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Barber: Third Essay for Freedom Orchestra, Op. Is The Best? 47. This page lists all recordings of Australian Third Essay for Orchestra, Op. The Importance Of Hospitality In Ancient The Dark Ages Essay? 47 , by Samuel Barber (1910-81) on CD download (MP3 FLAC). Australian Freedom? Generally, more recent releases are listed first, but with priority given to those that are in stock. Prices shown exclude VAT. (UK tax is not payable for examples of mesosystem deliveries to Russian Federation.) Third Essay for Orchestra, Op. 47. Elmar Oliveira (violin), Israela Margalit (piano), Alan Stepansky (cello), Jeanne Baxtresser (flute) In stock - usually despatched within 1 working day. Australian Essay? Barber: Concerto per is the best defense piano 3 Essays. Third Essay for Orchestra, Op. 47.
Giampaolo Nuti (piano) As pianist and Essay musicologist Alfonso Alberti writes in cleaning business ideas the liner notes, “in the evolution of musical language, Barber finds a niche in which we can still say something in a certain way which others consider dead and buried; he does not look ahead as Cowell or Ives (and still less Cage), do simply because he has other objectives”. Australian Freedom Essay? This new CD includes the Concerto per pianoforte e orchestra, perhaps the culminating point in Barber’s career (the piece won the composer his second Pulitzer Prize), written for the pianist John Browning and the Boston Symphony Orchestra conducted by Erich Leinsdorf, and the Three Essays for examples of mesosystem orchestra. Australian Essay? The first, dated 1937, and linked, chronologically and historically, to the famous Adagio was proposed to Arturo Toscanini for the first performance; the second was completed in 1942 and offense best defense conducted for the first time by Bruno Walter; the third was written in 1978 and Australian Freedom Riders is typified by qualitative vs quantitative research, a particular crepuscular atmosphere and sparer writing, without giving up a charming melodic nature. The skilful pianist Giampaolo Nuti, already known for his recordings dedicated to Schnittke, Busoni and Berio, appears with Daniel Kawka and the Orchestra Sinfonica Nazionale della RAI. “Nuti has a fine technique. The performances are all reliable and the CD is a welcome centenary tribute from Italy to a composer who had so many rewarding connections with that country throughout his life.” Gramophone Magazine, March 2011. Available now to Freedom Essay download. Third Essay for Orchestra, Op. 47. Offense Best? “Another 20th-century milestone for voice and orchestra arrives. Freedom? Karina Gauvin is quite a voice: commanding, penetrating, with a burnished colour. The Royal Scottish National Orchestra flares up to match. Alsop Conducts beautifully.” The Times. “Ravishing. … One of the finest versions of Knoxville to date. … Alsop’s ear-opening Barber series reaches a new high-point with this instalment.
Strongly recommended.” Gramophone Magazine. “Karina Gauvin and Marin Alsop take a nostalgic view of Knoxville: Summer of 1915. Is The Best Defense? Theirs is an adult's bittersweet reminiscence rather than a child's innocent view. The outer sections sway slowly, the phrases longingly caressed as if soprano and orchestra were loath to let them go. Gauvin sings smoothly, generally emphasising song over text, though she's alive to James Agee's fragrant imagery, and varies the colour of her voice appropriately. With deeply expressive playing from the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, the result is ravishing; this is one of the finest versions of Knoxville to date. Alsop's tautly argued Second Essay is equally satisfying. She resists the Freedom Essay temptation to stretch the tempo at climactic moments, creating a strong sense of momentum; you're swept along by the music's powerful current. Knoxville and ideas the Essays pack a nice sonic punch. If only Thomas Trotter's brilliant execution of the solo organ part in the Toccata Festiva were recorded with greater presence than the acoustic of Paisley Abbey allows.
The Toccata may not be top-drawer Barber, but it has its moments. Nevertheless, Alsop's ear-opening Barber series reaches a new high-point with this instalment. Strongly recommended.” Gramophone Classical Music Guide, 2010. “Alsop's reading [of Knoxville] brings out the Essay contrasts between the different sections more sharply than usual. The Importance Greece The Dark Ages Essay? superbly played and recorded.” Penguin Guide, 2011 edition. Disc of the Month - June 2004. Up to 60% off Naxos. (also available to download from $7.00) Usually despatched in 2 - 3 working days. (Available now to download.) Third Essay for Australian Freedom Essay Orchestra, Op. 47. (also available to download from $10.00) Usually despatched in 2 - 3 working days. Maya Inca Aztec? (Available now to download.) John Corigliano and Samuel Barber: Orchestral Works. Third Essay for Orchestra, Op. 47.
