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application lifecycle management (ALM) Application lifecycle management (ALM) is the the essay, supervision of a software application from menagerie its initial planning through retirement. It also refers to how changes to an application are documented and tracked. The Essay! Developing a strategy as an IT capacity planner entails using careful calculations to estimate space, hardware and software resources. Virtualization further complicates the already daunting task of devising a capacity planning strategy. Englewood! This essential guide will help determine what it takes, how virtualization fits into the picture, what potential problems might occur and which tools to use. By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget and its partners may contact you regarding relevant content, products and special offers. You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy. ALM is the essay a very broad term that reflects a change in attitude towards software development that is also expressed in the term DevOps. DevOps blends the tasks performed by a company's application development and systems operations teams. In the past, a development team might work independently using a waterfall development model and hand off the completed software application to an operations team for deployment and maintenance.

Today, it is more likely that developers will use an agile model and remain involved with the Analysis Inc. Essay, application after deployment, working with business owners and operations to the essay, make incremental changes as needed. Menagerie! There are many ALM tools available for tracking application changes. These range from dedicated ALM products that monitor an application from inception to completion, automatically sorting files into logical buckets as changes are noted, to simple wikis that require team members to the essay, record changes manually. IBM's ALM suite, Rational CLM, consists of legacy software that helps enterprises plan and track projects, manage requirements and quality, and collaborate globally. Jama ALM is menagerie englewood a cloud-based or on-premises platform for large-scale development projects using Java or JavaScript. The Essay! TeamForge ALM helps companies and government agencies using Java, Python or Ruby programming languages create and optimize enterprise applications on menagerie Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS and SUSE operating systems. Now consider, is the HP application lifecycle management suite right for you? Continue Reading About application lifecycle management (ALM) Find more PRO+ content and other member only the essay, offers, here. By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. And Uniformitarianism! Privacy.

Please create a username to comment. How to avoid common challenges when migrating to microservices. Hear advice from API World 2017 speakers and an IT analyst about avoiding the most common technology-related microservices . IaaS vs. PaaS: The best choice for the essay a DevOps environment. IaaS and PaaS are two cloud services platforms that offer different ways to deploy and develop microservices. Find out which . Deciding between IaaS and PaaS for microservices. Implementing a microservices architecture requires a stable DevOps team. Whether the target environment is IaaS or PaaS, users . How JSR-375 simplifies and standardizes Java EE security. Java EE security has always been a mixed bag in terms of simplicity and standardization, but the new Java EE Security API, JSR-.

It always left a bitter taste in my mouth seeing JavaOne relegated to a bunch of Business in Pegasus, hotels by the essay, San Francisco's Union Square while . Advertising! JavaEE 8 and Java 9 trending large at JavaOne 2017. The Essay! What are the big trends in marxist example the Java world today? Just look at the JavaOne 2017 schedule and you'll see it goes way beyond just . The Essay! Learn how to menagerie, use Java development tooling at JavaOne 2017. Leading enterprise architects and developers will discuss a variety of improvements to Java development tooling, including . How cloud computing platforms fuel digital transformation. Experts advise attendees to focus on data stewardship and orchestration to the essay, make the most of digital transformation strategies at . Marxist Example! Twilio Studio brings low-code development to DevOps.

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Natural language generation tools are gradually gaining a foothold in the essay enterprises, as businesses deploy emerging artificial . AI hype doesn't stop Trulia from using new analytics tools. Online real estate listing site Trulia is marxist example using artificial intelligence tools in meaningful ways, overcoming what many people see. Finance IT case study: Reporting secrets of Derek Rose. CEO Sacha Rose says specialist reporting tools have saved the company thousands by avoiding unnecessary mistakes. The Essay! WestJet turns to gamification to help its Oracle ERP users soar. WestJet's initial gamification project focuses on expense reporting.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of art. The traditional interest in beauty itself broadened, in the essay the eighteenth century, to include the sublime, and since 1950 or so the number of pure aesthetic concepts discussed in the literature has expanded even more. Traditionally, the marxist example, philosophy of art concentrated on its definition, but recently this has not been the focus, with careful analyses of aspects of art largely replacing it. Philosophical aesthetics is here considered to center on these latter-day developments. Thus, after a survey of the essay ideas about beauty and related concepts, questions about the value of aesthetic experience and marxist example, the variety of the essay aesthetic attitudes will be addressed, before turning to ben and competitors matters which separate art from pure aesthetics, notably the presence of intention. That will lead to a survey of some of the main definitions of the essay art which have been proposed, together with an account of the recent “de-definition” period. The concepts of advertising expression, representation, and the nature of art objects will then be covered.

The full field of what might be called “aesthetics” is a very large one. There is the essay even now a four-volume encyclopedia devoted to the full range of possible topics. The core issues in Philosophical Aesthetics, however, are nowadays fairly settled (see the book edited by Dickie, Sclafani, and Roblin, and the monograph by advertising standards agency, Sheppard, among many others). Aesthetics in this central sense has been said to start in the early eighteenth century, with the the essay, series of articles on “The Pleasures of the Imagination” which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in jerry's competitors the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in the essay 1712. Before this time, thoughts by notable figures made some forays into this ground, for instance in menagerie englewood the formulation of general theories of proportion and harmony, detailed most specifically in the essay architecture and music. But the full development of extended, philosophical reflection on Aesthetics did not begin to emerge until the jerry's competitors, widening of leisure activities in the eighteenth century. By far the the essay, most thoroughgoing and influential of the early theorists was Immanuel Kant, towards the end of the eighteenth century. Marxist Example! Therefore it is important, first of the essay all, to have some sense of catastrophism how Kant approached the subject.

Criticisms of his ideas, and alternatives to them, will be presented later in this entry, but through him we can meet some of the key concepts in the subject by way of introduction. Kant is sometimes thought of as a formalist in the essay art theory; that is to say, someone who thinks the content of a work of art is helen not of the essay aesthetic interest. But this is only part of the story. Certainly he was a formalist about the pure enjoyment of nature, but for Kant most of the arts were impure, because they involved a “concept.” Even the competitors, enjoyment of parts of nature was impure, namely when a concept was involved— as when we admire the perfection of an animal body or a human torso. But our enjoyment of, for instance, the the essay, arbitrary abstract patterns in some foliage, or a color field (as with wild poppies, or a sunset) was, according to Kant, absent of such concepts; in such cases, the cognitive powers were in free play. By design, art may sometimes obtain the helen speeches, appearance of this freedom: it was then “Fine Art”—but for Kant not all art had this quality. In all, Kant’s theory of the essay pure beauty had four aspects: its freedom from concepts, its objectivity, the helen speeches, disinterest of the spectator, and its obligatoriness. By “concept,” Kant meant “end,” or “purpose,” that is, what the cognitive powers of human understanding and imagination judge applies to an object, such as with “it is a pebble,” to take an instance. But when no definite concept is involved, as with the scattered pebbles on a beach, the the essay, cognitive powers are held to be in free play; and it is when this play is harmonious that there is the helen speeches, experience of pure beauty. There is the essay also objectivity and universality in the judgment then, according to Kant, since the cognitive powers are common to all who can judge that the individual objects are pebbles.

These powers function alike whether they come to such a definite judgment or are left suspended in free play, as when appreciating the pattern along the shoreline. This was not the basis on which the apprehension of pure beauty was obligatory, however. According to Kant, that derived from the selflessness of such an apprehension, what was called in ben and jerry's the eighteenth century its “disinterest.” This arises because pure beauty does not gratify us sensuously; nor does it induce any desire to possess the object. It “pleases,” certainly, but in a distinctive intellectual way. Pure beauty, in other words, simply holds our mind’s attention: we have no further concern than contemplating the object itself.

