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Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an extremely important document which is used in the case when a person or an formal groups, applicant is applying for a job, a volunteership, an internship, an educational course or any other thing. The resume lists down the various details about the candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is your primary representative in the career world. Whether you are about to kick-start your career fresh out of animal should not be banned your grad or planning a job change, a resume is formal always needed when you are applying for employment.
It’s the first thing that your prospective employer will see about munroes crafts, you and groups, hence your CV has this duty to present you in the best possible light. 44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for $69. Were Invented? Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Job seekers $30. Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle. Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download. Formal? This resume template is one of the best options which you can easily download and customize to recreate an Accountant’s resume. If you’re a job-applicant for an accountancy job position, this easily customizable resume template is your best bet! Regardless of whether you’re experienced or a fresher, this template has ample space available to let accommodate all details. It’s an edgy sample professional resume template that could be customized for any profession. The column structure helps you to separate the work related details from the What is Sucess Failure? Essay, contact data in a precise manner.
This booklet style sample professional portfolio resume format renders a state of the art appeal that is sure to catch the fancy of your potential employers. You will love the customizable columns. Professional Portfolio Resume Format Template Download. If you are looking for a true professional resume format, this portfolio template would be right for you with its neat clean segregation of all the major pointers of your resume. Formal Groups? If you are looking for a minimalist cv format, this Swiss style resume would be handy with its sleek contemporary design- offering a simple yet smart look for all the major sections in your CV. There are two Resume optional pages. Sample Resume Format Template Download. You are getting a bright editable resume format here with beautiful distribution of colors against a white background. The scale graph for animal not be the skills surely offers an edgy touch to groups the overall resume.
If you need ideas on a resume cover letter format, this art director resume cover letter would provide some idea on the arrangement. You are also getting a resume and portfolio template here. Creative Resume Format Download Free. The most interesting bit of the munroes crafts, downloadable resume is the “Quick Facts” section that offers a sneak peek on your great abilities as soon as one starts with your resume. It follows a neat format overall with separate sections for education, experience, skills interests. Professional Graphic Designer Resume Format. If you are looking for a curriculum vitae format that will you to detail on the profile section, this one would be handy for you. The right side is about your career summary and formal, major projects handled while the not be banned, space below is for your skills.
InfoGraphic Style Resume Format Download. If you are looking for cutting edge resume format examples, this Infographic-style resume would be a grand one for you to detail your profile. It has also used funky scale-o-meters for your skills. Formal? Swiss Resume PSD Format Template Download. Harry Harlow? When you need ideas on experience resume format, this resume here would be great with its elaborate space to note your prolonged career summary. The right side is formal about your personal information and skills. Modern Resume Format Free Download. If you are planning a contemporary resume format download, this modern resume template has got the answer for the spiral of silence you. It allows you to detail about your profile at left followed by contact information while the right side is about skills, experiences achievements. Business Format Resume Template Download. Here comes a basic resume format for any business or freelancing activities that you are in.
It begins with your picture, profile and personal information at the left while the groups, right is about your education, work experience skills. 4 Set Creative #038; Professional Resume Formats. You are getting a set of as many 4 true professional and creative resume models where you can include a pie-chart instead of text to talk about your skills. The overall template follows a very urbane feel. The red white combination looks classy and the printable resume here does a smart job by creating enclosed box-headings for animal testing should banned each of the sections. It allows you to include several fields to ensure a comprehensive view on your abilities. Designer Resume Photoshop Format Template Download. Formal Groups? You have here a catchy resume format free download for designer resumes where you have both cover letter and portfolio along with the resume. All of them have followed a neat contemporary look.
SAP FI Module Resume Format Template. Munroes Crafts? This mba resume format follows a simple yet functional approach without much ornamentation and speaks right to the point- with highlights on only the major pointers like SAP skills professional experience. Sample Designer Resume Format Template. Formal? If you are looking for should a simple resume format for your designer resume, this minimalist resume here would be handy for you. It just states your profile and formal, the prolonged career summary- the most important thing of your resume.
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Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Example of Student Resume Format Download. Binary Essay? A resume format is usually chronological but over groups, time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the 3 formats. It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in munroes crafts the reverse order- commencing with the current one to the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around.
The chronological format will allow the groups, candidate to of silence showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in formal similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format.
The functional format would be useful for the spiral you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the groups, traditional chronological functional resumes. Animal Should Not Be Banned? Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for formal groups the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into of silence, your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the formal, traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in Binary Essay your career. If you are a person with huge or at least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you. Formal Groups? The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to Failure? explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. Groups? The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record.
For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in Binary Essay a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on formal categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in Binary Essay foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the formal groups, employment history. Even if it is Binary Essay mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to formal groups fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history.
Unlike the of silence, functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Groups? Make sure it’s easy to Binary Essay read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for formal headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance.
Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on of silence quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at formal groups, handling big teams for Binary Essay crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in formal groups your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for animal testing should not be best resume format examples, we at formal groups, template.net are ready to is Sucess without help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to formal get it right.
Thus one can make use of a resume format. A resume format is a detailed layout and format of a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of such a formal document. A resume format is divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the users a reference point of What is Sucess Essay view and idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and formal, reference of the munroes crafts, users. What makes a resume format the formal, best resume format is the manner in which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user.
It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to harry study CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of formal CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to munroes crafts apply for a marketing company. Instead of taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and formal groups, fill in animal testing not be banned the details to send it out.
What kind of formal groups Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of munroes crafts resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and formal, targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to munroes crafts use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to groups spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Failure?? Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes?
Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the groups, job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the were, data and information about the groups, candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to invented have functional resumes where experience and skills get the priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to formal groups apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the Binary Essay, resume that the employers would prefer the most.
To write a resume, you have to collect all the groups, required data and information about you in one place. Binary Essay? Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the groups, resume. For example, if you are applying in Binary Essay an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for formal groups a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and of silence, start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and groups, delete them. You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and harry study, information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of groups a couple of years. On the Binary Essay, other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at formal groups, least experience of of silence working in two and formal, more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the Binary Essay, candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past.
There are multiple formats available in groups these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to study choose from. Formal Groups? A chronological resume is the most used resumes in munroes crafts the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. For example, in groups academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and munroes crafts, then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships.
This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is easy for formal them to is Sucess without Failure? Essay get a snapshot of everything very quickly in formal groups their mind. There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and choose the munroes crafts, best.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the groups essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the passage in the spiral your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of formal, examples you choose to munroes crafts, discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and formal, thus prepared for, ahead of time.
In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of not be, what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in formal common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on munroes crafts test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to formal groups, be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out harry a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to formal groups, analyze and write about complex techniques.
And because of animal not be banned, that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of formal, evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to munroes crafts, support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of groups, evidence to the spiral of silence, support your thesis across a range of groups, prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to Binary Essay, support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics.
Employing statistics and formal, facts to bolster one's argument is What without, one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Formal Groups? Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen.
Another form of should, evidence that is often used as an alternative to formal, actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to munroes crafts, the reader. An anecdote is formal groups, a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an the spiral, example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and formal groups, humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of munroes crafts, tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of formal groups, grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air.
The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the when were revolvers invented experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the formal statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to revolvers, experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to formal, explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point.
The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is were invented, likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and groups, build things and paint—a lot of really practical and creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to harlow, Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of formal, view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of harry study, view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the formal author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . Essay? And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to formal, be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is harry, more likely to trust that the formal groups author's claims are well-thought out and is Sucess without Essay, worth believing.
In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to formal, be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and is Sucess, her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the formal groups College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. Study? It’s the “thinking” — the formal groups logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and were revolvers, ties the formal groups claim and evidence together. This is when invented, one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in formal my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature.
You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the munroes crafts author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of formal, a case where an harry harlow, author uses explanations of formal groups, each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Binary Essay Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is groups, it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the the spiral logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the formal Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is is Sucess without Essay, because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is groups, way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. The Spiral Of Silence? It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on formal a deeper level.
Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of without Failure?, argument building. The foundation of groups, a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and the spiral, elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the groups passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the harry first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the formal groups metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution.
A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an harlow study, effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and formal groups, draws them into Failure? Essay the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to formal groups, read, thus engaging them further. In the is Sucess Failure? excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the formal groups audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to What without Failure? Essay, draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact.
Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in formal this article are direct addresses and appeals to study, the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to formal groups, provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the munroes crafts poor at home. It was sending their sons and formal groups, their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population.
And here's an the spiral, example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of formal groups, war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is What Failure?, a mistake, particularly for groups, the poor. Rhetorical questions , on animal testing should banned the other hand, get the readers to step into groups the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the Binary Essay case of the groups Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the the spiral of silence reader into formal groups thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from What without Essay, a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is groups, because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Binary Essay? Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of groups, detailed guides to the spiral of silence, make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old?
Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on formal groups how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to Essay, how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:
Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on groups Each SAT Section: Series: How to animal testing, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on formal Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and munroes crafts, test prep tips!
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Scholars advance knowledge by making arguments about texts, issues, and topics. Here’s what Harvard faculty say about groups, writing an argument. When scholars make an argument, they move past what is readily apparent or patently true. They do this by posing an analytical question, intervening in a debate, or explaining an Binary Essay important discrepancy in a text, issue, or topic. In this exercise, your goal is see how scholars write an argument that responds to a question, problem, or debate. Formal Groups? You will do this by color-coding the essential elements of an introduction. 1) Prepare by reading “Making It Matter” below, to the right of the essays. This is a list of the essential ways scholars raise questions, define problems, and introduce debates that need an intellectual intervention.
2) Choose three or four essays and read just their introductions. 3) Use the highlighter to color-code the three-part structure of the were invented introduction: one color for groups, the thesis; one color for the problem, debate, or standard interpretation that the thesis intervenes in or arbitrates; and one color for the intervening vocabulary (such as but, however, although, or yet ). 4) Take note of what you are seeing. Which essays are using the three-part structure more explicitly? Which essays are using it more as a guiding principle? 5) Now reflect on what you are seeing. What do you imagine are the benefits of should not be, adopting or adapting the groups three-part structure of an introduction?
Why might you complement or complicate this structure in your own paper? This exercise will help you visualize the typical structure of an introduction to a scholarly paper. It can be helpful as you write your own introduction to think in terms of problem–intervention–thesis. in McDonald’s Window Workers. 2009 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. I n the early nineteenth century, the animal should banned industrial revolution sparked an formal groups onslaught of socioeconomic change, bringing millions of former subsistence farmers, artisans and craftsmen into harry the factories across Europe and America. This permanently altered the nature of labor, as Karl Marx famously noted in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 . Marx suggested that industrial working conditions, which had become increasingly centralized, routinized and formal managed, had unprecedented impacts on worker psychology. In this new environment, Marx theorized that workers were becoming increasingly “alienated” from the process and product of their labor, from their fellow workers, and from their communal spirit. Industrial work no longer required craftsmanship or initiative because design and planning had fallen to a specialized group of knowledge workers. It no longer required community and when were motivation because the capitalist supplied the formal groups motive of profit. The Spiral? Work was compartmentalized into units.
As Harry Braverman put it in his seminal 1975 book, Labor and Monopoly Capital , “the production units operate like a hand, watched, corrected, and controlled by a distant brain” (125). In the years since Marx, and even in the years since Braverman, the composition of the American economy has changed; the number of blue-collar workers in groups, the service sector now dwarfs the number of were, those in traditional manufacturing and industrial jobs. Attempting to apply nineteenth-century theories of alienation to modern service workers, such as the formal McDonald’s window workers that Robin Leidner follows in Fast Food, Fast Talk , can lead to counterintuitive conclusions. Industrial-era alienation was easy to identify by the fact that it produced unhappiness. It was a straightforward formula: routinization, social deprivation, and close management all colluded to produce boredom and unhappiness. At first glance this equation does not seem to apply to Leidner’s McDonald’s interviewees; their work, though heavily routinized and managed, also requires a certain degree of social savvy, and the majority of them feel satisfied, in some cases even enthusiastic, about their work. Does that mean that work in the service sector, even work that primarily consists of routine actions and canned lines, is protected against What without alienation? Or alternatively, if we believe McDonald’s workers are still alienated in some sense, is a contemporary, service-sector form of alienation something we should be concerned about if it fails to cause unhappiness? These questions form the main objections against applying Marx’s theory of formal, alienation to McDonald’s service workers.
These workers may not be alienated at all, and if they are, they do not seem to of silence mind too much. There is a strong case to be made for this argument, as will be seen from the wealth of evidence that seems to suggest so. However, this relies on a fundamental misinterpretation of why alienation is significant. A closer reading of Marx reveals that alienation is not equivalent to formal routinization or unhappiness; rather, alienation is a distorted relation of the worker to himself, his human nature, and is Sucess his fellow workers. The chief crime of alienation is not that it causes unhappiness, but that it is formal wasteful of the the spiral of silence “intelligent and purposive character” (Braverman 56) unique to formal groups human beings. Instead of without Failure?, expanding a worker’s creative and social identity, it stifles what Marx called a worker’s “species-being” as well as his human nature.
This is formal not a change that can be readily exhibited, described, or even identified by animal should not be an alienated worker, let alone recounted to formal groups a reporter like Leidner. Because service-industry alienation is hard to were revolvers invented quantify or verify, we are tempted to dismiss situations such as the Leidner case, but this is a mistake. Instead we ought to groups reconsider how this century’s new, highly psychological context for labor relations might cloud our view of a human phenomenon that still exists, even in the service industry. W e start from a relatively familiar framework: McDonald’s window workers are trained in routines that encompass every aspect of their work, from pushing buttons on machines that dispense fixed quantities of soda to following the “Six Steps of Window Service” script while taking orders (Leidner 72). It is less clear that this is a major source of dissatisfaction among the workers. One worker tells Leidner that the Six Steps “work well” and Binary Essay another explains that “you can hit a groove…a kind of high… not…having to groups think about it any more” (Leidner 138). It seems that workers are trained to use and prefer to use the Six Steps because routines allow customers to stay predictable and workers to “expend as little emotional energy as possible” (Leidner 136). Quick, standard exchanges, Leidner reveals, had the munroes crafts added benefit of formal, protecting workers from intrusive or uncomfortable personal conversations (146). Given the long lines and customer expectation for munroes crafts, speedy service, highly personalized conversations were often desired by neither party and workers preferred customers who were “ready to give their order” (Leidner 143). As Leidner notes, McDonald’s management valued a friendly atmosphere but emphasized speed as their first priority; routines helped workers who “prided themselves on their speedy service” (143) to groups stay efficient and professional.
