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Applying for your first job in the music industry 7 tips. This is a guest post by affect mass my friend Dave Haynes, UK Manager of poem Soundcloud. They#8217;re on the lookout for does temperature mass great people to work with them, and it#8217;s inspired him to write this really useful and quite inspiring post. If this whole lecturing, research and consulting thing doesn#8217;t pan out for me, I might just apply. We#8217;re currently looking for interns at SoundCloud (for both our Berlin and greece London offices). Being an exciting new startup at the sweet spot between the music and web industry we#8217;ve had plenty of interest. Does Affect! As an matrix, employer, sifting through a lot of does temperature affect applications and CV#8217;s can be quite an ancient, arduous process. What really struck me was the wild variance in the standard of applications. Some stick out instantly whilst others don#8217;t even make it past a 30 second skim read. So I wanted to share some thoughts on what companies like SoundCloud are #8216;really#8217; looking for nowadays and hopefully provide some useful tips on how you can improve your chances if you#8217;re one of the thousands of people looking to make their first steps into the digital music industry. 1) Understand what you#8217;re applying for.

It#8217;s going to really help if you have fully researched the company, signed up for temperature mass an account (if it#8217;s a web service) or checked out boston, their music (if it#8217;s a label). Make sure you write a good cover note explaining where you saw the does affect position advertised, why you#8217;re excited about the Corporate Essay examples company and explain succintly why you think you have the skills to temperature affect, do the job advertised. It#8217;s important to describe very clearly what value you can bring to that company. London Poem Annotated! Do you have an extensive network of potential users or fans? Are you incredibly passionate about what the company does? Do you spend a lot of does mass time online?

Make sure you do this directly in the body of your initial email, don#8217;t just send a short message with a cover letter and CV attached. At the Corporate d'état examples best it#8217;s going to take me 30 seconds to click on the document and load each document before I get my first impression of you. Does Affect! At worst I#8217;m not going to open your documents because I#8217;m in ancient greece, a hurry and have moved on to the temperature mass next application. Oh and don#8217;t be afraid to use a little flattery. When I#8217;m trawling through a batch of applications it#8217;s always nice to hear some positive feedback. 2) Personalise your application. It#8217;s extremely important that you personalise the application. If your initial email looks like it is a template that you#8217;ve sent to five other companies then you#8217;re unlikely to be an outstanding candidate.

And you might be surprised by the number of london poem annotated people who forget to fill in the personalised bits. If your cover letter still contains an [insert company name here] then I#8217;m reaching for temperature mass the delete button immediately (yes it has happened!). It#8217;s not just the cover letter that you should tailor however. Make sure you emphasise the london poem annotated most relevant skills and experience in does affect mass, your CV depending on the nature of the role that you are applying for. The skills that a live promoter is looking for will probably be completely different to those required by a digital music service like SoundCloud for example. And I shouldn#8217;t even need to mention it but check and explained double check your spelling. Most employers can#8217;t stand bad spelling.

It won#8217;t necessarily lose you the gig but it#8217;s lazy and shows a lack of attention to detail. If your CV is not online in does temperature affect, some form then you#8217;re limiting your opportunities. A .doc file with some bold headers and bullet points is just not going to cut it any more. At SoundCloud we barely even use Word documents in our organisation, so don#8217;t expect to get a job off the Observation Project Essay back of one. (Note: if you are attaching documents then at least make sure to call them something better than cv(1).doc) There are many different ways to does affect mass, present your resume online, but by far the best way currently is to The Many of Kim Jong, use LinkedIn. Make sure you#8217;ve added as much information as possible, include a photo and have at least two recommendations. If you haven#8217;t worked before then ask a tutor or someone else who can vouch for temperature your reliability or eagerness to learn. 4) Establish your own online presence. The only thing that trumps LinkedIn is to have a personal URL eg. which provides links to your LinkedIn and any other relevant online presences or life streams that will be relevant to prospective employees. If the .com has already been taken then think about getting the .me (or similar).

Sites like Godaddy and Easyspace make it very easy to search and The Many buy your site. But if you don#8217;t have the inclination then there are sites that you can use to achieve the same results, eg. or Google Profiles. Don#8217;t be shy, and remember, you can#8217;t hide. I will be googling your name in any case so it#8217;s better to direct me to the information that you want me to know about than let me stumble across some drunken photos on somebody else#8217;s Myspace. This is subtly different to the tip above. I don#8217;t just want to find out affect mass, who you are. I want to find out what you#8217;re passionate about. It#8217;s more important than ever to establish your own personal brand online. If you#8217;re applying for a job with a live promoter then they#8217;re probably going to want to see you blogging about massacre significance, your favourite bands, what gigs you#8217;ve been to, your thoughts on last year#8217;s festivals or your take on the price of tickets.

If you#8217;re applying for a job at SoundCloud, I want to see that you#8217;re passionate about does, music, are using a SoundCloud dropbox, have embedded some music using our player and maybe you#8217;re blogging about the future of the music industry or the Project of Teaching Styles latest mashups that you like. Of course, it could be anything, but you get the idea. It might take a couple hours out of each week, but this is an mass, investment in poem annotated, your future, so go do it! Again it is does affect, extremely easy nowadays to setup a blog (I would recommend using WordPress), but if you#8217;re looking for a slightly more lightweight alternative then why not start a tumblelog (eg. Massacre! Tumblr, Posterous, where you can quickly and simply post interesting news, videos or music you#8217;ve discovered. Mass! 6) Tell me what music you like. Corporate D'état! Okay, so this is pretty obvious right? Well you#8217;d be surprised at does mass, how many candidates don#8217;t mention what music they#8217;re into. Of course you shouldn#8217;t over-do it.

If you#8217;re only into death-metal, it#8217;s quite likely that your employer isn#8217;t. Or if you rave on Project of Teaching Styles about how much you DJ and go clubbing then I#8217;m going to does mass, wonder how much work you#8217;re likely to boston significance, do on a Monday morning. Does Temperature! However, if you are a DJ or in a band, then that#8217;s awesome and you should tell me more about it, what your SoundCloud username is and where I can see all your flyers. I even had one candidate who sent in a video showreel they#8217;d made of themselves. I was suitably impressed. 7) Location, Location, Location!

In the ancient greece UK, a lot of music industry jobs are going to mass, be based in london, London. Be prepared to does affect, travel if you#8217;re not close. If it#8217;s just an internship or a temporary position then this shouldn#8217;t be too much of a hardship and the company should be willing to cover expenses. If nothing else, you#8217;ll get good experience of The Many Eccentricities of Kim Jong city life and have an opportunity to see if you#8217;re cut out for commuting or not. But remember if you#8217;re not able to travel then it might be worth applying in does affect mass, any case. Corporate D'état! You might not get the position but more and does temperature more companies (ourselves included) are open to having staff that telecommute or work remotely. Maybe you can offer to carry out some specific tasks online such as replying to forum topics or researching potential new customers.

It might not be as rewarding as being in the office but at least you will learn a little bit about how the company operates and get some experience to put on your CV for the next job that you apply for. Remember that your location might actually be an advantage. D'état Essay! I have had two jobs previously myself where the rest of the does affect company has been based in another country. Observation Project Styles Essay! I was able to grow their business in does mass, the UK and take meetings with important contacts and Essay clients in London. If you#8217;re able to speak a foreign language then you might be able to generate new business in local markets and translate documents or even whole websites.

Hopefully these seven tips will be of some help to you when you#8217;re applying for your next job. But please, whatever you do, don#8217;t just sit around waiting for the next job to come along. Perhaps the temperature affect biggest piece of advice I can give is just to Coup Essay, get out there, start hustling and make your own opportunities. Network, find your tribe and get in touch directly with companies that you#8217;re passionate about. And if you can prove yourself before a position even becomes available then you might not even have to temperature, make that application in Essay examples, the first place! If you decide to work for a record label, be warned#8230; Not only are they cutting staff left right and mass centre but the majors tend to pigeonhole you into one area of the business, determined by the department in which you start.

For a newbie, one of the ansoff matrix best areas to get into is the postroom (less likely to does affect mass, end up being stuck in one department) from there you#8217;ll learn about all aspects of the business whilst meeting ALL the key players in the label (it#8217;s like speed networking). Anyway, you#8217;ll ignore all of Corporate Essay examples that and does mass take the first job you#8217;re offered because it#8217;s so exciting. Good luck! Excellent job on the typo.. #8220;personalise#8221; and then going on to say.. #8220;And I shouldnt even need to mention it but check and double check your spelling. Most employers cant stand bad spelling.#8221; Great article otherwise. London Poem! cheers. @Tim in Dave#8217;s defense #8216;personalise#8217; is the correct British spelling. It#8217;s only Americans who insist on putting #8216;z#8217; in words like that#8230;

Why would anyone apply for a job in a dying industry? Thousands of kids come belching out of college music industry business courses across the US every year only to mass, discover they are knocking on doors of businesses intent on firing rather than hiring. This is the case not only in the traditional industry but in the so called burgeoning digital distribution industry as well. The goal of doing away with the middleman is theatre, being reached. on does mass the day your article was published on this site, I applied for the job as a community manager at the Berlin-office. I sent you / soundcloud my application exactly as you said above, I did it in ansoff matrix explained, two languages (english and german, as the job was said to be in Berlin) plus I applied via e-mail and temperature affect mass sent you all the stuff via snail-mail to the Berlin-office. And you know what happened? Nothing! I even didn#8217;t get a mail saying: #8220;Application received.#8221; What#8217;s that? Another kind of strange behaviour in the music-industry?

You know it#8217;s not about you might think I#8217;m not the right person to do this job. Project Of Teaching Essay! That#8217;s no problem for me. I just think that anyone who#8217;s applying and keeping your words in mind, doing it exactly the way you want it should at least be informed that the does temperature affect application was received. This is a tip from my side how to treat people applying for a job. why is it arrogant and impatient to ask for a confirmation of an application after more than 4 weeks? my experience so far taught me, that you get or send a confirmation after some days (that#8217;s how we do it when we get promos from musicans. and we respond to EVERY message, song etc.) New Music Strategies is about innovation in music, music as a tool for social change, participation, equality and boston massacre inclusion, and does mass the ways in which music technologies can build better worlds. Follow @thisisnms on Twitter. Essay by Andrew Dubber about how we can understand and Observation Project Styles Essay navigate our changing technological environments [Free PDF]

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Does temperature affect mass

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How does an increase in temperature affect liquids?

Regulations relating to mycotoxins in food. Regulations relating to mycotoxins have been established in many countries to temperature mass protect the consumer from the harmful effects of these compounds. Different factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors, for example the availability of toxicological data and occurrence data, detailed knowledge about possibilities for sampling and analysis, and socio-economic issues. By the end of 2003, approximately 100 countries (covering approximately 85% of the worlds inhabitants) had specific regulations or detailed guidelines for mycotoxins in food. The regulations were related to aflatoxins (B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ), aflatoxin M 1 , trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), fumonisins (B 1 , B 2 , and Eccentricities of Kim Jong Il Essay, B 3 ), agaric acid, ergot alkaloids, ochratoxin A, patulin, phomopsins, sterigmatocystin, and zearalenone. In Europe, and in particular in the EU, regulatory and scientific interest in mycotoxins has undergone a development in the last decade from autonomous national activity towards more EU-driven activity with a structural and network character. Harmonized EU limits now exist for 40 mycotoxinfood combinations. It is expected this number will grow in 2007 to approximately 50. The direct or indirect influence of European organizations and programs on the EU mycotoxin regulatory developments is significant.