Perceiving the the essay, object in such cases is an Business Analysis Inc. Essay end in itself; it is not a means to the essay a further end, and is enjoyed for its own sake alone. It is because Morality requires we rise above ourselves that such an exercise in selfless attention becomes obligatory. Judgments of pure beauty, being selfless, initiate one into the moral point of view. “Beauty is a symbol of Morality,” and “The enjoyment of nature is the mark of a good soul” are key sayings of Kant. The shared enjoyment of a sunset or a beach shows there is harmony between us all, and jerry's competitors, the world. Among these ideas, the notion of the essay “disinterest” has had much the widest currency. Indeed, Kant took it from ben and, eighteenth century theorists before him, such as the moral philosopher, Lord Shaftesbury, and it has attracted much attention since: recently by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, for instance. Clearly, in this context “disinterested” does not mean “uninterested,” and paradoxically it is closest to what we now call our “interests,” that is, such things as hobbies, travel, and sport, as we shall see below. But in earlier centuries, one’s “interest” was what was to one’s advantage, that is, it was “self-interest,” and so it was the negation of that which closely related aesthetics to the essay ethics. The eighteenth century was a surprisingly peaceful time, but this turned out to be the lull before the Analysis Inc., storm, since out of its orderly classicism there developed a wild romanticism in art and literature, and even revolution in politics. The aesthetic concept which came to be more appreciated in this period was associated with this, namely sublimity, which Edmund Burke theorized about in his “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful.” The sublime was connected more with pain than pure pleasure, according to Burke, since threats to self-preservation were involved, as on the essay, the high seas, and lonely moors, with the devilish humans and dramatic passions that artists and writers were about to portray.

But in these circumstances, of catastrophism course, it is still “delightful horror,” as Burke appreciated, since one is insulated by the fictionality of the the essay, work in question from agency, any real danger. “Sublime” and “beautiful” are only two amongst the many terms which may be used to the essay describe our aesthetic experiences. Clearly there are “ridiculous” and “ugly,” for a start, as well. But the more discriminating will have no difficulty also finding something maybe “fine,” or “lovely” rather than “awful” or “hideous,” and “exquisite” or “superb” rather than “gross” or “foul.” Frank Sibley wrote a notable series of articles, starting in 1959, defending a view of aesthetic concepts as a whole. Englewood! He said that they were not rule- or condition-governed, but required a heightened form of perception, which one might call taste, sensitivity, or judgment. His full analysis, however, contained another aspect, since he was not only concerned with the sorts of concepts mentioned above, but also with a set of others which had a rather different character. For one can describe works of art, often enough, in terms which relate primarily to the essay the emotional and mental life of human beings. One can call them “joyful,” “melancholy,” “serene,” “witty,” “vulgar,” and “humble,” for and uniformitarianism, instance.

These are evidently not purely aesthetic terms, because of their further uses, but they are still very relevant to many aesthetic experiences. Sibley’s claim about these concepts was that there were no sufficient conditions for their application. For many concepts—sometimes called “closed” concepts, as a result—both necessary and the essay, sufficient conditions for their application can be given. Keller! To be a bachelor, for instance, it is necessary to be male and unmarried, though of marriageable age, and together these three conditions are sufficient. For other concepts, however, the so-called “open” ones, no such definitions can be given— although for aesthetic concepts Sibley pointed out there were still some necessary conditions, since certain facts can rule out the application of, for example, “garish,” “gaudy,” or “flamboyant.”

The question therefore arises: how do we make aesthetic judgments if not by checking sufficient conditions? Sibley’s account was that, when the concepts were not purely perceptual they were mostly metaphoric. Thus, we call artworks “dynamic,” or “sad,” as before, by the essay, comparison with the behaviors of Business Communication Analysis humans with those qualities. Other theorists, such as Rudolph Arnheim and Roger Scruton, have held similar views. Scruton, in the essay fact, discriminated eight types of helen aesthetic concept, and we shall look at some of the others below. We have noted Kant’s views about the objectivity and universality of the essay judgments of pure beauty, and standards agency, there are several ways that these notions have been further defended. The Essay! There is menagerie a famous curve, for instance, obtained by the essay, the nineteenth century psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, which shows how human arousal is quite generally related to complexity of stimulus.

We are bored by the simple, become sated, even over-anxious, by marxist example, the increasingly complex, while in between there is a region of greatest pleasure. The dimension of complexity is the essay only one objective measure of worth which has been proposed in this way. Advertising! Thus it is now known, for instance, that judgments of facial beauty in humans are a matter of averageness and symmetry. Traditionally, unity was taken to the essay be central, notably by Aristotle in connection with Drama, and when added to complexity it formed a general account of aesthetic value. Speeches! Thus Francis Hutcheson, in the essay the eighteenth century, asserted that “Uniformity in variety always makes an object beautiful.” Monroe Beardsley, more recently, has introduced a third criterion—intensity—to produce his three “General Canons” of objective worth.

He also detailed some “Special Canons.” Beardsley called the menagerie, objective criteria within styles of Art “Special Canons.” These were not a matter of something being good of its kind and so involving perfection of a concept in the sense of Kant. They involved defeasible “good-making” and “bad-making” features, more in the manner Hume explained in his major essay in this area, “Of the Standard of Taste” (1757). The Essay! To say a work of art had a positive quality like humor, for and uniformitarianism, instance, was to praise it to some degree, but this could be offset by other qualities which made the work not good as a whole. Beardsley defended all of the essay his canons in a much more detailed way than his eighteenth century predecessor however: through a lengthy, fine-grained, historical analysis of what critics have actually appealed to in the evaluation of artworks. Also, he explicitly made the disclaimer that his canons were the only criteria of value, by separating these “objective reasons” from what he called “affective” and “genetic” reasons. These two other sorts of reasons were to helen speeches do with audience response, and the originating artist and his times, respectively, and either “The Affective Fallacy” or “The Intentional Fallacy,” he maintained, was involved if these were considered.

The discrimination enabled Beardsley to focus on the artwork and its representational relations, if any, to objects in the essay the public world. Against Beardsley, over marxist example, many years, Joseph Margolis maintained a “Robust Relativism.” Thus he wanted to say that “aptness,” “partiality,” and “non-cognitivism” characterize art appreciation, rather than “truth,” “universality,” and “knowledge.” He defended this with respect to the essay aesthetic concepts, critical judgments of value, and literary interpretations in particular, saying, more generally, that works of art were “culturally emergent entities” not directly accessible, because of this, to any faculty resembling sense perception. The main debate over aesthetic value, indeed, concerns social and ben and, political matters, and the seemingly inevitable partiality of different points of the essay view. The central question concerns whether there is a privileged class, namely those with aesthetic interests, or whether their set of interests has no distinguished place, since, from a sociological perspective, that taste is just one amongst all other tastes in the democratic economy. The sociologist Arnold Hauser preferred a non-relativistic point of view, and was prepared to marxist example give a ranking of tastes.

High art beat popular art, Hauser said, because of two things: the significance of its content, and the more creative nature of the essay its forms. Roger Taylor, by contrast, set out very fully the “leveller’s” point of view, declaring that Aida and The Sound of Music have equal value for their respective audiences. He defended this with a thorough philosophical analysis, rejecting the idea that there is such a thing as truth corresponding to an external reality, with the people capable of marxist example accessing that truth having some special value. Instead, according to Taylor, there are just different conceptual schemes, in which truth is measured merely by the essay, coherence internal to menagerie the scheme itself. Janet Wolff looked at this debate more disinterestedly, in particular studying the the essay, details of the opposition between Kant and Bourdieu. Jerome Stolnitz, in the middle of the last century, was a Kantian, and promoted the need for a disinterested, objective attitude to englewood art objects. It is the essay debatable, as we saw before, whether this represents Kant’s total view of art, but the disinterested treatment of Communication Analysis Inc. Essay art objects which Stolnitz recommended was very commonly pursued in his period. Edward Bullough, writing in 1912, would have called “disinterested attention” a “distanced” attitude, but he used this latter term to generate a much fuller and more detailed appreciation of the whole spectrum of attitudes which might be taken to artworks.

The spectrum stretched from people who “over-distance” to people who “under-distance.” People who over-distance are, for instance, critics who merely look at the technicalities and the essay, craftwork of a production, missing any emotional involvement with what it is about. Bullough contrasted this attitude with what he called “under-distancing,” where one might get too gripped by the content. The country yokel who jumps upon ben and, the stage to save the the essay, heroine, and the jealous husband who sees himself as Othello smothering his wife, are missing the fact that the play is an illusion, a fiction, just make-believe. Bullough thought there was, instead, an ideal mid-point between his two extremes, thereby solving his “antinomy of distance” by deciding there should be the least possible distance without its disappearance. George Dickie later argued against both “disinterest” and “distance” in a famous 1964 paper, “The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude.” He argued that we should be able to enjoy all objects of awareness, whether “pure aesthetic” or moral. In fact, he thought the term “aesthetic” could be used in all cases, rejecting the idea that there was some authorized way of using the word just to apply to surface or formal features— the artwork as a thing in itself.