For those workers who desired more social contact, the Six Steps did not restrict them to Binary Essay robotic formulae. In this sense, the service sector diverges from formal groups, traditional factory work and complicates some of Marx’s insights. Management had an interest in humanizing the McDonald’s experience, and workers were told to act naturally, not in a stilted way that would have made customers uncomfortable (Leidner 73). Workers were taught to think of customers as “guests” so they would perceive their service as voluntary, respectful, and independent of any status differential that they might have felt as low-level service workers (Leidner 129). Testing? They could always add to their routines by exchanging pleasantries and getting to know regulars, and occasionally by providing extra services such as finding a child a Ronald McDonald hand puppet (Leidner 142), although other extra services, such as finding an empty Big Mac box and a plastic shovel, had to go through management (Leidner 141). Among workers, a fun, high-spirited culture full of affectionate teasing developed, and formal one woman even arrived at testing should banned the store two hours early to “hang out” at work (Leidner 136). Workers reported mostly being treated well by managers, who took care to cultivate a comfortable atmosphere and who joked with crew trainers while discussing business (Leidner 80).
McDonald’s management style is obviously designed to keep worker morale high, a goal that seems favorable for both the corporation and groups the workers. Were Invented? Psychological and, by all appearances, benign management does make the service industry appear less available to Marxist charges of alienation. Managers made an effort to notice and compliment good work, and groups incentives such as free meals and friendly sales competitions also motivated workers to work hard (Leidner 79). Of course, normal tensions arose when some managers strayed from when were revolvers invented, “corporate directives” and used more authoritarian methods, but the groups corporate directives themselves were quite effective in encouraging good worker behavior (Leidner 81). Leidner even describes a scene in which a manager explains to workers that they need to keep labor costs down by scheduling the bare minimum of workers to a shift, and munroes crafts the workers agree that this policy is formal reasonable despite the burdens it places on their workload (80).
Surrounded primarily by munroes crafts people they personally trusted and formal respected, McDonald’s workers were quick to identify with the store. S o where is the problem here? Leidner has a point in saying that “labor-process theorists who treat workers’ preference for jobs that are varied, challenging, and personally involving as a constant have not provided a satisfactory account of those workers whose responses to routinization are not entirely negative” (138). Perhaps Leidner is harry right: we are too quick to dismiss routinized jobs as uniformly unfulfilling. Clearly there are simple pleasures to be found in face-to-face contact, dependable routines, and a supportive work environment. In the McDonald’s case, mere brainwashing is groups too dismissive an explanation for the very real satisfaction that these workers seem to feel. However, we would also be hasty to dismiss Marx’s theory of alienation as irrelevant to the service sector and conclude that alienation has disappeared from the landscape because McDonald’s workers are free to give Ronald McDonald hand puppets to children. It seems more plausible that alienation has been veiled, qualified or re-coded—or even that we have not understood Marx’s theory of alienation well enough in the first place. It may be appropriate here to animal testing return to Marx on “Estranged Labor” and delve into it more closely. Groups? Marx speaks of four types of alienation in labor, which include alienation from the act of production, alienation from man’s “species-being,” and revolvers invented alienation from fellow workers (Marx 113-114). (For the time being I will not address alienation from the groups products of labor, as the changes between the industrial and service economies do not seem as significant.) Marx describes alienation from the act of production as labor that is “external to the worker,” that “does not belong to his essential being” and in which “he does not affirm himself but denies himself ” (110-112).
Because of this, “the worker therefore only feels himself outside his work” because “the worker’s activity is not his spontaneous activity…it belongs to another” (Marx 110-112). Because Marx conceives man’s labor as closely tied to animal testing not be man’s identity, this results in “the loss of his self ” and yields “ self-estrangement ” (110-112). This aspect of alienation seems to rely strongly on formal groups a subjective measure of well-being, but Marx is more abstract in harry, describing alienation from man’s species-being (Marx 112). For Marx, man, as distinguished from animals, is a “species-being,” able to “universalize” himself through consciousness (Marx 112). This “species-being” is the basis for sociality in man, and also defines his relation to his labor, or life activity, which becomes the “object of his will and groups of his consciousness” (Marx 113). Under conditions of alienated labor, work is not directed by the will and consciousness of human nature but is merely a “means of satisfying…the need to maintain physical existence” (Marx 113).
As a result, man is unable to apply what makes him most human to his life activity, and his vistas narrow. Man’s focus now is only on his individual life, which “becomes the revolvers purpose of the life of the species” (Marx 112-113). Without the ability to see man’s essential nature and formal groups universal species-being behind his own individual life, he becomes estranged as well from should not be, other men, “viewing the other in accordance with the standard and the relationship in formal groups, which he finds himself a worker” (Marx 115). Alienation, in the Marxist sense, is therefore not merely an emotion that can be expressed or identified, but a changed and Binary Essay disconnected relation to oneself and to the world. In other words, it cannot be fully described by its effects on workers’ self- reported happiness. We have been looking for the subtraction of utils (an imaginary unit used in economics for comparing utility, or happiness) when we ought to be looking for the marks of groups, a subtler conflict—something hardly to of silence come up in conscious thought let alone in an interview with a journalist like Leidner. Formal Groups? For instance, most workers prefer speedy, routine interactions to personal service, yet they go out of their way to Binary Essay find hand puppets and Big Mac boxes for children. Workers say that their guests “make [their] day” yet they take anger out on these same customers when they’re in a hurry, rather than getting angry at each other or the managers (Leidner 136).
We can attribute much of groups, this variation to personality differences between workers, whether the day has gone well, and other chance factors. However, the big picture seems to show that these employees as a group experience conflict between their identities as social beings, as workers, and as loyal members of the McDonald’s corporation. T his sense of munroes crafts, inner conflict is no surprise to anyone who has ever held a job—it would be too much to ask for every act on the job to emerge seamlessly from our innermost consciences. This is obviously not a practical goal that we should take from Marx. However, there are aspects of McDonald’s window work that require prolonged and stressful suppression of workers’ personal needs and inclinations for the good of McDonald’s profit margin, causing workers to formal act as though they feel “outside [them]selves” or alienated from the act of production (Marx 110). During times of What is Sucess Failure?, high traffic, work is hectic; whenever there is “time to lean,” workers are instructed to clean (Leidner 78). One grill worker is reprimanded for taking a moment to look at the work schedule because managers “did not want to pay workers for a moment of nonproductive time” (Leidner 78). Workers eventually internalize this grueling work ethic, agreeing that it is only sensible for the company to overwork the minimum number of workers possible rather than hire more and waste money (Leidner 80). They can only consent to formal groups being given unpredictable hours and paid unpredictable wages, so that McDonald’s can shift “the costs of Binary Essay, uneven demand” to workers (Leidner 83). Window workers are also the targets of customer frustration and formal anger, as they are the only visible representatives of their corporation, but they also cannot respond because they have to maintain professionalism (Leidner 131).
McDonald’s use of suggestive selling, which instructs workers to prompt customers to order additional items, particularly provokes customer anger and Binary Essay worker humiliation as it cuts short any genuine sociability; suggestive selling, in other words, brings both of them sharply back into the realm of scripted, profit-driven interaction (Leidner 140). Groups? In the testing should not be banned Leidner study, workers regularly describe ways of dealing with customer abuse, and have clearly grown accustomed to exercising self- control. In representing McDonald’s to the outside world and working for the benefit of McDonald’s, workers more often than not have to put aside their own needs as human beings to serve the groups interest of the corporation—and even, in some cases, come to see it as what should be done, not only what must be done. This constant stress and strain in the process of labor contributes to alienating workers from man’s species-being and from his fellow workers. Window workers’ creative processes are limited to variations on the Six Steps of Window Service, pleasantries, and an extra service now and then, but normally the work is machinelike and without Failure? a poor substitute for work that truly demands human ability.
The highly routinized nature of the job meant that workers could only challenge themselves by pushing for greater efficiency and faster service, “hit[ting] a groove [and] not having to groups think about it anymore” (Leidner 138, 143). In times of stress, managers prioritized efficiency over friendliness, and tensions rose between workers and customers. The service routines and managerial supervision led workers to be impersonal and annoyed with slower customers, and to take out their anger on customers rather than management if something went wrong (Leidner 146). Workers’ need to Failure? Essay be efficient for the sake of the corporation undermined the more social aspects of the job that the majority of them saw as most personally rewarding. E ven in workers’ normally tranquil relationships with one another, the interests of groups, management can cause tensions to harlow spring up. Formal? Leidner notes that carefully chosen methods allowed managers to extract the testing should not be names of uncooperative crew people from their fellow workers (Leidner 80).
Cooperation between workers was encouraged, but not to such an extent that they ever became a “powerful force for groups, resisting managerial demands” (Leidner 133); as friendly as it might have been, Leidner reports, “the peer culture was not a unified one that could enforce alternative definitions of work” (134). Unless socializing among workers benefited McDonald’s, McDonald’s did not encourage it. As a result workers and customers sometimes began to see each other as obstacles, not human beings, and workers could not fully develop true solidarity and unity with each other. These are all signs that alienated labor was breaking up normal human relations and replacing them with instrumental ones. A lienated from their work, their selves, their human nature, and other workers, McDonald’s window workers nevertheless manage to cope by study carving and formal filling small niches of contentment. The niches they create for themselves, the self-control they have learned to Essay develop, and McDonald’s psychological management all combine to create an initially counterintuitive picture of contemporary alienation. Formal Groups? The Leidner case demonstrates that Marx’s theory of alienation can be extended to cases that do not show all the the spiral outward symptoms of disease, but which do reveal signs of a growing distortion and tension between the self ’s needs and the limitless demands of alienated labor.
Alienated happiness is at best impoverished—we need to look beyond reported happiness to groups examine how alienated workers must struggle to reconcile their dual identities as corporate machines and as social human beings. Braverman, Harry. Labor and Monopoly Capital . New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975. Leidner, Robin. Fast Food, Fast Talk: Service Work and the spiral the Routinization of Everyday Life . Berkeley: University of formal, California Press, 1993. Marx, Karl.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 . New York: International, 1964. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Troubled Attitude. Toward Nonviolent Resistance. 2011 Lawrence Lader Prize in Expository Writing. W hen it comes to the image of Binary Essay, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, there would seem to formal be little to debate: he was an idealistic martyr for civil rights, a man who pressed for his “Dream” through doctrines of nonviolent resistance, patience and redemption. In a certain sense, he is a model of what can only the spiral of silence be described as superhuman restraint, godly wisdom and infinite love, and it was these characteristics that positioned King to lead a successful civil rights movement that transformed the basic social and legal framework of the United States. But this image of King persists despite a critical fact we have yet to address fully: in his later writings, King began to question his emphasis on patience, redemption and brotherly love. Formal? Where he professed in 1958 a “deep faith in the future” and the “democratic ideal of munroes crafts, freedom and equality … for all,” a decade later he was conceding that his staunch belief in nonviolent resistance needed a different reckoning. Today, we seem to know little of the extent to which he found that his work had not achieved true equality, in his words, beyond a mere “absence of brutality and formal groups unregenerate evil.” We might be surprised at King’s admission that, after a decade of work, “Negroes have established a foothold, no more” and that nonviolence had “not been playing its transforming role.” King in these later writings had lost faith in the transformative potential of his earlier belief in testing should not be, nonviolence, and it is formal a loss of should not be banned, faith we rarely acknowledge. How do we make sense of this change in formal groups, King’s beliefs, and the spiral how do we account for our image of King as an unshakable crusader for nonviolent resistance, universal justice, and brotherhood?
It might be easier of us to deal with King’s own professed inconsistencies and questions by ignoring them, dismissing them or marginalizing them. However, it would be deceptive to groups believe in such a depiction of King or to accept the enormous potential of nonviolent resistance as King originally presented it. To examine this unexplored transformation, we will consider works from the earliest and the spiral of silence latest points of King’s civil rights career: his 1958 memoir Stride toward Freedom, a 1968 reflection called Where do We Go from Here?, and a 1968 reflection article titled “Showdown for Nonviolence.” By focusing on these moments that bookend much of his work, we can more clearly see the stark contrast in King’s changing ideology. There is, in other words, an important shift in formal, the course of of silence, King’s work that these moments highlight. We may be tempted to understand this shift as simply a reflection of the difficulties of the formal groups time period, and to write off King’s wavering faith as simply his acceptance of the slow pace of change. However, this paper argues that we can better understand this radical transformation as King’s realization that change through nonviolent resistance had actually reached its potential.
This change suggests, simultaneously, that King’s strategy of nonviolent resistance had also reached its limits. B efore we ask why King shifted his stance on nonviolence, let’s take closer look at his troubled attitude toward it. In the 1960s, King reversed his original vision on race relations from a horizontal connection focused on reciprocity, brotherly love, and redemption to a more vertical, contractual, and Binary Essay antagonistic relationship. Despite King’s earlier prostrations for agape, or brotherly love, to define the African American’s relationship to formal groups the prevailing culture of the United States, the term is not mentioned in his 1960s writings. Forsaking his 1958 call for “understanding, redemptive goodwill,” King bluntly declared in 1968 that “White America has allowed itself to be indifferent to race prejudice and economic denial.” This marks an important shift in King’s thinking.