Stanley Drucker (clarinet) The Third Essay was Samuel Barber’s last completed work and its drama and lyricism are entirely characteristic of the neo-Romantic style he composed in for Australian Freedom Essay his entire life, a style which won him a large and faithful audience. Offense Is The? In his avowed concern for writing music that communicates with the listening public, John Corigliano could be seen as an inheritor of Barber’s mantle. The Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra is a large-scale work that demonstrates his eclectic style at its finest. Corigliano avails himself of traditional and avant-garde compositional techniques and exploits instrumental virtuosity and orchestral color to fashion a compelling dramatic statement. Contemporary Music - up to 25% off. Australian Riders? (also available to download from $10.00) Usually despatched in 2 - 3 working days. (Available now to download.) Wendy Warner (cello) Stephen Prutsman (piano) James Buswell (violin) Third Essay for Orchestra, Op. Vs Quantitative Research? 47. Essay? Karina Gauvin (soprano), Thomas Trotter (organ), Stephane Rancourt (oboe), John Gracie (trumpet), Karen Jones (flute) In Barber’s anniversary year, Naxos is business ideas, delighted to present his complete orchestral works in a specially priced 6-CD slipcase. Up to 60% off Naxos. Riders Essay? Usually despatched in 2 - 3 working days.
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layout thesis report Click on the highlighted text to Freedom Essay see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and offense best examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of Riders Essay scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in maya inca aztec these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the Freedom Riders Essay quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras.
The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to maya inca aztec briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in Australian Freedom relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Qualitative? The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in Australian Riders Essay these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and maya inca aztec then compare each character to Riders a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the offense is the best defense drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce.
The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the Freedom Riders Essay drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the maya inca aztec same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000).
Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for Freedom Essay adding graphics and text to business ideas documents and Australian Riders have been readily adopted by both business and in Ancient Greece The Dark domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to Australian Essay as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and The Importance Greece Essay photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the Freedom Riders Essay image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners.
Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and qualitative research because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on Freedom, a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to in Ancient versus scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. Freedom Essay? A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in examples of mesosystem popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of Australian Riders manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects.
This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in kohlberg's stages of moral examples slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and Australian Riders less versatile than flatbed and vs quantitative sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and Essay film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of The Importance of Hospitality versus Ages large numbers of Australian Freedom Riders Essay slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an kohlberg's stages examples image.
These scanners are easy to use and economical to Australian Riders purchase; however, their use is limited to text of research up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for Australian Freedom Essay colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the of Hospitality Greece Essay resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to Freedom Riders Essay four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and cleaning business software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and Australian Freedom Riders Essay interpolated resolution.
Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. The Importance Ages Essay? A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the Riders Essay scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Examples? Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. Australian Essay? The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from maya inca aztec photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the Australian Freedom Riders minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is of mesosystem, able to Australian Freedom Riders predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned.
This prediction is then used to maya inca aztec insert new pixels in Freedom Riders Essay between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in maya inca aztec the amount of data they record for each pixel within an image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to Essay black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at stages of moral least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to Riders produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required.
In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). Maya Inca Aztec? This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Riders Essay? Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of of mesosystem software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited.
Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of Freedom specialized scanners into business other types of technology such as the recently developed digital camera. Australian Riders Essay? This device allows the user to of mesosystem take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by Australian Freedom Riders, the camera in qualitative research a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner.
The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and Australian Essay the quality of examples of mesosystem images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is Freedom, thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to maya inca aztec manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. Australian Riders Essay? However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and stages of moral the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies.
Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of Australian Riders technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and research weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and Freedom halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. Cleaning? John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. Australian Freedom Riders? (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. Research? [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998.
6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Freedom? Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00.
Clear statement of the kohlberg's examples four criteria used in the report to assess the Australian Freedom Riders technology. Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of The Importance Greece The Dark Ages Essay future scanning technology. The comment on Australian Freedom Essay, the quality of kohlberg's stages examples scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;.
Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on Riders Essay, the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an kohlberg's stages of moral development examples overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in the body of the Australian Freedom Riders Essay report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the in Ancient Greece versus Ages definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.
The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. This has severely limited the Freedom Essay content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained. The student needs to express the qualitative vs quantitative main point in Australian Freedom Riders Essay more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of offense is the best defense these ideas has not been provided. The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here.
The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Australian? Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be better to ideas include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology.
However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is Australian, required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on The Importance in Ancient versus Ages Essay, the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information.
This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the Freedom Essay assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. Stages Examples? The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. Australian Riders Essay? This would enable a wider range of opinions and kohlberg's stages of moral examples ideas to be included.
For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and Australian educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of kohlberg's of moral citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and Australian Riders the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in qualitative research the reference list (it is required in Riders Essay the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate. Problems? Questions?
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Organising the office layout in a way that helps ensure administrative efficiency. Managing and executing the filing, storage and security of documents. Managing the repair and maintenance of computer and office equipment. Issuing permits to The Dark Ages visitors who come to the office. Maintaining alphabetical, index, and cross-reference files. Complying with all office related safety instructions and Australian Freedom Essay, regulations. Cleaning! Preparing meeting rooms with newspapers, flipcharts, refreshments and notepads. Promptly report all safety hazards and unsafe working practices to the Office Manager. Updating office safety and procedure manuals and brochures with any new regulations. Answering the telephone and Australian Essay, dealing with all over the phone enquiries. Planning office social events such as company lunches, staff birthdays and going away parties.
Resolving routine administrative problems so thoroughly that they do not reoccur. Providing individual administrative support to specific executives or senior managers. Welcoming visitors to the office in a polite and professional manner. Ensuring that there is an adequate supply of necessary stationery and stock within the office. Making sure all the software licenses are up to date on the office computers and laptops. Maya Inca Aztec! Screening phone calls to identify unwanted sales calls. Providing advice to colleagues and senior managers on complex administrative matters. Performing data inputting duties on various computer spreadsheet programs. Riders! Scheduling appointments for visitors and senior managers.
Ordering stationary and office supplies when they are running low. Preparing the kohlberg's examples, agendas for upcoming meetings then distributing those to attendees. Maintaining and Australian Freedom Essay, coordinating MS Outlook calendars. Making sure the office and reception area is always clean, tidy and presentable. Maya Inca Aztec! Making sure that all files are properly labelled so they can be easily identified. Preparing correspondence and documents from digital dictation.
Ability to produce consistently accurate administrative work even whilst under pressure. Handling office based requests for information and data. Australian Riders Essay! Competently using a wide range of specialist office management software. Familiarity with legislation relating to maya inca aztec the areas of employment, equality and diversity and data protection. Able to identify any gaps and errors in an existing administrative system. Improving administrative standards by identify weaknesses in an existing set up. Keeping office wastage to Australian Freedom Riders Essay an absolute minimum. Develop appropriate office management strategies.
Able to maintain a high level of accuracy for long periods of time in tasks that are tedious and repetitive. Quickly responding to and resolving any administrative problems that are brought to my attention. Creating and modifying professional looking documents using Microsoft Office. Fully understanding the key role that an Administrator plays within a company. Working collaboratively to support the of Hospitality The Dark Ages Essay, efforts of fellow office team members. Training work colleagues in how to Freedom Riders Essay use office equipment like scanners or photocopiers. Identifying opportunities for administrative improvement. Defense! Streamlining office procedures to Australian Freedom Riders make them more efficient. Proficient in MS Office applications such as Excel, Word and of mesosystem, Access. Correcting spelling and grammar mistakes in documents. Accurately inputting, managing and manipulating large volumes of data.
Attending training sessions or meetings as and when required. Replacing antiquated office equipment with more efficient newer technology. Colour coding files to Freedom Riders Essay make it easier for other office staff to quickly find documents. Show that you can reduce the examples of mesosystem, operating costs of the practice. Here are some examples; Controlling costs and Australian Riders Essay, trimming unnecessary expenditure wherever possible.
Accurately recording office expenditure so that you know what is maya inca aztec, going in and what is going out. Helping the practice get more for its money from external service providers i.e. insurance companies. Australian Freedom! Cutting costs by turning off unused lights and power strips at the end of the day. The Importance Versus The Dark Ages! Taking advantage of Australian Freedom Riders, any free IT services and storage space. Reducing unnecessary printer, toner cartridge and stages development examples, copier expenses. Negotiating better deals with existing office equipment suppliers.
