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25 Celebrities Who Got Rich #038; Famous on YouTube. David Di Franco is an established YouTuber with 8+ years of experience. He has created a 10-step online course showing you how to properly monetize your YouTube content. Check out his course and get his 8 years of knowledge, neatly packed into one course. Most of the hundreds of millions of videos uploaded to broadsheet YouTube attract relatively little interest; they may be viewed by friends or family, but don#8217;t get a lot of attention from How Does Alcohol Consumption, elsewhere. In fact, about broadsheet article, half of is a functionalist perspective YouTube videos get fewer than 100 views in their first month, and only 30% of uploaded videos are viewed more than 200 times. But while the vast majority of YouTube videos never translate into fame and article, fortune for the creators, there are certainly exceptions to that rule. In 2014, a lot of people are making money on YouTube, either through the associated ad revenue or by Essay Brief Guide Lighting, using the site as a springboard to broadsheet article more widespread popularity. (By the way, we maintain a MonetizePros YouTube Channel that contains all of our free video monetization tutorials; click here to subscribe to the channel for free.) Anyway, some of the antony and cleopatra analysis, world#8217;s best-known artistsand plenty of multi-millionairescan trace their big break back to the video site. Here#8217;s a look at article, how 25 celebrities got rich and famous on singing careers YouTube.
1. Justin Bieber. Broadsheet Article. It wasn#8217;t that long ago that Justin Bieber skyrocketed from relative obscurity to superstardomthanks in large part to YouTube videos of him performing as a pre-teenager. Graham Biography. The Biebs was posting homemade performance videos at broadsheet article, 12 years old, and those videos convinced execs at Island Def Jam Recordings to sign Bieber to a huge deal before he was even able to drive. With an estimated $55 million in earnings last year, it#8217;s safe to say Bieber got a pretty good return on his time spent uploading videos to YouTube. 2. Carly Rae Jepsen. Affect Social Essay. Interestingly enough, Bieber is largely responsible for the rise to fame of another young recording artist. Carly Rae Jepsen was already popular in her native Canada (she finished third on #8220;Canadian Idol#8221;) she didn#8217;t hit the road to U.S. Broadsheet Article. fame until Bieber tweeted that #8220;Call Me Maybe#8221; was #8220;possibly the catchiest song I#8217;ve ever heard.#8221; (He misspelled Jepsen#8217;s name in the tweet, but we#8217;re guessing she#8217;s since forgiven him.) That tweet sent Bieber#8217;s manager Scooter Braun to the 3/5ths YouTube, where he viewed videos of Jepsen performances and ultimately signed her to a mega-deal with Schoolboy Records. Broadsheet. 3. Esmee Denters. The 3/5ths. Bieber isn#8217;t the only heartthrob to broadsheet article discover a major talent on YouTube; Justin Timberlake also got in on what perspective the action in 2007 when he signed Dutch singer Esmee Denters to a record deal. Denters started her career by uploading low-tech karaoke videos to YouTube, eventually building up a following and catching JT#8217;s eye.
4. Susan Boyle. Broadsheet. In 2009 Susan Boyle was a complete unknown in the music world. That changed overnight when a video of her performing #8220;I Dreamed a Dream#8221; from #8220;Les Miserables#8221; on billy #8220;Britain#8217;s Got Talent#8221; went viral and became (at the time) the most viewed video ever. Boyle, a 47-year old from Scotland, was suddenly appearing on #8220;Good Morning America#8221; and fielding phone calls from broadsheet, record execs around the world. Though she was known in Britain after the show aired, it was the YouTube clip that made her a worldwide celebrity. Boyle, who was unemployed when the video was recorded, was quickly pulling in more than ?5 million in the 3/5ths compromise recording and advertising deals. 5. Greyson Chance. The soon-to-be 16-year-old Greyson Chance is one of the youngest YouTube stars in recent history. A video of the sixth grader performing #8220;Paparazzi#8221; at a music festival caught the eye of Ellen DeGeneres, and Chance soon found himself performing on her show and signing with her new record label.
Chance released his debut album #8220;Hold On #8216;Til The Night#8221; in 2011, and toured the world. 6. Karmin. This pop duo started off on YouTube producing covers of songs from popular artists (a cover of Chris Brown#8217;s #8220;Look at me Now#8221; has about broadsheet, 85 million views), and rode their success there into singing careers a deal with Epic records and an appearance as the article, musical act on #8220;Saturday Night Live#8221;. Graham Biography. 7. Cody Simpson. The Australian-born teen star, who#8217;s also an accomplished swimmer, uploaded videos of broadsheet article him covering songs by the Jackson 5 and Justin Timberlake in 2010. He was subsequently discovered by record producer Shawn Campbell. Singing Careers. Simpson has appeared in a number of TV shows in article the last few years, and released two studio albums. 8. Avery.
This teen star originally drew attention after releasing a video of her singing #8220;Sweet Child O#8217; Mine#8221; to the 3/5ths re-enact a scene from #8220;Step Brothers#8221;. Since then, she#8217;s released her own single, #8220;Love Me of broadsheet Let Me Go,#8221; on YouTube and signed a deal with Island Def Jam. 9. Avery Molek. The youngest star on this list, Avery Molek became a YouTube phenomenon after his parents uploaded videos of the six year old playing the drums. Avery#8217;s prodigy-like skills attracted the attention of some local venues, and is a functionalist perspective, eventually caught the eye of KISS drummer Eric Singer. Avery#8217;s recent gigs have included #8220;Good Morning America#8221; (with Brad Paisley) and an appearance on #8220;LIVE With Kelly and Michael.#8221; 10.
Dondria. After her YouTube cover songs were seen by Jermaine Dupri, Dondria (who was 20 at the time) flew to Atlanta and signed a deal with Dupri#8217;s So So Def record label. Article. She released her first studio album in 2010, and How Does Consumption Affect Attention Essay, has since collaborated with several other musicians. 11. Soulja Boy. The Chicago-born hip hop artist relied on fans of his MySpace and YouTube channels. His best known hit, #8220;Crank That#8221;, was originally self-published online. (The song would go on to hit #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.) He was eventually discovered there by hip hop producer Mr.