He previously had placed the burden of Binary Essay, change on African Americans, and formal his writings reflected the belief that African Americans needed to forgive, love and exist peacefully with the prevailing culture of America. In 1958, King writes: “Agape is not a weak, passive love. It is love in action. Agape is love seeking to preserve and create community. It is insistence on community even when one seeks to of silence break it…It is a willingness to forgive, not seven times, but seventy times seven to restore community.” By 1968, however, he begins to transfer that sense of agency to whites. By referring to “[t]he future [that Americans] are asked to groups inaugurate…To end poverty [and] extirpate prejudice” in 1968, King attached important conditions to a race relationship that he previously approached with the of silence language of formal groups, unconditional love.
King’s change in language here can be described as a shift from munroes crafts, a focus on formal groups religious goodwill and cohabitation to a more contractual obligation. The shift in King’s thinking is clear: agape was beginning to fade as a reality by the late 1960s. A cursory reading might construe King’s shift as a result of testing should, a change in the presiding sentiment in the white community at the time. The logic here is simple and compelling: in 1958, King could talk about agape because whites were responding to his ideas, but in formal groups, 1968 the increased stubbornness of whites forced him to be more demanding. In other words, King was only as magnanimous in his hopes for a communal racial order as the proportion of whites who appeared to be receptive to such a vision. However, there were no drastic positive changes in white behavior throughout the course of the 1960s. This cursory reading would also ignore the extent to which the white community in Binary Essay, the late 1950s was uncomfortable with the thought of change. In 1958, for instance, King himself had decried the country’s “tenacious and determined resistance” to change as the groups very impetus of the civil rights movement; and yet, he managed to believe at the time in forgiveness and redemption for the spiral, the abuses the African American community endured.
In other words, this resistance from the prevailing white culture of groups, America was largely the same a decade later, when King seemed to give up on Failure? agape. Clearly, King’s altered understanding of race relations did not reflect a change in attitude in the prevailing culture of the formal United States. In fact, we could argue that it was quite the opposite: his transformation in thinking actually reflected a frustration with the lack of change in those attitudes. Munroes Crafts? It is no secret that, even after historical civil rights legislation, African Americans continued to formal groups find their civil rights violated and continued to find equal employment a distant reality. Simply put, King had hoped that nonviolence would spark far more change. His sense of What is Sucess without Failure? Essay, agape, however boundless, could never be realized when the prevailing culture remained unwilling to negotiate its social position and formal wealth. King’s discovery of the is Sucess Essay limits of his earlier tenets caused a change in tone from hopeful patience in 1958 to frustration in 1968. In 1958, for formal groups, instance, King urged his followers to love for “the need of the other person” and “expect no good in return, only hostility and persecution.” But King’s later writings became more aggravated.
In 1968, in his “Showdown for Nonviolence,” King reflected on his “bitter experience” even though he had cautioned his early followers against “succumb[ing] to the temptation of becoming bitter.” In this article, King delivered a no-holds-barred account of the were revolvers disappointments that marked the civil rights struggle for African Americans. He lamented the United States’ “tragic mix-up in priorities” (like spending more on the Vietnam War than on formal groups domestic programs) and its insufficient social legislation when compared to European nations. King concluded: “All of the misery that stoked the the spiral flames of rage and rebellion remains undiminished.” Statements like this reveal the extent to formal groups which he was becoming bitter at the pace of social change envisioned by his original faith in nonviolence. Despite professing in 1958 to expect little more than “hostility and persecution,” King was becoming frustrated just a decade later. W hy, then, does the perception of King as a staunch idealist persist? One reason is because King continued to speak in favor of nonviolence, agape and universal justice even as he was beginning to munroes crafts question their efficacy. It is difficult for formal, us to hear King’s misgivings on the strategy of nonviolence, in other words, when he vowed in 1968 to munroes crafts continue to “preach it and teach it,” even if nonviolence were to fail.
In his “Showdown for Nonviolence,” he even spoke of a survey in groups, Detroit that revealed a majority of people believed in the effectiveness of nonviolence, and in Binary Essay, this writing he seems to pull great hope in his strategy of nonviolence from the public’s continued faith in it. But what we tend to miss in his writings and formal his speeches are the important qualifications he himself makes: he warns about the inevitable violence from frustrated African Americans. Speaking about several recent job riots, King warned in 1968 that “The urban outbreaks are “a fire bell in the spiral, the night,” clamorously warning that the seams of our entire social order are weakening under strains of neglect.” This was an idea King rarely brought up in groups, his earlier writings, and when he did, they were more abstract. (Compare, for instance, his language earlier, in 1958: “Forces maturing for years have given rise to the spiral of silence the present crisis in formal, race relations.” ) The disparity between his declarations and his qualifications are critical to understanding King as a more complex actor in the civil rights era of the of silence 1960s, an understanding from which we should not exempt ourselves. Formal? However subtle his misgivings, we can see a growing sense in King that nonviolent resistance was not as capable of achieving the kind of of silence, equality that many had come to expect. But we also tend to continue believing in King’s image as a crusader of nonviolence because he seemed to be an advocate for the poor, not just for the African American community. Such an emphasis on formal poverty rather than on race alone produces, for us, an image of Binary Essay, true agape. Formal? This understandably gives us the impression that King remained committed to is Sucess Failure? Essay nonviolence and to universal justice.
It is hard, in other words, to miss his belief in a universal march for equality when, in 1968, he recalled their collective work at protesting peacefully: “When we began direct action in Birmingham and Selma, there was a thunderous chorus that sought to discourage us. Yet today, our achievements in formal groups, these cities…are hailed with pride by all.” His emphasis on the collective “we” and on achievements “hailed with pride by all” helps to reify the impression we have of King as an unwavering advocate of nonviolent resistance. Yet while King asserted that his movement would benefit whites and blacks, his explanations of why reforms were needed relied on examples strictly from within the African American community. This focus on the African American community had the effect of harry harlow, potentially alienating poor whites who were eager to advocate King’s nonviolence campaign in the 1950s but found themselves out of place a decade later in a movement that seems less inclusive in the words of its leader. For instance, when expounding on the “economic question” in 1968, King addressed the unemployment rate of African American youths. Formal? He noted, rather cynically, that “[w]hen you have a mass unemployment in is Sucess without Failure?, the Negro community, it’s called a social problem; when you have mass unemployment in the white community, it’s called a depression.” By stressing the neglect that African Americans suffered from society at large, King set them apart as his primary focus and formal thus made his mention of benefits to Binary Essay impoverished whites seem like a passing suggestion rather than a goal he took as seriously as the formal eradication of black poverty.
T his essay has meant to be polemical, but it has also meant to suggest ways for further and more full inquiry into King’s radical transformation in his thinking. When Were Invented? In 1958, as a newly championed leader, King invested so much time and energy under the banner of groups, a philosophy he fully endorsed that he could not lower his hopes for full equality for a moment. Of Silence? Yet when he stopped and reflected in 1968 about the formal groups extent of his achievements and how they measured up to his earlier predictions, full equality seemed even further beyond his reach than when he started. Munroes Crafts? Confronted with the desolation of the situation and the imminence of what he called a violent “holocaust” and “guerilla warfare,” King knew he had to make changes to his approach. He may not have outright abandoned the pacifistic idealism that brought him such fame, but he certainly began to question that idealism. He seems to have begun to adopt a more grounded realism. He still called his vision “nonviolent resistance” by name, but his new outlook demonstrably lacked many of the elements by groups which nonviolence was known to the spiral of silence his fellow Americans, elements like agape, reciprocity, and patience. Groups? This does not mean, of course, that King should not be lauded for his persistence and his role in transforming the political, racial and economic landscape in of silence, the United States.
He remained, even in his most troubling moments with agape, a constant opponent to violence. But we rarely consider King as an ordinary man, one who had his beliefs rattled and formal who began to evolve in his thinking. This gap in our understanding of the What famed civil rights leader deserves further study. There are obviously more reasons and circumstances that would account for formal, this shift between 1958 and 1968 than this paper can address, and there are certainly more nuances to the accounting I have put forth. Why have we not detected such changes, and if we have, why are these changes discussed more openly? A more thorough line of inquiry into these questions would do well to start with an analysis of the media, which sensationalized and deified King in an effort to attract mass readership.
The media seemed intent on avoiding complicated analyses of the various dimensions of King’s character. We would also do well to look at the way history is the spiral written, especially when it is relatively recent. When textbooks rely on newspaper accounts for a primary perspective on a vital player in American history, for formal groups, instance, it is not surprising that students would come to adopt a similarly static conception of a figure like the animal testing not be Reverend King. Certainly, the 1960s was a time of great cultural change spearheaded by leaders such as King, and having stable actors for our retelling of such a tumultuous era helps lend a sense of constancy to the entropy of history. It is imperative, then, that we pay close attention to such a man’s words, particularly when they masked a deeper frustration. It is a contradiction that we should take care to explore. King, Martin Luther, Jr. Formal Groups? “Showdown for Nonviolence.” In A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of What is Sucess without, Martin Luther King, Jr. , edited by James Melvin Washington. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1986. King, Martin Luther, Jr.. Formal Groups? Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.
Boston: Beacon Press, 2010. First published in should, 1958 by Harper Brothers. Page references are to the 2010 edition. King, Martin Luther, Jr.. Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? Boston: Beacon Press, 2010.
First published in 1968 by Harper Row Publishers, Inc.. Page references are to the 2010 edition. The Problem with Documentary Poetry. 2011 Sosland Prize in groups, Expository Writing. T here have been more genocides in the twentieth century than can be comfortably listed or discussed; and yet, for most of us, the horrors of history exist only at a remove. For the poet, this gulf makes the task of leveraging language to describe such horrors nearly impossible.
What words can confront the unspeakable? One approach, often taken in documentary poetry, attempts to ground the of silence horror of atrocity in painful but brilliant imagery. In Carolyn Forche’s prose poem “The Colonel,” for formal, instance, she invokes scenes of revolvers invented, torture so specific we cannot help but imagine the physical realities behind her descriptions. The poem, which marks her experience visiting a military official at his house in formal, El Salvador, vivifies the atrocity of when were, torture in formal groups, the clarity of detail: the salt and mangoes brought by a silent maid, the What is Sucess without Failure? Essay shards of broken glass nested in concrete retaining walls, the formal human ears poured on the floor like “dried peach halves” (16). Hers is a poem intended to document, but not necessarily discuss, her experience inside the house of munroes crafts, a torturer. It is, in formal, short, poetry used as documentary to force us to witness atrocity. The sort of blazing imagery she uses is the mark of much of documentary poetry, and she combines this imagery with understated emotion to give the invented sense that what she has recorded lies beyond our ability to comprehend it. Her poem, in formal groups, other words, lies wholly outside our normal experience, even as we are called to should witness what it describes. This sort of poetry becomes troubling, then, because of the formal groups way it encourages us to read: we cannot presume to Binary Essay know what is beyond our own imagining. Under such a scenario, we are more readily able to excuse ourselves from the poem, and formal we allow ourselves to feel we are not implicated in harry harlow, the situation it describes. Poetry written about formal groups, atrocity becomes problematic not so much because its language falls short of what it seeks to when revolvers invented represent, but rather because it can or will not give us a means to respond to formal groups it.
The muted emotion in not be, documentary verse like “The Colonel” forces us to remain silent. But how can we remain mute in the face of such tragedy? We might find an answer to that question in an extended reading of a poem by Dan Pagis, an Israeli poet and holocaust survivor who escaped from a Ukrainian concentration camp at the age of 14. Formal Groups? His most famous poem, written in pencil in the spiral of silence, the sealed railway-car, seems a ready example of documentary poetry, one that on the surface promises to expose us to the locked innards of a boxcar bound for a death camp. In this poem, there is much to be read as documentary verse. Pagis never overtly appears in the poem, for instance; instead, we are given an achingly clear title, a pencil scrawl in a shut boxcar, and the cryptic words that follow; because the title here implies these words are not even his, one could argue this poem is more documentary than poems like “The Colonel.” That is, Pagis presents the “found” fragment as an artifact written by a victim, to which he appended a brutally simple, one-line explanation. Formal? If we further examine the poem, however, we find it does much more than merely document a victim’s experience, and in the spiral of silence, doing so, it invites us to formal be far more than silent witnesses. In short, the work captures a vicious moment, with lines so harrowing that we become trapped in that boxcar. The Spiral Of Silence? The poem, in other words, bridges the gulf between witness and experience by creating a situation that requires us to psychologically participate in it. The suggestion here is unmistakable: we cannot stop at the door of horror and merely peer in.
In documentary poetry that deals with atrocity, our emotional distance from the scene of the indescribable is impossible. If documentary poetry is the poetry of detachment, Pagis’s poem refuses us that luxury. L et’s first consider the aspects of written in groups, pencil in the sealed railway-car that identify it as documentary verse. The title is perhaps our clearest indication of documentary: it frames the poem as an artifact from the animal testing should not be Holocaust rather than a poem composed after the fact; and we are led to believe we have found these terrible penciled words in formal groups, a sealed boxcar, much the way Pagis himself suggests he discovered them. The initial effect of this phrasing is to without Failure? Essay create a dramatic remove between the formal unknown writer and Pagis, and between the Binary Essay unknown writer and groups us. The poem’s title is passive in the extreme, so much so that it would seem to remove all authorship. There is no poet speaking as witness, no subject excavating the sealed railway-car, no formal mechanisms of poetry that would mark it as verse. It is, quite simply, written in pencil in the sealed railway-car. The precision of the title only adds to its documentary character: the fragment was found “written in study, pencil,” the railway-car was “sealed.” In the original Hebrew of the poem, the groups sentence is composed using words that are far newer to the language than the Binary Essay rest of the poem – “pencil,” for groups, instance, and “railway” – the effect of which is to distance the title (and its audience) from the writing that follows. This distance makes the words seem like a fragment discovered long after the Binary Essay act of writing. The fragment itself, meanwhile, seems to groups exist in real time, with a message that was somehow cut off, and only later found: the the spiral of silence sixth and final line of the formal fragment, “tell him that I,” ends suddenly on an incomplete appeal, and it is here that we reach the horror of the situation.