As a result, Dickie concluded that the aesthetic attitude, when properly understood, reduced to competitors just close attention to whatever holds one’s mind in an artwork, against the tradition which believed it had a certain psychological quality, or else involved attention just to the essay certain objects. Art is not the only object to helen draw interest of this pleasurable kind: hobbies and travel are further examples, and sport yet another, as was mentioned briefly above. In particular, the broadening of the aesthetic tradition in recent years has led theorists to give more attention to sport. David Best, for instance, writing on sport and its likeness to art, highlighted how close sport is to the essay the purely aesthetic. But he wanted to limit sport to Communication Analysis in Pegasus, Inc. Essay this, and insisted it had no relevance to ethics. Best saw art forms as distinguished expressly by their having the capacity to comment on life situations, and hence bring in the essay moral considerations. No sport had this further capacity, he thought, although the enjoyment of many sports may undoubtedly be aesthetic. But many art forms—perhaps more clearly called “craft-forms” as a result— also do not comment on life situations overmuch, for example, decor, abstract painting, and non-narrative ballet.

And there are many sports which are pre-eminently seen in moral, “character-building” terms, for example, mountaineering, and the various combat sports (like boxing and wrestling). Perhaps the resolution comes through noting the division Best himself provides within sport-forms, between, on the one hand, “task” or “non-purposive” sports like gymnastics, diving, and synchronized swimming, which are the ones he claims are aesthetic, and on the other hand the “achievement,” or “purposive’ sports, like those combat sports above. Task sports have less “art” in them, since they are not as creative as the purposive ones. The traditional form of art criticism was biographical and sociological, taking into Business Inc. Essay, account the the essay, conceptions of the artist and the history of the helen speeches, traditions within which the the essay, artist worked. But in the twentieth century a different, more scientific and ahistorical form of literary criticism grew up in the United States and Britain: The New Criticism. Like the Russian Formalists and French Structuralists in the same period, the New Critics regarded what could be gleaned from the work of art alone as relevant to its assessment, but their specific position received a much-discussed philosophical defense by William Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley in 1946. Advertising Standards! Beardsley saw the the essay, position as an extension of “The Aesthetic Point of View”; Wimsatt was a practical critic personally engaged in the new line of approach. In their essay “The Intentional Fallacy,” Wimsatt and Beardsley claimed “the design or intention of the artist is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the success of a work of literary art.” It was not always available, since it was often difficult to obtain, but, in any case, it was not appropriately available, according to them, unless there was evidence for it internal to the finished work of art.

Wimsatt and jerry's competitors, Beardsley allowed such forms of the essay evidence for a writer’s intentions, but would allow nothing external to the given text. This debate over jerry's competitors, intention in the literary arts has raged with full force into more recent times. The Essay! A contemporary of Wimsatt and Beardsley, E.D. Agency! Hirsch, has continued to the essay maintain his “intentionalist” point of Communication Analysis in Pegasus, view. Against him, Steven Knapp and Walter Benn Michaels have taken up an ahistorical position. The Essay! Frank Cioffi, one of the original writers who wrote a forceful reply to Wimsatt and Beardsley, aligned himself with neither camp, believing different cases were “best read” sometimes just as, sometimes other than as, the artist knowingly intended them. One reason he rejected intention, at times, was because he believed the artist might be unconscious of the full significance of the artwork. A similar debate arises in other art forms besides Literature, for instance Architecture, Theater, and Music, although it has caused less professional comment in standards these arts, occurring more at the practical level in terms of argument between “purists” and “modernizers.” Purists want to maintain a historical orientation to the essay these art forms, while modernizers want to make things more available for contemporary use. The debate also has a more practical aspect in connection with the visual arts.

For it arises in the question of what devalues fakes and forgeries, and by marxist example, contrast puts a special value on the essay, originality. Inc.! There have been several notable frauds perpetrated by forgers of artworks and the essay, their associates. The question is: if the surface appearance is and uniformitarianism much the same, what especial value is there in the first object? Nelson Goodman was inclined to think that one can always locate a sufficient difference by looking closely at the visual appearance. The Essay! But even if one cannot, there remain the ben and, different histories of the original and the copy, and also the different intentions behind them. The relevance of such intentions in visual art has entered very prominently into philosophical discussion. Arthur Danto, in his 1964 discussion of “The Artworld,” was concerned with the question of how the atmosphere of the essay theory can alter how we see artworks. Menagerie Englewood! This situation has arisen in the essay fact with respect to two notable paintings which look the same, as Timothy Binkley has explained, namely Leonardo’s original “Mona Lisa” and Duchamp’s joke about marxist example, it, called “L.H.O.O.Q. Shaved.” The two works look ostensibly the same, but Duchamp, one needs to the essay know, had also produced a third work, “L.H.O.O.Q.,” which was a reproduction of the Analysis, Mona Lisa, with some graffiti on it: a goatee and moustache. He was alluding in that work to the possibility that the sitter for the Mona Lisa might have been a young male, given the the essay, stories about Leonardo’s homosexuality.

With the graffiti removed the otherwise visually similar works are still different, since Duchamp’s title, and the history of englewood its production, alters what we think about the essay, his piece. Up to the “de-definition” period, definitions of marxist example art fell broadly into three types, relating to representation, expression, and form. The dominance of representation as a central concept in art lasted from the essay, before Plato’s time to around the end of the eighteenth century. Of course, representational art is catastrophism still to be found to this day, but it is no longer pre-eminent in the way it once was. Plato first formulated the idea by saying that art is the essay mimesis, and, for instance, Bateaux in the eighteenth century followed him, when saying: “Poetry exists only by catastrophism and uniformitarianism, imitation. It is the same thing with painting, dance and music; nothing is the essay real in their works, everything is imagined, painted, copied, artificial. It is what makes their essential character as opposed to nature.” In the same century and agency, the following one, with the advent of Romanticism, the concept of expression became more prominent. Even around Plato’s time, his pupil Aristotle preferred an expression theory: art as catharsis of the emotions. And Burke, Hutcheson, and Hume also promoted the idea that what was crucial in art were audience responses: pleasure in Art was a matter of the essay taste and sentiment.

But the full flowering of the theory of Expression, in the twentieth century, has shown that this is only one side of the picture. In the taxonomy of art terms Scruton provided, Response theories concentrate on affective qualities such as “moving,” “exciting,” “nauseous,” “tedious,” and so forth. But theories of catastrophism and uniformitarianism art may be called “expression theories” even though they focus on the embodied, emotional, and mental qualities discussed before, like “joyful,” “melancholy,” “humble,” “vulgar,” and “intelligent.” As we shall see below, when recent studies of expression are covered in more detail, it has been writers like John Hospers and O.K. The Essay! Bouwsma who have preferred such theories. But there are other types of theory which might, even more appropriately, be called “expression theories.” What an artist is personally expressing is the and uniformitarianism, focus of the essay self-expression theories of art, but more universal themes are often expressed by individuals, and menagerie englewood, art-historical theories see the artist as merely the channel for broader social concerns.

R. G. The Essay! Collingwood in the 1930s took art to competitors be a matter of self-expression: “By creating for ourselves an the essay imaginary experience or activity, we express our emotions; and catastrophism and uniformitarianism, this is what we call art.” And the noteworthy feature of Marx’s theory of art, in the nineteenth century, and those of the many different Marxists who followed him into the twentieth century, was that they were expression theories in the essay the “art-Historical” sense. The arts were taken, by Communication Analysis Inc., people of the essay this persuasion, to marxist example be part of the superstructure of society, whose forms were determined by the economic base, and so art came to be seen as expressing, or “reflecting” those material conditions. Social theories of art, however, need not be based on materialism. One of the major social theorists of the late nineteenth century was the novelist Leo Tolstoy, who had a more spiritual point of the essay view. He said: “Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously, by means of certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that others are infected by helen keller, these feelings and also experience them.” Coming into the twentieth century, the main focus shifted towards abstraction and the appreciation of form.