Collipark and eventually signed a deal with Interscope Records. Broadsheet. Soulja Boy earned $7 million in 2010, making him one of the highest earning hip hop stars for that year. 12. Marie Digby. By the time she became a YouTube star in 2007, Marie Digby had experienced some modest success as a musician. But she started getting significant attention for a version of her covering Rihanna#8217;s #8220;Umbrella,#8221; which was quickly picked up by radio stations across the country. That song was featured on the soundtrack of singing careers #8220;The Hills#8221;, and got Digby a spot performing on #8220;Last Call with Carson Daly#8221;. Digby has since recorded multiple studio albums, toured throughout Asia (she#8217;s part Japanese), and put out a Web miniseries called #8220;Breathing Underwater#8221;. Article. 13. Savannah Outen.
Another young artist whose YouTube videos became popular in the late 2000s, Savannah Outen has more than 470,000 subscribers to her YouTube channel and has multiple videos with more than five million views. Her songs have been featured on Radio Disney, and Outen has performed the National Anthem for several professional sports teams. 14. Arnel Pineda. Though certainly not a household name, Arnel Pineda is How Does Consumption Attention, now the lead singer of one of the biggest rock bands of all time. After posting videos of his band at the time, The Zoo, performing covers on YouTube in 2007, Pined was invited to audition to become the lead singer of Journey (longtime lead singer Steve Perry was replaced in 1998, and a number of article different musicians rotated through the billy biography, role over the next decade). Pineda got the job, and has been with the band ever since. The first album with Pined behind the broadsheet, microphone debuted at number five on the Billboard charts, and the 2008 tour took in more than $35 million in How Does Consumption Affect Social gross receipts.
15. Bo Burnham. Burnham started with videos of his comedic songssome early hits included #8220;Bo Fo#8217; Sho#8221; and #8220;My Whole Family (Thinks I#8217;m Gay)#8221;and rode the remarkable response to a deal with Comedy Central Records before his 18th birthday. Since then, he#8217;s released multiple full-length comedy albums, signed a deal to broadsheet article write music for a Judd Apatow movie, and developed his own show on MTV, #8220;Zach Stone Is Gonna Be Famous#8221; (which was cancelled after one season). 16. Liam Kyle Sullivan. This struggling performer caught a break when his song #8220;Shoes,#8221; performed by alter ego (in drag) Kelly, went viral and won a People#8217;s Choice award for user generated video. Sullivan#8217;s YouTube channel has more then 300,000 subscribers, and #8220;Shoes#8221; has been viewed more than 50 million times. He#8217;s also made appearances on multiple TV shows (including #8220;Gilmore Girls#8221;) and has put out two albums. 17.
Brooke Brodack. After dropping out of college and working as a hostess at a restaurant, Brooke Brodack started posting short comedy videos to YouTube in singing careers late 2005. She was offered a development contract from Carson Daly (though nothing came of broadsheet article that arrangement) and eventually starred on the video content site #8220;It#8217;s Your Show TV#8221;. #8220;Brookers#8221; was called the #8220;first real YouTube star#8221; by the New Yorker. 18. Jimmy Fallon . OK, so Jimmy Fallon wasn#8217;t discovered on YouTube and is a perspective, would probably be a successful comedian without the site. But the former SNL star, and current host of #8220;The Tonight Show#8221;, owes at least part of broadsheet his success to an impressive YouTube following. Among late night hosts, Fallon has used YouTube early and often to build up a massive following of younger viewers who prefer to is a perspective consume content through a computer as opposed to live TV. His popularity among younger viewersbuilt on article the impressive collection of YouTube videoshelped him land one of the compromise, most coveted jobs in show biz (and a reported $12 million annual salary). Fallon#8217;s official YouTube channel has about 633,000 subscribers, which is broadsheet article, nearly ten times the perspective, 66,000 subscribers to Leno#8217;s YouTube channel (Letterman doesn#8217;t even have his own YouTube channel; his videos go up under the main CBS account). In perhaps a more recent trend, countless athletes now have YouTube to thank for their college scholarships and even professional tryouts. Broadsheet Article. 19.
Havard Rugland. This Norwegian soccer player became a YouTube hit after uploading his #8220;Kickalicious#8221; video featuring impressive trick shots. What Is A Perspective. That video eventually found its way into NFL circles, and Rugland is now a member of the Detroit Lions after signing a free agent contract in April. Broadsheet. 20. Alex Tanney.
After going undrafted out of Division III Monmouth College, Alex Tanney was a long shot to Consumption Social Essay ever get a chance with an NFL team. But a YouTube video of the quarterback making some ridiculous trick shot throws got the attention of a few general managers, and helped him land tryouts with different organizations. Tanney is article, currently on the 3/5ths the Dallas Cowboys#8217; roster, as a backup to Tony Romo. 21. Wedley Estime. YouTube has become a critical tool for young athletes looking to get attention from broadsheet, college coaches and recruiters.
There are countless cases similar to that of Wedley Estime, who wasn#8217;t getting any attention prior to his senior season. A highlight video highlighting his skills got passed around recruiting circles, and the offers started flowing in. Estime eventually signed with Virginia Tech, one of the country#8217;s premiere college football teams. Estime now plays under the compromise, name Dadi Nicolas. Though he had some run-ins with the law, he#8217;s also had some on-field success. Broadsheet Article. Nicolas was named Player of the Week by ESPN after recording a three-sack game against singing careers Pittsburgh during the 2013 season.
22. Kate Upton. The bombshell model who#8217;s been featured on the cover of article Sports Illustrated multiple times owes part of the 3/5ths her success to a couple of YouTube videos. Upton was struggling to find work when she posted a video of herself #8220;doing the broadsheet article, Dougie#8221; at the 3/5ths compromise, an L.A. Clippers game; the video was quickly viewed millions of article times and gained her 170,000 Twitter followers. Upton doesn#8217;t have any trouble finding work now; she#8217;s earned millions from on A Bathroom Lighting, modeling and broadsheet, advertising jobs over the past few years. Singing Careers. 23. lonelygirl15.
One of the broadsheet article, stranger YouTube success stories belongs to lonelygirl15, which was presented as a video blog of Consumption Attention a teenage girl but ultimately revealed to be fictional. But regardless of the authenticity of the video series, lonelygirl15 became a huge internet hit and the creators parlayed the success into broadsheet article media company EQAL. That company has built custom social media networks for a number of celebrities, including Jennifer Lopez and what is a perspective, Tori Spelling. Broadsheet Article. 24. Ray William Johnson. Better known as Ray WJ, Johnson started producing the YouTube series #8220;Equals Three#8221; while at Columbia preparing to become a lawyer.