They include the European Food Safety Authority, the Scientific Cooperation on Questions relating to Food, the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, the creation of an EU Community Reference Laboratory for affect mass Mycotoxins and a mandate of the EC to the European Standardization Committee in Eccentricities of Kim Il Essay, methods for analysis for does temperature mycotoxins in food. Large pan-European research and networking projects as BioCop and MoniQA are also important. Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi capable of having acute toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and oestrogenic effects in man and animals. Toxicity syndromes resulting from intake of mycotoxins by man and animals are known to as mycotoxicoses. Mycotoxicoses have been known for a long time, but until the early 1960s they remained the neglected diseases [ 1 ]. Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in 1960 and subsequent recognition that mycotoxins are of significant health concern to both humans and animals, regulations gradually developed for mycotoxins in food and feed. Massacre Significance. In the early days of mycotoxin regulations these measures focused mainly on the aflatoxins. They were established by industrialized countries, and limits often had an advisory or guideline character. Over the years, the affect number of countries with known specific mycotoxin regulations has increased from 33 in 1981 [ 2 ] to 56 in 1987 [ 3 ], 77 in d'état, 1995 [ 4 ], and 100 in 2003 [ 5 ]. Current regulations encompass 13 different mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins, and specific limits have been established for many food and does temperature, feed commodities and products.

Until the late 1990s setting of Observation mycotoxin regulations was mostly a national affair. Gradually, several economic communities (e.g. EU (European Union), MERCOSUR (Mercado Comun del Sur), Australia and does mass, New Zealand) harmonized their mycotoxin regulations, thereby overruling existing national regulations. Current regulations are increasingly based on scientific opinions of authoritative bodies, for example the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations (JECFA) and boston massacre significance, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). At the temperature affect mass same time, requirements for adequate sampling and analytical methods put high demands on other professional organizations, for example AOAC International and the European Standardization Committee (CEN). In this article the factors affecting the constitution of Corporate Coup examples mycotoxin regulations, and the role of different international organizations in the process of establishing and enforcing regulations, will be discussed. Some general observations are presented about the current situation on worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food. The focus will then be directed on the European Union and the many European activities related to these regulatory developments. Factors affecting the promulgation of mycotoxin regulations. the availability of toxicological data of temperature mycotoxins.

the availability of exposure data of mycotoxins. knowledge of the distribution of mycotoxins concentrations within commodity or product lots. the availability of analytical methods. legislation in other countries with which trade contacts exist. the need for sufficient food supply. The first two factors provide the information necessary for Observation of Teaching Styles hazard assessment and exposure assessment, respectively, the main bases of risk assessment. Risk assessment is the scientific evaluation of the probability of occurrence of known or potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to food-borne hazards. It is the primary scientific basis for does mass promulgation of ancient regulations.

The third and fourth factors are important factors enabling practical enforcement of mycotoxin regulations, through adequate sampling and affect mass, analysis procedures. The last two factors are merely socio-economic in nature but are equally important in Observation Project of Teaching Styles Essay, the decision-making process to establish meaningful regulations and limits for mycotoxins in food and feed. Regulations are primarily based on known toxic effects. For the mycotoxins currently considered most significant (aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ; aflatoxin M 1 ; ochratoxin A; patulin; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 ; zearalenone; T-2 and HT-2 toxins; and deoxynivalenol) the temperature affect Joint Expert Committee on ansoff, Food Additives (JECFAa scientific advisory body of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)) has evaluated their hazard in several sessions [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. Does Temperature. In February 2001 a special JECFA session was completely devoted to mycotoxins. Two reports have appeared about this session, a shorter version [ 12 ] and Project of Teaching Essay, a longer version [ 13 ]. Temperature. These reports provide good and detailed insight into the process of risk assessment of mycotoxins. The reports addressed several concerns about the of Teaching Styles mycotoxins consideredtheir properties and metabolism, toxicological studies, and does affect mass, final risk evaluation.

With the mycotoxin evaluations the Committee discussed general considerations on sampling, analytical methods, associated intake issues, and control. Risks associated with mycotoxins depend on both hazard and exposure. The hazard of mycotoxins to individuals is probably more or less the same all over of Kim Jong the world (although other factors are, sometimes, also important, e.g. hepatitis B virus infection in relation to does temperature affect mass the hazard of aflatoxins). Exposure is ancient theatre, not the same, because of does temperature mass different levels of contamination and dietary habits in the various parts of the world. Shephard [ 14 ] exemplified the significance of different exposure with some calculations for fumonisins, based on data from JECFA.

JECFA established a group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for ansoff matrix explained fumonisins B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 together of affect mass 2 ?g kg ?1 body weight per day [ 12 ]. This PMTDI is easily exceeded by boston significance individuals on a maize-based diet, when maize consumption is approximately 400 g per person per day, a situation found in some parts of Southern Africa. Shephard calculated that at mass a contamination level for fumonisins in ansoff matrix explained, maize of 2000 ?g kg ?1 (a level within the range of does temperature mass common regulatory limits) dietary exposure for a 60-kg adult would be 13 ?g kg ?1 body weight per day, or 650% of the PMTDI. Ancient. In the does affect mass developed world maize intake is usually less than 10 g per person per day [ 15 ] and food contaminated at levels as high as 12 mg kg ?1 can be consumed before dietary exposure exceeds the PMTDI set by JECFA. Effect of different daily maize consumption by populations worldwide on the setting of The Many of Kim limits for fumonisins. Exposure assessment is an important aspect of risk assessment, and reliable data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in different commodities and data on food intake are needed. Quantitative evaluation of intake of mycotoxins is quite difficult. During its 56th meeting JECFA stressed the importance of mass using validated analytical methods and application of analytical quality assurance (see also the section on analysis ) to ensure that the results of surveys provide a reliable assessment of intake [ 12 ]. In most of the JECFA reviews of explained mycotoxins analytical data on levels of contamination were often inadequate for developed countries and non-existent for developing countries. Does Temperature. Because most mycotoxin contamination is heterogeneously distributed, adequate sampling is another important consideration for obtaining information on levels of contamination (see also the Observation Project Essay section on sampling ). In many countries activities take place that contribute to the risk-assessment process for mycotoxins. In the EU, for example, an important role is played by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

EFSA makes use, where possible, of exposure and consumption data, generated by the European SCOOP activities (see the section The European dimension for more details about EFSA and SCOOP). The distribution of the concentration of affect mycotoxins in products is an important factor to be considered when establishing regulatory sampling criteria. The distribution can be very heterogeneous, as it is for aflatoxins in peanuts and figs. The number of contaminated peanut kernels in d'état examples, a lot is usually very low but the level of contamination within a kernel can be very high. If insufficient care is taken for does affect representative sampling, the mycotoxin concentration in an inspected lot may therefore be estimated incorrectly. Similar situations could occur with many other mycotoxin/commodity combinations.

Adequate sampling is necessary to make justified management decisions about The Many Eccentricities of Kim Jong Il Essay, what to do with lots that may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Because of does mass variability among sample test results, mycotoxin concentrations in of Kim Il Essay, lots cannot be determined with 100% certainty by taking samples from the does temperature lot. Sampling plans for mycotoxins in ancient greece theatre, different commodities, as developed by Whitaker [ 17 ] Several countries have gradually established detailed science-based sampling plans, which take into account the heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in agricultural commodities. Examples of official sampling plans for mycotoxins are those applied by the USA for aflatoxins in peanuts [ 18 ] and by temperature affect mass the EU for several mycotoxins [ 19 ]. Spanjer [ 20 ] summarized some of the difficulties encountered when these EU sampling plans are followed in practice. This was illustrated by considering an EU sampling directive for import control on nuts packed in sackstwo food inspectors would need half a working day to Project Styles Essay sample only one container on just one ship. Spanjer indicated that in many other circumstances the situation is even more unmanageablebecause the commodity is loaded in bulk or, just the opposite, when it consists of consumer or vacuum packages.

The EU sampling directive seems to does offer the possibility of alternatives as it states: If it is not possible to carry out the method of sampling described above because of the unacceptable commercial consequences resulting from matrix, damage to the lot (because of packaging forms, means of transport, etc) an alternative method of sampling may be applied provided that it is as representative as possible and is fully described and documented. But the directive lacks guidance, about what is considered as representative as possible. Spanjer recommended simplified sampling procedures, e.g. checking at import control only, to overcome some of the problems. Legislation calls for monitoring methods. Reliable analytical methods must be available to enable enforcement of the regulations in daily practice.

In addition to temperature reliability, simplicity is desired, as it will affect the amount of data generated and the practicality of the ultimate measures taken. The reliability of mycotoxin analysis data can be improved by use of interlaboratory-validated methods of analysis (e.g. the methods of AOAC International and london poem, methods standardized by CEN). These methods have been largely developed in response to planned regulations for mycotoxins or regulations that came into does temperature affect force. The requirements for these methods were dictated by the needs, i.e. they had to Styles Essay be suitable for the (planned) regulated mycotoxinmatrix combination(s). The limits of does temperature determination of the methods had to be demonstrated to be low enough for precise and accurate determination of the mycotoxins of interest at regulatory levels. Observation Project. Methods were also developed and validated for toxinmatrix combinations for temperature mass which there were no regulations (yet), but for which the scientific community saw a need, e.g. for d'état Essay surveillance purposes. Does. These developments eased the establishment of specific mycotoxin regulations. Analytical techniques used for mycotoxin regulatory analysis.

The size of the ball is proportional with the frequency of use of the technique (in 2004) [ 5 ] BCR and IRMM (certified) reference materials developed for mycotoxins (February 2007) [ 22 ] Certified reference material. Aflatoxin M 1 in milk powder. Aflatoxin M 1 calibrant. Aflatoxins in peanut butter. Aflatoxin B 1 in peanut meal. Aflatoxin B 1 in feedstuff. Ochratoxin A in matrix explained, wheat. Ochratoxin A calibrant. DON in maize and wheat.

T-2 and HT-2 calibrants. Zearalenone in maize. Regulations should, preferably, be brought into harmony with those in force in other countries with which trade contacts exist. In fact, this approach has been followed in the regions of the EU, MERCOSUR, and Australia and New Zealand, where harmonized regulations now exist for some mycotoxins. Strict regulatory actions may lead countries to ban or limit the import of commodities; this can make it difficult for exporting countries to find or maintain markets for their products. Distortion of the market because of mycotoxin regulations in importing countries could lead to does temperature affect mass export of the less contaminated food and feed, leaving inferior food and feed for the local market. Observation Of Teaching. In a World Bank report [ 24 ] estimates were made on the relationship between aflatoxin B 1 regulatory standards and trade flow. Studies for cereals and nuts predict significant losses for exporting countries (Africa) if stringent standards, such as those in force in temperature mass, the EU, were be adopted.

A more recent report [ 25 ], however, showed that border rejection did not necessarily affect the economic return for developing countries, e.g. the African share of the EU market for dried fruit increased. Although border rejections were irritating to exporters, some producing countries increased their EU market share. The economic effect of Essay strict mycotoxin regulations is temperature, not easy to predict. Wu [ 26 ] investigated the effect of stringent EU aflatoxin limits on the pistachio and almond industries. For the pistachio industry the strict EU limits benefit exporters who have consistently high-quality products, because they can sell their products at a higher price.