The abruptness makes the line feel as if guards had caught the writer in the act of of silence, documenting herself. Its end implies that this woman was cut short before her final expression of soul or self could escape her, and formal groups it is in this state of incompletion that the poem captures the horrors it seeks to suggest. The poem’s title and broken scrawl become a way to document a moment. In this reading, the tragedy lies in the sudden end: the poem is a means to document a life interrupted. H owever, if we interpret this poem as the work of documentary, we perhaps rely too heavily on our immediate impressions of the poem’s title and ending. When we consider the fragment itself, particularly its sparse language and the double meanings of some of the original Hebrew, we find that the poem becomes much more participatory than its documentary title might suggest. The poem, as we will see, pulls us into itself until we become part of its telling.
Part of this is because the poem is munroes crafts cyclical, and as its terrible story repeats itself it has time to become more than a framed narrative from which we can remain detached. Instead, its repetitions sweep us into the story being told; in formal groups, our involvement in the story, we, too, find ourselves trapped in that sealed railway-car. Animal Testing Should Not Be? It is this kind of inevitable participation that casts the documentary frame of the poem aside, and forces us to psychologically participate in formal groups, its scene of of silence, horror. Before moving forward, then, it might be worth looking at the entire poem, with a closer eye on formal how it translates and on how the original Hebrew makes multiple suggestions for reading. The poem, in its entirety, reads: written in pencil in the sealed railway-car. here in this carload. with abel my son. if you see my older son.
cain son of munroes crafts, adam. tell him that I. The title’s “sealed railway-car” is the first intimation of the poem’s overwhelming sense of containment, and the fragment that follows lays before us a sense of her inevitable destiny: Eve and formal those with her are trapped, “sealed” in with no escape, heading towards death. In the “railway-car” they are totally severed from the Binary Essay world outside, and the immediacy of the poem’s language demands that we, too, be present “here in this carload.” But a more careful reading here in the context of the original Hebrew suggests that the formal poem is not so much fragmentary as it is cyclical. Consider again the poem’s last line, “tell him that I.” In Hebrew, the “to be” verb is contained within the subject, so “tell him that I” could just as easily be translated as “tell him that I am.” While neither phrase expresses a complete thought, “I am” reflects far more meaning back onto Eve herself; in it, Eve speaks to munroes crafts say that she is, which could be read as a stronger statement of self than a general plea to a world outside. In other words, if we consider the formal groups translated ending as we did initially, “tell him that I,” the poem seems to sway much more toward the “documentary” interpretation already put forth: these are a woman’s final words, cut short, fragmented and later excavated, sent as a cry for help or hope into harlow a world in which she no longer exists. The interpretation emerging from the original Hebrew, however, points toward a possibility that the formal poem itself is munroes crafts more cyclical than fragmentary: the last line, “tell him that I am,” is to be followed by returning us to the first line, “here in this carload.” This would make sense. In Judaism, passages of scripture are read over and over; when one finishes reading, one goes back to the beginning to start reading once more. It is possible that this poem is intended in a similar manner, that Pagis has constructed a poem that connects tell him that I am back to groups here in this carload. This cyclical interpretation is supported by the content of the fragment that is being repeated.
The name “Eve” in Hebrew is nearly identical to the word for life, which allows the sentence “I am eve” to easily read as “I am alive.” And so we can trace the continuing cycle of harlow, her survival: Eve is “here in this carload,” she is alive (for now). Formal? The poem has moved away from fitting neatly into animal not be banned the documentary context of its title. Instead, this reading of the poem lends it a reflexivity that draws us into it. This re-circulating writing asks us to re-examine the poem, to involve ourselves in it. In the examination, we become pulled into its logic: in formal groups, the poem’s never-ending cycle, there is no end to the words, and once their repetition has begun, there is the spiral no clear place for speaker or her audience to stop. Any end at formal all will seem forced. When the outside world in munroes crafts, this poem fades, in other words, the cycle draws our attention away from the documentary context.
Its pull serves to diminish the power of the documentary title, for as it wraps us into its desperate repetition, it pulls apart from the frame with its own momentum; the poem is totally self-contained, a universe apart. Eve’s last words are something we must imagine as she finally falls off the cycle, but they are not implicit in the title of the poem itself. We can picture them, but with terrifying latitude. Must the title and its suggestion of distance prove Eve’s death or did she die at groups some later time? Could “written” suggest these words are being “written,” instead of that they were “written”? No matter our interpretation, the should not be poem has sidestepped its initial enclosure into something far more frightening: it has assumed an indeterminate end, and it has drawn us into it. The poem’s cycle, once it begins, does not allow us to return to its title, and thus refuses us a return to our initial sense of documentary. The objective remove we are accustomed to formal experiencing at the hand of documentary verse is compromised as this poem turns in on itself; a human hand, a larger message, has become visible in its creation. In the process of iteration and Binary Essay reiteration, we become part of the process of writing. I f the problem of documentary poetry is formal groups that it separates us from of silence, what it summons us to witness, Pagis’s poem makes such detachment difficult.
But it is groups not just the revolvers invented cyclical nature of the poem that draws us in; also at work here is a universal narrative that we are meant to formal groups more readily comprehend than, say, a genocide as brutal as the Holocaust. So, where a more detached witness might read Eve’s words as her singular prayers as she recognizes her life ending, the Genesis narratives that Eve invokes make the poem more than the Binary Essay final thoughts of a dying woman. As the poem repeats itself, we re-examine the people who act and move within it, and we find that its cycle shifts again from formal groups, a personal litany of a faceless woman to something far more universal. In other words, we might be led to interpret Pagis’s use of the Biblical name Eve as a conceit meant to emphasize the significance of each life lost in testing should, the Holocaust without having to name a particular individual; we might likewise read Eve in the poem as a conceit meant to emphasize the magnitude of the lives lost. Formal? But either reading would render Eve a generality. Eve, however, cannot be a generality; hers is a name and a word that encircles all of humanity, and it therefore implicates us in when were invented, the terror of that shut boxcar. The loss of formal groups, Eve is not just the loss of an originator of a people, but also the loss of munroes crafts, our own ancestor, a threat to some fundamental part of our identity. In other words, the poem is not a particular story about a universal person but a universal story itself. Its universality entwines with its more basic cyclical structure to transcend the limits of documentary verse: in light of the groups cycle of our history, we realize that no one merely “witnesses” atrocity. Let’s take a look, then, at a few of the instances in which this poem broadens past the prayers of a single woman. In Hebrew, the harry study words “with abel my son” (3) can also be read as “the people of abel,” broadening the poem to include multitudes.
The people of Abel, of groups, course, are the people who are being killed. Cain, the “older son” referenced in line 5, is not simply the son of Adam; the roots of the word “adam” could imply that he is also “cain the son of blood,” “cain the son of the soil,” or, in the Hebrew turn of munroes crafts, phrase, cain ben adam – “cain the human.” The poem’s narration of a Biblical story suggests that the atrocity it describes is, in some way, a repetition of a more primordial atrocity, perhaps the first homicide. More disturbing is the suggestion that this sort of atrocity is cyclical, that the Holocaust is but one more iteration of a violence that has yet to end. The poem reaches its own depth of terror here, when it marks that the true horror may not behind us, but within and ahead of us. We are alone with ourselves in formal, the boxcar of our civilization. History in this poem may well be prophecy rather than past, and if so, it means it is a future we surely will have to face. The immediate suggestion in of silence, the poem, of course, is not the possibility of more horror on the horizon. Instead, the more urgent message is that we as readers cannot leave the boxcar. Its caged intimacy is not something from formal, which we can separate ourselves. Pagis, in other words, does not tell a story that we can simply apprehend and therefore contain; rather, we are contained within it.
This is a containment achieved not only in the immediate situation of the poem but in the kind of human history it invokes in calling forth Eve. What Failure?? We are all still bound by our own ancestry, in formal, which the earth is munroes crafts not a roomy enough boxcar to separate us from formal, other stories. Harlow? We cannot frame our own story as documentary any more than we can document our story. The reasoning here is simple: we must also live that story and participate in it. Formal? When Pagis summons the heritage of all humanity into the railway-car, he demands not simply our concern but also that participation.
We must live the fate of the spiral of silence, Eve and not merely bear witness to it. Groups? That fate must invoke a visceral reaction, for “eve” is the proverbial mother of everyone; if she is caught by the guards in the act of documenting her life, if she herself dies, then what must this mean for us? The poem’s sense of inclusion is only broadened by the double meanings in its various shades of translation. Depending on how we understand the original Hebrew, we can read the when were poem as drawing entire groups of groups, people into individual names; Eve is, in harry study, one translation, among “the people of abel,” and she is formal speaking of “cain the human.” Abel has grown from revolvers, a brother to a tribe, and Cain from an elder brother to formal groups “the human.” Their expansion suggests not only that the atrocity of the Holocaust is a form of repetition of some original act of violence, but also that we are still contained within the same family, that even a horror as systemized and impersonal as that which was sealed in munroes crafts, the railway-car is fratricide, and that any instinct we have to remove ourselves from these horrors is illusory. Eve’s capture and extermination is no longer an groups enclosed or discreet act of Binary Essay, violence from which we can detach ourselves; it is formal terrifyingly intimate. Thus are we trapped inside the What without Essay sealed railway-car with the poem’s desperate, unending repetition, and thus are we trapped inside the story of the formal groups poem. This isn’t to argue that the poem sidesteps its more immediate story of violence and Binary Essay genocide. Formal? While the when revolvers narrative it relates is an artifact of the groups Holocaust, its overtones are of a much older homicide that repeats itself.
It is in animal testing should banned, the light of this terrifying enclosure that the poem becomes participatory for us as readers: our enclosure transforms our act of formal, witness into an act of involvement. W hile the circumstance that Pagis invokes in the poem is singular, his message about atrocity and witness has far greater implications. His is not the breathless horror of being shown a sack of human ears, of walking guiltless and detached into the house of a Colonel. Rather, in testing should banned, summoning Eve and Adam and Cain and formal Abel, he reminds each of harry harlow study, us of our own vast capacity for horror, and reveals that this ancestral horror is one that is still renewing itself. Pagis intimates that the cold violence of the carload is a bloodshed from which no one is formal exempt. More profoundly, perhaps, the What Failure? Essay poem suggests that detachment is not blameless, that to formal persist in silence, to Binary Essay distance oneself from the boxcar, does not wash blood from groups, our hands. We examine the role of “cain the human,” the Binary Essay absent child to whom Eve is appealing, and we find that though there are several ways to interpret Cain’s role in the poem, one truth is clear: though Cain is “human,” and though his connection with the groups sealed railway-car is uncertain, he is still marked with the blood of is Sucess Essay, his sibling. Formal? There are none who go unimplicated.
The consequences of detachment, moreover, are terrifying. In the fragment Pagis offers, it is not simply Abel who is being killed, as in the Biblical story, but also Eve. The story has been twisted on itself in when invented, the intervening centuries, and the death of Eve suggests that it has spun out of control, that it promises an irreparable negation of formal groups, parts of our identity. For, while the scriptures hold that Cain and munroes crafts Abel had another brother, there was only ever one Eve. Her death would be an irreparable contortion of the human mythology. Groups? As such, the threat on the spiral of silence Eve’s life in this poem is not simply a repeating pattern in human history but an atrocity that has become twisted as we attempted to remove ourselves from it. Though we may attempt to contain atrocity and to distance ourselves from what proceeds in sealed spaces, we still cannot absolve our responsibility or negate our heritage. In fact, in allowing such detachment, we might allow the groups atrocity to consume us all.
It is in What is Sucess without Failure?, participation, and not in witness, that we have hope in understanding; it is formal groups likewise in participation, and not in witness, that documentary poetry can apprehend what is otherwise impossible to articulate. And perhaps it is ultimately in participation, in the transfer of the mind that shows us inside every boxcar we construct, that the cycle of horror in Binary Essay, our history may finally be made to cease. Forche, Carolyn, “The Colonel.” The Country Between Us . Formal Groups? New York: Harper Collins,1981. Print. Pagis, Dan. “written in pencil in the sealed railway-car.” The Selected Poetry of Dan Pagis . Trans. When Revolvers? Stephen Mitchell. Formal? Berkeley: U California P, 1996.
Print. Elucidating the Current State of Tuberculosis. Through Maternal HIV/TB Coinfection Data. Collection in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though controlled in most developed nations, tuberculosis remains one of the not be banned World Health Organization’s primary focuses. Their Millennium Development Goals reflect the need to combat tuberculosis incidence, particularly among regions like sub-Saharan Africa, whose lack of resources and poor living conditions make it highly susceptible the disease. Before the World Health Organization takes further action in its fight against global tuberculosis, they must first re-evaluate the current state of the disease in the regions it affects most. Unfortunately, poor health care systems combined with a lack of proper data collection make it difficult to ascertain the formal effects of tuberculosis in of silence, developing nations. What is known, however, is that not only formal groups does tuberculosis affect women more than men, but also that women comprise 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, those infected with HIV are more vulnerable to contract tuberculosis. I argue that efforts to determine the incidence of when revolvers invented, tuberculosis should begin by focusing on the most vulnerable population: HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa.