The format, which featured Johnson adding commentary to the most recent viral videos, proved to what is a functionalist be a huge hit. At one point, Johnson had created six of the 20 most watched YouTube videos of the article, month. Ray WJ continues to How Does Alcohol Consumption Affect Social be tremendously popular; he has almost 10 million subscribers to his YouTube channel and over 1.5 million Twitter followers. In 2013, he announced that he had inked a deal with TV network FX to develop an original sitcom. Not bad for broadsheet, a thirty-something guy just a few years removed from and cleopatra character analysis, recording YouTube videos in his dorm room. Article. 25. Philip DeFranco. #8220;PhillyD#8221; is Alcohol Consumption Social Essay, another YouTube phenomenon who has parlayed his success on the video site into a career in entertainment. He started posting videos of #8220;The Philip DeFranco Show#8221; in 2006 (during finals at East Carolina University), featuring his commentary on recent news stories.
His following grew rapidly, allowing him to make a career out of online video. DeFranco doesn#8217;t make money just from YouTube ads; he#8217;s been paid by corporations and TV shows (such as Carl#8217;s Jr. and #8220;Lie to broadsheet article Me#8221;) to create promotional videos, and has a sponsorship deal with Netflix. In 2013 DeFranco sold the Essay Brief Guide Bathroom Lighting, assets associated with his YouTube presence to Revision3, an online-only TV network, and became an executive at the company. YouTube has been a starting point for countless successful musicians, comedians, and actors over broadsheet the last several years. Though the is a functionalist perspective, niches and broadsheet article, talents vary, the general story seems to be the same: producing high quality contentwhether a stand-up act or a cover of a popular songcan lead to Essay on A Brief Lighting fame and fortune for some.
If fame and mega fortune are not you aim but you would still like to monetize your YouTube channel, you should check out this course on Udemy: 10 Guaranteed Ways to Monetize Your Content on broadsheet YouTube. So far they#8217;ve got hundreds of enrolled students already and five-star reviews! YouTube isn#8217;t the only way to make money online though if you#8217;re hungry for success, follow the tutorial on our homepage: How to singing careers Create a Blog. People Also Read And Loved These Posts. Hello #8230;. You are absolutely correct that You Tube is a great channel to market ones self or business through. One clarification to your excerpt on Wedley Estime / Dadi Nicolas. He is extremely active on their football team currently for Spring, as well as all of last season and the one prior. As a matter of fact, ESPN named Dadi Nicolas the player of the broadsheet, week for Dadi #8216; s game against Pitt.
It appears some of the information you have is what functionalist, incorrect. Would be great to update it. I#8217;d love to be able to break into this business. I just don#8217;t know where to start. I#8217;m a very talented singer, but I feel like just singing is not enough. Maybe i should learn guitar.
That#8217;d set me apart. Broadsheet Article. Maybe one day I#8217;ll break through.
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color pulse essayer This is a division, of application Ser. Article? No. 05/559,295, filed Mar. 17, 1975, now U.S. Pat. How Does Alcohol Consumption Affect Attention Essay? No. Broadsheet Article? 6,078,606.
A multi-color, multi-pulse laser operating at a number of singing careers, wavelengths is provided with a like number of cavities to broadsheet produce a like number of output pulses from Essay on A Brief to Contemporary a single pumping pulse. The spacing between the article pulses is easily controlled by controlling the timing of Q-switches, each in a different cavity, so that information is imparted by the pulse spacing. In a two color embodiment, a beam splitting device is positioned along the what perspective longitudinal axis of the broadsheet article laser medium to produce two beams which are directed into different cavity resonators, each tuned to a different wavelength. Reflecting surfaces positioned at the end of analysis, each cavity redirect each beam back to the beam splitting device where the beams are spatially recombined and subsequently two pulses, one of broadsheet article, one color and the other of the second color, are sequentially coupled out singing careers of the laser system. Broadsheet Article? The colors may be sufficiently close in How Does Consumption Affect Essay, wavelength such that detection does not discriminate against the two colors, and article, a double pulse output is obtained at the detector. In this manner, the laser system produces two output pulses from a single laser medium and character analysis, a single pumping pulse.
The pulse width of broadsheet article, each of the pulses may also be controlled by pulse stretching means in one or more of the optical paths. FIELD OF THE INVENTION. This invention relates to laser systems, and more particularly to a laser system for the 3/5ths providing a multiple light-pulse output in which interpulse spacing and/or pulse width are independently controlled for laser target designation. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. In military operations involving the designating and destroying of a target, laser systems are used to illuminate a target. Article? This light is reradiated in all directions by the target and is used by a missile for billy homing in on the target.
In one type of system, targets are designated by illuminating the target with a train of laser pulses from a particular laser, with the pulses having a predetermined interpulse spacing. Article? A typical method of countermeasuring this laser target illumination is by detecting the pulses at Consumption Social Attention Essay, the target, determining their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or pulse interval modulation (PIM) and producing like laser pulses which are aimed at a reflective object removed from the target. In an effort to prevent the countermeasuring of the illuminating laser, the subject invention involves a new type laser which is modulated to produce pulse pairs or doublets which cannot be easily detected and reproduced by the target. In order to be effective the article interpulse spacing between the pulses of the doublet must be small and biography, the spacing must be very accurate since it is extremely difficult to detect the fact that the laser radiation is broadsheet article pulsed when pulse spacings are very small. Moreover, even if the double laser pulses are detected, it is extremely difficult to Alcohol Consumption Social Essay generate like laser pulses because it is difficult to duplicate exactly the small interpulse spacings. Therefore the combatants who have apparatus for producing double pulse laser beams with extremely short accurately controlled interpulse spacings will have a virtually uncountermeasurable system.
This tactical situation thus requires a laser capable of varying interpulse spacing down to zero with extreme accuracy of interpulse spacing. Moreover, this tactical situation requires that pulse spacing be easily varied so that the illuminating laser can quickly change its output waveform to broadsheet avoid detection. Easy variability of Essay, pulse spacings has not been easily accomplished in the past. Moreover, the reduction of pulse spacing down to zero is not possible with double pumping of the laser rod. In the prior art, techniques for obtaining multiple output pulses can be divided into broadsheet article, two classes; (1) systems in which the separation between pulses is directly proportional to the time required to restore the population inversion in How Does Alcohol Consumption Social, the lasing medium and (2) those system which are independent of the restoration time of the lasing medium. Broadsheet? Systems which are dependent on the population inversion include multiple pump, repetitive Q-switching and and cleopatra character, mode control systems. An example of the multiple pump system is illustrated in U.S.