Even exporters with low-quality products can benefit from the strict limits, because of the phenomenon called technology forcing. They adopt technologies enabling better control of aflatoxins. This happened with the Iranian pistachio industry. The almond industry, in contrast has mainly losers. The US almond industry has suffered from the strict EU regulations, despite having a high-quality product. EU food industries also are suffering from the strict limits. The limits reduce supply. This causes prices to rise, only some of Coup d'état Essay examples which can be passed on to the affect mass consumer.

Wu recommended that EU policy makers should consider the economic impact of Coup examples strict mycotoxin limits on their own food industries and temperature affect mass, citizens. Interestingly, this is already one of the objectives of the new EU project MoniQA (see also the annotated section The European dimension ). Last, but not least important, is that the regulatory philosophy should not jeopardize the availability of some basic commodities at reasonable prices. In developing countries, especially, where food supplies are already limited, drastic legal measures may lead to lack of food and to excessive prices. For example, the dramatic food-security situation in parts of Africa has led to measures that prioritise food sufficiency above food safety. Mycotoxins are an does temperature important problem, as is apparent from occasional outbreaks of ansoff human mycotoxicoses, for example acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 [ 27 ], the role of aflatoxins in liver cancer, the stunted growth in children in western Africa [ 28 ], and fumonisins in oesophageal cancer in South Africa [ 14 ]. In the affect mass western world, where sufficiency of london poem food is not an issue, (low) mycotoxin limits in does temperature, food are enforceable without too many difficulties. Weighing the various factors at the interface of science, food security, and regulations is not a trivial activity and common sense is a major factor in reaching a decision.

Public health officials are confronted with a complex problemmycotoxins, particularly the carcinogenic mycotoxins, should be excluded from food as much as possible. Because the substances are present in foods as natural contaminants, however, human exposure cannot be completely prevented, and exposure of the population to some level of the mycotoxins has to be tolerated. At the same time analytical methodology must be capable of reliable and practical determination of these toxins at the tolerance levels. Despite the dilemmas, in recent decades mycotoxin regulations have been established in boston massacre significance, many countries and newer regulations are still being drafted. Does Temperature. In the European Union, in particular, many developments are occurring in mycotoxin regulation which are scientifically underpinned and supported by a variety of European organisations and activities. The international mycotoxin regulatory situation. Several times in recent decades (1981, 1987, 1995, 2003) international inquiries were held and published about regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The most recent enquiry in 2003 was conducted by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, under contract to Coup the FAO, among the Agricultural Services of Dutch Embassies around the world, with the request to gather up-to-date information from local authorities on the situation regarding mycotoxin regulations in as many countries of the world as possible. Where this procedure did not lead to the desired information, personal contacts were used.

By the end of 2003 data had been received from 89 countries. Does Temperature. Together with information gathered in previous enquiries, detailed information became available about the existence or absence of specific mycotoxin limits and ancient theatre, regulations in food and feed in affect, 119 countries. All the data received were sorted by country and by economic community (ASEAN, Australia and New Zealand, EU, MERCOSUR). Information was also included about standards set by the Codex Alimentarius. For each separate entry the available data were classified into the categories food, dairy, and feed and ansoff matrix explained, then tabulated in temperature, alphabetic order of country. The results of the Essay enquiry were published in detail by does temperature the FAO in Food and Nutrition Paper in English, French, Spanish, and Chinese [ 5 ]. Ranges ( bars ) and major limits ( triangles ) for total aflatoxins in food [ 5 ] In Europe, and in particular in boston massacre, the EU, regulatory and scientific interest in mycotoxins has undergone a development in the last decade from national activities and temperature mass, approaches towards more EU-driven activities with a structural and network character.

This can be seen not only in the harmonization of (stringent) legal limits for mycotoxins, but also in the increased significance that European programs and organizations play, in direct or indirect support of these regulatory developments in the Community. Whereas regulations for aflatoxin B 1 in animal feed have existed since 1976, the first EU-harmonized regulations for mycotoxins in human food came into force in 1998 (several limits for aflatoxins, including sampling procedures and criteria for methods of analysis). They have gradually expanded to a variety of mycotoxins in different foodstuffs, including baby and children foods. Poem Annotated. At the time of temperature writing limits have been set for approximately 40 toxinfood commodity combinations [ 29 ] and limits for a further ten toxincommodity combinations are coming into poem force for several Fusarium toxins during 2007. New limits will probably also be established in the years to come for affect ergot alkaloids in foods, and some limits may be revised for aflatoxins, depending on EFSA scientific opinions. The EFSA is an independent body of the boston significance European Commission, established in 2002, and charged, among other tasks, with the development of risk assessments on issues of concern in the food and feed supply. EFSA publishes its risk assessments in does, the form of scientific opinions which form the main scientific basis for the preparation of EU regulations [ 30 ]. Opinions about risks of mycotoxins in food and feed are developed in EFSAs panel on poem, contaminants in the food chain. As an example, this panel has recently (March 2007; ) published an opinion on the potential increase in the risk to consumer health of a possible increase in current maximum levels for affect aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios, and derived products. The panel concluded that changing the Corporate Coup Essay maximum levels for total aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts, and does temperature, pistachios from 4 to 8 or 10 ?g kg ?1 would have minor effects on estimates of dietary exposure and cancer risks.

This opinion might lead to a change in EU regulatory limits for aflatoxins in tree nuts. to provide a description, harmonised at london annotated European level, of the status of mycotoxin contamination of foodstuffs in each participating member state; to group available information on each raw material and/or food product; to evaluate the best estimates of the mycotoxin dietary intake from food, both for temperature mass each participating member state and at European level; and. to evaluate the mycotoxin dietary intake of particular groups of the population (high consumers, children, babies etc.). Estimated dietary intake of Coup d'état examples deoxynivalenol by affect mass different population groups in Eccentricities Jong, several EU countries, and comparison with the JECFA tolerable daily intake [ 35 ] SCOOP exercises make it clear that mycotoxins are among the chemical contaminants in food to which EU inhabitants may be exposed. Since 1979 the European Union has a rapid alert system for the risk of contaminants in food that are harmful to does temperature affect mass human health. The introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 [ 36 ] was an important step in the evolution of the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) as it exists nowadays.

The system involves rapid information exchange between the Project of Teaching Essay competent authorities of the member states (including EFTA/EEA countries), the European Commission itself, and does, the EFSA. In the event of problems in the food chain of direct risk to human health the RASFF facilitates taking of the measures necessary to boston significance ensure consumer safety. Different kinds of notificationnews notification, information notification, and does affect mass, alert notificationcan be arranged, depending on the extent of risk and the need for direct action. News notification is Corporate examples, related to information about food or feed safety. It is directed by one member state to other member states, solely to inform them. Information notification describes an identified risk of food or feed at does temperature affect mass the outer border of the EU, but requires no immediate action of other member states, although the problem also might exist for their countries. Poem Annotated. An alert notification relates to does temperature mass products that are on the market already. It is immediately transmitted by the Commission to london poem other members of the temperature network and ansoff matrix explained, leads to withdrawal of the risky products from the market. Information notifications distributed to the relevant network members of the temperature mass EU rapid alert system for food and feed in 2005 [ 37 ] RASFF notifications provide useful data for the development of new EU measures as new Commission regulations and safeguard measures such as the special conditions for import of pistachio nuts from Iran [ 38 ]. All such measures are aimed at improvement and maintenance of food safety. Tasks and positioning of the matrix explained EU Community Reference Laboratory for affect mycotoxins.

EC , European Commission; CRL , Community Reference Laboratory; NRL , National Reference Laboratory; RFL , Routine Field Laboratory. The position of the CEN with regard to mycotoxin regulations will also be strengthened as a consequence of the European Commissions Mandate for standardization addressed to CEN in the field of methods of analysis for Project Styles mycotoxins in food [ 40 ]. The new mandate falls within the framework of temperature affect regulation EC no. D'état Examples. 882/2004 [ 39 ]. This regulation stipulates that methods for sampling and analysis used in the context of official control shall comply with relevant Community rules or, if no such rules exist, with internationally recognized rules or protocols, for example those that the CEN has accepted. The view of the European Commission on CEN standards is clear: The establishment of standardized methods of analysis is of utmost importance to guarantee a uniform application and control of the European legislation in all Members States. Standardized methods of analysis are an indispensable element in guaranteeing a high level of food safety . In the text of the mandate a statement is made that elaboration of the temperature mass standards should be undertaken in co-operation with the Observation of Teaching broadest possible range of interested groups. Twelve such (mainly European) organizations are specifically mentioned in the mandate, which shows the importance that the European Commission attaches to a broad support for the standardized methods.

In the annex of the mandate the methods of analysis are specifically mentioned. These relate to patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, aflatoxin B 1 , ochratoxin A, and fumonisins B 1 and B 2 in a variety of foodstuffs. Does. For these toxinfood combinations methods are needed in view of (coming) regulations; standardized methods are not yet available, however. One of a list of tasks to be undertaken is the preparation of a review of updated and extended performance criteria for methods of The Many Il Essay analysis of mycotoxins. The objective is to does temperature affect mass produce an updated and extended version of the current CEN criteria document [ 41 ], which has been the ancient greece theatre basis for stipulating performance criteria for does affect mass mycotoxin methods in current EU legislation. Examples. It is expected that the new CEN tasks, as laid down in the mandate, will be completed in 2009. In addition to the guiding or supporting role of the European organisations and structural activities described above in establishment of mycotoxin regulations in the EU, results from several EC-funded research projects may also affect EU mycotoxin regulations. Without intentionally ignoring other relevant EC projects, examples of does temperature mass projects with significant potential impact include BioCop and Observation Styles, MoniQA.

These two projects are funded in the ECs 6th Framework Programme. BioCop ( ) is an integrated project (IP) with more than 30 partners focussing on new technologies to screen multiple chemical contaminants in foods. This pan-European project runs from 2005 until 2010. BioCop methods are based not on chromatography but on temperature affect, new biotechnology, for example transcriptomics, proteomics, and biosensors. The project has been introduced to supply regulators, consumers, and industry with long-term solutions to the complex problems associated with chemical contaminant monitoring [ 42 ]. These methods must eventually fulfil recognised performance criteria, so they can be accepted for enforcement purposes. One of the The Many work packages of Biocop is to deal with mycotoxins, more specifically with the development of new methods, including use of transcriptomics (identification of chemical residues by genomic fingerprints) and temperature mass, sensors (both low-cost (electrochemical) portable devices and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors) for analysis of a selection of trichothecenes of European interest (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins). If successful in the first phase, the methods will be validated in interlaboratory tests and standardized by the CEN working group Biotoxins, possibly in the period after the project has been finalized.

Because mycotoxin methods permitted by EU legislation are based on performance criteria, the Essay examples potential of BioCop-developed methods for regulatory use is significant. MoniQA ( ) is a network of excellence (NoE), at the time of writing just started to run in does temperature affect, the period 20072011. MoniQA has more than 60 partners. Although MoniQA is funded by the European Commission, it is a global network, including many non-EU partners, several from Asia. The full title of the project is Towards harmonisation regarding monitoring the hazards in the food supply chain.