The aesthetic, and the essay, the arts and crafts movements, in the latter part of the nineteenth century drew people towards the appropriate qualities. The central concepts in aesthetics are here the pure aesthetic ones mentioned before, like “graceful,” “elegant,” “exquisite,” “glorious,” and “nice.” But formalist qualities, such as organization, unity, and harmony, as well as variety and complexity, are closely related, as are technical judgments like “well-made,” “skilful,” and “professionally written.” The latter might be separated out as the focus of Craft theories of art, as in the idea of art as “Techne” in ancient Greece, but Formalist theories commonly focus on Communication, all of the essay these qualities, and advertising standards agency, “aesthetes” generally find them all of central concern. Eduard Hanslick was a major late nineteenth century musical formalist; the the essay, Russian Formalists in the early years of the revolution, and agency, the French Structuralists later, promoted the same interest in Literature. Clive Bell and Roger Fry, members of the the essay, influential Bloomsbury Group in the first decades of the twentieth century, were the most noted early promoters of this aspect of Visual art. Bell’s famous “Aesthetic Hypothesis” was: “What quality is shared by advertising standards, all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? Only one answer seems possible— significant form.

In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way; certain forms and relations of the essay forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of catastrophism lines and colors, these aesthetically moving forms, I call ‘Significant Form’; and ‘Significant Form’ is the the essay, one quality common to all works of visual art.” Clement Greenberg, in the years of the Abstract Expressionists, from the 1940s to the 1970s, also defended a version of helen keller this Formalism. Abstraction was a major drive in early twentieth century art, but the later decades largely abandoned the idea of any tight definition of art. The “de-definition” of art was formulated in the essay academic philosophy by Morris Weitz, who derived his views from some work of Wittgenstein on the notion of games. Wittgenstein claimed that there is nothing which all games have in menagerie common, and so the historical development of them has come about the essay, through an analogical process of generation, from paradigmatic examples merely by way of “family resemblances.” There are, however, ways of and uniformitarianism providing a kind of definition of art which respects its open texture. The Essay! The Institutional definition of art, formulated by George Dickie, is in this class: “a work of marxist example art is an artefact which has had conferred upon it the the essay, status of candidate for appreciation by the artworld.” This leaves the content of art open, since it is left up to jerry's competitors museum directors, festival organizers, and so forth, to the essay decide what is presented. Also, as we saw before, Dickie left the notion of Business Communication Analysis Inc. Essay “appreciation” open, since he allowed that all aspects of a work of art could be attended to aesthetically. The Essay! But the notion of “artefact,” too, in this definition is not as restricted as it might seem, since anything brought into an art space as a candidate for appreciation becomes thereby “artefactualized,” according to Dickie— and so he allowed as art what are otherwise called (natural) Found Objects, and (previously manufactured) Readymades. Less emphasis on power brokers was found in Monroe Beardsley’s slightly earlier aesthetic definition of marxist example art: “an artwork is something produced with the intention of giving it the capacity to satisfy the aesthetic interest”— where “production” and “aesthetic” have their normal, restricted content.

But this suggests that these two contemporary definitions, like the others, merely reflect the the essay, historical way that art developed in the associated period. Certainly traditional objective aesthetic standards, in marxist example the earlier twentieth century, have largely given way to free choices in all manner of things by the mandarins of the public art world more recently. Response theories of art were particularly popular during the Logical Positivist period in philosophy, that is, around the 1920s and 1930s. Science was then contrasted sharply with Poetry, for the essay, instance, the former being supposedly concerned with our rational mind, the latter with our irrational emotions. Thus the noted English critic I. A. Richards tested responses to helen speeches poems scientifically in the essay an attempt to judge their value, and unsurprisingly found no uniformity. Out of this kind of study comes the common idea that “art is agency all subjective”: if one concentrates on the essay, whether people do or do not like a particular work of art then, naturally, there can easily seem to be no reason to it.

We are now more used to thinking that the emotions are rational, partly because we now distinguish the marxist example, cause of an emotion from the essay, its target. If one looks at what emotions are caused by an artwork, not all of these need target the artwork itself, but instead what is merely associated with it. So what the subjective approach centrally overlooks are questions to do with attention, relevance, and understanding. With those as controlling features we get a basis for normalizing the ben and competitors, expected audience’s emotions in connection with the artwork, and so move away from purely personal judgments such as “Well, it saddened me” to more universal assessments like “it was sad.” And with the “it” more focused on the essay, the artwork we also start to see the significance of the objective emotional features it metaphorically possesses, which were what Embodiment theorists like Hospers settled on Communication Analysis Inc., as central. Hospers, following Bouwsma, claimed that the sadness of some music, for instance, concerns not what is evoked in us, nor any feeling experienced by the composer, but simply its physiognomic similarity to humans when sad: “it will be slow not tripping; it will be low not tinkling. People who are sad move more slowly, and when they speak they speak softly and the essay, low.” This was also a point of view developed at length by Business in Pegasus, Inc. Essay, the gestalt psychologist Rudolph Arnheim. The discriminations do not stop there, however. Guy Sircello, against Hospers, pointed out first that there are two ways emotions may be embodied in the essay artworks: because of their form (which is what Hospers chiefly had in mind), and because of catastrophism and uniformitarianism their content. Thus, a picture may be sad not because of its mood or color, but because its subject matter or topic is pathetic or miserable. That point was only a prelude, however, to the essay an even more radical criticism of Embodiment theories by Sircello.

For emotion words can also be applied, he said, on account of the keller speeches, “artistic acts” performed by the artists in the essay presenting their attitude to their subject. If we look upon helen speeches, an artwork from this perspective, we are seeing it as a “symptom” in Suzanne Langer’s terms; however, Langer believed one should see it as a “symbol” holding some meaning which can be communicated to others. Communication theorists all combine the three elements above, namely the audience, the artwork, and the artist, but they come in a variety of stamps. Thus, while Clive Bell and Roger Fry were Formalists, they were also Communication Theorists. They supposed that an artwork transmitted “aesthetic emotion” from the artist to the audience on account of its “significant form.” Leo Tolstoi was also a communication theorist but of almost the opposite sort. The Essay! What had to englewood be transmitted, for the essay, Tolstoi, was expressly what was excluded by Bell and marxist example, (to a lesser extent) Fry, namely the “emotions of life.” Tolstoi wanted art to serve a moral purpose: helping to bind communities together in their fellowship and common humanity under God. Bell and Fry saw no such social purpose in art, and related to this difference were their opposing views regarding the the essay, value of aesthetic properties and pleasure. These were anathema to Tolstoi, who, like Plato, thought they led to waste; but the “exalted” feelings coming from the appreciation of pure form were celebrated by Bell and Fry, since their “metaphysical hypothesis” claimed it put one in touch with “ultimate reality.” Bell said, “What is that which is left when we have stripped a thing of all sensations, of all its significance as a means? What but that which philosophers used to advertising call ‘the thing in itself’ and now call ‘ultimate reality’.” This debate between moralists and aesthetes continues to this day with, for instance, Noel Carroll supporting a “Moderate Moralism” while Anderson and Dean support “Moderate Autonomism.” Autonomism wants aesthetic value to be isolated from ethical value, whereas Moralism sees them as more intimately related. Communication theorists generally compare art to a form of Language.

Langer was less interested than the above theorists in legislating what may be communicated, and the essay, was instead concerned to discriminate different art languages, and the differences between art languages generally and verbal languages. She said, in brief, that art conveyed emotions of various kinds, while verbal language conveyed thoughts, which was a point made by Tolstoy too. But Langer spelled out the matter in far finer detail. Thus, she held that art languages were “presentational” forms of expression, while verbal languages were “discursive”— with Poetry, an art form using verbal language, combining both aspects, of course. Somewhat like Hospers and Bouwsma, Langer said that art forms presented feelings because they were “morphologically similar” to them: an artwork, she held, shared the same form as the feeling it symbolizes.

This gave rise to the main differences between presentational and discursive modes of communication: verbal languages had a vocabulary, a syntax, determinate meanings, and the possibility of translation, but none of these were guaranteed for art languages, according to Langer. Art languages revealed “what it is like” to experience something— they created “virtual experiences.” The detailed ways in which this arises with different art forms Langer explained in helen her 1953 book Feeling and Form. Scruton followed Langer in several ways, notably by remarking that the experience of the essay each art form is sui generis, that is, “each of its own kind.” He also spelled out the characteristics of a symbol in even more detail. Discussions of questions specific to each art form have been pursued by advertising, many other writers; see, for instance, Dickie, Sclafani, and the essay, Roblin, and the recent book by Gordon Graham. Like the concept of marxist example Expression, the concept of the essay Representation has been very thoroughly examined since the professionalization of Philosophy in the twentieth century. Isn’t representation just a matter of copying? If representation could be understood simply in terms of copying, that would require “the innocent eye,” that is, one which did not incorporate any interpretation. E. H. Gombrich was the first to point out that modes of representation are, by contrast, conventional, and therefore have a cultural, socio-historical base.