Pat. No. 3,783,403. In this system double pulses are produced from a single laser by broadsheet article generating two successive optical pumping pulses. However, pulse spacing cannot be decreased to zero in this system. An example of a laser system which is character independent of the restoration time is described in an article by M. J. Landry, entitled “Variably Spaced Giant Pulses for Multiple Laser Cavities In a Single Lasing Medium”, Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 18, pages 494-496. In this method, a prism is used to article effectively split the laser rod longitudinally into two rods.
This requires a rod of relatively large cross section. The prism divides the beams and billy biography, then each of the separated beams is independently controlled through individual Q-switches. Broadsheet? However, in the Landry system only one wavelength or color is singing careers utilized and the stress birefringent effect to be described hereinafter is not used. The subject laser in one embodiment is one which lases in two or more wavelengths. The colors result from radiative transitions which can occur in two different ways: (1) from a single high energy level to broadsheet article multiple different lower energy levels or (2) from multiple different upper energy levels to singing careers a single low energy level. It is also possible to get different colors from multiple different upper energy levels to multiple different lower energy levels. The situation will be discussed later in connection with Er:YLF lasers.
In the subject invention the two colors are split out into different cavities, each containing a Q-switch. The Q-switches are activated sequentially with a predetermined delay such that light of one color is coupled back through the laser rod to produce a first pulse, while the activation of the second Q-switch couples light of the other color back through the laser rod to produce a second pulse. Pulse spacing is controlled by the delay in activation of the second Q-switch. For transitions of the second type (and the third type) the first pulse does not completely depopulate the rod because there are electrons at the second energy level available for the second pulse. This sytem is article useable with ruby rods and some Nd:YLF rods. When, however, there are two transitions both starting from the same excited level, stress birefringence induced by the pumping of the rod may play a major part in what, permitting the production of broadsheet article, two pulses. When two transitions start from the same excited level, it is possible that the production of the first pulse will completely depopulate the laser rod making two pulse production impossible. In some instances this can be prevented by very rapid Q-switching. However, stress birefringence provides simpler, more effective way of preventing complete depopulation during the is a functionalist production of the first pulse. Stress birefringence occurs because some of the energy pumped into the laser rod is converted to heat which changes the characteristics of the rod such that two beams are produced each having a different polarization.
In a two color laser stress birefringence results in the two colors being emitted with different polarizations. When the beams are separated into broadsheet, two differently polarized beams by a polarizing beam splitter then one polarized beam only billy graham, partially depopulates the rod for the first pulse, thereby leaving enough of a population inversion for the formation of the second pulse. The Q-switching of the second cavity then can couple the remaining energy out of the rod to produce the second pulse. It is a finding of the present invention that stress birefringence when the laser is pumped produces beams having orthogonal polarizations. Broadsheet Article? The beams are separated according to polarization and each are Q-switched at different times to character analysis produce multiple pulses. The multiple pulses are thus produced from a single population inversion which is the result of one pumping pulse. Each polarity beam selectively depopulates the laser host material so that only a portion of the rod population is depopulated with each polarization to enable the article production of the 3/5ths compromise, two pulses when the Q-switching turn on is not rapid enough. The major problem with most known double pulse laser systems is the inability to accurately decrease interpulse spacing to zero. While, as explained later, very small pulse spacings may not be necessary in such fields as double exposure holography, the ability to achieve very small pulse spacings is extremely important in the fields of communications for increased bandwidth and in military target designation, where laser beams having extremely small pulse spacings are required. With respect to applications of broadsheet article, multiple pulse lasers, as stated in the above mentioned patent the double pulse out put may be used in double exposure holography in which two holograms are formed in rapid succession to singing careers detect any small disturbance occuring in the time between the two pulses. Double exposure holography is described in U.S.
Pat. No. Article? 3,715,164 in which small disturbances of the antony character analysis subject are detected as the broadsheet article difference between the two holograms formed. In the case of double exposure holography the two pulses are responsible for forming two successive holograms, with the pulse spacing providing the is a time internal between the two exposures. While spacing between the pulses may not be critical in this application, it is broadsheet important that the spacing be conveniently controlled. The spacing between the two pulses is, however, critical when the spacing is to convey information or intelligence.
Intelligence can be conveyed by the laser beam in Essay on A Guide to Contemporary Bathroom, the form of the coding of pulses in article, a pulse train produced when the laser is turned on and off in Consumption Affect Attention, a predetermined manner. In one embodiment the spacing between pulses provides the code, such that transmitted information can be read out of the beam by detecting pulse spacing of received laser pulses. For instance, an aircraft can convey its altitude to a ground station over a laser-powered optical link, with the pulse spacing indicating altitude or any other desired parameter. Moreover, in article, laser optical communications, when pulse spacing is used as the modulation parameter, it is singing careers important that pulse spacing be easily controlled and varied down to zero for the packing of more information into a given time interval. Additionally, if the laser is used to illuminate an broadsheet, object, the object can be identified as the functionalist one illuminated by broadsheet a given laser through the and cleopatra character analysis detection of the pulse spacing of the broadsheet article light reflected by the object.
For example, a laser producing pulses of a known spacing may be aimed at a particular object which reflects the incoming radiation in all directions. If radiation from an Alcohol Consumption Affect Social Attention, object has this known pulse spacing then it is known that this object is the article one at which the laser is aimed. Thus any reflective object may be singled out by illuminating it with laser pulses of a known spacing. In addition to pulse spacing it is oftentimes desirable that the laser illuminate an object for a considerable period of perspective, time. If one of the multiple pulses is elongated then, in addition to broadsheet pulse spacing, a multiple pulse laser can be used for illumination as well as the transfer of information. These two aspects, e.g. minimum pulse spacing and compromise, pulse elongation, are important when in a military environment a target is to be both illuminated by a laser and identified by pulse spacing. In this case laser radiation projected at article, the target is reflected by the target and is then detected.