In MoniQA the core consortium seeks to establish mechanisms for The Many of Kim Il Essay coordinating and finally merging research activities, personnel, and infrastructure [ 43 ]. MoniQA is directed toward multidisciplinary themes, named clusters. One of the main clusters is mycotoxins. One key activity is the development of common strategies for harmonising and validating (rapid/novel) detection methods and technologies. This could possibly include methods such as those developed in BioCop. A specific work package of MoniQA will evaluate the economic effect of implementation of the does temperature affect analytical methods required by the new regulations in the field of food quality and safety (e.g. effectiveness, efficiency, and consistency), and to compare the effect of ansoff matrix explained different options in qualitative, quantitative, and monetary terms. Affect Mass. Riskbenefit analysis is obviously receiving more attention. With the funding of BioCop and MoniQA the European Commission has not ceased its interest in advancing the development and Corporate Coup Essay examples, standardization of analytical methods and sampling methods for contaminants, including mycotoxins. Affect Mass. In the newly launched 7th Framework Programme (ranging from 2007 to 2013) large collaborative projects are foreseen in which (rapid) methods for mycotoxins, sampling, and standardization issues will receive attention. By the end of 2003 approximately 100 countries in the world had specific regulations in food and feed. Ancient. The number of countries regulating mycotoxins has significantly increased over the years.

Comparison of the situations in 1995 and 2003 reveals that in 2003 more mycotoxins were regulated in more commodities and does temperature, products and that tolerance limits generally remained the same or tended to decrease. Regulations have become more diverse and detailed with newer requirements with regard to official sampling procedures and analytical methods. Harmonisation of tolerance levels is occurring in several free-trade zones. In the ansoff explained EU, especially, the number of harmonized regulations for mycotoxins in food has rapidly grown, and will grow further in the years to come. Within one or two years EU limits will exist for approximately 50 different toxinfood combinations. These developments are scientifically underpinned, supported, and flanked by the complementary activities of a variety of European organizations or programmes (e.g. EFSA, SCOOP, RASFF, CRL, and CEN). Several large EU-funded pan-European research and networking projects (e.g. BioCop, MoniQA) also have an effect. It is, therefore, expected that in the future the scientific basis and transparency of mycotoxin regulations and standardisation and harmonisation of the corresponding (bio)analytical methodology will benefit from does temperature mass, these developments.

The authors wish to ansoff thank the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for permission to make use of material published in does mass, 2004 in FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 81: Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. Professor T.B. Theatre. Whitaker (North Carolina State University, USA) is greatly acknowledged for permission to temperature reproduce Fig. 2 . Figure 5 was reprinted from Toxicology Letters 153, Schothorst RC and The Many of Kim Jong Il Essay, Van Egmond HP. Report from SCOOP task 3.2.10 Collection of does temperature affect mass occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in ancient theatre, food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU member states Subtask: trichothecenes, 133143.

Copyright (2004), with permission from Elsevier [ 35 ]. Hans P. Temperature. van Egmond 1 Email author Ronald C. Schothorst 1 Marco A. Observation Project Styles. Jonker 1 1. Laboratory for Food and Residue Analysis National Institute for mass Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven The Netherlands. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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i.Mx6 Android wakeup/ resume after sleep / suspend on KitKat 4.4. Mx6 - Kontron Board Mx6 SabreLite / Nitrogen6x Board. I am trying to figure out how to wakeup my android system after it goes into deep sleep mode.. Does! I thought I had this fixed by Corporate Coup examples adding various adds and does temperature mass work around but I am still fighting this.. To not muddy the water with my implementation I when back to the Sabrelite/Nitrogen6x original build.. Created new nitrogen6x SD: $ cat kk-nitrogen6x-20141007.img | sudo dd bs=1M of=/dev/sdj. On Sabrelite/nitrogen6x board. Uboot# env default -a. In android settings: Turned off stay awake in development options Set display-sleep to 30sec. request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at 615294170076 (1970-01-02 00:09:48.569896404 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 1 suspend. suspend: finish 1 suspend after:0.2537666 seconds.

Freezing user space processes . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to boston, debug) add wake up source irq 100. add wake up source irq 51. PM: suspend of devices complete after 51.124 msecs. PM: late suspend of temperature mass, devices complete after 0.695 msecs. Ansoff Matrix! Disabling non-boot CPUs . Enabling non-boot CPUs . CPU1: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. Temperature Mass! i.MXC CPU frequency driver.

CPU2: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. CPU3: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. Coup Essay Examples! i.MXC CPU frequency driver. PM: early resume of does temperature mass, devices complete after 0.461 msecs. wakeup wake lock: alarm_rtc. imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.0: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. Greece Theatre! imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.1: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. remove wake up source irq 51. remove wake up source irq 100.

PM: resume of temperature mass, devices complete after 291.861 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. Of Kim Il Essay! suspend: finish 1 suspend after:3.512773928 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = 0 (1970-01-02 00:09:52.267779666 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 2 suspend. suspend: finish 2 suspend after:0.2535333 seconds. Does Temperature Affect Mass! Freezing user space processes . Ansoff Explained! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Does Temperature! Freezing remaining freezable tasks . Observation Project Of Teaching Styles Essay! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) pm_op(): platform_pm_suspend+0x0/0x5c returns -16. PM: Device alarm failed to suspend: error -16. PM: Some devices failed to suspend. PM: resume of devices complete after 60.529 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. suspend: finish 2 suspend after:0.146067666 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = -16 (1970-01-02 00:09:53.012897332 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 3 suspend. suspend: finish 3 suspend after:0.2538334 seconds.

Freezing user space processes . Does Temperature! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) I can not wake it from CONSOLE or mouse on usb or unplugging mouse, or unplugging hdmi.. Sabrelite doesn't have any power or home buttons.. I would like to wake up on ancient theatre, touch/mouse input or console.. Note: In my implementation I have standard bootargs and have added no_console_suspend=1 and it still shuts down.. In my implentation this hard shutdown seems to temperature mass, come and go..

Sometime it just goes into a lite sleep where the console stays active and touch screen wakes it up.. But often it will do the ancient CPU1: Shutdown and it's DONE.. I never found a clear answer on this.. Affect Mass! One FAE suggested the boston massacre Micro in Touch screen drive the wakeup pin. This was not an option for our application since we buy a off the shelf Touchscreen. However I found this solution.. I was trying to does temperature mass, keep the annotated DISPLAY ON all the does affect time by adding a wake_lock.

I added this to a startup script (you can try on Command line) Afterwards the screen will go blank and moved to suspend state: request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at 88060821346 (1970-01-02 00:01:04.373401674 UTC) request_suspend_state: wakeup (3-0) at 93450869015 (1970-01-02 00:01:09.763448343 UTC) request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at ancient greece, 123892901018 (1970-01-02 00:01:40.205481679 UTC) Moving the mouse/touch screen will wake it back up!. I don't believe wake_lock should work this way.. (should keep screen on all the does mass time).. but it fixed my problem. There are buttons for the SabreLite available as a separate accessory: This will allow you to wake up as expected. You can see in the kernel configuration that we specify it: Good Morning and thank you for your quick responses. Our application does not have any external gpio switches interfaces designed into it..

We need to ancient, wake via USB or serial interaction. Is there a way to wake up on affect mass, Serial port or USB (touch screen) interaction? So found the gpio pin that wakes the sabrelite board up.. In playing with it, I discovered this board/build does something similar to what I'm seeing on theatre, my Kontron one-off android build. Affect Mass! Sequence of event on SabreLite board/android. -Wait 30 seconds. -Android halts cpu and freezes (no console response, mouse (usb) wont wake it up) [see logs below] -Ground gpio (power button) -Android wakes up and resumes.. Here is the strange part. Matrix Explained! - wait 30 seconds. - Screen blanks and does mass console shows (request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at. ) but does not freeze or halt!! - console still responds and mouse move wakes back up.. (see logs).. This is similar to my project. Depending on the day my kontron Android builds sometimes stays in light sleep mode (will wake up with touch screen) but sometime goes into massacre significance Hard sleep(halt/freeze) and since I don't have a POWER BUTTON it requires a reboot. Does Temperature Mass! I need to find away to wake up on USB(Touch screen) and Serial. Note: I have added no_console_suspend to my bootargs.

Going to Essay examples, sleep 1st time after boot. request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at 89176974680 (1970-01-02 00:16:16.102297677 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 1 suspend. Affect Mass! suspend: finish 1 suspend after:0.2537333 seconds. Freezing user space processes . Greece Theatre! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) add wake up source irq 100. Mass! add wake up source irq 51. Observation Project Styles Essay! PM: suspend of devices complete after 47.853 msecs. PM: late suspend of devices complete after 0.682 msecs. Disabling non-boot CPUs . Does Affect Mass! Enabling non-boot CPUs . CPU1: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. Boston Significance! CPU2: Booted secondary processor.

Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. CPU3: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. PM: early resume of devices complete after 0.464 msecs. Does Mass! wakeup wake lock: alarm_rtc. Matrix! imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.0: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.1: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. remove wake up source irq 51. remove wake up source irq 100. PM: resume of devices complete after 295.264 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. suspend: finish 1 suspend after:1.462211654 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = 0 (1970-01-02 00:16:20.255655332 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 2 suspend. suspend: finish 2 suspend after:0.2536335 seconds.

Freezing user space processes . Affect Mass! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) pm_op(): platform_pm_suspend+0x0/0x5c returns -16. PM: Device alarm failed to suspend: error -16. PM: Some devices failed to Observation Essay, suspend. PM: resume of mass, devices complete after 60.883 msecs.

Restarting tasks . done. D'état! suspend: finish 2 suspend after:0.147519335 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = -16 (1970-01-02 00:16:21.012026000 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 3 suspend. suspend: finish 3 suspend after:0.2557000 seconds. Freezing user space processes . (elapsed 0.02 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) add wake up source irq 100. add wake up source irq 51. PM: suspend of devices complete after 47.734 msecs. PM: late suspend of temperature, devices complete after 0.688 msecs.

Disabling non-boot CPUs . Enabling non-boot CPUs . CPU1: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. CPU2: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. CPU3: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. PM: early resume of devices complete after 0.452 msecs. The Many Eccentricities Jong Il Essay! wakeup wake lock: alarm_rtc. Does Temperature! imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.0: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. Of Teaching Essay! imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.1: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. remove wake up source irq 51. remove wake up source irq 100. PM: resume of devices complete after 295.643 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. suspend: finish 3 suspend after:18.918098333 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = 0 (1970-01-02 00:16:40.255958334 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . Mass! done. suspend: start 4 suspend.

suspend: finish 4 suspend after:0.2535334 seconds. Project Of Teaching! Freezing user space processes . Does Mass! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. London! Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to does temperature mass, debug) pm_op(): platform_pm_suspend+0x0/0x5c returns -16. Ansoff Matrix Explained! PM: Device alarm failed to mass, suspend: error -16. Corporate Coup Essay! PM: Some devices failed to suspend. PM: resume of devices complete after 60.811 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. suspend: finish 4 suspend after:0.146740669 seconds. Does Temperature Affect! suspend: exit suspend, ret = -16 (1970-01-02 00:16:41.011844666 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 5 suspend. Boston! suspend: finish 5 suspend after:0.2538667 seconds. Does Mass! Freezing user space processes . Ansoff Matrix! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . Temperature Mass! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done.

Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) Serial console frozen and usb (mouse) won't wake it up. Eccentricities Jong! Waking up by does temperature affect GPIO (power button) PM: resume of devices complete after 295.643 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. suspend: finish 3 suspend after:18.918098333 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = 0 (1970-01-02 00:16:40.255958334 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 4 suspend. Matrix Explained! suspend: finish 4 suspend after:0.2535334 seconds. Freezing user space processes . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . Temperature Affect Mass! (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to Corporate d'état examples, debug) pm_op(): platform_pm_suspend+0x0/0x5c returns -16. PM: Device alarm failed to suspend: error -16.

PM: Some devices failed to does affect, suspend. PM: resume of devices complete after 60.811 msecs. Restarting tasks . Significance! done. suspend: finish 4 suspend after:0.146740669 seconds. suspend: exit suspend, ret = -16 (1970-01-02 00:16:41.011844666 UTC) PM: Syncing filesystems . done. suspend: start 5 suspend. suspend: finish 5 suspend after:0.2538667 seconds. Temperature Mass! Freezing user space processes . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done. Freezing remaining freezable tasks . (elapsed 0.01 seconds) done.

Suspending console(s) (use no_console_suspend to debug) add wake up source irq 100. add wake up source irq 51. PM: suspend of devices complete after 37.735 msecs. PM: late suspend of devices complete after 0.684 msecs. Disabling non-boot CPUs . Enabling non-boot CPUs . Poem! CPU1: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. Temperature Affect Mass! CPU2: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver. CPU3: Booted secondary processor. Calibrating delay loop (skipped) already calibrated this CPU. i.MXC CPU frequency driver.

PM: early resume of Observation Project of Teaching Styles, devices complete after 0.456 msecs. imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.0: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. imx-ipuv3 imx-ipuv3.1: IPU DMFC DP HIGH RESOLUTION: 1(0,1), 5B(2. remove wake up source irq 51. Does! remove wake up source irq 100. wakeup wake lock: event0-2762. PM: resume of devices complete after 295.805 msecs. Restarting tasks . done. suspend: finish 5 suspend after:161.901734997 seconds. request_suspend_state: wakeup (3-0) at Observation of Teaching Styles Essay, 95609069676 (1970-01-02 00:19:23.253088996 UTC) suspend: exit suspend, ret = 0 (1970-01-02 00:19:23.264526667 UTC) active wake lock mmc1_detect. active wake lock main. active wake lock PowerManagerService.Display. active wake lock PowerManagerService.Broadcasts. active wake lock KeyEvents. active wake lock PowerManagerService.WakeLocks.

30 seconds later. request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at 165611178689 (1970-01-02 00:20:33.255197009 UTC) -- console stays awake and temperature movement of mouse wakes up screen. Stays in significance, this cycle until powercycled. Can someone shed some light on does temperature affect, this? Again the ask is to Always wake up on matrix, USB(touchscreen) I never found a clear answer on this.. One FAE suggested the Micro in Touch screen drive the wakeup pin.

This was not an temperature option for Coup Essay examples, our application since we buy a off the shelf Touchscreen. Affect! However I found this solution.. I was trying to keep the DISPLAY ON all the time by adding a wake_lock. I added this to a startup script (you can try on Command line) Afterwards the screen will go blank and moved to Corporate Coup d'état, suspend state: request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at 88060821346 (1970-01-02 00:01:04.373401674 UTC) request_suspend_state: wakeup (3-0) at 93450869015 (1970-01-02 00:01:09.763448343 UTC) request_suspend_state: sleep (0-3) at 123892901018 (1970-01-02 00:01:40.205481679 UTC) Moving the mouse/touch screen will wake it back up!.

I don't believe wake_lock should work this way.. (should keep screen on all the does mass time).. but it fixed my problem. Can I know how you set up a startup script? - I have the Corporate d'état Essay same sleep issue because my application required 24*7 day monitor on. At the moment, with my situation, the monitor would not turn off as long as my application is running, but if I switched to other menu and the monitor was off, then I can not turn it on does, any more. Touch screen doesn't wake it up, also as I don't have the power button, so I have to reboot the machine in such situation. Boston Significance! Also, is there a way that I can permanent disable/remove power save? You can enable the Stay Awake option in does affect, the developers options of the Settings app. If you want this to be on by default you can modify/add an overlay, here is an example: Thanks Gary, the Stay Awake option works for me. I think Gary's answer might be your best choice.. However I will answer the How I added it to my startup. Project Of Teaching Styles! Android has a file called init.rc.

This works differently from linux's init.rc. You can find info on android init.rc at init/readme.txt - platform/system/core - Git at Google. Init.rc is part of the ram disk image and Can't be edited directly (you can edit it but it will disappear on next boot). You can find the source at /device/fsl/imx6/etc/init.rc. service startonce /system/bin/sh /data/ FYI: I also have another setup.. this script will restart if it dies. # restarts if exits. Does Temperature Affect Mass! service startabei /system/bin/sh /data/ In the Corporate Coup Essay I added: Hope that helps! Thanks Bill for taking the time to help. Does Affect Mass! Yes, I will follow Gary's instruction to handle this. Massacre Significance! Photo Advisory -- US Secretary of temperature, Transportation, Anthony Foxx, Meets With NXP CEO Rick Clemmer at CES 2016. NXP Semiconductors Announces Conference Call to Review Full-Year and Fourth Quarter 2015 Financial Results. The smart home of the future is on our doorstep.

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Girlstart Announced as Beneficiary of NXP Fundraising Efforts at 2016 Austin Marathon. MIFARE brings Villanovas Wildcard to life. Experience the affect future of smart homes and smart mobility at CES 2016. Stella Lux shows the future of green mobility in Shanghai. NXP Semiconductors Obtains Improved Credit Ratings From SP and ansoff matrix explained Moody's. We are the new NXP. NXP and Freescale Announce Completion of Merger. Copper-wire bonding takes gold with latest AEC addendum. Living in a Smarter World: From Privacy to affect mass, Control.

The perfect wireless communication system. Streamlining Board Designs with NXPs Mini Logic Portfolio. Of Teaching Styles Essay! Saying no to traffic delays in Istanbul. Affect! 6 ways NFC helps healthcare. NXP at IoT World Forum 2015, London Security in IoT: How Secure is Smart?

The accidental thermal engineer: Can we know Tj by looking at Tcase? Whats next for your wearables design? WaRP 7. 7 playful uses for NFC in gaming. Meet an ancient greece NFC innovator: Speech Code. Does Temperature Mass! What you can do with Sensor Data Analytics, from ansoff matrix explained babies to horses. Playroom 2.0: Made possible by NFC.

NXP and Guala Closures Bring Smart-Security NFC Closure Solutions to Wine and temperature Spirits Market. The accidental thermal engineer: Can we know Tj by looking at Tcase? (Part 2) Can we trust new mobility systems? How NFC is taking mobile payments in bold new directions. NXP Hosts Future Secure Connected Car Showcase in Silicon Valley. Corporate D'état! Security, Privacy and Mobility: CES 2016 Discussion.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The federal government funds a large range of subsidy programs for temperature affect low-income Americans, from food stamps to Medicaid. This essay examines Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which is Corporate Coup d'état Essay a joint federal-state cash assistance program for low-income families with children. When most people think of welfare, they are thinking of this program. Since a major welfare reform in 1996, federal spending on temperature TANF has been held fairly constant at somewhat less than $20 billion per year. 1 The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided an additional $5 billion in federal funding over several years.

About 1.8 million families receive TANF payments each month. 2. Before 1996, federal welfare was an open-ended entitlement that encouraged long-term dependency, and there was widespread agreement that it was a terrible failure. It neither reduced poverty nor helped the poor become self-sufficient. It encouraged out-of-wedlock births and weakened the work ethic. The pathologies it engendered were passed from generation to generation. The welfare reforms of 1996 were dramatic, but the federal government still runs an array of welfare programs that are expensive and damaging.

The federal government should phase-out its role in TANF and related welfare programs and leave low-income assistance programs to state governments, or better yet, the private sector. Government welfare cannot provide the same flexibility and diversity as private charities. Private aid organizations have a better understanding that true charity starts with individuals making better life choices. Corporate D'état Essay Examples! Federal involvement in welfare has generated an expensive mess of paperwork and bureaucracy while doing little to solve the problem of long-term poverty. A Brief History of Federal Welfare. The first federal welfare program was Aid to temperature Dependent Children (ADC), which was created as part of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal in 1935.

The program was intended to supplement existing state relief programs for widows and to provide support to families in ansoff explained which the father was deceased, absent, or unable to work. 3. Although it was originally supposed to be a small program, ADC expanded rapidly. By 1938, almost 250,000 families were participating in the program. 4 Despite rapid economic growth and declining levels of poverty during the 1950s, ADC rolls continued to grow. By 1956, over 600,000 families were receiving benefits. Does Affect Mass! 5.

In 1960, President John F. Kennedy took office amidst rising concern about poverty in America. But beyond renaming ADC to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and expanding it to include two-parent families in which the father was unemployed, Kennedy actually took little action on welfare. Boston Massacre Significance! But Kennedy's general support for expanding aid to the poor set the does temperature affect mass stage for Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. After Kennedy's assassination, Johnson had a free hand in Congress, and he was determined to use it to remake government and ancient theatre, society. Johnson declared that the federal government would wage a War on Poverty and his administration proposed a huge array of new subsidy programs for individuals and state and local governments. America had not seen such an does affect expansion of government or such a proliferation of anti-poverty programs since the New Deal. Eccentricities Jong! Among the major Johnson initiatives were Medicare, Medicaid, and temperature affect, Head Start. The proliferation of new urban programs, job training, health care, and other welfare activities during the Essay 1960s coincided with further expansions in AFDC. By 1965 the number of affect mass people receiving AFDC had risen to 4.3 million. 6 By 1972 the significance number had more than doubled to nearly 10 million. The welfare rolls were rapidly expanding even though this was a period of general economic prosperity and temperature, low unemployment.

7. After Johnson left office, there was a bipartisan consensus in Washington to preserve and even expand his legacy. London Annotated! Presidents Nixon, Ford, and does affect mass, Carter all added new anti-poverty programs. Between 1965 and 1975, measured in constant dollars, spending for AFDC tripled. 8 A series of court decisions that established rights for welfare recipients helped fuel the spending growth. Poem Annotated! 9 After 1975, the growth rate of welfare slowed but still continued upward. In 1981, President Ronald Reagan came into office with strong views about shrinking the temperature mass welfare state. Unfortunately, welfare-related spending actually grew during Reagan's two terms. Reagan did shift the funding emphasis among welfare-related programs. London Poem Annotated! For example, funding for AFDC declined by 1 percent during his tenure, but spending for the Earned Income Tax Credit doubled. By the time President Bill Clinton took office in 1993, a broad national consensus had developed that traditional open-ended welfare had failed.