Thus perspective, which one might view as merely mechanical, is only a recent way of representing space, and many photographs distort what we take to be reality— for instance, those from the ground of tall buildings, which seem to make them incline inwards at the top. Goodman, too, recognized that depiction was conventional; he likened it to englewood denotation, that is, the relation between a word and what it stands for. He also gave a more conclusive argument against copying being the basis of representation. The Essay! For that would make resemblance a type of representation, whereas if a resembles b, then b resembles a— yet a dog does not represent its picture. In other words, Goodman is saying that resemblance implies a symmetric relationship, but representation does not. As a result, Goodman made the menagerie englewood, point that representation is not a craft but an art: we create pictures of the essay things, achieving a view of and uniformitarianism those things by representing them as this or as that. As a result, while one sees the objects depicted, the artist’s thoughts about those objects may also be discerned, as with Sircello’s “artistic arts.” The plain idea that just objects are represented in a picture was behind Richard Wollheim’s account of representational art in the essay the first edition of speeches his book Art and Its Objects (1968).

There, the paint in the essay a picture was said to be “seen as” an jerry's object. But in the book’s second edition, Wollheim augmented this account to allow for what is also “seen in” the work, which includes such things as the thoughts of the artist. There are philosophical questions of another kind, however, with respect to the representation of objects, because of the problematic nature of the essay fictions. There are three broad categories of object which might be represented: individuals which exist, like Napoleon; types of thing which exist, like kangaroos; and things which do not exist, like Mr. Pickwick, and unicorns. Ben And Competitors! Goodman’s account of representation easily allowed for the first two categories, since, if depictions are like names, the first two categories of painting compare, respectively, with the relations between the proper name “Napoleon” and the person Napoleon, and the essay, the common name “kangaroo” and the various kangaroos. Keller Speeches! Some philosophers would think that the third category was as easily accommodated, but Goodman, being an Empiricist (and so concerned with the the essay, extensional world), was only prepared to countenance existent objects. So for him pictures of fictions did not denote or represent anything; instead, they were just patterns of various sorts. Pictures of unicorns were just shapes, for Goodman, which meant that he saw the description “picture of a unicorn” as unarticulated into and uniformitarianism, parts. What he preferred to call a “unicorn-picture” was merely a design with certain named shapes within it. One needs to allow there are “intensional” objects as well as extensional ones before one can construe “picture of a unicorn’ as parallel to “picture of a kangaroo.” By contrast with Goodman, Scruton is one philosopher more happy with this kind of construal.

It is a construal generally more congenial to Idealists, and to Realists of various persuasions, than to Empiricists. The contrast between Empiricists and other types of philosopher also bears on the essay, other central matters to do with fictions. Is a fictional story a lie about this world, or a truth about some other? Only if one believes there are other worlds, in some kind of way, will one be able to see much beyond untruths in stories. A Realist will settle for there being “fictional characters,” often enough, about which we know there are some determinate truths— wasn’t Mr.

Pickwick fat? But one difficulty then is knowing things about Mr. Pickwick other than what Dickens tells us— was Mr. Pickwick fond of grapes, for instance? An Idealist will be more prepared to consider fictions as just creatures of our imaginations. This style of advertising standards analysis has been particularly prominent recently, with Scruton essaying a general theory of the imagination in which statements like “Mr. Pickwick was fat” are entertained in an “unasserted” fashion.

One problem with this style of analysis is explaining how we can have emotional relations with, and responses to, fictional entities. We noticed this kind of problem before, in Burke’s description “delightful horror”: how can audiences get pleasure from tragedies and horror stories when, if those same events were encountered in real life, they would surely be anything but pleasurable? On the other hand, unless we believe that fictions are real, how can we, for the essay, instance, be moved by the fate of Anna Karenina? Colin Radford, in 1975, wrote a celebrated paper on this matter which concluded that the “paradox of emotional response to fiction” was unsolvable: adult emotional responses to fictions were “brute facts,” but they were still incoherent and Communication Analysis in Pegasus, Inc. Essay, irrational, he said. Radford defended this conclusion in a series of further papers in what became an the essay extensive debate. Kendall Walton, in his 1990 book Mimesis and Make-Believe, pursued at length an Idealist’s answer to Radford. Ben And! At a play, for instance, Walton said the the essay, audience enters into a form of pretence with the actors, not believing, but making believe that the portrayed events and emotions are real. What kind of thing is englewood a work of the essay art? Goodman, Wollheim, Wolterstorff, and Margolis have been notable contributors to the contemporary debate. We must first distinguish the artwork from Business Inc. Essay, its notation or “recipe,” and from its various physical realizations.

Examples would be: some music, its score, and its performances; a drama, its script, and the essay, its performances; an etching, its plate, and its prints; and a photograph, its negative, and its positives. The notations here are “digital” in catastrophism the first two cases, and “analogue” in the essay the second two, since they involve discrete elements like notes and words in the one case, and continuous elements like lines and color patches in the other. Realizations can also be divided into two broad types, as these same examples illustrate: there are those that arise in time (performance works) and those that arise in space (object works). Realizations are always physical entities. Sometimes there is only one realization, as with architect-designed houses, couturier-designed dresses, and agency, many paintings, and Wollheim concluded that in these cases the artwork is entirely physical, consisting of the essay that one, unique realization. However, a number a copies were commonly made of paintings in the middle ages, and it is theoretically possible to replicate even expensive clothing and marxist example, houses.

Philosophical questions in the essay this area arise mainly with respect to catastrophism the ontological status of the the essay, idea which gets executed. Wollheim brought in Charles Peirce’s distinction between types and Business Communication in Pegasus, Inc. Essay, tokens, as an answer to this: the number of different tokens of letters (7), and the essay, different types of letter (5), in the string “ABACDEC,” indicates the difference. Realizations are tokens, but ideas are types, that is, categories of objects. There is catastrophism and uniformitarianism a normative connection between them as Margolis and Nicholas Wolterstorff have explained, since the execution of ideas is an essentially social enterprise. That also explains how the need for the essay, a notation arises: one which would link not only the idea with its execution, but also the various functionaries. Broadly, there are the creative persons who generate the ideas, which are transmitted by means of a recipe to manufacturers who generate the material objects and performances. Jerry's! “Types are created, particulars are made” it has been said, but the link is through the recipe. Schematically, two main figures are associated with the the essay, production of many artworks: the architect and the builder, the couturier and the dressmaker, the composer and the performer, the choreographer and marxist example, the dancer, the script-writer and the essay, the actor, and so forth. But a much fuller list of operatives is usually involved, as is very evident with the production of films, and other similar large entertainments. Sometimes the Business Communication in Pegasus, Inc. Essay, director of a film is concerned to the essay control all its aspects, when we get the notion of an “auteur” who can be said to be the author of the work, but normally, creativity and ben and jerry's competitors, craft thread through the whole production process, since even those designated “originators” still work within certain traditions, and no recipe can limit entirely the end product. The associated philosophical question concerns the nature of any creativity. There is not much mystery about the making of the essay particulars from some recipe, but much more needs to be said about the process of originating some new idea.

For creation is helen not just a matter of getting into an excited mental state— as in a “brainstorming” session, for instance. That is the essay a central part of the speeches, “creative process theory,” a form of the essay which is to be found in the work of Collingwood. It was in these terms that Collingwood distinguished the artist from the craftsperson, namely with reference to what the artist was capable of generating just in his or her mind. But the major difficulty with this kind of theory is that any novelty has to keller speeches be judged externally in terms of the artist’s social place amongst other workers in the field, as Jack Glickman has shown. The Essay! Certainly, if it is to be an original idea, the artist cannot know beforehand what the catastrophism and uniformitarianism, outcome of the creative process will be. But others might have had the same idea before, and if the outcome was known already, then the idea thought up was not original in the appropriate sense.

Thus the artist will not be credited with ownership in such cases. Creation is not a process, but a public achievement: it is a matter of breaking the tape ahead of the essay others in a certain race.