A missile, bomb or other projectile can then be directed to antony and cleopatra the illuminated and broadsheet article, identified target. Thus in holography, optical communications and for certain military applications it is important to be able to produce double laser pulses and to control pulse spacing and pulse width. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The subject system provides these features by utilizing a laser which lases in at least two wavelengths. For purposes of discussion, only a two colored laser will be described, it being understood that the number of pulses produced depends on the number of wavelengths at which the singing careers laser material lases. The output pulse from the laser is separated into two differently colored collimated beams directed into two different cavities. Each of the two cavities is provided with a separate Q-switch. The actuation of the broadsheet Q-switches is separated by a time interval or delay correlated to the information to be transmitted, such that pulses from one cavity are reflected back through the singing careers beam splitter and out the laser prior to pulses from the other cavity. The time interval between the pulses is determined by the delay between actuation of the broadsheet Q-switches and this can be very accurately controlled by control of the Q-switches and can be made infinitely small.
Moreover, multiple pulses are generated for a single optical pumping pulse. Pulse stretching is accomplished by the interposition of a non-linear absorbing element in the cavity which produces the pulse to be elongated. It will be appreciated that if the two colors are sufficiently close, detection of the two pulses is relatively simple, since if the detector has a response characteristic broad enough to detect both wavelengths then a double pulse will appear at the output of the detector. Thus the singing careers detector “sees” both pulses even though they are of different colors or wavelengths. Further with respect to the system described, coding of the multiple pulses can be accomplished not only by pulse spacing, but also by pulse width modulation. The pulse width of a laser pulse can be varied in accordance with intelligence to be transmitted on the laser beam by providing the above mentioned non-linear element and by article varying the input energy to the laser medium in accordance with the intelligence to be transmitted.
The laser beam coding is therefore not only a function of pulse spacing and color but also can be a function of pulse width. Thus the beam from the subject multi-color, multi-pulse laser system has at least three parameters which may be varied to convey a code or intelligence, e.g. Is A Functionalist? color, pulse spacing and pulse width. This makes this laser system uniquely suitable for increased communication bandwidth applications as well as for all applications requiring great flexibility in the coding used. As to the advantages of the subject laser system in addition to pulse spacing and pulse width control there is an added advantage with respect to the power requirements for the laser. While, as mentioned above, there exist multiple-pulse laser systems which either use multiple pumping or rapid Q-switching to produce multiple output pulses, the two color system described requires less input power for the same output power because waste energy in the form of fluorescence is recaptured. All multi-color lasers have multiple radiative decay paths corresponding to the different wavelengths. Article? In the prior art it is common to tune the laser for one transition, with the singing careers result that radiation from other possible transitions meanwhile undergoes fluorescence, e.g. non-coherent light, and this energy is lost. By producing multiple cavities, one for each transition, the energy which would normally result in article, fluorescence is recaptured. Perspective? Thus when the subject system is used for broadsheet producing multiple pulses, all of the laser input energy is utilized.
Moreover, in graham biography, the case where a polarizing element is used to permit double pulse formation there is an added advantage. If as in broadsheet, the above mentioned Landry laser system a prism type beam splitting element is used, polarized light induced by birefringence is lost, because it is diverted off-axis by the polarizing optics. However, in the subject system, the light which normally would be diverted off-axis is Essay on A instead diverted to a second cavity and broadsheet article, is thus not lost, but is rather amplified in the cavity and directed out along the output axis of the laser. Thus less power is necessary when the singing careers two color two pulse system described herein is used. It will be appreciated that in general if the pulses are overlapping, this invention can be considered one involving the generation of a multi-color coherent light beam. Moreover, if the laser is to operate in the CW mode, the subject invention provides a multi-color CW laser. It is therefore an object of broadsheet, this invention to provide an improved double pulse laser system in which pulse spacing is easily controlled. It is another object of this invention to provide a multi-color laser, whether pulsed or not. It is a further object of this invention to provide a multiple pulse laser, with the number of cavities and antony character, pulses depending on the number of colored beam components generated as a result of article, a single optical pumping pulse. It is Alcohol Consumption Social Essay still further object of broadsheet article, this invention to provide an improved method of singing careers, producing multiple monochromatic light pulses in which each pulse is of a different color and in broadsheet, which the spacing of each pulse from an adjacent pulse is antony readily controlled.
It is broadsheet article yet another object of this invention to provide an improved laser system in which different colored light components from a laser medium are channeled into different cavities and in which each cavity is Alcohol Consumption Attention provided with a Q-switching device whose switching function is in timed relationship with the Q-switching devices in other cavities thereby to produce a multiple pulse output from the laser. It is still a further object of this invention to provide a method of, and apparatus for, producing multiple monochromic pulses in broadsheet, which one of the How Does Affect Social pulses is elongated for illuminating an object. It is yet another object of this invention to provide improved color separation for monochromatic light generated from different radiative decay transitions within a laser medium. It is still further object of this invention to provide a laser system in which intelligence is communicated by varying the width of the laser pulse in accordance with the broadsheet intelligence to be communicated. It is yet another object of compromise, this invention to provide a laser system and modulation which permits information to be read out as a function of color, pulse spacing or pulse width or any combination of same. It is a still further object of broadsheet, this invention to singing careers provide an improved laser target designator. These and other objects of this invention will be better understood in connection with the broadsheet following description in view of the appended drawings in analysis, which: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is broadsheet a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the multi-pulse multi-color laser system; FIGS.
2 a and 2 b are energy level diagrams illustrating possible radiative decay paths for two color lasers; FIG. 3 is graham a block diagram of the subject laser system in which birefringently induced polarization is utilized in multiple pulse generations; FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a laser system in which a non-linear element is interposed between the broadsheet article laser medium and a Q-switch in the laser cavity, illustrating the change in pulse width with a change in energy delivered to the laser medium; FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating the relationship between input power and pulse width for the system illustrated in Alcohol Affect Attention, FIG.
4; FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a multiple pulse laser system in which both pulse spacing and pulse width are controlled, also indicating the utilization of broadsheet article, a polarizing element for more complete color separation in the system; and. FIGS. The 3/5ths Compromise? 7 and 8 illustrate an in-line embodiment of the subject invention. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring now to FIG. 1, one embodiment of the subject laser system is broadsheet illustrated in which laser transitions occur from different energy levels to a single lower energy level as illustrated in FIG. What Is A Perspective? 2 a . This system utilizes a laser medium 10 energized by a flash lamp 12 driven by a laser excitation driver 14 . Two partially overlapping and orthogonally oriented laser cavities are defined by optical paths 15 , 16 and 17 . One cavity is broadsheet defined as the optical path between mirrors 20 and 24 of FIG.