To do this, I propose a study of women at maternal health clinics, through which more accurate data may be obtained and subsequently used to alter current global tuberculosis initiatives. W ith 1.77 million deaths in 2007 (Glaziou et al. Formal Groups? 2009), tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world’s most troubling public health issues. Should Not Be? As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has established a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that focus, in formal groups, part, on combating diseases like HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome), malaria, and tuberculosis (as described in Glaziou et al. 2009). While these goals are an when were important motivator for the strategies of global health professionals, the groups likelihood of achieving the goal of complete TB eradication by 2050 is slim. The Spiral Of Silence? Inaccurate data collection impedes global health professionals’ abilities to accurately assess the state of formal, TB which, in turn, affects their strategic allocation of resources.
Particularly in poor regions of the globe like sub-Saharan Africa, health care facilities lack adequate personnel, training and supplies to accurately document infectious disease statistics. Therefore, WHO may not understand the true burden of disease within a region, as it is not supplied with sufficient information. In short, this lack of accurate data inhibits efforts toward the sixth MDG’s ultimate aim of TB eradication. To address this issue, I propose a study at maternal health clinics that focuses solely on munroes crafts obtainment of quality data among one of the most vulnerable populations: HIV-positive women in formal, sub-Saharan Africa. N ot only is sub-Saharan Africa one of the What is Sucess without most TB-afflicted regions, but it also harbors a high prevalence of HIV. Women, in particular, comprise 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (Marais et al. 2010) and thus face a greater risk of also contracting TB (CDC 2010).
Therefore, my new initiative targets the accurate assessment of TB in this particular sub-population of HIV-positive women. WHO can then use these data to better determine what measures to groups enact for all populations moving forward toward the goal’s deadline of 2050. The relationship between TB and HIV in women may be representative of some broader trends of the disease in other developing nations. Therefore, by understanding this association between HIV and TB among women in sub-Saharan Africa via more accurate data, the invented results can be applied to other populations, helping tailor WHO’s advance toward complete eradication by formal groups 2050. While TB and HIV are presently cited as separate infectious diseases within the sixth MDG (as described in Glaziou et al. Were? 2009), research has demonstrated a strong link between TB and HIV. Not only do individuals with HIV have a higher risk of developing TB (CDC 2010), but TB also serves as one of the most common causes of morbidity and the most common cause of death in HIV-positive adults in formal, developing regions (Corbett et al. 2003).
Furthermore, WHO discovered that 13 of the 15 countries with the highest estimated TB incidence rates are in Africa, which they attribute to high rates of HIV coinfection (Glaziou et al. 2009). These findings illustrate a strong association between HIV and What is Sucess without TB for two main reasons: if a woman has HIV, she is more likely to contract TB (CDC 2010); and most people with HIV die because they are also infected with TB. Exploiting this relationship in my study will allow WHO to formulate conclusions for how to effectively direct its actions in formal, pursuit of the sixth MDG. Binary Essay? However, simply designing a study that tests all individuals in formal, sub-Saharan Africa for HIV and were invented TB is impractical and inefficient. As an alternative, since women account for 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (Marais et al. 2009), HIV-positive women in particular will provide the most useful data for elucidating the current state of TB in the sub-Saharan region. W ith a justified population of interest in place, the next component of my study requires the election of a specific sector of formal, women that can consistently be evaluated for TB and HIV. Because the greatest burden of TB in munroes crafts, women is during childbearing years (Marais et al. 2009), my solution implements HIV/TB screening in several sub-Saharan maternal health clinics over a six to groups twelve month period.
Upon arrival, trained WHO professionals will test the patient for both HIV and TB. When Revolvers? For this study’s short amount of time, WHO will focus strictly on formal the accurate compilation of Binary Essay, TB and HIV prevalence data among the women, and not immediate treatment following a positive diagnosis. These data, collected by trained WHO employees, will supply global health professionals with credible information to discuss how to better address the lack or presence of HIV/TB coinfection in these endemic areas. Though TB occurs most frequently in developing regions of the world (WHO 2009), a lack of information impedes an groups accurate assessment of the Binary Essay true gravity of the formal situation. Data collection in sub-Saharan Africa is generally poor, inconsistent, and at times, inaccurate. Laboratory errors, lack of notification of cases by public and private providers, failure to identify patients as TB suspects, and lack of access to were revolvers health care combine for inconsistent and inconclusive data collection in these regions (Glaziou et al. 2009). For instance, TB infection can exist in formal, two forms: latent and active TB disease (CDC 2010). Harry? A latent infection does not make one sick whereas active TB disease preys on an insufficient immune response. Both are characterized by TB pathogens living within the body, but only a person with active TB disease will display symptoms and formal be contagious (CDC 2010).
In regions with poor health care systems, a latent TB infection may go undiagnosed because the person would appear physically normal. If WHO analyzes and addresses TB based on of silence these inadequate data, health professionals’ ability to effectively allocate funds, personnel, and energy with respect to formal groups the MDG of TB eradication is obstructed. Therefore, my study focuses solely on the obtainment of accurate TB data to later be used for planning and executing the next wave of Binary Essay, WHO action. A ccurate data collection is groups crucial to invented any health response strategy, but with respect to infectious disease it bears even more importance. The inconsistency and inaccuracy in formal groups, data collection pose significant handicaps for achieving complete eradication by 2050, as the combination contaminates WHO’s perception of the actual current severity of munroes crafts, tuberculosis. For example, perhaps cases of TB in developing regions are underreported; people may not have access to health care and die of TB before ever receiving a diagnosis. Formal? A useful data report, such as the Binary Essay one my proposed study will provide, contains the following: a carefully chosen, controlled group of formal, people; diagnoses performed by trained health care professionals; and a designated period of time for data collection. For my study, WHO-endorsed health care professionals in maternal health clinics will diagnose the controlled group of people, women in sub-Saharan Africa, over a six to twelve month period.
W hile my study contains all the basic, necessary components for successful data collection, the when were results may indicate some surprising statistics regarding TB in these regions. The greatest concern is a potential upsurge in the incidence of TB in comparison to previously reported data. Groups? While this may appear to be because of a rise in TB, the most likely cause is an improvement in data collection and analysis. Harlow Study? For example, WHO discovered that the formal groups death rates in HIV-positive people in the spiral of silence, years leading up to and including 2007 were substantially higher than their previously published estimates; they attribute this not to an increase in the number of cases, but to enhancements in analytical methods (WHO 2009). My study may produce similar findings, though it, too, illustrates an improvement to data collection rather than an increase in TB incidence among sub-Saharan individuals. My study also delivers anticipation of possible HIV/TB coinfection rates as high as 70-80%, as asserted by groups Dharmadhikari et al. (2009). Binary Essay? In their study of sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women, they discovered that 88% of TB cases were HIV coinfected, data which they assert “are not dissimilar to HIV coinfection among TB-infected persons in some sub-Saharan African countries” (Dharmadhikari et al. 2009:544). While this was a specific study of an isolated population, it certainly lends support for my proposal, given the aforementioned high rates of HIV in groups, women of sub-Saharan Africa.
T hese new, more accurate data will allow WHO to take a more efficient approach toward eradication of TB by 2050. For example, perhaps high rates of coinfection will imply that more money and resources should be spent on HIV treatment and munroes crafts prevention, which in formal groups, turn may lower the risk of TB. Though my study exposes the Binary Essay current state of TB among women in the sub-Saharan region, WHO may use these data to formal groups infer information about TB/HIV rates in men as well. While the discrepancy between TB rates in men and women has long been attributed simply to biological differences, WHO posits that this difference can be essentially negated by immunological suppression due to HIV (WHO 2009). Thus, using HIV-positive women as the subject of my study may provide even more benefits than just understanding rates within this demographic.
These few examples demonstrate how my data may provide valuable insight for the next step toward the goal of complete TB eradication. The most useful victory that can come from What is Sucess Failure? Essay, my suggested study, however, is an accurate snapshot of the current state of formal, tuberculosis in this region, for What is Sucess Failure? Essay, the study focuses specifically on quality data collection. Formal Groups? With reputable information at munroes crafts its disposal, WHO can then assess, evaluate, plan, and execute new measures to formal combat tuberculosis by the year 2050. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG, Raviglione MC, Dye C. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Archives of munroes crafts, Internal Medicine. 163(9):1009–1021. Dharmadhikari AS, Gupta J, Decker MR, Raj A, Silverman JG. 2009. Tuberculosis and HIV: a global menace exacerbated via sex trafficking. International Journal of Infectious Diseases.
13(5):543–546. Glaziou P, Floyd K, Raviglione M. Groups? 2009. What Is Sucess Without Failure? Essay? Global burden and epidemiology of tuberculosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine. 30(4):621–636.
Marais BJ, Gupta A, Starke JR, El Sony A. Formal Groups? 2010. Tuberculosis in women and children. Lancet. Harry? 375(9731):2057–2059. [WHO] World Health Organization. 2009. Groups? Epidemiology. In: [WHO]. Global tuberculosis control: Surveillance, planning, financing.
WHO Report 2009. Harlow? Geneva: WHO. 2010 Lawrence Lader Prize in Expository Writing. B eauty doesn’t usually come in gray — nor in formal, pallid skin and animal should not be banned dirty clothes. It did, however, for Edouard Manet. In The Street Singer, an oil painting from about 1862, Manet sidestepped what had become a firmly-rooted tradition of beauty in the visual arts. He immersed the large, towering canvas of The Street Singer in muted hues, linearity, and formal flatness rather than in vibrant colors and gentle curves.
His painting is atypical even in its subject, an unflattered street performer exiting an of silence equally unglamorous cafe. It rejects idealized conceptions of beauty and elevates coarseness and formal transience. However, Manet painted The Street Singer with a formal unity and complexity befitting a subject of uncommon beauty, even if that subject is a “common” cafe singer. What Without Failure? Essay? The Street Singer may not seem beautiful, at least in a conventional sense; instead, the painting embodies an inclusive, un-idealized aesthetic, one incarnated in the looming yet indifferent presence of a singer. It is a new aesthetic that Manet leveraged against the otherwise stiff standards of his viewers.
In doing so, Manet continues to formal push us to question beauty itself even today. The Street Singer suggests that beauty can be defined by inclusiveness rather than narrowness, by the un-idealized in harry, place of the flawless. Formal Groups? Perhaps most important, the painting suggests that a common cafe singer warrants the same craft and Binary Essay complexity as a more traditionally beautiful subject. B efore we can see how Manet constructed his aesthetic, we should probably consider how he deconstructed the aesthetics of his contemporaries. In order to depart from conventions of beauty, Manet omitted several conventions of technique, including common artistic tendencies like chiaroscuro, careful finishes, vibrancy, and curvature. Notice, for instance, how Manet depicted the figure’s dress: it is relatively drab, flat, unornamented. He used angularity across the painting rather than the luscious, curved lines that might suggest a more normalized (if sensualized) depiction of beauty. To put it bluntly, Manet’s depiction of the figure is neither delicate nor particularly alluring. Her face appears flattened by uniform values and by the darkness surrounding her; shadows line the formal insides of when were invented, her eyes; and the cloth of her dress is not the groups clinging, translucent drapery of classical sculpture or Romantic painting, but rather a relatively shapeless, de-feminized mass. The singer’s shoulders sag, her left hand hangs loosely and slightly contorted, and her eyes look empty rather than inviting.
Formally, the painted surface remains unpolished, with brushstrokes easily visible in several areas of the painting: at the base of the dress, in the guitar, on the edges of the doorway. In these choices Manet set himself at Binary Essay odds with some of the values of groups, his contemporaries. He painted his singer with certain attributes clearly omitted. These attributes and techniques make up artistic traditions that might seem, both to munroes crafts us and to Manet’s contemporaries, necessary conditions for beauty. Yet to call The Street Singer unconventional is not to call it unskilled. In this sense, Manet’s painting has the potential to split two traditionally linked elements: the conventional, ideal beauty of the subject’s portrayal and the effectiveness of the artist’s formal execution. Compositionally, The Street Singer is actually unified and even elegant. (Click here to launch an groups interactive viewer of The Street Singer from Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts.) Almost every line is echoed in another place: the angles of the singer’s shoulders reappear in the tops of the doors; the guitar creates clear parallel lines with the dress trimming; the dress’ folds match its edge; and vertical lines repeat on munroes crafts both the formal groups sides and in the center of the painting. Further unity comes from a consistent color palette and a uniformly geometric (and vertically symmetric) construction, as is clear in the centered triangle of the woman. Design and technique, then, are in fact strong in munroes crafts, The Street Singer, even if they are not in formal groups, the service of an ideal beauty. They instead elevate the relatively unglamorous subject of a cafe performer. T o reconcile the coarseness of the woman depicted with the quality of the depiction itself, we must sever formal skill from the spiral of silence, traditional beauty.
This decoupling starts to legitimize new subjects like street performers: it implies that they do, in fact, deserve to be painted with care and skill. If Manet was legitimizing new subjects, then the validation of formal groups, his subject matter and style seems a central concern of The Street Singer. Here Manet found ways to assert the validity of his painting’s depiction by giving the singer visual emphasis and a commanding presence. Her body is emphatically centered in the frame, and pulls out from the background because of contrasts in detail and color around her. Light tones highlight her right side, while the guitar’s yellow sheen emphasizes the harry left; both underscore her form as the painting’s dominant compositional element. She becomes firmly concrete, and nearly architectural, by the stark opacity and pyramidal construction of her dress. Formal? The singer fits into the space as would a statue, gently surrounded by an arch-like curve formed by the doors behind her. Linearity makes the painting seem all the more architectural, forcing a focal point where the harry harlow study most defined lines (the sides of her body) converge like a vanishing point. And the same angularity and flatness that de-romanticize her also communicate the inherent solidity of a triangular, rigid geometry. What depth we do find – the shadow on the ground, the formal groups lighting in the doorway, the seeming recession of the cafe – serve to visually force her forward. These compositional details help emphasize and thus legitimize an otherwise atypical approach.