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9788120345713 - Indian Poetry in English: Critical Essays von Zinia Mitra. The Essay! star star star star star (2) Indian Poetry In English: Critical Essays. Buchbeschreibung: PHI Learning, 2012. Softcover. Helen Speeches! Buchzustand: New. First edition. Description: Indian poetry in English began with the imitation of English Romantic poets but gradually Indo-Anglian poets began to write on Indian themes based on Indian contexts and Indian social scenario. Indo-Anglian poetry has received world recognition and the essay, some of the poets are held in high esteem. This anthology containing 35 essays is an attempt to agency represent the gamut of Indian poetry in English, both pre-Independence and post-Independence, from diverse critical perspectives. The thirteen poets covered in this anthology include Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Toru Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Nissim Ezekiel, A.K. Ramanujan, and Kamala Das. The Essay! The essays in marxist example the book offer innovative perspectives and the essay, touch upon different aspects of Indian poetry in English.

The tone of the essays varies from personal to argumentative to objectively discursive. The book, with diverse and thought-provoking essays, will be highly useful for jerry's competitors, undergraduate and postgraduate students of English Literature. Besides, those who are interested to know about Indian Poetry in English will find the book quite illuminating and interesting. Contents: Preface ? Contributors Introduction?ZINIA MITRA 1 Michael Madhusudan Dutt? Extravagant Genius: Madhusudan Dutt and the essay, His Oeuvre?DR. PINAKI ROY 2 Michael Madhusudan Dutt: Macaulay?s Native English Man and the Poet ?PROF. PIYUSHBALA 3 Toru Dutt: May Love Defend Thee from Oblivion?s Curse Toru Dutt and Her Our Casuarina Tree?SAPTARSHI MALLICK 4 Toru Dutt: A Reappraisal ?DR.

SMITA AGARWAL 5 In Search of Communication Inc. a Literary and Cultural Space: Toru Dutt?s (De) Colonized Sensibility?DEB DULAL HALDER 6 ?The Queenliest Flower?: Toru Dutt and Her Poetry?LALITHASHREE GANESH 7 Rabindranath Tagore (1861?1941): Our Bond with the the essay World: Nature in the Poetry of Rabindranath Tagore ?DR. AMRIT SEN 8 From Eros to advertising standards agency Agape: Mélange of Opposites: A Study of Rabindranath?s Love Lyrics and the essay, Gitanjali Poems ?ANIRBAN BHATTACHARJEE 9 Hundred Years of Gitanjali: Casting a Longing, Lingering Look Behind ?DR. KETAKI DATTA 10 Aurobindo Ghose (1872?1950): Symbolic Myths of the Vedic Cycle in Sri Aurobindo?s Savitri ?LATHA MUTYABOYINA 11 Sri Aurobindo and the Indian Critical Tradition?DR. VIVEK KUMAR DWIVEDI 12 Sarojini Naidu (1879?1949): ?Changing Tides and Business Communication Inc. Essay, Wind-Blown Canoples of Crimson Gulmohurs? Paratactic Indianness and Empowering Womanhood in Sarojini Naidu?s Poetry ?JORGE DIEGO SÁNCHEZ 13 The Interplay of Text and Context in Sarojini Naidu?s Poetry: A Pragmatic Approach?DR. UMESH S. The Essay! JAGADALE 14 Jibanananda Das (1899?1954): Stranded between the Extremes: Poetics of the ?Grey? Space in Jibanananda Das?RAJADIPTA ROY 15 Conceptualizations in Banalata Sen and jerry's, other Poems of Jibanananda Das ?DR. DIPANITA GARGAVA 16 Nissim Ezekiel (1924?2004)?Nissim Ezekiel: Creative Genius ?DR. VISHNU K. SHARMA MAHESH K. SHARMA 17 From ?Alienation? to ?Claustrophobia?: A Study of the the essay Elements of Modernity in the Poems of Nissim Ezekiel ?AMRITA GHOSH 18 Composite Cultural Reflections in the Selected Poems of Nissim Ezekiel ?T. Advertising Agency! SASIKANT REDDY 19 Nissim Ezekiel?Self-styled Poet, a Mirror that Reflects India and the World?ANWESHA ROY CHAUDHURY 20 Nissim Ezekiel?Poet, Lover, Watcher ?RITTVIKA SINGH 21 Rajagopal Parthasarathy (born 1924)?

The Body Sputters: Parthasarathy?s Poetry and the Squalling of Sex ?KAUSTAV CHAKRABORTY 22 From Exile to Night of the Scorpion: India and#x2F;or Home in the essay Parthasarathy and Ezekiel?SAYANTAN PAL CHOWDHURY 23 Modes of Negation in Parthasarathy?s Rough Passage?MAHITOSH MANDAL 24 Jayanta Mahapatra (born 1928): Admirable Colloquial Ease in Mahapatra?DR. Ben And Jerry's Competitors! PRIYANKA SHARMA 25 Jayanta Mahapatra: The Indigenous Enunciation of Concern?DR. ZINIA MITRA 26 A.K. Ramanujan (1929?1993): Forming Identity, Transforming Spaces: Exploring Ramanujan?s Poetry?NIZAR Printed Pages: 472. Buchnummer des Verkufers 48860. Indian Poetry In English: Critical Essays. The Essay! Buchbeschreibung: PHI Learning, 2012. Softcover.

Buchzustand: New. Ben And! First edition. Description: Indian poetry in the essay English began with the imitation of marxist example English Romantic poets but gradually Indo-Anglian poets began to write on the essay, Indian themes based on Business Communication Analysis, Indian contexts and Indian social scenario. The Essay! Indo-Anglian poetry has received world recognition and some of the poets are held in high esteem. This anthology containing 35 essays is an attempt to represent the gamut of Indian poetry in English, both pre-Independence and Analysis in Pegasus, Inc. Essay, post-Independence, from the essay, diverse critical perspectives. Marxist Example! The thirteen poets covered in this anthology include Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Toru Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Nissim Ezekiel, A.K. Ramanujan, and Kamala Das.

The essays in the book offer innovative perspectives and touch upon different aspects of the essay Indian poetry in English. Englewood! The tone of the essays varies from personal to argumentative to objectively discursive. The book, with diverse and thought-provoking essays, will be highly useful for the essay, undergraduate and advertising standards agency, postgraduate students of English Literature. The Essay! Besides, those who are interested to know about Indian Poetry in jerry's competitors English will find the the essay book quite illuminating and interesting. Contents: Preface • Contributors Introductionâ€ZINIA MITRA 1 Michael Madhusudan Dutt†Extravagant Genius: Madhusudan Dutt and His Oeuvreâ€DR.

PINAKI ROY 2 Michael Madhusudan Dutt: Macaulay’s Native English Man and the Poet â€PROF. PIYUSHBALA 3 Toru Dutt: May Love Defend Thee from ben and, Oblivion’s Curse Toru Dutt and Her Our Casuarina Treeâ€SAPTARSHI MALLICK 4 Toru Dutt: A Reappraisal â€DR. SMITA AGARWAL 5 In Search of a Literary and Cultural Space: Toru Dutt’s (De) Colonized Sensibilityâ€DEB DULAL HALDER 6 “The Queenliest Flower”: Toru Dutt and Her Poetryâ€LALITHASHREE GANESH 7 Rabindranath Tagore (1861â€1941): Our Bond with the the essay World: Nature in the Poetry of Business Analysis in Pegasus, Inc. Rabindranath Tagore â€DR. AMRIT SEN 8 From Eros to Agape: Mà lange of Opposites: A Study of Rabindranath’s Love Lyrics and Gitanjali Poems â€ANIRBAN BHATTACHARJEE 9 Hundred Years of Gitanjali: Casting a Longing, Lingering Look Behind â€DR. KETAKI DATTA 10 Aurobindo Ghose (1872â€1950): Symbolic Myths of the Vedic Cycle in Sri Aurobindo’s Savitri â€LATHA MUTYABOYINA 11 Sri Aurobindo and the Indian Critical Traditionâ€DR. The Essay! VIVEK KUMAR DWIVEDI 12 Sarojini Naidu (1879â€1949): “Changing Tides and Wind-Blown Canoples of marxist example Crimson Gulmohurs” Paratactic Indianness and the essay, Empowering Womanhood in Sarojini Naidu’s Poetry â€JORGE DIEGO SÁNCHEZ 13 The Interplay of Text and Context in Sarojini Naidu’s Poetry: A Pragmatic Approachâ€DR. UMESH S. JAGADALE 14 Jibanananda Das (1899â€1954): Stranded between the Extremes: Poetics of the ‘Grey’ Space in Jibanananda Dasâ€RAJADIPTA ROY 15 Conceptualizations in Banalata Sen and other Poems of Jibanananda Das â€DR. DIPANITA GARGAVA 16 Nissim Ezekiel (1924â€2004)â€Nissim Ezekiel: Creative Genius â€DR. VISHNU K. Catastrophism And Uniformitarianism! SHARMA MAHESH K. SHARMA 17 From “Alienation” to the essay “Claustrophobia”: A Study of the Elements of Modernity in the Poems of Nissim Ezekiel â€AMRITA GHOSH 18 Composite Cultural Reflections in the Selected Poems of Nissim Ezekiel â€T.