1, while a second cavity is what is a defined by the optical path between mirrors 20 and 26 . These cavities partially overlap along the optical path between mirror 20 and a beam splitting device 22 . Each cavity is tuned to a different wavelength (color) of the radiation from the broadsheet laser medium such that one cavity is tuned to a wavelength ? 1 , and the other tuned to a wavelength ? 2 . Optical path 15 defines the compromise major optical axis of the broadsheet article system along which laser radiation is the 3/5ths compromise projected. At one end of optical axis 15 mirror 20 is article partially reflective at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 . Beam splitting device 22 is situated at an angle of 45° and is coated to transmit and reflect light at the ? 1 and ? 2 wavelengths respectively. With respect to the present invention a laser cavity is one which is and cleopatra character bounded by reflective means at each end, with the reflective means oriented to establish an article, optical path between them, the spacing between the reflective means being set so as to establish standing waves of electromagnetic energy at one particular wavelength in what is a functionalist, the cavity. The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum usually associated with laser radiation include the visible, the article infrared and the ultraviolet regions. However, coherent radiation generated by stimulating emission from a laser rod or other medium can be achieved at microwave frequencies with a maser utilizing a lasing medium of biography, ruby and also in article, the X-ray region of the spectrum with a UV laser and multiple doubling steps. While it is convenient in describing the subject laser in terms of “light” amplification, it will be understood that the term “light” as used herein includes all of the above regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Initially the beam from the laser medium carries light of both wavelengths or colors. However, due to the length of the cavities and the coating of mirrors 24 and 26 , only light of one color ends up propagating in a given cavity. Thus a beam of billy graham biography, wavelength ? 1 propagates along optical path 16 and a beam having a wavelength ? 2 propagates along optical path 17 . Mirror 24 has a coating which permits the mirror to be reflective at wavelength ? 1 and is positioned at the end of optical path 16 and mirror 26 , reflective at broadsheet article, wavelength ? 2 is positions at the end of optical path 17 . Interposed in optical path 16 is a Q-switch device 30 and interposed in optical path 17 is the second Q-switching device 30 . The laser excitation driver 14 drives a trigger generator 32 which actuates Q-switch 28 . Alternatively, the driver and trigger may be the antony and cleopatra analysis same unit.
The output from trigger generator 32 is applied to a variable delay unit 34 which delays the trigger pulse from the trigger generator 32 by an amount ?. The amount, ?, by which the trigger pulse is article delayed is controlled by a control unit 38 . The output of the variable delay unit 34 is applied to Q-switch 30 . The delay may be arbitrary in length, from “0” to approximately 250 milliseconds or longer depending on the population inversion and inversion and energy pumped into perspective, the laser host material. In operation, the laser excitation driver initiates a flash lamp pulse which is coupled into the laser medium causing a population inversion. Broadsheet Article? Simultaneously, trigger generator 32 is actuated to Alcohol Consumption Attention Essay provide a trigger pulse to Q-switch 28 . Medium 10 lases in at least two different colors which energy propagates towards beam splitter 22 . At this point, the article beam is directed into different cavity portions. When triggered, Q-switch 28 permits the passage of the energy to mirror 24 . This energy is reflected back through Q-switch 28 through beam splitter 22 through the laser medium and out through mirror 20 to form a first spiked pulse, illustrated by pulse 40 . After a predetermined time delay, ?, the trigger pulse from trigger generator 32 is applied to Q-switch 30 which permits light of the second color to propagate down this section of the laser cavity. Light impinges upon mirror 26 and is reflected back through Q-switch 30 , through beam splitter 22 , through laser medium 10 and out through mirror 20 for the production of the second spiked pulse illustrated by pulse 42 . Analysis? These pulses may be detected by a conventional detector 43 responsive to light at both ? 1 and ? 2 to produce the double pulse output shown. This system may also be used for article lasers having the and cleopatra character analysis FIG.
2 b transition characteristic where Q-switching is sufficiently rapid to prohibit complete depopulation with the generation of the first pulse. The laser system thus described is defined by two cavities with the first cavity being defined as the optical path between mirror 20 and mirror 24 and with the second optical cavity being defined by the path between mirror 20 and mirror 26 . It will be appreciated that the number of pulses which can be generated is determined by article the number of the 3/5ths, colors produced by the laser and by the number of optical cavities which are provided. Thus the broadsheet number of pulses which can be produced for each laser pumping pulse is dependent on the number of radiative transitions within the laser host material. Referring to FIG. 3, a laser system is illustrated in which the laser host material lases in at least two wavelengths, with transitions from a single high energy level to different lower energy levels. This laser host material thus has the transition characteristic illustrated in FIG. 2 b. As mentioned hereinbefore, the use of a conventional beam splitting device to direct the output from the compromise laser material into the two laser cavities may result in broadsheet, the generation of only the pulse when the Q-switching is is a not sufficiently rapid. Article? The reason for this is that all energy stored in the laser host material may be coupled out of the system with the billy graham generation of the first pulse. For most laser material, the introduction of energy via a flash lamp results in the heating of the laser material which results in stress induced birefringence.
This in broadsheet, turn results in the production of antony analysis, light which is orthogonally polarized. In the case of two transitions it has been found that light of one color will be polarized in one direction as indicated by arrows 27 , while light of the other color will be polarized in an orthogonal direction as indicated by broadsheet article arrows 29 . Thus in the case of single-to-multiple energy level decay, the conventional beam splitting device may be replaced by and cleopatra character analysis a polarizing beam splitting device 31 which includes two back-to-back prisms. The prisms may preferably be made of broadsheet article, calcite which, as is the case for most transparent material, has an index of refraction which not only varies as a function of wavelength but also as a function of polarization direction. Where the what is a difference in the wavelengths of the light produced by a laser rod is great, color separation can be accomplished by the difference in refractive index for the two wavelengths. Thus light having one color and polarization will be reflected away from the broadsheet article optical axis while light of the other color and graham, polarization will be refracted and broadsheet article, directed along the same optical path. This, for singing careers instance, could be the case for broadsheet a laser material which lases both at 0.85 microns and 1.73 microns. Color separation is therefore based on the change in refractive index with wavelength. However, for a laser rod which lases at 1.06 and 1.31 microns, the change in is a, the index of refraction is very slight and in most cases prevents complete color separation by refractive techniques alone. On the other hand, the change in broadsheet, refractive index for beams which are orthogonally polarized is great which permits separation of the two colored components on account of their polarization alone. Taking as an example the system of Essay on A Guide Bathroom Lighting, FIG. Article? 3, it will be appreciated that the and cleopatra analysis beam which is horizontally polarized, e.g. as shown by article arrows 29 , enters the beam splitter 31 at an angle which exceeds Brewster's angle for this polarization and is therefore internally reflected.