And yet, Manet painted an harry emotional distance between his subject and his viewers. For Manet’s contemporaries, a “proper” figure likely would have been more alluring or actively engaged with its audience. Formal? Artists might have drawn on mythology and depicted tempting, voluptuous women, presenting beauty as mythic rather than realistic. (For an example of a more typical depiction of such figures, see Alexandre Cabanel’s Birth of Venus). But Manet’s aesthetic here remains singular even when compared to munroes crafts artwork that depicts musicians. Groups? Jules-Joseph Lefebvre’s Autumn (also known as Girl with a Mandolin) and William-Adoplphe Bourguereau’s Gypsy Girl with Basque Drum, for example, comprise sentimental depictions of a more idealized subject. In The Street Singer, on the other hand, we are drawn to the singer’s face. Almost all of the munroes crafts lines on the dress converge on her visage, where the formal paint is already the brightest and has the most contrast. However, we do not necessarily find her face enticing, and it is were revolvers certainly not mythic. A dark halo of hair accents her face, and she looks toward us to make it the groups indisputable focal point.
But the cues that direct our gaze to her face only underscore the harlow study idleness we found there. She is unfocused on her actions, and her stare is blank. The left and right sides of her face seem, on formal groups closer inspection, to differ in were invented, expression: one side of her mouth appears open, the other looks closed; one eye reflects light, the other seems opaque. She is too absorbed to notice the cherry she eats, the guitar she so absently carries, or the slow steps she takes. And she holds her body loosely, with sloping shoulders and relaxed limbs. Her lack of groups, attention creates a lack of direction, too, so while we note her immediate motion, we have no sense of where she is Binary Essay going. If anything, it seems as if she is formal wandering languidly, with neither a destination nor a connection with the study viewer. Thus Manet painted a woman whose physical nearness is offset by an emotional gulf. Just as he managed to groups demonstrate formal skill without ideal beauty, he painted the figure to appear close, even as she distractedly ignores the viewer. So Manet’s painting seems near to us, yet remains psychologically far away. From that state The Street Singer can render the viewer feeling inconsequential.
The sheer size of the canvas and figure only magnify the singer’s detachment. Her architectural presence places her high in the frame; her feet, obscured by shadow, are hidden enough that she seems to of silence float over formal us. Should Not Be Banned? Even if the formal groups painting were displayed at ground level, the figure would seem above the of silence ground and therefore above us. Groups? By making The Street Singer large (almost six feet tall), Manet in turn makes us small. It is as if she stands upon a stage and we sit in the audience, our location irrelevant except in relation to her form in the spotlight. And like a lead actress, she commands our attention while withholding hers. Whatever knowledge she might be privy to remains singularly hers. But we remain ignorant of her identity, her emotions, and of silence her destination, and this redounds to making us inconsequential in front of the painting.
The world we perceive essentially ignores us, as she walks by formal groups with an empty glance and as the Binary Essay faint figures in the cafe continue to eat and formal groups drink. Yet that world draws us in. We became implicated in it, as well as subservient to it: we are by association made part of what we witness, thrust into of silence the life of the formal groups street. Looking at The Street Singer, we can begin to feel its indifference as a kind of domination. Vis-a-vis the painting, we feel a towering presence. Of course, The Street Singer is when were revolvers invented complex enough to remain open to other readings. On first glance a viewer might find it simply unappealing, either meritless or rebellious without much reason.
However, the painting’s unity, deliberateness, and shrewd characterization of the formal figure should render such an objection groundless. Harlow Study? Even if we find the painting distasteful, it would be hard to groups deny that it is compositionally skillful. On the animal testing other hand, one could argue that The Street Singer simply depicts the sad ramifications of poverty, making it a genre scene in formal groups, the fashion of artists like Pieter Breughel the were revolvers Elder or Caravaggio. But if this were a sentimental genre scene, seeking pity or understanding, a more emotional appeal would have served Manet better than the idle, empty look he employed. Smallness would have drawn greater pity, and placing her lower in the frame would have encouraged greater empathy. Manet did not depict the street singer as “downtrodden,” as she is formal groups neither small nor defeated.
In this scene, we are the small; we are the defeated. She does not offer the feeling of a common humanity among us. Instead, she holds power over us. W hat better way to Binary Essay reject the conventional than by defying the expectations of groups, a more conventional audience? The preoccupied gaze that meets our interested stares speaks to us as viewers, but more specifically to our values. Were Invented? If our lives are hardly worth a glance, then what of our taste in art? Thus Manet bestowed upon The Street Singer a power greater than either visual supremacy or psychological influence: he challenged the very notion of beauty. The painting begins to hold sway over an audience, and starts to scuff our conceptions of a “perfect” beauty. If this is formal groups true, perhaps we can finally understand the testing should not be new aesthetic Manet has to offer.
Even common subjects, and common people, deserved Manet’s particular craft and artistic attention. It is important to note, at groups end, that Manet seemed to avoid claims about what is beautiful, or even explicitly how to portray beauty; it is likewise possible that he presented no clear agenda here, no concrete rules for a “correct” method or an “appropriate” subject. When Were Revolvers? In other words, it might be more accurate to say that he expands the realm of formal groups, aesthetics to allow for a multiplicity of subjects and is Sucess without modes of representation, rather than prescribing any particular one. He did, after all, leave us a complex and multifarious body of work. We can therefore define his aesthetic by the possibilities it leaves open: if he resisted strict rules, he remained open to formal groups various subjects and various modes of representation. In offering us another angle in The Street Singer on this new aesthetic, in of silence, other words, he did not lay claim to an absolute standard. To do so, after all, would mimic the oppressiveness Manet seemed to be disputing in this painting. The implications of groups, that dispute extend past the elevation of should banned, a single subject, or the disruption of a single artistic trend. The Street Singer remains as forceful and impossible to ignore as what Manet seemed to assert here. An aesthetic of new subjects, new techniques, and new values – an aesthetic that belittles neither beauty nor reality by idealization – was beginning to formal groups emerge.
Bouguereau, William-Adolphe. Gypsy Girl with Basque Drum, 1867. Private collection. Cabanel, Alexandre. The Birth of Venus, 1875. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Gift of John Wolfe, 1893. 94.24.1.
Lefebvre, Jules-Joseph. Autumn (Girl with a Mandolin). Private collection. Manet, Edouard. The Street Singer, about 1862. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Gift of harry, Sarah C. Sears, 1966. 66.304.
Constructing the Perfect Female Figure. 2008 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. “The corset will live as long as the innate desire to formal please lives in woman’s heart…One can destroy a religion, overthrow a government; against the corset one can do nothing!…Hail, O corset! You are blessed by all women, and even those whom nature has overwhelmed with gifts cannot pass your competitive exam…May your power grow still greater, if this is possible, and may your name be glorified all over the earth…Amen.” —Advertisement for Leoty corsets, La Vie Parisienne , 1886:127. O f all kinds of human striving, the pursuit of beauty is the most romanticized, the most visceral, and animal testing should not be the most elusive. We do not pen sonnets to exalt brilliance or commend late-night studying; we do not compose symphonies to honor terrific strength or recognize arduous weight training. No: we celebrate wit, daring, bravado, honesty, and faithfulness—qualities of character, not of arbitrary genetic advantage. Yet, we also revere physical perfection, which, unlike character, is entirely out of our own control. Or is it?
As long as there has been henna, rouge, chalk, flax, oil, or even water, women have scrubbed, stained, stretched, and sculpted their bodies to fit the beauty conventions of their time. The acceleration of beauty technology in the 19th and 20th centuries, whether in formal, makeup, surgery, chemical treatments, or restrictive clothing, has left very little beyond control. Today, it seems that beauty can be earned, not simply inherited, and, suddenly, that “there are no ugly women, only lazy ones” (Helena Rubinstein, qtd. in Riordan, 2004:vii). Technology has truly freed women from the shackles of their genetic heritage. But it has also made them slaves to constant striving.
The democratization of beauty did not make attaining it easy. Animal Should? If science has made each woman more beautiful, it has also raised the groups stakes for all women. The Victorian-era corset perfectly exemplifies how a once-sensible preference for health and vitality was exaggerated by technological progress into of silence an irrational obsession. Indeed, no other single physical characteristic can compete in importance to the stylized “hourglass” figure of the human female. Nose length, hair luster, neck arch, nail sheen—these are minor considerations next to the endless quest for formal, the perfect figure. And though fickle fashions have, at different times, prized emaciated bones, wiry muscles, voluptuous bulges and slender curves, the preference for comparatively small waists and wider hips has remained constant. Animal Not Be Banned? This 0.7 to 1 waist-to-hip ratio is itself a kind of “Golden Number,” albeit one that few women actually possess (Etcoff, 1999:194).
The whalebone and steel corsets of the 20th century are perhaps the formal most infamous technologies dedicated to animal testing should not be banned this pursuit. And they have generated a veritable cottage industry of debate. Formal Groups? Everyone from evolutionary biologists to contemporary feminists has sounded off on the origins of the comically tiny waists of the munroes crafts Victorian era. But the answer to this phenomenon lies somewhere in formal, between their theories: corsets were the munroes crafts inevitable consequence of a mismatch between the aggressive pace of formal, technological development and munroes crafts evolutionarily stagnant human preferences. Though my analysis it is unabashedly hetero-normative, partly to reflect the cultural dominance of strict gender roles in the corset’s time, and partly to formal groups simplify my own task, it speaks to questions of self-image that all women face no matter what their sexual orientation. And though it is focused narrowly upon the female sex, ignoring men altogether, it speaks to the endless struggle for self-improvement and rejection of natural boundaries that all humans face no matter what goals they set for themselves. What is the munroes crafts cost of the endless pursuit of perfect beauty, aided by all the imperfect arts that human progress has afforded us?
And if our imperfect intuitions lead us to reach beyond the natural into the realm of formal, fetish, can we accept the alternative of ceasing to testing should banned strive altogether? I t began innocently enough. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the formal first recorded men- tion of the word “corset” is a 1299 account of the fashions at the court of King Edward I (qtd. in Etcoff, 1999:194). For many centuries, corsets were an accessory of noble ladies; little more than a thick cloth bodice, they constricted the waist lightly and emphasized the breasts (Steele, 2001:6). But with the first true corsets, made of “whalebone bodices” in the early sixteenth century, came the first cases of tight-lacing, the process by Binary Essay which “young Virgins…thinking a Slender-Waist a great beauty, strive all that they possibly can by streight-lacing themselves, to attain unto a wand-like smallnesse of Waste [sic]” (Bulwer, 1653:338-339).
Tightlacing in this era was not yet extreme, primarily because the technology was too crude for it to formal be. As a supporting material, whalebone was weaker than its successors, and susceptible to the spiral of silence breakage; therefore, stays were not quite form-fitting and left more space for the expansion of the groups diaphragm. But industrialization in the 19th century altered this balance, and corsets became both less comfortable and more effective. Metal eyelets, patented in Binary Essay, 1825, made it possible to lace them more tightly. Cording and groups light boning in the 1830s made them stiffer and easier to shape (Riordan, 2004:177). Steam-molding after 1869 allowed corset-makers to testing should banned generate standardized, ideal figures (189). At the same time, the onward march of groups, mass-production empowered middle-class women to take part in revolvers, corseting as never before (180). Suddenly, corsets and their complements—farthingales, panniers, crinolines, and bustles—were everywhere, cinching the formal groups waist, flattening the stomach, plumping the munroes crafts breasts, augmenting the hips, exaggerating the rear, or otherwise molding the formal typically soft, sedentary body of the middle- or upper-class young woman into an impossibly curvaceous living doll. When? From childhood, these girls were quite literally shaped by formal the demands of beauty, trained like young saplings in the steel cages of cultural expectations. And by Binary Essay the turn of the 20th century, corsets had become so common that “physicians began to believe women came that way” (Hatfield and Sprecher, 1986:231).
Of course, when it became possible for ordinary women to purchase corsets that only the wealthiest could once afford, what used to pass for formal groups, extraordinary would no longer do. Standards would have to rise, and they did: at the height of the munroes crafts corseting craze, the most fashionable women reportedly had their lower five ribs removed (231). (It is important to note that scholars continue to groups disagree on munroes crafts whether or not women removed their ribs. Formal Groups? Steele most recently questioned the bases for this information; however, it remains part of conventional wisdom about the What is Sucess Failure? era.) While even the women of the time acknowledged that the “healthy average waist” was not less than 26 inches ( The Family Herald , 1848), most women restricted themselves to 23 or 25 inches, and the social queens of the time boasted of 18-inch waists or even smaller (Steele, 2001:88). Technology made the impossible ordinary, and, unchecked, the human tendency for excess took over. Corsets had the power to harness the wildest fantasies of the imagination, and formal were taken up by tightlacing fetishists seeking waists of seven- teen, sixteen, or even fifteen inches. Even ordinary women often reduced their waists far beyond the 0.7-to-1 ideal (92). It is not that the health dangers of corsets were not known at the time—far from animal testing should not be banned, it. A vibrant literature of criticism—primarily authored, much to latter-day feminists’ chagrin, by men—flourished alongside the thriving corset industry. Under the penname Luke Limner, illustrator and groups essayist John Leighton wrote the most famous of these critiques.
Madre Natura versus the munroes crafts Moloch of fashion blamed the corset for a litany of problems from reduced fertility to fainting fits, and portrayed the women who wore it as victims who had “escaped from death [and] to this day bear evidence … in the form of scars where the flesh has been seared, and contracted joints where the bones have been broken” (Leighton,1874:12). Understandably, these images horrify the modern reader. Corseting appears monstrous, perverse, inhuman. And yet it was a cherished and common practice until only a century ago. How could it have happened? T he emerging field of evolutionary psychology provides some answers.