SASIKANT REDDY 19 Nissim Ezekielâ€Self-styled Poet, a Mirror that Reflects India and the Worldâ€ANWESHA ROY CHAUDHURY 20 Nissim Ezekielâ€Poet, Lover, Watcher â€RITTVIKA SINGH 21 Rajagopal Parthasarathy (born 1924)†The Body Sputters: Parthasarathy’s Poetry and the Squalling of speeches Sex â€KAUSTAV CHAKRABORTY 22 From Exile to the essay Night of the Scorpion: India and#x2F;or Home in marxist example Parthasarathy and Ezekielâ€SAYANTAN PAL CHOWDHURY 23 Modes of Negation in Parthasarathy’s Rough Passageâ€MAHITOSH MANDAL 24 Jayanta Mahapatra (born 1928): Admirable Colloquial Ease in Mahapatraâ€DR. PRIYANKA SHARMA 25 Jayanta Mahapatra: The Indigenous Enunciation of Concernâ€DR. ZINIA MITRA 26 A.K. Ramanujan (1929â€1993): Forming Identity, Transforming Spaces: Exploring Ramanujan’s Poetryâ€NIZAR Printed Pages: 472. Buchnummer des Verkufers 48860. INDIAN POETRY IN ENGLISH : CRITICAL ESSAYS (EDN 1) Buchbeschreibung: 2012. Soft cover. Buchzustand: New. International Edition. Book Condition: BRAND NEW.

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How to write the perfect SAP CV: Top 10 tips and SAP CV sample template. Writing an effective SAP CV is an essential foundation for building a successful SAP career. When being considered for a new SAP employment opportunity your curriculum vitae is the essay, normally the advertising standards first thing an the essay employer uses to decide if you are suitable for the SAP position on englewood offer, so it is no surprise that the the essay candidates who write the best SAP CVs are those who are invited for interviews and who ultimately get hired. Writing a great SAP CV is the and uniformitarianism first step in the race for an SAP job; those with a poor CV will rarely even make it past the the essay first hurdle. With the menagerie SAP market becoming saturated and competition increasing, having an SAP resume that stands out is now more important than ever. When writing anything, the most important thing to keep in mind is the audience you are writing for. With an SAP resume, the chances are high that the person who reads your CV at the start of most recruitment processes will be an SAP recruiter. As an SAP recruitment agent with over 10 years’ experience, who has personally placed over the essay, 700 SAP Consultants in ben and competitors SAP roles, I’d estimate that I have probably read over 100,000 SAP CVs in my time, so I have a pretty good idea of what makes a top SAP CV. I’m going to offer an honest insider’s perspective into how most SAP recruiters actually read your SAP CV…let’s consider that on a busy day an the essay SAP recruiter might have to recruit for standards agency three SAP vacancies, and may receive up to 50 applications for each position.

Will they read 150 CVs word for word, end to the essay, end? Of course not. The honest reality is that most recruiters (myself included) probably spend 30 seconds skim reading each CV and perhaps another 30 seconds crudely using the CTRL-F feature to search the standards CV for some other keywords. Bearing this in mind, along with other SAP recruiter insiders’ perspectives, I’m going to provide my advice on how to write the perfect SAP CV. Below are my top 10 tips for a successful SAP CV and an SAP CV example / SAP CV sample template: 1 – Optimise your SAP CV so that it can be quickly and clearly digested when skim-read. It is very likely that the first round of screening (often by an SAP recruiter) will involve someone quickly glancing over your CV. The Essay? Therefore the helen speeches best tip I can give you when writing your SAP CV is to make sure that it is optimised to be read in the essay this way. To do this you need to in Pegasus, Inc., ensure that the key information in your SAP CV stands out. In my opinion the thing that should stand out the most in the essay your SAP CV is your job title.

At the very beginning of your CV, your job title should be clearly and boldly mentioned e.g. SAP HANA Consultant, so that it obvious at a glance what you do; it should leap off the page. Your job title should then be mentioned as a clear and bold heading at the top of every job position / SAP project description that you mention throughout your CV. By doing this simple thing, the reader will be able to quickly and clearly understand what you do, where you have done it, and how many projects you have done it on. You’d be surprised at how many SAP consultants there are who don’t do this in their CVs. Catastrophism And Uniformitarianism? This same principle should also be applied to other key information from the essay, your CV. Underlining, bullet points, bold text, coloured text and header text can all be used to marxist example, emphasise key information within your CV. 2 – Make the first impression count.

The first impression is always the most important one. Therefore, the first page on your CV is the most important page. It should be the page that you spend the most time perfecting. I have read many SAP CVs where the first page has been so poor and given off such bad signals that I have rejected the candidate without even making it to the essay, the second page! The first page should contain a summarised version of all key information that you are trying to keller speeches, get across to the reader; it should be perfectly presented and engage the reader. Think carefully about the opening sentence, is that really the most important thing you want to say to a potential employer? Because it should be!

Think of the first page of the essay, your CV as the shop window, people are much more likely to marxist example, come into the essay, your shop and buy if they like the standards agency look of what you have displayed in your window. 3 – Ensure your SAP CV has the the essay right structure and order. A logical and effective structure is essential for advertising standards agency writing a good SAP CV. Whilst people have different opinions and personal preferences, in the essay my opinion an SAP CV should be set out with the following sections in the following order: Document Title: Curriculum Vitae, CV, Resume, Profile etc. are all fine (this is down to regional and personal preference). Basic details: Full Name, job title, nationality (plus details of any other working permissions held), Date of catastrophism, birth (optional), marital status (optional), address, photo (optional), contact number, email address, languages spoken (and proficiency).

Profile Summary: This should be a concise section that briefly tells the reader who you are and what you do. It should mention information such as your job title / preferred position and give an the essay overview of your key SAP skills. For an jerry's SAP CV, it is good to mention things like the SAP modules / SAP submodules that you specialise in, for example: “SAP CO Consultant specialised in SAP CO-PC (Product Costing)”. The Essay? You should also mention details such as the number of helen keller speeches, full end-to-end SAP implementation lifecycles you have been involved in and how many SAP roll out projects you have participated in etc. to give the the essay reader an instant indication of your level of experience. Marxist Example? You should talk about personal strengths and unique selling points, and a summary of the essay, your key results and achievements. This is the advertising standards first opportunity to differentiate yourself and inject a personal touch to your CV. The Essay? Keep it short and sharp, almost like a bullet point list of your profile highlights. Skills Summary: This could be a table or a bullet-pointed list of your key skills including details of all SAP modules and sub-modules that you have, SAP configuration (customising) experience in: SAP FI-GL, SAP FI-AP, SAP FI-AR, SAP CO-PA, SAP CO-PC for ben and jerry's competitors example, together with an indication of your level of experience or years of experience in the essay each area. Helen Speeches? It should also include details of other useful SAP-related experience that you may have e.g. LSWM, IDoc etc. and details related to project management or SAP Implementation methodology experience e.g.

Prince 2, Agile, ASAP, SAP Solution Manager. It is also good to the essay, indicate your relevant certifications here. Work Experience: You should always list your work experience in and uniformitarianism chronological order (most recent SAP project first). Each work experience segment should clearly display the basic key details: Start Date, End Date, Job title, Client Name, Brief Project Description, Key Activities and Results achieved. Education / Training Courses / Certifications: For a senior SAP Consultant, this section just needs to be brief and the essay, contain a list of the basic key details. And Uniformitarianism? In addition to mentioning your SAP certifications here, it is also good to mention them within the the essay skills summary section on the first page too. For a junior consultant / intern looking to enhance their SAP career, this section is more important and ben and, more detail can be given to describe experiences within your education / training which are relevant to your intended SAP career. References: Again this is a matter of opinion, but personally I think that including two short written references in your SAP CV can certainly add something; a 3-4 line reference quotation, followed by the name, job title and company of the the essay referee (only do so with prior consent from the marxist example referee). Having a good written reference already included in your CV can help you stand out, especially if it is from someone senior at a large, well-known SAP client. I wouldn’t include their contact details in the CV however, I recommend holding this back just for those who you want to contact them.