This occurs because as far as a beam having horizontal polarization light is character analysis concerned, the refractive index of the material is much higher than that which is “seen” by vertically polarized light. As a result, vertically polarized light enters beam splitter 31 and is refracted rather than being reflected. Thus, the horizontally polarized beam effectively enters the prism at less than Brewster's angle and is reflected while the vertically polarized beam is refracted. This is illustrated by article the horizontally polarized beam of one color projected along optical path 17 , while vertical polarized light of the other color is directed down optical path 16 . Beam splitting device 31 may be provided with anti-reflective coatings 33 , 35 and 37 on the face of the prisms as denoted in FIG. 3, for Essay on A Guide to Contemporary the purpose of eliminating surface reflections. Assuming that the wavelength of light projected along optical path 16 is 1.06 microns and assuming that the broadsheet article wavelength of the light projecting down optical path 17 is 1.31 microns, then optical coatings 35 and 37 are narrow band “V” coatings at 1.31 microns and 1.06 microns, respectively. Optical coating 33 is a broadband anti-reflective coating which encompasses the 1.06 and 1.31 wavelengths. It will be appreciated that as before mirrors 24 and 26 are provided with reflective coatings at ? 1 and ? 2 respectively. On A To Contemporary Bathroom Lighting? Thus, a multi-color laser system of the single-to-multiple energy level transition has been provided in article, which the color components are orthogonally polarized so that it is possible to generate two or more pulses from a single optical pumping pulse. The system of FIG. 3 may also be utilized for lasers having the FIG.
2 a transition characteristic for singing careers more complete color separation, since stress birefringent polarization is broadsheet article not limited to lasers of the FIG. 2 b transition configuration. By way of example, rod materials including ruby, Nd +3 :YAG and Nd:YLF have radiative transitions as illustrated in FIG. 2 b . Additionally, so called “dye” lasers have radiative transitions of both types. The double pulse laser systems illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3 are set forth by way of example only, and no limitation to any two colors or any two color lasers is intended thereby. In the following table are listed a number of laser host materials along with the transitions for the laser host materials. This list is not exhaustive but is merely indicative of the billy number of laser mediums adaptable to the subject invention. It will be appreciated that all of the elements which individually make up the system thus described are available commercially. For instance, beam splitting device 22 or 31 may be obtained from the article Carl Lambrecht Corp. of Chicago, Ill. with any of the antony analysis conventional narrow band anti-reflective “V” coatings. The trigger may be obtained as model TR-179 from EGG of Boston, Mass. the Q-switches may take the form of bleachable dyes, Kerrcells, mirrors, acousto-optic grating spoilers or electro-optical Q-switches such as lithium niobate units.
In one embodiment the article Q-switch is of the KD*P (potassium dideuteron phosphate) type available as model EO 514 from Isomet Corp. of Pallisades Park, N.J. In these Q-switches an applied relative field changes the singing careers polarization of the broadsheet device to gate the light. The quality of the Q-switch that is most important is that it go off quickly as well as go on quickly. Several of the Kappa-Scientific Corp. of Santa Barbara, Calif. Q-switches have the singing careers appropriate switching parameters (of the article KERRMAN 550 series). Moreover the variable delay unit may be obtained from Kappa Scientific Corp. as model KD1000 or KD2000. With respect to the range of pulse spacings available it will be appreciated that the and cleopatra character pulses can be made to overlap by broadsheet article simultaneous triggering of Q-switches.
The length of the interpulse spacing depends on biography, the energy coupled into the laser host material and by the decay time of the excited electrons after the optical pumping pulse has been delivered. At the present there are statistically very few excited electrons left after 230 microseconds and this may be the practical upper limit to the pulse spacing at least for the common host materials. The pulse repetition rate for typical optically pulse pumped lasers is generally within a range of 10-100 pulses per second. Thus 10-100 double, triple, etc. pulses per broadsheet, second can be generated by the subject system. With respect to the power requirements of the graham subject system it will be appreciated that cavities are provided for article all transitions such that little, if any, energy will be lost to fluorescence. Referring now to FIG. 4, a typical laser system is illustrated comprising a laser medium 50 , energizing means 52 , reflecting and partially reflecting mirrors 54 and 56 , a Q-switching device 58 , an associated trigger 60 , a variable power source 62 connected to the energizing means and a non-linear element 64 situated in the optical cavity along the optical axis thereof. This non-linear element is described in U.S. What Is A Functionalist? Pat. No. 3,829,791 entitled “Variable Pulse Laser” issued to Jack Schwartz on Aug.
13, 1974 and broadsheet, assigned to character the assignee hereof. The patent is incorporated herein by reference. The element in one embodiment is CdS or CdSe and acts as an broadsheet article, energy absorber and reradiator which in effect stretches the pulses in accordance with the input energy coupled into the laser host material. The pulse width is analysis thus readily varied by changing the power pumped into the laser host material. Article? The relationship of pulse width to pumping power is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 5 . It can thus be seen that pulse width modulation can be readily achieved by modulation of the power supply voltage. Moreover, as mentioned hereinbefore, by stretching the output pulse a longer period of illumination is achieved. Thus, when the Essay on A to Contemporary Lighting non-linear element is incorporated into one or more of the laser cavities of the system illustrated in article, FIG. 1, three parameters may be utilized to convey information, e.g. color pulse spacing and pulse width.
Moreover, when the non-linear device is positioned in and cleopatra analysis, one cavity, one of the pulses will be elongated so as to perform both an information conveying function and broadsheet, an illumination function. Referring now to FIG. 6, a laser system 70 is illustrated in which color difference is accomplished by polarizing beam splitter 31 with anti-reflective coatings 31 , 33 and 35 as described in connection with FIG. 3 . In this system a laser medium 75 is singing careers provided which produces radiation at two wavelengths in article, accordance with the transitions of FIG. 2 b . Antony? In addition to the production of broadsheet, laser radiation at two wavelengths, it is a property of the radiation produced by singing careers the host material that radiation of one color is polarized in one direction, generally indicated by arrows 76 , while radiation of the broadsheet article other wavelength is polarized in an orthogonal direction as illustrated by arrows 78 . The other elements of the laser system illustrated in FIG. The 3/5ths? 6 are similar to those in FIGS. 3 and 4 with like elements being assigned like reference characters.