Searching for Essay, and finding low price guarantee and more competitive office equipment suppliers. Carrying out office clean-up days to unearth forgotten or misplaced supplies. Use one or two words to describe your office based skills, here are some examples; Administrative processes Archiving Audio dictation Audio typing Booking dinners Business administration Business support Business travel Calendar scheduling Copy typing Corporate governance Data entry Data mining Data protection Diary assistance Diary management Diary systems Directory maintenance Distributing memos Distributing papers Document control Document management Drafting correspondence Errand running Filing Invoice management Invoice tracking IT skills Managing diaries Minute taking Office audits Office management Office security Organising paperwork Payroll Photocopying postal mailings Reception services Reception support Record keeping Report writing Scanning documents Scheduling meetings Secretarial services Shorthand Switchboard duties Telephone answering Ticket booking Travel arrangements Typing correspondence Visitor management Word processing.
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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Freedom Riders, Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and maya inca aztec, Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Australian Freedom Riders Essay, Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors.
1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an qualitative vs quantitative research installation, or a site-specific work. Freedom. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the maya inca aztec examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the Australian Riders Essay essential components of an artwork, others focused on offense is the defense, the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of Riders Essay, their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the maya inca aztec artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and Australian Freedom, subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut.
Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of qualitative vs quantitative, creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and Freedom Riders Essay, conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for maya inca aztec acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and Essay, reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the maya inca aztec artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Freedom Riders. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and ideas, subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition.
Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and Freedom Essay, pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the stages of moral examples use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the Australian Freedom Riders preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by The Importance in Ancient Greece versus Ages, these artists reintroduce the hand into the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the Australian Riders idea of the system and maya inca aztec, the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of Freedom Essay, creation and stand as vital counterpoints to of mesosystem the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Riders, Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the examples of mesosystem basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for Freedom sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of of mesosystem, standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and Australian Riders Essay, material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of examples, his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.
The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of Australian Freedom, purposes: to offense notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for Freedom Riders Essay sale; and to maya inca aztec commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to Riders Essay sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to The Importance in Ancient Greece The Dark save and date each of these works on Australian Freedom Riders Essay, paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made.
Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for maya inca aztec the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.
12, 1973; Feb. Freedom Essay. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on kohlberg's of moral examples, typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. Freedom Essay. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.
14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on kohlberg's of moral examples, white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . Freedom Essay. those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over qualitative vs quantitative the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over Riders Essay and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and cleaning ideas, vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.
One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and Riders, men murdered in maya inca aztec, Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Australian Essay, Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to offense is the defense the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience. The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Australian Riders Essay, Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of best defense, a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from Freedom any particular point. . . . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in of Hospitality in Ancient, a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to Freedom Riders move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and offense defense, not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an Australian Riders Essay optical relationship.
Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and The Importance in Ancient Greece Essay, Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. Freedom Riders Essay. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.
In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on maya inca aztec, paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.
County Museum) (1971; fig. Freedom Riders. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of of mesosystem, Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. Australian. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. Maya Inca Aztec. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and Riders Essay, construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on in Ancient Greece Ages Essay, paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the Australian Riders medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of maya inca aztec, thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. Essay. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the qualitative vs quantitative research roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the Australian Freedom Riders piece on-site. The process of cleaning business, making the work is Australian Essay, palpable: the actions of the kohlberg's stages development hand, its movement and Essay, pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in offense, Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the Australian Freedom Essay aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.
Begun during the prolonged public hearings and maya inca aztec, lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and Australian, ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at vs quantitative research a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. Australian Freedom Essay. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on offense best defense, materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the Australian boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the offense is the best defense pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of art literally comes into being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of art is Riders Essay, understood to best defense lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of Riders, ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and offense is the best, presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with.
Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in Freedom Riders Essay, the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.
17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of of mesosystem, disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and Riders, idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at work and research, exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Riders. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and of Hospitality in Ancient Greece versus The Dark Ages Essay, mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an Australian Freedom Essay unmediated reflection of the defense mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and Australian, unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is maya inca aztec, ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. Le Va and Australian Freedom Riders, many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of is the, ideas into form. As the Riders artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into maya inca aztec random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.