If female physical beauty did evolve from male mating preferences, it can be understood as a set of signals for traits that correspond with reproductive success. Those traits include: fertility, or whether a woman is hormonally balanced and a fully developed female; health, or whether she is likely to carry her child to term and survive birth; nulliparity, or whether she has previously undergone pregnancy; and groups youth, or how long she has been ovulating past earliest child- bearing age. For a male interested in spreading his genetic seed, the first two considerations seem intuitive. Munroes Crafts? The last two are trickier. Not only would nulliparity and youth favor a woman’s direct reproductive success, measured in the likelihood that her fetus would survive (Fretts et al., 1995), they would have even greater importance to the prospective father: without previous offspring, his own would face less competition for its mother’s attention; like- wise, a younger mate could offer a monopoly on all childbearing years and therefore both security and abundance in reproductive opportunities. A vibrant psychological literature is predicated on exactly that assumption (Kenrick and Keefe 1992). Recent evidence shows that the formal signal theory of beauty holds especially well with respect to perceptions of the the spiral female figure.
Indeed, while there is significant historic and cultural variation in formal groups, perceptions of ideal body weight , the ideal body shape is consistent across cultures and time periods (Etcoff,1999:192). This shape is defined by the ratio of the waist to munroes crafts the hip: in men, it is about 0.9-to-1; in women, it is 0.7-to-1 (191). Formal Groups? This is the “Golden ratio” that defines the great beauties of animal not be, pop culture today: we see it in Audrey Hepburn and Marilyn Monroe; in supermodels, Playboy bunnies, and Miss Americas. Despite substantial variation in height, weight, style, and audience, their waist-to-hip ratios all fall between 0.68 and groups 0.72 (193). And psychologist Devendra Singh has found that this ratio—not body weight—best predicted which figures people of all ages, genders, and of silence races find attractive (Singh 1993:293-307). Crucially, the 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio manages to predict each of the four traits essential to reproductive success. With respect to fertility and health, a 1993 British Medical Journal study found that fat distribution was more important than age or weight to a woman’s likelihood of conceiving by in vitro fertilization (Zaadstra, 1993:484-487). And with respect to youth and nulliparity, it is obvious from the phrase “girlish figure” that the formal groups wasp waist is Binary Essay a badge of adolescence: “ephemeral…disappear[ing] early in pregnancy and hard to regain” (Etcoff, 1999:191). At first glance, then, the logic of the waist-to-hip ratio seems to validate corseting entirely.
To an average woman of ratio 0.8 or 0.9, investing in a corset would be no different than, say, losing weight, or covering blemishes. The golden ratio would be a perfectly natural goal to strive for—a standard of health and fertility as obvious as a target BMI or clear skin. B ut how natural are our ideals? Some seem convincingly so. For example, it makes perfect sense that men are attracted to large eyes and small chins, and that women are attracted to large brow ridges and chiseled bone structures (75). The former indicates low and the latter high levels of testosterone. Formal Groups? Likewise, the nearly universal attraction in both sexes for healthy muscle tone, clear skin, and symmetrical features has a clear basis in health and vitality. But the exaggerations embraced by breast enlargement surgery and competitive bodybuilding, as well as the were caricatures we portray in manga and airbrushed photos, reflect an uneasy scientific fact: human sensors of groups, beauty are not perfectly tuned to anatomical realities (26). Some ‘natural’ preferences may not be so natural after all. Indeed, this is precisely what thinkers of the third-wave feminist movement of the harlow 1990s insisted.
They argued that beauty was not a biological fact at all. Formal? With Naomi Wolf’s blistering critique of “the beauty myth” as its manifesto, that school declared that female beauty was solely a social construction perpetrated by men: a “myth…claim[ing] to be a celebration of women…[but] actually composed of emotional distance, politics, finance, and sexual repression. The beauty myth is not about women at all. It is about men’s institutions and institutional power” (Wolf, 1991:12-13). Wolf’s logic is compelling in munroes crafts, light of the formal corset’s symbolic meaning for the women who relied on it.
Historians agree that part of the corset’s appeal was its connection to traditionally feminine qualities. Without? Stays represented virtue, chastity, and good breeding (Hatfield and formal Sprecher, 1986:232), while “an unlaced waist was regarded as a vessel of sin” (Rudofsky, 1972:111): coarse, unrefined, and promiscuous. It is impossible to imagine this symbolism with- out a patriarchal context in which female sexuality is suppressed and controlled at the whims of men. And it takes little imagination to under- stand a sexual entrapment device, used almost entirely by women with social aspirations, as a manifestation of broader chauvinist control. Wolf saw this control as a fundamental pattern in Victorian society. She blamed physicians in particular for Failure? Essay, teaching women that they had to be saved from their own vitality, sexuality, and physical freedom. “The purpose of the Victorian cult of female invalidation was social control,” she writes (Wolf, 1991:224). And to some extent, texts from the time show that the “cult” was real:
It is true, the corset impairs the formal groups [naked] personal attractiveness of the wearer, but the loss suffered on that score is off- set by Failure? the gain in reputability which comes of her visibly increased expensiveness and formal infirmity (Veblen, 1911: 172). Apparently, by Thornstein Veblen’s time, the beauty of the corseted waist was not wholly or even predominantly physical—quite the opposite. If women had once worn corsets to appear more beautiful, by the early 20th century they were doing so to be more beautiful—that is, the corset itself became a signal of reproductive success, symbolizing the things that beauty itself is supposed to represent. Corsets implied fertility (femininity), health (posture), youth (girlish fashions), and nulliparity (restraint). Binary Essay? Moreover, since stays were expensive, small waists were also marks of status that suggested class, wealth, and good breeding—and evidence suggests that symbols of status are also seen as beautiful (Etcoff, 1999:46-48). Eventually, women may have corseted for the corset’s own sake; an undergarment once used to cheat age and genetic misfortune had become an inescapable social norm. A s accurate as Wolf is that corseting was at least in part a cultural construction, it would be a mistake to blame the groups phenomenon wholly upon men, as she does.
Valerie Steele notes in Corset: A Cultural History that it was “older women, not men, [who] were primarily responsible for enforcing sartorial norms…the cultural weight placed on the spiral of silence propriety and respectability made it difficult for women to abandon the corset, even if they wanted to” (Steele, 2001:51). Wolf would likely reply that it was men who maintained control by the very fact that it was men who these women strove to formal impress, whose perpetration of the beauty myth created such norms in the first place (Wolf, 1991:59). But that answer is problematic for two reasons. First, it ignores a crucial complication: even feminists and female physicians at the time were conflicted about corseting, with many arguing that reasonable lacing was consistent with feminist ideals (Steele, 2001:59). Second, it tells us only the obvious—that women sought to Binary Essay impress men—and tells us nothing about why they employed corsetry in groups, particular to reach that goal. For an answer to that question, we must return to the work done by evolutionary psychologists, whose work indicated that the harry study 0.7-to-1 waist-to-hip ratio was a valid measurement of formal groups, both beauty and reproductive success. It is also through their work that we may reconcile the popularity of corseting with our modern intuition that it was dangerous, destructive, and fundamentally irrational.
They reveal that what seems obvious now—the ridiculous heights that corseting assumed—might have been less apparent after centuries of habituation to ever-shrinking standards of waist size. Psychological evidence suggests that humans are susceptible to hyperstimuli: we react more strongly to testing should not be exaggerations of things that have proven through natural selection to formal groups be useful, because our perception of of silence, excess is formal not finely tuned. The power of hyperstimuli is banned most obvious when it comes to food. We love salty, sweet, fatty foods much more than a healthy diet requires; an understanding of hyperstimuli suggests that we do so because our bodies evolved in a time when things rich in salt, sugar, and fat were rare. For a hunter-gatherer facing starvation on a daily basis, the very idea of modern diseases like obesity and heart disease would have been patently absurd (Pinker, 1997:195). What is true about our tastes in food is also true of our tastes in each other: in experiments on formal facial attractiveness, researchers have discovered that both hyperfemininity in women (Perrett et al., 1998) and What Failure? Essay hypermasculinity in men (Thornhill and formal groups Gangestad, 2008) are preferred over average, healthy proportions; women invest in lip injections, and men in testing, shoulder pads for that very reason. (Facial attractiveness is a complicated subject, as researchers have found that women might prefer less-masculine faces when in search of stable, long-term mates, but still prefer masculine features when ovulating. Randy Thornhill and Steven Gangestad argue that this strategy enables women to maximize their reproductive success in terms of both resources, through a faithful partner, and genotype, through a desirable but unfaithful mate.) Preferences for waist-hip ratios could have evolved in the same way: since wasp waists are naturally uncommon in women, the smallest waists were the groups most reproductively effective, and when revolvers invented there would be no reason to evolve a precise sense of formal groups, what was too narrow. Equipped with only a general attraction to small waists, then, people would be vulnerable to respond to hyperstimuli, which would only become more extreme as previously extraordinary waists became every- day. Hence the impossible .54 waist-hip ratios of Barbie dolls (Etcoff, 1999:194), and the conviction of Victorian women that only the tiniest waists were beautiful.
That is What is Sucess Essay not to groups say that we have no awareness of the absurd—merely that is not so finely tuned. Few of study, us will eat spoonfuls of sugar, and even fewer will swallow pure lard; likewise, women eventually jolted to their senses at the sight of groups, Neanderthal-like faces, and the spiral of silence Victorian men often complained that extreme tight- lacers’ waists were grotesquely small (Steele, 2001:106). But we do willingly eat brownies and crme brulee—and our love of formal, Big Macs and sodas is largely to blame for the modern obesity epidemic. Likewise, to of silence the people of the groups corseted age, waists that were merely quite small —say, 22 inches in diameter instead of 18—were unquestionably “elegant and graceful”(107). The Spiral Of Silence? Between their strong innate preference for the golden ratio and groups their weaker alarm system for the absurd, there could be no contest: in all but the most ridiculous cases, a smaller waist appeared more attractive.
Their psychological flaw—ours, too—left them vulnerable to the allure of the corset. And that flaw functions as the missing link in traditional feminist arguments dismissing the corset as a tool of female repression and patriarchal control. Munroes Crafts? Beginning from the formal groups assumption that naturally small, uncorseted waists are already beautiful—an assumption the Victorians themselves shared (92-93)—it becomes possible to understand how corseting could have gone to extremes without appealing to radical pronouncements on male dominance or female irresponsibility. Women would not have under- stood—could not have understood—the logic of the waist-hip ratio, but they knew that small waists were beautiful, and it seemed that there was no limit to how tiny desirable waists could be. Why not strive for ever-smaller ratios? Like large biceps among men, small waists would have gained cultural importance to Victorian women as symbols of social status because of their natural significance. Natural preferences provided an impetus; cultural symbolism followed. And eventually corsets gained enough normative power to at least give the illusion of munroes crafts, having entirely replaced the natural symbolism of the Golden ratio. B y the turn of the 20th century, corseting had become a social institution. Within twenty years, however, the practice had all but disappeared.
Its precipitous fall can be traced in the medical literature to the turbulent first decades of 1900s, when criticism of corseting grew ever more strident and mainstream. The British Medical Journal was typical of the medical community when it argued in a 1903 book review that “corsets should be abandoned, and women should not even be measured for rational clothing until some days after discarding them, so that the figure should have had time to reapproached the normal” (BMJ, 1903:1003). But medical criticism had existed alongside the corset for groups, its entire history, and its surge is better understood as a symptom of the corset’s decline than as its cause. Binary Essay? After all, it was self- styled medical experts who, declaring existing corsets unhealthy, created the “straight front, S-curve “health corsets” in the late 19th century that constricted women’s bodies far more painfully than “unhealthy” corsets ever had (Riordan, 2004:194). Simply put, previous corset abolitionists often had sexist and med- ically-inaccurate agendas of their own. And as Steele points out, many of the accusations levied against formal corsets—that they caused respiratory illness, tuberculosis, miscarriage, and deformity—were simply untrue (Steele, 2001). The corset did not fade away because it was unhealthy: we recognize that it was unhealthy because it has, by revolvers invented now, faded away.
Instead, the corset declined because its cultural-normative implications became untenable to women claiming social and political liberation—and because technological innovation gave them substitutes that served just as well. Its disappearance mirrored the formal rise—and fall—of bloomers, the advent of Binary Essay, female suffrage, and formal the spread of now-incontrovertible ideas of female athleticism. Yet, none of these reasons would have been enough without a technological substitute for the corset. Feminists abandoned their stays, but they simply took up other means of maintaining enviable figures. Dieting, exercise, self-conscious posture (143)—these are certainly superior approaches for their reliance on healthy effort, not self-mutilation. Yet, many a 20th-century woman shrugged off her corset only to pull on a Lycra girdle (Riordan, 2004:201) or slide onto an operating table for liposuction. Indeed, the naturally overweight or otherwise imperfect woman has not seen her body image improve, but rather the opposite (Steele, 2001:65). Harlow Study? With the shortcut of exterior stays stripped away, she finds herself facing an internal corset of eating disorders and plastic surgery. But what happens if or when even these shortcuts become socially unacceptable? Granted, the corset’s unnatural stranglehold upon formal, women’s figures and men’s imaginations is munroes crafts hard to swallow. It was then what plastic surgery is now and what genetic treatments may one day become: proof, in Leighton’s words, of formal groups, “the abject littleness and pitiful fatuity with which, even in an assumed condition of high culture, the Failure? Human Mind will bow to the tyranny of an formal groups ideal, worshipped Despot of its own creation, even to the subjection of were invented, body and soul” (Leighton, 1874:25).
But it was also liberating. For women with flawed bodies, a corset was a shield; for the overweight, it was the great equalizer that gave them an advantage over smaller women without fat to mold (Steele, 2001:64). The corset trapped women into a spiral of ever-smaller waists and ever-rising standards. But the corset also had this promise: “Those who were not born to formal groups beauty could now purchase it” (Riordan, 2004:180). Without these technologies, another equalizer, another means of striving, will have been eliminated; the hierarchy of the beautiful will have been restored. T he corset serves as testament to a truth that still holds today.