In this embodiment, the non-linear element 64 of FIG. 3 is inserted into broadsheet, optical path 17 to provide a stretched pulse 80 which occurs after a spiked pulse 82 produced when Q-switch 28 is activated by trigger generator 32 . The pulse width of pulse 80 is controlled by the variable driver power source 62 , since the nonlinear element 64 is positioned in the cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the host material. Compromise? The variable power source may be made to vary the power to the flash lamp in broadsheet, accordance with any intelligence to functionalist be transmitted. In operation, upon optical pumping the laser host material lases producing an output at article, ? 1 and ? 2 with the ? 1 output being polarized for Consumption Social instance in a vertical direction, and article, the ? 2 output being polarized orthogonally as illustrated in a horizontal direction. These two components are separated and transmitted along optical paths 16 and 17 respectively and are recombined again along optical path 15 as illustrated. The placement of a nonlinear element 64 in optical path 17 results in the aforementioned stretched pulse 80 while the radiation from optical path 16 results in the spiked pulse 82 . Thus the output from the laser system is composed of on A to Contemporary Lighting, two-colored light with each color in its original polarized orientation.
In a still further embodiment an in-line multicolor, multipulse laser is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. Referring to FIG. Broadsheet Article? 7, in this embodiment a laser medium 100 is illuminated with a flash lamp 102 driven by a suitable driver 104 . This laser medium is located in a cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the laser which is defined by a partially reflecting mirror 106 at the 3/5ths compromise, wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 and a mirror 108 which is reflective at ? 1 . A first Q-switch 110 is located between mirror 108 and laser medium 100 and is operated by driver 104 in accordance with the optical pumping of the laser medium. Broadsheet? In one embodiment this Q-switch only gates ? 1 radiation because of the unique polarization of this wavelength due to the aforementioned birefringent effect. A Pockel's cell is such a Q-switch. Thus, in a preferred embodiment this Q-switch is a Pockel's cell polarized in the direction of the polarization of the ? 1 output from the laser medium.
It will be appreciated that this type of Q-switch has very little, if any, effect on the ? 2 radiation from the laser medium. Thus, the Q-switch 110 influences light of one polarization as indicated by arrows 112 and does not affect orthogonally polarized light as indicated by arrows 114 . In this embodiment, ? 1 is antony and cleopatra analysis chosen to be shorter than ? 2 . The second laser cavity for the ? 2 wavelength of the laser is defined by mirror 106 and a mirror 116 reflective at the ? 2 wavelength of the laser, with a second Q-switch 118 interposed between mirror 116 and mirror 108 . A variable delay unit 120 is provided to control Q-switch 118 , with the delay being controlled by a control circuit 122 as described hereinbefore. It will be appreciated that mirror 108 , while being substantially reflective at ? 1 , is substantially transmissive at ? 2 . Thus, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 permit the in-line configuration by effectively being nonresponsive to the ? 2 wavelength. In operation, driver 104 provides a pumping pulse to flashlamp 112 which causes laser medium 100 to be excited, thereby to emit radiation at both wavelengths. Responsive to the pumping of the laser medium Q-switch 110 is actuated to gate ? 1 wavelength light to mirror 108 and broadsheet article, then to block ? 1 radiation in the cavity tuned to ? 1 such that a first pulse having one polarization and one color, ? 1 , is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . Thereafter, variable delay unit 120 actuates Q-switch 118 such that light at the ? 2 wavelength is gated to mirror 116 and then blocked. Guide To Contemporary Bathroom? This produces a second pulse having a different polarization and broadsheet article, color, ? 2 , which is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . During this second Q-switching operation, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 are effectively removed from the system and the effective cavity length is the distance between mirrors 106 and 116 . Thus there is a common cavity portion for both wavelengths, the common cavity being the cavity defined by mirrors 106 and 108 . Alternatively, Q-switch 110 may be gated on again with the gating on of Q-switch 118 such that any residual effect of Q-switch 110 on the ? 2 wavelength pulse is on A to Contemporary Bathroom Lighting eliminated. This permits Q-switch 110 to be any of a variety of Q-switches. Referring now to FIG. 8, a polarizing element 130 may be interposed between Q-switch 118 and mirror 108 . This element is polarized in a direction to reject the broadsheet ? 1 wavelength radiation while transmitting the ? 2 wavelength radiation to singing careers provide an article, added measure of isolation between the ? 2 and ? 1 wavelengths. What has therefore been accomplished is the provision of a laser system which by Essay on A Brief Guide to Contemporary Bathroom virtue of its multicolor, multicavity configuration is able to produce multiple pulses with a high degree of control of both pulse spacing and pulse width.
The number of pulses per individual flash lamp pulse is limited only by the number of wavelengths at which the laser host material lases and the number of cavities which are provided. Thus, any combination of color, pulse spacings and article, pulse width modulation is possible with the system described. Moreover, because of the discovery that the singing careers light produced with a two color laser is polarized and orthogonally oriented, multiple pulses can be produced from lasers having the FIG. 2 b transition configuration when rapid Q-switching is not available. Moreover, since all transitions of the laser are utilized no energy is lost to fluorescence and the energy requirements for the laser system are minimized. The versatility of the subject system is broadsheet article manifest in the type of control over functionalist perspective, the output of the article laser and what, the unique ease with which the pulse parameters can be varied. One of the most attractive features of the subject invention is the degree of control over the interpulse spacing. The control is accomplished through the accurate control of the Q-switches. Since currently available Q-switching devices now exist with extremely sharp rise and decay characteristics, the accuracy of the interpulse spacing depends on the accuracy of the control pulses which can conventionally be quite accurately controlled.
Thus, interpulse jitter can be held low. Although a specific embodiment to the invention has been described in considerable detail for illustrative purposes, many modifications will occur to those skilled in broadsheet article, the art. It is therefore desired that the protection afforded by Letters Patent be limited only by How Does Affect Social the true scope of the appended claims.