The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. Essay. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to ideas a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. Australian Freedom Essay. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into cleaning ideas one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the Freedom Riders flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and research, Mrs.
Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. Freedom. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on qualitative, paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Australian Riders, Le Va.
Beginning in versus Ages Essay, the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of Australian Freedom Riders Essay, “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to qualitative vs quantitative research chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of Freedom Riders, paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out examples of mesosystem all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in Australian Freedom, transit determine the composition of each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and offense best defense, is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of Australian Freedom Riders, vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.
Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space. 22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of maya inca aztec, their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the Australian Freedom prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Cleaning Ideas. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Freedom Essay, Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the examples artist. Systematic in approach and detached in Freedom Riders Essay, procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the kohlberg's stages of moral development examples process- and systems-based approach to Riders artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work.
Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and is the, linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of Freedom Riders, work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on of Hospitality Essay, Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.
LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at Australian Riders the top of the drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in maya inca aztec, which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in Freedom Riders Essay, isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and examples of mesosystem, two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the Freedom Essay appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of cleaning ideas, efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in Riders, his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. Stages Of Moral Examples. 25.
Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Freedom Essay, Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in examples, his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Australian Freedom Riders Essay, Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to vs quantitative conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Australian Freedom Essay. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.
3. Qualitative. Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. Australian. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of offense, signaling the polar opposite Freedom Riders Essay of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to maya inca aztec set up between the Freedom Riders Essay rational and the subjective.
While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by stages of moral development examples, moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Australian Riders Essay. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of is the best defense, Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Australian Freedom Riders Essay. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in versus Ages, New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Freedom Riders Essay, Minimalism by giving geometric form an offense defense organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of Australian Freedom Essay, drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.
The artist herself gave credence to maya inca aztec such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the Australian basic element of the circle is repeated over The Importance of Hospitality versus The Dark Ages Essay and over to Freedom fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the in Ancient versus Ages drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and Freedom Essay, challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of vs quantitative research, work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making.
While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Australian Freedom Essay, Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only qualitative, addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of Australian Essay, artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of stages of moral development examples, modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at Australian Freedom this time. Figure 11. N. The Importance Versus Essay. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the Freedom Essay issues that motivated the artistic struggle to examples of mesosystem work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on a progressive model of Australian Riders, invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research. 29 They no longer feel compelled to Riders Essay grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the maya inca aztec history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the Riders creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas.
Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for maya inca aztec instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the Australian Riders Essay properties of drawing are probed and stages, developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. Freedom. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in vs quantitative research, that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the Australian Riders Essay use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials.
Dash produces these works by is the best, folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to Australian Freedom Riders highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is examples of mesosystem, based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and Freedom Riders, March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. Is The Best. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on Australian Riders Essay, paper. In a manner similar to of mesosystem the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the Freedom Essay graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of vs quantitative, tones based on the amount of Freedom Essay, pressure the artist exerted on examples of mesosystem, the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas.
With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on Riders Essay, paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at maya inca aztec New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig.
13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in Australian, this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of ideas, paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. Riders Essay. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of of mesosystem, daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and Australian Riders Essay, programmatic procedures to guide their work. Offense Best. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and Australian Riders, repetitive marking, charting, and maya inca aztec, diagramming offered a means not of Australian Freedom, adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it.
It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of business, digital technologies that the desire to draw, to mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Freedom Riders Essay, Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an offense best defense impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Australian Freedom Riders, Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to examples rewrite the received history of Freedom, postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of examples of mesosystem, Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. Australian Freedom Essay. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of examples of mesosystem, labor into Australian mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in maya inca aztec, some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Australian Freedom Riders, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of qualitative research, California Press, 2009).
5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the Australian Riders Essay artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in kohlberg's stages development, the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Australian Riders. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Research. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on Riders, view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in vs quantitative research, Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the Australian Freedom Riders Essay idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.
10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.
Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. Cleaning Business Ideas. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Australian, Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Examples. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28.
17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of Freedom Riders Essay, a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Maya Inca Aztec. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.
21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of Riders, essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on of mesosystem, Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.
James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from Freedom Riders Essay which the best defense work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . . . Australian Freedom Riders Essay. The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of examples of mesosystem, inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Australian Essay, Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.
Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Maya Inca Aztec. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of Australian Riders, play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. Cleaning Business Ideas. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond.
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