This led to a period of state-government experimentation with welfare within the constraints that the federal government allowed them. Many state experimentsparticularly work requirements and recipient time limitswould become part of does federal welfare reform in 1996. In August 1996, President Clinton signed into law the ancient greece Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which represented the most extensive revision of does temperature affect mass federal welfare in more than 30 years. Explained! By one important measure, welfare reform was very successful. The number of Americans on temperature affect welfare plunged from 12.6 million in 1996 to 4.2 million individuals by 2009, a dramatic 67-percent decrease. 10. The reform bill made a number of significant changes in the way welfare was provided. AFDC had provided cash payments to families with children where the parents were absent, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. Ancient Theatre! The program was funded by a combination of does temperature affect federal and state funds (the federal portion varied from 50 to 80 percent), with states setting benefit levels and the federal government determining eligibility requirements. States had an incentive to expand benefit levels because that would draw more federal payments. And recipients could stay on the program for years on end.

PRWORA replaced AFDC with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant. The block grant was a fixed amount of federal funds for each state, largely based on The Many Eccentricities of Kim Jong Il Essay the pre-reform federal contribution to that state's AFDC program. Does! However, this caused states that had offered more generous welfare benefits to receive much more federal money per poor family than other states received. Ansoff! 11. Welfare reform in 1996 abolished most federal eligibility and payment rules, giving states much greater flexibility to design their own programs. The reforms eliminated welfare's entitlement status so that no one would have an automatic right to benefits. Does Mass! States could choose which families to help. States were, however, required to continue spending at least 80 percent of their previous levels under a maintenance of london annotated effort provision.

In recent years, federal spending on TANF has been held fairly constant at somewhat less than $20 billion per does year. 12 Combined federal and state TANF spending was about Observation Project of Teaching Essay, $26 billion in temperature 2006. 13 About 41 percent was for direct cash assistance, with the remainder of the subsidies for childcare, transportation, work support, and education and training. 14 Administrative costs accounted for almost 10 percent of expenditures. Ancient Greece! 15. That represents a significant change in the distribution of expenditures from pre-reform welfare. Prior to reform, cash assistance accounted for 73 percent of welfare spending under AFDC and does temperature affect, related programs. 16.

Under the old AFDC system, many welfare recipients seemed trapped in almost permanent dependency on government aid. Theatre! To combat this, welfare reform established time limits to prevent welfare from becoming a way of life. PRWORA set a federal limit of five years, but allowed states to set shorter time limits if they wished. While this sounds fairly strict, it was undercut somewhat because states were allowed to exempt up to 20 percent of their caseloads from time limits, and were also allowed to use their own funds to continue benefits for families that exceeded the federal five-year time limit. In addition, so-called children only cases, where the child is eligible for welfare benefits, but the adult parent is not, are not subject to federal time limits. Children-only cases account for almost half of the total TANF caseload. Affect! 17. The 1996 welfare reform imposed widespread work requirements on recipients.

States are required to have at least 50 percent of eligible welfare recipients from single parent families participating in ansoff matrix work activities. For two-parent families, the participation requirement is temperature 90 percent. As of 2006, every state except Indiana had technically met the Corporate d'état examples mandate for temperature affect all families. However, states were given various credits and exemptions that significantly reduced the number of recipients required to Project Styles work. For example, states receive a credit based on their caseload reductions.

Because welfare rolls have plummeted, the does average effective minimum work participation requirement in 2006 was only 5.0 percent for all families and 18.7 percent for two-parent families. Eccentricities! 18 In fact, for 17 states and two territories, the credit has reduced the effective work requirement to zero , and only 21 states have an effective minimum greater than 10 percent. 19 Thus, nearly all the states have carved out large exemptions from their work requirements. After all the credits, waivers, and exemptions are taken into account, only 32 percent of welfare recipients were working in 2009. 20 While this is does temperature affect low, it does represent a substantial improvement over pre-reform welfare. Under the Styles Essay old AFDC program, only about 10 percent of recipients were working.

21. Note that just because a recipient is affect participating in work activities under today's welfare does not mean that the explained individual is actually working. Does Affect! For example, in almost all states, simply looking for work constitutes a work activity, which allows people to continue receiving their welfare check. The work component of boston massacre significance welfare reform was a big step in the right direction, but the actual changes to work behavior have been modest. Because of temperature mass exemptions built into Eccentricities Jong Il Essay, the 1996 law, most states are not really required to make a large number of recipients work, and few states have chosen to do so on their own.

The tragedy of government welfare programs is not just wasted taxpayer money but wasted lives. The effects of welfare in encouraging the break-up of temperature affect low-income families have been extensively documented. Ancient Theatre! The primary way that those with low incomes can advance in the market economy is to get married, stay married, and workbut welfare programs have created incentives to do the opposite. The number of single-parent families has risen dramatically since the does temperature mass 1960s. The most important reason for the rise in single-parent families is significance births to unmarried women. In 1965, less than 8 percent of all births were out of wedlock.

Today the temperature figure is 39 percent. 22. The policy concern about the increase in out-of-wedlock births is not a question of private morality. The concern is that out-of-wedlock childbearing remains overwhelmingly concentrated at d'état, the lowest rungs of the socio-economic ladder. Having a child out of wedlock at an early age for someone without career skills can mean a lifetime of poverty.

Of more than 20 major studies of the issue, more than three-quarters show a significant link between welfare benefit levels and out-of-wedlock childbearing. 23 Higher benefit levels mean higher out-of-wedlock births. Does! Children living with single mothers are seven times more likely to Coup d'état Essay examples be poor than those living with two parents. 24. Welfare removes some of the negative economic consequences of out-of-wedlock births, and thus encourages more such births. More than 20 percent of single-mothers start on welfare because they have an out-of-wedlock birth, 25 and 75 percent of government aid to children through means-tested programs like TANF goes to single-parent families. Does Mass! 26 Moreover, once on welfare, single mothers find it difficult to get off, and greece theatre, they tend to stay on welfare for longer periods than other recipients. Mass! 27. Focusing solely on the out-of-wedlock birthrate may actually understate the annotated problem. In the past, women who gave birth out of wedlock frequently married the fathers of their children after the birth. As many as 85 percent of unwed mothers, in the 1950s, ultimately married the fathers of their children.

28 Therefore, while technically born out of wedlock, the children were still likely to grow up in intact two-parent families. However, the does affect increasing availability and value of welfare have made such marriages less attractive for unwed mothers. If the father is unskilled and has poor employment prospects, a welfare check may seem a preferable alternative. Studies indicate that young mothers and pregnant women are less likely to marry the fathers of their children in states with higher welfare benefits. 29 Nonetheless, 70 percent of poor single mothers would no longer be in poverty if they married their children's father. 30. Welfare is also likely to entrap the next generation as well. The attitudes and habits that lead to ansoff matrix explained welfare dependency are transmitted the same way as other parent-to-child pathologies, such as alcoholism and affect, child abuse. Although it is true that the majority of children raised on welfare will not receive welfare themselves, the The Many of Kim Il Essay rate of welfare dependence for children raised on it is does far higher than for their non-welfare counterparts. Children raised on welfare are likely to have lower incomes as adults than children not raised on welfare.

The more welfare received by a child's family, the lower that child's earnings as an adult tend to be, even holding constant such other factors as race, family structure, and education. 31 According to one study, nearly 20 percent of daughters from families that were highly dependent on welfare became highly dependent themselves, whereas only ancient, 3 percent of affect mass daughters from non-welfare households became highly dependent on welfare. Massacre Significance! 32. The choice of welfare over work is often a rational decision based on economic incentives. Empirical studies confirm that welfare is a disincentive for work. For example, an analysis of interstate variation in does affect labor force participation by economists Richard Vedder, Lowell Gallaway, and massacre, Robert Lawson found that such participation declined as welfare benefits increased. 33 Similarly, Robert Moffitt of Brown University found that the work effort of welfare recipients was reduced by as much as 30 percent.

34. Such studies may understate the work disincentive of affect mass welfare because they consider only a small portion of the total package of federal and state welfare benefits. Benefits available to people in the welfare system that are not available to the working poor create an incentive to go on welfare and remain in the program once enrolled. London Annotated! 35 For example, one study shows that education and training programs available under TANF may induce people to temperature mass go on welfare. Massacre! 36. Perhaps most troubling of does mass all is the psychological attitude toward work that can develop among those on london annotated welfare.

Studies have found that the poor on welfare do not have a strong sense that they need to take charge of their own lives or find work to become self-sufficient. 37 Indeed, they often have a feeling that the government has an obligation to provide for them. Of course, these psychological effects are also true for other government subsidy recipients, including farmers, the elderly, and businesses that are hooked on does temperature affect federal hand-outs of one sort or another. Farmers that are major subsidy recipients, for Project of Teaching Styles Essay example, are less likely to make tough decisions to cut costs or diversify their income sources because they know they will be bailed out if market conditions sour on them. It is not healthy for any group in does mass society to depend on government welfare for their long-term survival, whether they are farmers or poor inner-city families. Children from single-parent families are more likely to become involved in criminal activity. The Many Of Kim Jong! Research indicates a direct correlation between crime rates and the number of single-parent families in affect mass a neighborhood. 38 As welfare contributes to the rise in out-of-wedlock births, it thus also contributes to higher levels of criminal activity. A Maryland National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) report concluded that the ready access to a lifetime of welfare and ancient theatre, free social service programs is a major contributory factor to the crime problems we face today. 39 The NAACP's conclusion is confirmed by does temperature mass additional academic research.

For example, research by M. Anne Hill and June O'Neill shows that a 50-percent increase in boston welfare and food stamp benefits led to a 117-percent increase in the crime rate among young black men. 40. Barbara Whitehead noted in an article in the Atlantic Monthly: The relationship [between single-parent families and does, crime] is so strong that controlling for family configuration erases the relationship between race and crime and between low income and crime. This conclusion shows up time and again in the literature. London! The nation's mayors, as well as police officers, social workers, probation officers, and court officials, consistently point to family breakup as the most important source of rising rates of crime. 41. Welfare leads to increased crime by does temperature affect mass contributing to the marginalization of young men in ancient society. As author George Gilder noted, The welfare culture tells the man he is not a necessary part of the family. Does Mass! 42 Marriage and family have long been considered civilizing influences on young men.

Whether or not causation can be proven, it is true that unwed fathers are more likely to use drugs and become involved in ansoff criminal behavior than are other men. Temperature Affect! 43. Replacing Welfare with Private Charity. The 1996 welfare reforms were a step in the right direction, but much more needs to be done. The next step should be to of Kim Jong Il Essay transfer full responsibility for funding and administering welfare programs to the states. The states would have freedom to innovate with their low-income programs and would have strong incentives to reduce taxpayer costs and maximize work incentives.

The ultimate reform goal, however, should be to eliminate the entire system of low-income welfare for does individuals who are able to work. That means eliminating not just TANF but also food stamps, subsidized housing, and other programs. Individuals unwilling to support themselves through the job market would have to rely on the support of family, church, community, or private charity. What would happen to the poor if welfare were eliminated? Without the negative incentives created by the welfare state, fewer people would be poor.

There would also likely be fewer children born into poverty. Studies suggest that women do make rational decisions about whether to have children, and thus a reduction in welfare benefits would reduce the likelihood of their becoming pregnant or having children out of wedlock. 44. In addition, some poor women who had children out of wedlock would put the Observation children up for adoption. The government should encourage that by eliminating the present regulatory and bureaucratic barriers to adoption. Other unmarried women who gave birth would not be able to afford to live independently and they would have to live with their families or boyfriends. Some would choose to marry the fathers of their children. Despite the positive social effects of ending government welfare, there will still be many people who make mistakes and does temperature affect mass, find themselves in tough situations. Americans are an enormously generous people, and Corporate examples, there is a vast amount of private charitable support available, especially for people truly in need. Private charity is superior to does temperature mass government welfare for many reasons.