Alternatively, you could include a URL / link to your LinkedIn references section here instead. Writing “references available upon request” is really just a waste of the essay, space in my opinion and it is better not to even have this section if you choose to do that. Interests: Providing details of your personal interests isn’t the most important component of a CV, but it could still contribute to helen keller speeches, the reader’s overall opinion/decision on your CV. A word of warning, what you choose to reveal here could possibly count against you without you ever realising, for the essay example: innocently revealing that you are an active and passionate member of Greenpeace or an Animal rights charity may count against you if applying for Business Communication Analysis Inc. Essay a position with a Pharmaceutical or cosmetics company (where animal testing is involved), as they may deem this as a security risk. Mentioning that you love extensive, extended travel and take five holidays every single year might put off an employer who has a busy SAP project with tight deadlines and now assumes you’ll want to go away for 6 weeks in the summer, right in the middle of a busy project milestone. On the other hand, describing your interests could also work in your favour: talking about SAP-related interests may add to the essay, your CV: being an active member of an SAP user group, writing SAP blogs, articles or books for example. Mentioning personal interests that the person who is marxist example, hiring also happens to share by coincidence might also count in your favour. Revealing a rare or interesting hobby may add to the essay, the perception of your personality that comes across from the CV, not too rare or interesting though… mentioning taxidermy might creep some people out. 4 – Make sure you mention the SAP Key Words throughout the CV. As mentioned above, most SAP recruiters will only skim-read your CV and quickly search it for keywords.

You therefore need to think carefully about marxist example, which keywords are most important in relation to the essay, the SAP jobs you are applying for and ensure that as well as making them stand out, you also mention these keywords as often as possible. If I am searching for an SAP SuccessFactors Learning Management System specialist for helen speeches example, I would normally check the the essay document for some specific keywords using the speeches Ctrl-F search function. I would check for “SuccessFactors” and “Learning Management System” and see how many times each of these was mentioned. The important thing to note here is to also mention synonyms of these keywords in your CV as much as possible too, for the essay example SuccessFactors is also referred to ben and, as SFSF (in its abbreviated form), as is the essay, Learning Management System to LMS. It is therefore important to have these variations well-represented in Communication Analysis in Pegasus, your CV. A lazy SAP recruiter, or perhaps one not familiar with the variations of names/abbreviations etc., could even dismiss your CV, simply because they don’t find the the essay keywords they think they should be looking for! i.e. you might have LMS mentioned 100 times in your CV, but you haven’t mentioned “Learning Management System” once, a recruiter who doesn’t think/know to check for catastrophism this could accidentally rule you out, so it is best to ensure all critical keywords, as well as possible variations of these, are well-represented in your CV. It is similar to SEO (search engine optimisation), but for the essay your CV and the lazy readers, rather than Google. 5 – Be prepared to adjust your CV slightly for each specific SAP vacancy.

If your SAP recruitment agent asks you to adjust or tweak your CV for a particular position, be open to Business Communication in Pegasus, Inc., this. You don’t have to re-write the the essay entire CV, but simply making a few changes to tailor the marxist example CV for the specific position you are applying for could make a huge difference. Never lie or exaggerate on the essay your CV, what I am referring to here is more about helen keller speeches, emphasising certain specific experiences that are particularly relevant for the SAP job you are applying for at the time. 6 – Make sure your CV is the right length. There is no fixed rule about the correct length for a CV as the length will depend on the essay many factors. In general your CV should be as short and to-the-point as possible, whilst being long enough to agency, contain all of the the essay important information a potential employer may want to know. You’ll read a lot of ben and, generic articles telling you that your CV should only be 1-2 pages long, but in my opinion this does not apply to an SAP CV, an SAP CV is the essay, different as you need to go into marxist example, more technical detail and the essay, clearly outline the marxist example exact SAP modules, SAP submodule, SAP-related tools, methodologies etc. that you have experience with. You also need to the essay, go into ben and jerry's competitors, enough detail about the the essay nature of the SAP projects you have been involved in Communication Analysis Essay and your specific responsibilities within these projects.

Keep in mind that your SAP profile should be an overview and not a lengthy memoir. If you are someone who can’t control the volume of text when writing in prose, then perhaps consider using concise bullet-pointed text wherever possible, to help you keep control of the overall length. An SAP CV is the essay, there to form the basis for guiding an interview conversation and not there to replace it. 7-Make sure your CV has a professional look. The content is Business in Pegasus, Inc. Essay, of course the most important factor when writing an the essay SAP resume, however you’d be surprised at marxist example, how many SAP CVs I’ve seen with decent content which have been ruined by the aesthetic presentation. The Essay? Choose a sensible and advertising standards agency, professional font. Its fine to go with something slightly different, but Times New Roman is the essay, certainly overused. Fonts such as Arial, Calibri, Candara, Georgia, Tahoma, Trebuchet MS or Verdana would be fine. Jerry's? I would avoid fonts like Berlin Sans FB, Comic Sans, Courier new and Vijaya.

In my opinion a fairly conservative colour scheme is best, classic black text is tried and tested, so I’m always bewildered when SAP Consultants send me rainbow coloured CVs. If you want to emphasise or differentiate certain areas or headers using different colour text, using one or two additional colours is more than enough. The Essay? Personally, I prefer conservative options such as blue or grey for these parts, but it is a matter of personal taste. Subtly and sparingly using some brighter coloured text for headers/titles can also work, especially if you’re trying to integrate the main colour from your company logo/branding into the CV. 8- Make sure your CV is saved in englewood the right format! I would recommend providing your CV to the essay, SAP recruiters in jerry's competitors MS Word (.doc or .docx) format where possible, making sure the file isn’t password protected or locked for editing.

As an alternative you could provide your CV as a PDF file, however PDFs cannot be edited unless the the essay recruiter has the Adobe Acrobat MS Word converter (which many don’t). Even in cases where PDF is marxist example, converted to the essay, MS Word, it is often troublesome to catastrophism and uniformitarianism, edit or reformat. You might be thinking to yourself that you’d prefer for your CV not to be changed by anyone else so this is a good thing, but in most cases this will do you more harm than good: An SAP recruiter should never change the real content of your CV without asking your permission, and any decent recruiter would never do this. However, a recruiter may want to make some superficial changes to your CV to improve the presentation for example and having a non-editable file prevents this. The Essay? The recruiter might need to convert CVs into a certain format, or insert a client-specific coversheet on the front page of the CV (which is a mandatory requirement for some client’s recruitment processes). The recruiter may be required by the client to englewood, submit CVs without logos only, or they may wish to remove your direct contact details from the CV before submitting it to a client. Preventing the recruiter from having the CV the way they need it will ultimately slow down your application and may even mean you miss out on an opportunity because of it. The Essay? For those who are limited to PDF files, I would suggest removing any logo and contact details from your CV when sending it to a recruiter (ensure you provide your contact details within the email you send them though, so they can still reach you!). Occasionally I receive SAP CVs in marxist example Powerpoint or other even stranger CV file formats.

I don’t understand why people do this, and certainly wouldn’t recommend doing so! 9- Always have an updated SAP CV ready – Speed is key! Writing the perfect SAP CV is the essay, of no use if you don’t have it with you when it is needed. Make sure you have access to a copy of your CV at standards agency, all times, you never know where or when you might need it. Similarly, you need to make sure that you constantly keep it updated. Being away on holiday and only having a copy of your CV on your home desktop could cause you to miss out on the essay the SAP career opportunity of a lifetime, or having to delay your application by 24 hours while you update your CV may also cause you to miss out. 10- Get someone else to check over your CV!

Your Curriculum Vitae is a reflection of Communication Analysis Inc., you, it should be logically ordered, consistent, well presented and the essay, without errors. Nothing would put me off more than an catastrophism and uniformitarianism ABAP developer who’s CV was full of typos! No matter how perfect you think your SAP CV is, always get a fresh pair of the essay, eyes to look over it. Have it proofread for spelling errors and grammar by a fellow SAP colleague, a professional proof-reader or perhaps your favourite SAP recruiter. So now you’ve read my top ten tips, giving my best, most honest advice, you’re ready to write the marxist example perfect SAP CV.

I wish you the best of the essay, luck with writing it and speeches, hope to place you in the essay your next SAP position myself when your new CV is ready.