contact information somewhere near the top of your resume.

Remember to include a professional-sounding e-mail address and black stereotypes, only one primary contact number. 3. Sociology! It can be tempting to exaggerate or embellish certain aspects of your resume, but doing so will only romeo and juliet for children dash your chances of getting hired. Sociology! Always remain honest, and remember that most companies are required to perform background checks and contact references. 4. Try to avoid including unnecessary information. An informative resume is a great thing, but there is such a thing as too many details. 5. Using bullets will help to organize your resume and increase conciseness. They will also help to make your resume more reader-friendly. Romeo And Juliet For Children! Attract attention with professional resume designs.

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Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Health Benefits Administrator/ Administrative Assistant to CBO Resume Example. Company: MS Conference of the sociology, United Methodist Church. Date Range: April 2007 to December 2012. Administration of julia de la self insured Medical Plan, and sociology, supplemental dental and vision benefits to eligible Clergy and Lay participants of the MS Conference. Romeo And Juliet For Children! Made determination of eligibility, processed new participants, termination of participants, maintained the theroies, benefits information of established participants, both hard copy and Essay, electronic updating to various secure Third Party websites. Generated monthly billing , posted participant premiums, and collector of past due billing and sociology, established acceptable payment arrangements based on for children, the rules of the medical board. The point of contact for all Medical insurance questions and sociology, resolution of those issues concerning medical, dental and vision claims.This was accomplished through research and communication with TPA and/or CBO.

Coordination of all Board of Medical Benefits committee meetings including notice preparation, meal arrangements, travel reimbursements and attendance. Reviewed monthly statements from Medical, Dental, and hydrophobic or hydrophilic, Vision invoices for sociology, accuracy and presented to the Assistant Treasurer for payment to vendors. Assist the Conference Benefits Officer in any areas assigned by the CBO. Administrative Assistant/Office Administrator Resume Example. Law Enforcement Workshop Essay! Date Range: September 2006 December 2011. My position as an Administrative Assistant for igxglobal consisted of many responsibilities to theroies include global administrative duties in Operations, Marketing and Sales support duties. General Administrative duties include: answering phones and directing calls to appropriate parties, data entry, filing, scheduling appointments/interviews/meetings, receiving and shipping packages, ordering and maintaining office supplies, and scanning documents as requested. Operations Support duties include: providing courtesy calls, accounts payables and light colour, accounts receivable procedures, assisting clients with invoice inquires, tracking and ensuring proper handling of agreements, and reducing expenses i.e. setting up vendor accounts and negotiating prices. Sales/Marketing Support duties include: gathering lists of prospects using search engines, updating, customizing Salesforce.com CRM, assisting clients with order related questions, creating/ a. Researched, proposed and implemented vendor services to decrease costs to organization.

Frequently used word processing, spreadsheet, database and presentation software. Supplied sales and marketing support to a sales force of [Number] sales reps. Compiled and analyzed sales and marketing reports. Managed the CEO#8217;s complex and frequently changing travel arrangements and coordinated the pre-planning of trips. Sociology! Researched, proposed and implemented vendor services to decrease costs to organization. Directed administrative functions for the directors, principals, consultants and key managers. Distributed company-wide announcements, booked conference rooms and coordinated catering for annual staff development forum. Located and romeo for children, attached appropriate files to incoming correspondence requiring replies. Coordinated dealer visitations, company special events and other employee morale functions. Theroies! Developed and maintained an black stereotypes in media internal client filing system.

Administrative Assistant/Benefits Administrator Resume Example. Company: CTCE Federal Credit Union i? Reading, PA. Date Range: 8/1/2004. Planned travel arrangements for Financial Service Specialist and Management. Drafted meeting agendas, supplied advance materials and executed follow-up for meetings for Board of Directors and Management personnel. Supervised and managed receptionist area, to maintain focus of security to building, including greeting visitors and responding to telephone and in-person requests for information. Served as central point of contact for all outside vendors needing to gain access to the building for maintenance.Planned meetings and prepared conference rooms.Assisted employees with benefits and conduced Open Enrollment for benefits each year. Maintained databases for Marketing and management for monthly reports. Theroies! Maintained an in media up-to-date department organizational chart.Dispersed incoming mail to correct recipients throughout the office.Made copies, sent faxes and handled all incoming and sociology theroies, outgoing correspondence.Organized files, developed spreadsheets, faxed reports and julia de la, scanned documents.Received and distributed faxes and mail in sociology theroies, a timely manner.Received and on the Essay, screened a high volume of sociology internal and external communications, including email and mail.Managed daily office operations and maintenance of equipment. Created and maintained spreadsheets using advanced Excel functions and calculations to develop reports and lists for Marketing Director, including extensive merge files for in media, distribution to members of the theroies, Credit Union.

Contract Administrator / Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Company: Pinnacle Entertainment White Plains, NY. Date Range: 06/2004 to 11/2016. And Juliet For Children! Identify contract issues requiring clarification or amendment as contracts are being entered or updated in the company Filemaker Pro database. Reviewed and administered contracts and sociology theroies, modifications; prepared contract review records and obtained management approval for any changes. Report status of and juliet current contract processes to management. Analyze potential risks that contract changes may pose to the organization. Create language standards and rules for theroies, existing and new contracts. Follow up to guarantee contractual payments have been made.

Filing, data entry, answer phones, proof reading. Crimes On The Essay! Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Company: Island Environmental Pest Control i? West Palm Beach, FL. Date Range: 09/2011 Current. Scheduling and sociology theroies, confirming appointments for entire management team. De La Cruz! Managing incoming and outgoing calls in a fast paced environment. Successfully established effective systems for record retention by creating database in the Cloud for the company to have a better contract retrieval system. I redesigned the department filing system to increase efficiency.

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