Private charities are able to ansoff explained individualize their approaches to does affect mass the circumstances of poor people. London Poem! By contrast, government programs are usually designed in a one-size-fits-all manner that treats all recipients alike. Most government programs rely on the simple provision of cash or services without any attempt to affect differentiate between the needs of recipients. The eligibility requirements for government welfare programs are arbitrary and cannot be changed to fit individual circumstances. Consequently, some people in genuine need do not receive assistance, while benefits often go to people who do not really need them. Surveys of people with low incomes generally indicate a higher level of satisfaction with private charities than with government welfare agencies. 45.

Private charities also have a better record of actually delivering aid to recipients because they do not have as much administrative overhead, inefficiency, and waste as government programs. A lot of the money spent on federal and state social welfare programs never reaches recipients because it is consumed by ansoff fraud and bureaucracy. Audits of TANF spending by the Health and does temperature mass, Human Services' Inspector General have found huge levels of improper payments, meaning errors, abuse, and Observation Styles, fraud. Mass! In 2005, the boston significance state of New York had an improper TANF payment rate of 28 percent and Michigan had an improper payment rate of does temperature affect mass 40 percent. 46 During 2006 and 2007, Ohio had an improper payment rate in TANF of 21 percent. 47 There are similar high levels of waste in The Many Eccentricities of Kim Jong other states.

48. Another advantage of private charity is does temperature affect that aid is much more likely to be targeted to short-term emergency assistance, not long-term dependency. Private charity provides a safety net, not a way of life. London Annotated! Moreover, private charities may demand that the poor change their behavior in exchange for affect assistance, such as stopping drug abuse, looking for The Many Eccentricities of Kim Il Essay a job, or avoiding pregnancy. Private charities are more likely than government programs to offer counseling and one-on-one follow-up, rather than simply providing a check. In sum, private charities typically require a different attitude on the part of temperature recipients. They are required to consider the aid they receive not as an entitlement, but as a gift carrying reciprocal obligations. At the same time, private charities require that donors become directly involved in monitoring program performance.

Those who oppose replacing government welfare with private charity often argue that there will not be enough charitable giving to make up for london the loss of government benefits. However, that assumes that private charity would simply recreate existing government programs. But the advantage of private and decentralized charity is that less expensive and temperature affect mass, more innovative ways of helping smaller groups of The Many truly needy people would be developed. If large amounts of aid continue to does temperature affect mass be needed, there is explained every reason to believe that charitable giving in mass the nation would increase in the absence of government welfare. In every area of society and the economy, we have seen that government expansion tends to crowd out private voluntary activities. So, in reverse, when the government shrinks, private activities would fill in the gaps. A number of studies have demonstrated such a government crowd-out effect in low-income assistance. 49 Charitable giving declined dramatically during the 1970s, as the Great Society programs of the 1960s were expanding. The decline in giving leveled out in the 1980s as welfare spending began to level out and the public was deluged with news stories about supposed cutbacks in federal programs. Then, after the passage of welfare reform in 1996, there was a large spike in private giving. 50 Studies have also shown that when particular charities start receiving government funds, there is a decrease in private donations to those charities.

51. Americans are the most generous people on earth, contributing more than $300 billion a year to organized private charities. In addition, they volunteer more than 8 billion hours a year to charitable activities, with an Observation of Teaching estimated value of about $158 billion. 52 Americans donate countless dollars and does, countless efforts toward providing informal help to families, neighbors, and others in need. The Many Of Kim Il Essay! There is every reason to believe that the elimination of government welfare would bring a very positive response both from temperature affect, recipients of government welfare and from Americans wanting to help those who are truly in need.

1 Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Tables , Table 12.3. 2 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to boston Congress, June 2009, p. X-6. 3 Susan W. Blank and Barbara B. Blum, A Brief History of Work Expectations for does affect Welfare Mothers, Welfare to Work 7, no. Project Styles Essay! 1 (1997): 2930. 4 Blanche Coll, Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 19291979 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), p. 104. 5 Blanche Coll, Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 19291979 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), p. Does! 199. 6 James T. Patterson, America's Struggle against Poverty (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989), p. 171.

7 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery, 1992), p. 182. 8 Robert Rector and massacre significance, William Lauber, America's Failed $5.4 Trillion War on Poverty (Washington: Heritage Foundation, 1995), p. 11. 9 In King v. Smith (1968), the Supreme Court struck down state laws denying benefits to mothers with able-bodied men in the house. Does Mass! The same year, a federal court struck down laws against aid to mothers whom AFDC administrators considered employable. In 1969 the london poem annotated Supreme Court found in Shapiro v. Thompson that state residency requirements for welfare were unconstitutional. And, in perhaps the most important welfare rights decision, the temperature mass Court held in ansoff matrix explained Goldberg v. Kelly (1970) that welfare was an entitlement that could not be denied without due process.

11 David Merriman, Should States Receive More Equal TANF Funding? Urban Institute Short Takes on Welfare Policy , no. 4, May 2002. 12 Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Tables , Table 12.3. 13 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. vi. 14 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. Does Temperature Affect Mass! II-12. 15 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. II-16. 16 Vee Burke, Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data, Congressional Research Service, September 10, 2001. 17 Department of Health and ansoff matrix explained, Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. v. 18 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. vii. 19 Department of does mass Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Observation Project of Teaching Essay Congress, June 2009, p. vii.

20 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to temperature affect Congress, June 2009, p. III-19. 21 LaDonna Pavetti, Creating a New Welfare Reality: Early Implementation of the ansoff Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program, Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 4 (2000): 609. 22 Department of Health and Human Services, Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008, p. Temperature Mass! III-36. 23 Ron Haskins, Does Welfare Encourage Illegitimacy? The Case Just Closed. The Answer is Yes, American Enterprise Institute, January 1996. 24 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005.

25 Department of Health and Human Services, Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008, p. II-33. 26 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005. 27 Jodie Levin-Epstein, Christine Grisham, and Maya Batchelder, Regarding Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Teen Parenting Provisions in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant, Center for Observation Project Law and Social Policy, November 30, 2001. 28 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery, 1992), p. Does Affect Mass! 186. 29 Shelley Lundberg and The Many Eccentricities of Kim Jong Il Essay, Robert Plotnick, Effects of State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on does Premarital Childbearing among White Adolescents, Family Planning Perspectives 22, no. 6 (1990): 24651. 30 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005. 31 Mary Corcoran et al., The Association between Men's Economic Status and Their Family and Community Origins, Journal of Human Resources 27, no. Boston! 4 (Fall 1992): 575601.

32 Greg Duncan and Martha Hill, Welfare Dependence Within and Across Generations, Science , January 29, 1988, pp. Does Temperature Mass! 46771. 33 Richard Vedder, Lowell Gallaway, and Robert Lawson, Why People Work: An Examination of Interstate Variation in Labor Force Participation, Journal of Labor Research 12, no. Coup Essay Examples! 1 (Winter 1991): 4759. 34 Robert Moffitt, Incentive Effects of the U.S.

Welfare System: A Review, Journal of temperature mass Economic Literature 30, no. 1 (March 1992): 17. 35 David Card, Philip Robins, and Winston Lin, Would Financial Incentives for Leaving Welfare Lead Some People to Stay on Welfare Longer? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 6449, March 1998. 36 Cited in David Card, Philip Robins, and massacre, Winston Lin, Would Financial Incentives for Leaving Welfare Lead Some People to Stay on mass Welfare Longer: An Experimental Evaluation of theatre 'Entry Effects' in the Self-Sufficiency Project, National Bureau of does affect mass Economic Research Working Paper no. Ancient Theatre! 6449, March 1998. 37 For example, see Ken Auletta, The Underclass (New York: Random House, 1982). 38 Douglas Smith and G. Roger Jarjoura, Social Structure and Criminal Victimization, Journal of Research in does Crime and Delinquency 25, no. 1 (February 1988): 2752. 39 John L. D'état Essay Examples! Wright, Marge Green, and Leroy Warren Jr., An Assessment of Crime in Maryland Today, Maryland State Conference of Branches, NAACP, Annapolis, February 1994, p. 7.

40 M. Anne Hill and June O'Neill, Underclass Behaviors in the United States: Measurement and Analysis of Determinants, Baruch College, City University of mass New York, August 1993, p. 73. 41 Barbara Defoe Whitehead, Dan Quayle Was Right, Atlantic Monthly , April 1993, p. 50. 42 Cited in Tom Bethell, They Had a Dream: The Politics of ancient Welfare Reform, National Review, August 23, 1993, p. Does Temperature Mass! 33. 43 Robert Lerman, Unwed Fathers: Who Are They? American Enterprise, September-October 1993, pp. 3237. 44 Robert Haveman, Barbara Wolfe, et al., Do Teens Make Rational Choices? The Case of boston massacre significance Teen Nonmarital Childbearing, University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on does temperature Poverty, Discussion Paper no. 1137-97, July 1997. 45 Robert Wuthnow, Conrad Hackett, and Becky Yang Hsu, The Effectiveness and Trustworthiness of Faith-Based and Il Essay, Other Service Organizations: A Study of Recipients' Perceptions (paper presented at a conference on temperature The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Welfare System, Washington, DC, March 67, 2003). 46 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Corporate Coup d'état examples Improper Temporary Assistance for affect mass Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in New York State for d'état July 1 through December 31, 2005, October 31, 2007; and Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in Michigan for does temperature mass July 1 through December 31, 2005, November 13, 2007.

47 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in Ohio for April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007, July 15, 2008. 48 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for greece Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in temperature California for April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007, September 2008. 49 See, for boston significance example, Russell Roberts, A Positive Model of Private Charity and Public Transfers, Journal of Political Economy 92 (1984): 13648; and B. Affect Mass! A. Abrams and M. Poem! D. Schmitz, The Crowding out Effect of Government Transfers on Private Charitable Contributions, Public Choice, no. 1 (1978): 2840. 50 American Association of does affect mass Fundraising Counsel (AAFRC) Trust for Philanthropy, Giving USA 2002, Indianapolis, IN, June 20, 2002.

51 Christopher Horne, David Van Slyke, and Project Essay, Janet Johnson, Attitudes for Public Funding for temperature affect Faith-Based Organizations and the Potential Impact on Private Giving (paper presented to a conference on The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Welfare System, Washington, DC, March 78, 2003).

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Essay, Research Paper: Immigration And Canada. from immigrant descent. If it were not for the millions of people who have fled. to Canada in does temperature, hope of a better life, Canada would never have prospered into of Kim Il Essay what. it is today. As a result of this fact, it is hard to affect mass, believe that immigrants are.

still faced with many hardships when they enter Canada. Boston Massacre Significance? Most immigrants have. good intentions in mind when coming to a new country. Immigrants coming to. Canada believe that they will be able to keep their culture, become successful. and prosper. These misleading hopes set the immigrant up for a life of. continuous disappointment. Canadian Literature portrays the immigrant experience. in a negative light. The Canadian experience for immigrants appears to be.

programmed for failure. Immigrants try to adopt a new identity in does mass, hope that this. will enable them to succeed in the future. Venturing to new lands often compels. immigrants to isolate themselves from society, by holding onto Project Styles, their own. traditions and disregarding the new culture. Immigrants who seek to become. successful in Canada are often let down by temperature affect, what they have found, and are left. feeling fearful, desolate and helpless. Immigrant characters in Canadian. literature often express a fear of losing their identity and culture.

For most. immigrants, culture is the only thing that truly belongs to them when they come. to a new country. In the novel The Black Madonna by Jong Il Essay, Frank Paci, Assunta Barrone. is one of the main characters who has immigrated from Italy to a small town in. Northern Ontario. Her refusal to adapt or change herself in any way to does affect, become. more Canadian exemplifies her desire to ansoff matrix explained, keep her Italian heritage. It. had been a long time since she had stepped off that train with her dowry trunk. And in all that time she had never ceased to puzzle him.

He didnt know. whether she had purposely refused to adapt to the new ways or if she was. incapable of doing so. Does Mass? She was certainly stubborn. She had strange old-country.

customs that she insisted on maintaining even though they were primitive and. embarrassing (Paci 11). Assuntas desire to keep her customs was what. helped to preserve her Italian identity. By keeping her identity Assunta felt. like her homeland was somehow constantly with her. The poem Alien by Mary.

Elizabeth Colman also exemplifies the immigrants fear of losing their identity. Dear hills of Observation Project, home, why did I leave your arms?/ How can I love this vast, clamorous land?/ Whose noisy people hold me in contempt? (Colman 9-11). This. immigrant is in does temperature affect mass, fear of the new land which they have come to, and is afraid of. the people around them.

Because immigrants hold their culture so close to them. when they travel to ansoff matrix, new lands, they defend it with every ounce of temperature affect mass, their being. Without culture or identity immigrants are defenceless in a new country. The. immigrant in Canadian literature is Corporate d'état often regretful of leaving their homeland. because of the disappointments they discover about Canada. Most immigrants. believe that getting a Canadian passport and citizenship is their key to.

unlocking the good life In Canadian literature the opposite of this occurs. because the ideal of what Canada is does not meet its reality. This is best. exemplified through the does affect, short story Hunky by Hugh Garner and the poems. Land of Opportunity by F.R. Scott and I Fight Back by Observation Project Essay, Lillian Allen. In the story Hunky the does affect mass, main character Hunky is a German immigrant working. in the tobacco fields for a very arrogant employer.

Hunky wants nothing more. than to become a Canadian citizen because he feels that having his citizenship. is the london annotated, key to obtaining the good life. He placed great stress on the. fact that he hoped to become a Canadian citizen in the fall. His longing for. citizenship was not only gratitude and patriotism towards the country that had. given him asylum, but a craving for status as a recognized human being (Garner 135).

The poem Land of mass, Opportunity by F.R. Scott exemplifies the. disappointment of the Canadian status. Canadian Imperial Bank of. Commerce/These are privileged names in my country/But I AM ILLEGAL HERE. (Scott, 2-4). Boston Massacre Significance? The poem goes on to say I come to affect mass, Canada/And found the Doors/

of Opportunities Well Guarded (7-9). This poem expresses the immigrant. womans disappointments found when she came to Canada. In the poem I Fight. Back by Lillian Allen, the main character expresses the ancient greece, deep anger immigrants. have instilled against Canada. Got involved in a Communist demonstration,/And. is now being deported by the Canadian Government./This will teach these foreign. reds/ The sort of country theyve come to. (Allen, l9-12).

Immigrants are. often left disappointed because their images of Canada do not meet with the. ideal and truth of what the country is affect mass like. Immigrants in Canadian literature. are constantly struggling with denying their past in order to succeed in the.

future. In Joy Kowagas Obason Naomis uncle struggles with his. identity. A families silence about the force of the interment of the The Many Eccentricities Il Essay, Japanese in. Vancouver, compels Naomi to gather information on her dead uncles that has. been responsible for does temperature mass, changing her life.

Naomi s uncle was of Japanese sailor. whose ships had been taken over by Corporate Coup Essay examples, the R.C.M.P. Does? While Naomi searched through her. grandfathers belongings she found a box box filled with her grandfathers old. boat building tools and a shoe box containing a document from the R.C.M.P. The. document stated that Naomis uncle must leave his area and report to the local. Registrar of Enemy Aliens where he will later be placed in an interment camp. Even though, Naomis uncle was a Canadian citizen, the Canadian government. took over his ships because of his Japanese origin.

Naomis uncle was robbed. not only of his ships, but so of matrix explained, his morals and ethics. Does Temperature Affect? By hiding his past in. shoe boxes he wanted nothing to with his Japanese origin. A letter was also. found from the Office of the Custodian from the Japanese Evacuation Section, stating that it was not his fault nor the police, nor the men who rioted against. him that his ships had been taken over and he was placed in an interment camp. The Canadian government was just doing their job (67).

During World War II. injustice was the only thing that was constant in a world full of chaos. Naomis uncle developed an inner conflict in coping with his identity. Hiding. all of possessions that resembled his past, Naomis uncle adopted a false. identity, which he thought was the only key to sucess in the future. Ancient Greece Theatre? Immigrants. try to adopt a new identity because they feel this is the affect mass, only way they can. succeed in The Many of Kim Jong Il Essay, the unaccustomed lands. Although immigrants struggle with maintaining.

their identity, they are often robbed of their heritage by unbeatable forces. War and prejudice force immigrants to adhere to does temperature affect, the ways of their new. surroundings and loose their old traditions. Ansoff Matrix Explained? Joy Kowaga depicts this immigrant. experience through Naomis uncles life experiences. Temperature Affect? Being robed of his.

ships and placed in matrix explained, an interment camp because of his heritage, forced Naomis. uncle to pull away from his past. Naomi follows in the footsteps of her uncle, and tries to pull away from her heritage also. Naomis denial of her past is. exemplified in the quote, Our past is a s clotted as old webs hung in does temperature affect mass, dark.

attics , still sticky and hovering waiting for Corporate Coup d'état Essay examples, us to adhere and submit or. depart ( 54). Naomis past wants to cling to her however she detaches from. herself from does temperature her culture by refusing to carry on the traditions of her Japanese. heritage. Boston Massacre? Naomis opposing views against her Japanese origin were moulded. during her adolescent years during World War II, when Canadians feared that the. Japanese would attack Canada just as they had bomed the United States at Pearl. Harbour. Leaving their past behind, immigrants struggle to survive by any means.

possible. Naturally humans are constant striving to survive. This constant. struggle compels humans to change their culture, in temperature affect, order to boston massacre, contiue and. flourish.

Immigrants in Canadian Literature are also faced with feelings of. isolation from society and the land. Does Affect? The isolation that immigrants experience is. usually isolation from society . Assunta Barrones character in ancient theatre, The Black. Madonna is an example of how immigrants are socially isolated from society. In. the case of Assunta, however, this isolation is self-inflicted.

The fact that. Assunta never really left her small Italian neighbourhood in the west end of. Sault Ste. Marie was the mass, reason why she was socially isolated. Assunta does not. interact with anyone other than the Italian women in Observation of Teaching Styles, her neighbourhood. Assunta had never gone beyond short Sunday car rides to the outskirts of the.

Sault. (Paci 7). Affect? Even though Assunta was an ocean and a half away from her. homeland of Italy, she was still isolated from Essay society. Temperature Mass? It seemed she had. gone from one Italian village in Marche to another one in Northern Ontario-the. west end. (11). Assuntas refusal to learn the English language, also. contributed to her isolation from society. In the poem Alien by Mary. Elizabeth Colman, the main character also feels isolated by ancient greece theatre, Canadas land. I AM afraid.

This land is does affect mass strange to me,/So new, so fierce, so large, with. noisy folk. (Colman lines1-2). The immigrant is isolated by the land because. it is so new for them. London Annotated? The poem goes on to say How can I love this vast. clamorous land(line 10). The main character portryed in the poem Alien feels isolted in temperature, the unfamiliar land.

Being in forgein surroundings, leaves the. immigrant feeling helpless and isolated. Throughout Canadian Literature. isolation has an extreme effect upon the developement of an individuals. character. Immigrants in Canadian literature will at one point be faced with. isolation, but must think positively to overcome these feelings. Canadian.

literature shows immigrant children to boston, be embarrassed and shameful of their. heritage. It seems as though all children of immigrants try their hardest to. rise above and create a better life for themselves than what their parents. before them had. This is evident through the character of Marie in the novel The. Black Madonna.

Marie works diligently at her school work because she feels that. her school smarts will help her rise above her past, and they do when she gets. accepted to does temperature, university. She would show her soon enough that she could do. things alone. Go to ancient, Toronto. Affect Mass? Become a doctor even. There were even endless. possibilities once she got away. She would be so glad to be rid of them all. Shed show them that she didnt need them (Paci 79).

This quote shows the. hostility that Marie holds towards her heritage. Most Canadian works on the. immigrant portray immigrant children as being shameful of explained, their past and longing. to escape the reality of who they really are. Feelings of emptiness and. helplessness seem to be inevitable for the immigrant in Canadian literature. Does Affect Mass? For. the immigrant Canada is a land of reoccuring disappointments. Canadian.

Literature is filled with failure because of immigrants origin. The novel The. Black Madonna is a good example in showing the many negative aspects of an. immigrants life. Observation Project Of Teaching Essay? The main character Assunta portrays the many disappointments.

immigrants are faced with when travelling to new lands. The short story. Opportunity are works which portray the immigrant as a victim. Hunky, The Land of Opportunity and I Fight Back portray characters who are. disappointed with the immigrant experience. The immigrant struggle with identity. is exemplified in the short story Obason by Joy Kowaga. Temperature Affect? Denying his. Japanese origin Naomis uncle hoped to become successful in Canada. Canadian.

works depict immigrant children as being embarrassed or shameful of Project of Teaching Essay, their past. Maries character in The Black Madonna and Naomis character in Obason exemplify the immigrant childrens dishonourable attitude towards their. culture. It is unfortunate that immigrants must experience hardships during.

their time in new lands. Immigrating to a new country should be an does affect, exceptional. opportunity enabling foreigners to become auspicious. Unfortunately, the only. lesson that immigrants embark upon when inhabiting among Canadas vast land. is: Endurance, Survival, No Victory. In the Observation of Teaching Styles, past other Canadians made great. sacrifices so that we today can enjoy the freedom , the quality of life, and the.

ezdard of living that we have. Affect? Hopefully, in time, immigrants will feel more. comfortable with life in new lands and adapt to the constant culture changes in. Allen, Lillian. Significance? I fight Back. Canadian Poets. Canada: Little Brown and. Co., 1970.

Colman, Mary Elizabeth. Alien. Does Temperature? An Anthology of Canadian. Literature in Coup d'état Essay examples, English .Canada: Oxford University Press, 1990. Garner, Hugh. Hunky. Canadian Poets. Canada: Little, Brown and does temperature affect mass Co., 1970. Kowaga, Joy. Obason. An Anthology of boston significance, Canadian Literature in English. Canada: Oxford University Press,

1990. Paci, Frank. The Black Madonna. Canada: Oberon Press, 1982. Does Affect? Scott, F.R. The Land of Opportunity. Canadian Content. Canada: Harcourt Brace Help other users to find the ansoff matrix explained, good and does affect worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Geography: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay.

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