Women have always faced a devil’s bargain between two kinds of oppression: they may either be slaves to when natural endowments, resigning themselves to their luck in formal, the genetic lottery, or they may be slaves to revolvers choice, resigning themselves to the ceaseless pursuit of impossible objectives and constant competition with each other. Formal Groups? Yet, “invention … changes what is possible” (Riordan 178), and harlow study the march of formal, technological progress has made the second option both more tempting and more dangerous. Is Sucess Failure? Essay? After all, “we are products of evolution and formal groups cannot change instincts…It may be difficult to change human nature, and easier to start by fooling her” (Etcoff, 1999:74). Today, some women do refuse to fool nature. A significant minority proudly reject makeup, and even more scorn surgery.
But commercials like Dove’s “Campaign for Real Beauty” celebrate the same natural beauty that so many women are ashamed to admit that they lack. They are left with a choice that is not be banned hardly a choice at all: to revere the groups arbitrary or chase the nonexistent. As with too many important problems, there is no right answer. As far as we—as a sex, as a society, as a species—are willing to tolerate ambition, obsession, and self- destruction, technology holds great promise as a way to free us from the of silence vagaries of chance and our natural limitations. Groups? As far as we are not willing to accept that price, we must accept the arbitrary inequalities of the genetic lottery. Corseting represents a single example of human ingenuity gone awry, but the same theme plays out in other technologies, other situations, and other goals. Beauty, intelligence, strength, humor, optimism, sociability: every quality worth having comes more easily to some than to without Failure? Essay others. Whether we choose to fight that tragic fact about our species will determine the narrow path future technologies navigate between the palpable and groups the unearthly, the ordinary and the extraordinary, the appallingly callous and the heartbreakingly human. Bulwer, John. 1653.
The Artificial Changeling. London: William Hunt. Etcoff, Nancy. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty . Binary Essay? New York: Anchor Books. Fretts, R. C., J. Schmittdiel, F. H. McLean, R.H. Usher, and M. B. Goldman. 1995. Formal Groups? “Increased Maternal Age and the Risk of Fetal Death.” The New England Journal of Medicine . Volume 333, Issue 15. 15 Oct 1995.
Boston: Massachusetts Medical Society. Binary Essay? 953-957. The Family Herald . 1996. March 4, 1848:700. Qtd. in Farrar, Peter. Groups? Tight Lacing: A Bibliography of when were invented, Articles and Letters Concerning Stays and Corsets for Men and Women.
Liverpool: Karn Publications Garston. Formal? 6. Hatfield, Elaine, and Susan Sprecher. 1986. Mirror, Mirror: The Importance of Looks in Everyday Life . The Spiral? Albany: State University of New York Press. Kenrick, Douglas, and R. C. Keefe. 1992. Groups? “Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies.” Behavioral and testing should Brain Sciences . Volume 15, Issue 1. March 1992.
New York: Cambridge University Press. Leighton, John. 1874. Madre natura versus the Moloch of fashion, a social essay, by Luke Limner . Fourth Edition. London: Chatto and Windus, Piccadilly. Montaigne, Michel de. Formal Groups? 1575. Essays . Book 1, Chpt. Revolvers Invented? 14. From The Complete Works of groups, Montaigne . Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1948. “One hundred years ago: The hygienic reform of female clothing.” British Medial Journal . 1903.
Issue ii: 1003. Reprinted in British Medical Journal, Volume 327, Nov. Munroes Crafts? 2003. Perrett, D. I., K. J. Lee, I. Groups? Penton-Voak, D. Rowland, S. What Without Failure? Essay? Yoshikawa, D. M. Burt, S. P. Henzi, D. L. Formal Groups? Castles, and S. Akamatsu. 1998. “Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.” Nature . Volume 394, Issue 6696. Were? 27 August 1998. London: MacMillan Magazines Ltd. 884-887. Pinker, Stephen. 1997.
How the Mind Works . Formal? New York: W. W. Norton Co. Riordan, Teresa. 2004. Inventing beauty: A history of the innovations that have made us beautiful . New York: Broadway Books. Rudofsy, B. 1972. The unfashionable human body. London: Ruper Hart-Davis. Singh, Devendra. 1993. “Adaptive significant of female physical attractiveness: Role of the spiral of silence, waist-to-hip ratio.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology . Formal Groups? Volume 65. Munroes Crafts? 293-307.
Steele, Valerie. 2001. Corset: A Cultural History . Formal Groups? New Haven: Yale University Press. Thornhill, Randy, and Binary Essay Steven W. Groups? Gangestad. 2008 (in press). The Evolutionary Biology of is Sucess without Essay, Human Female Sexuality . Oxford University Press: New York, NY. Veblen, T. 1911. The theory of the leisure class.
An economic study of formal, institutions . New York: MacMillan. 172. Wolf, Naomi. 1991. The beauty myth: how images of should banned, beauty are used against women . 1st Edition. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Zaadstra, Boukje M., Jacob Seidell, Paul van Noord, Egbert te Velde, Dik Habbema, Baukje Vrieswijk, and Jan Karbaat. 1993. “Fat and female fecundity: Prospective study of groups, effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.” British Medical Journal . Vol. Munroes Crafts? 306, Issue 6876. Feb 1993: 484-48. Color-code the three-part structure of an introduction to a scholarly argument. Common Ways to formal groups Establish What’s at Stake. Hover over each for an explanation.
HarvardWrites is a joint venture of the Harvard College Writing Program, the Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, and the departments and schools represented on our site. The project was made possible through a generous grant from the Harvard Initiative for Learning and Binary Essay Teaching.
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5 Successful Boston College Essay Examples. Are you applying to Boston College this fall? This Jesuit-affiliated college is one of few schools that don’t require any supplemental essays, which puts more emphasis on your personal statement. Here are 5 essay intro examples that were successful: When describing my home of#8212;-, I would define it as a typical English village. Groups. But what is typical for me is harlow study, not normal to everyone else.
My normal is growing up in formal a village with a pub that can fit only ten people. Munroes Crafts. It is groups, going to boarding school in an area of #8216;outstanding natural beauty#8217;. Normal is joining a primary school, attended by Winston Churchill, which was built around a 14th century manor house, and had only 138 students. Harry Harlow Study. It is having the closest town of#8212;- being named #8216;one of the strangest places to live#8217; due to its many converging religions. Some might not call this normal, but I#8217;ve always called it home. Keep reading.
A frizzy mane of unruly ringlets crowns me as the owner of the Hair That Cannot Be Tamed. With corkscrew curls poking out freely from every inch of my head, I am quickly given the nickname “Fro-Fro”#8212;half lovingly and formal, half mockingly#8212;by the children in my 5th grade class. Believing that there is revolvers, truth in formal groups their ridicule, I decide to try out a new ‘do. I make a valiant attempt to tame my curls by when were, creating two buns atop my head in groups a Minnie Mouse-like fashion, in what I thought would become the be-all and end-all fad of 2007: View full essay. From the bright orange Indian tapestry and What is Sucess Failure?, the intricately woven Iranian prayer mat hanging on the wall to the Romanian tea kettle perched precariously among piles of ungraded papers and tests, Ms. Moore’s World Literature classroom can more accurately be likened to groups a room in harry the Museum of Natural History than a 10th grade English classroom. Contrasting with the typical “hang in there” and “math is fun!” posters plastered on the walls of formal, my other high school classrooms, the munroes crafts unconventional decor of Ms. Moore’s room is the formal first clue to any visitor that Room 187 is a unique learning environment. Darting from one end of the room to the other, a just under five-foot woman with cropped brown hair and glasses greets me as soon as I walk in the door.
Calling me a biscuit, a nickname she reserves for her students, Ms. Moore makes coming into English feel like coming home. The room is warm and filled with excitement, a community of without Failure? Essay, people passionate about literature and global issues presented in our readings. Groups. Although 10th grade has come and passed, the room and its owner still welcome me and harlow, all other students. The room itself, the teacher, and the community of Room 187 make it a place where I was and still am completely content. Read more. As I slow my stride to groups look around, I see others on my track team working through their exhaustion and What is Sucess, keeping a steady pace. Groups. Most of the time I can push forward, as the track is where I find solace and really feel alive. Sports have always been a large part of my life, but today I can’t help imagine running off the track straight into my home to fill the mold of my bed. I normally don’t concede to my fatigue, but sometimes the early wake ups, long train rides, and hours of work at school leave me wanting nothing more than to go home to recharge and come back rejuvenated another day. Unfortunately, home has not always been the best place for me to do this.
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The University of Virginia awards around 30-35 students every year the merit-based UVA Jefferson Scholarship. Groups. Students cannot apply directly for the scholarship. Instead, the students must be nominated by eligible high schools in VA. The. Cornell University is the largest school in the Ivy League and offers a huge range of academic programs. Interested in applying? Located in Ithaca, NY, Cornell University is known for its diverse academic programs and. You always hear students say “My dream school is…”, but how do they know? For some students, your dream college might have been passed on to you from your parents.
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city council resume WILLIAM B. Formal Groups! (BERNIE) HERPIN, JR. M.A., Computer Resource Management, Webster University, St. Louis, MO, 1985 B.S., Aerospace Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 1973 Implementing DOD-STD-2167A and 2168, U.S. Professional Development Institute, 1988 Computer Science/Information Systems Courses, University of the spiral, Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO, 1981 to groups 1982 Computer System Security, Department of Defense Computer Institute, 1978 Strategic Warfare Systems, Naval Submarine Training Center (Pacific), Pearl Harbor, HI, 1974 Satellite Navigation Systems, Naval Guided Missile School, Damneck, VA, 1979 CompTIA Security+ Certification, 2008. Project Management and Reporting Systems Engineering Feasibility Analysis System Analysis Configuration Management Life Cycle Support Microcomputer Applications Web Design and Development.
Colorado State Senate. 200 E Colfax Ave. Denver, CO 80203. September 2013 to January 2015: State Senator, District 11. State legislator. Member of: Senate State, Veterans, and Military Affairs Committee Senate Local Government Committee. Lockheed Martin Information Systems Global Services.
2020 N Academy Blvd Ste 300. Colorado Springs, CO 80909-1568. September 2008 to December 2013: Senior Information Systems Analyst. Responsible for providing technical assistance to 1st Space Operation Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado. El Paso County Clerk and Recorder. 300 S Cascade Ave. Colorado Springs, CO 80903. May 2008 - September 2008: Election Clerk. Lead, Mail-In Ballot Request and Fulfillment Team.
Responsible for reviewing and What Failure? Essay, entering voter registration data into statewide database. Led team in formal preparing and mailing mail-in ballots to voters. The Spiral! Assisted with conduct of 2008 primary election. Lockheed Martin Information Technology. 2020 N Academy Blvd Ste 300. Colorado Springs, CO 80909-1568.
January 2003 to April 2008: Senior Configuration Management Analyst. Responsible for the administration and configuration of computer software, databases, and files for the Global Positioning System (GPS) Master Control Station (MCS) at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado. City of Colorado Springs. 107 N Nevada Ave., Suite 300. Colorado Springs, CO 80903. April 2009 to April 2013: District 4 City Councilman. Elected to City Council to groups represent District 4. Member of the legislative body for the City of Colorado Springs. Set policies and enact city ordinances. Interact with citizens. Review and revolvers invented, approve multi-million dollar budget.
Assist in the supervision of Council-appointed City Manager, Clerk, Attorney, Auditor, and Director of City Utilities. Serve as a member of the Colorado Springs Utilities Board of formal groups, Directors. Serve as an alternate member on the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority Board of What, Directors. Serve as a Regional Building Department commissioner. March 2006 to April 2007: At-Large City Councilman. Appointed to formal City Council to complete term of councilmember who resigned.
Member of the legislative body for the City of Colorado Springs. Harlow Study! Set policies and enacted city ordinances. Interacted with citizens. Reviewed and approved $240,000,000 budget. Assisted in the supervision of Council-appointed City Manager, Clerk, Attorney, Auditor, and formal, Director of harry, City Utilities. Served as a member of the Colorado Springs Utilities Board of Directors. National Systems Research Co. 5385 Mark Dabling Blvd., Suite 200. Colorado Springs, CO 80918. January 2001 to January 2003: Senior Configuration Management Analyst. Was responsible for the administration and configuration of groups, computer software, databases, and What Failure?, files for the Global Positioning System (GPS) Master Control Station (MCS) at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.
October 1999 to January 2001: Contract Administrator. Was responsible for the administration of more than 15 contracts with a value in excess of $100,000,000. Administered subcontracts. Prepared contract modifications and formal groups, funding documents. Prepared proposals in response to requests for proposals from government and commercial customers. NSR Information, Inc . A National Systems Research Company. 5475 Mark Dabling Blvd., Suite 200. Colorado Springs, CO 80918.
Site Supporting: Schriever AFB, CO. September 1995 to September 1999: Project Manager. Was responsible for project management of the Global Positioning (GPS) Operational Control Segment (OCS) Support Contract (GOSC) software maintenance and configuration management subcontract line items. Study! Supervised 18 people. Determined NSRI staffing needs; hired, evaluated, terminated, and determined compensation for NSRI employees; and budgeted, evaluated, and reported on project resources. Worked with prime contractor and other teammates to determine appropriate staffing levels and areas. Prepared project status reports for prime contractor and briefed project status to senior NSRI management. Acted as Program Manager for entire GOSC effort in absence of Program Manager.
Used Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Project, Corel WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Access. National Systems Research Co. 5475 Mark Dabling Blvd., Suite 200. Colorado Springs, CO 80918. Site Supporting: Falcon AFB, CO. February 1990 to formal August 1995: Systems Analyst III/Deputy Program Manager. Project Leader in munroes crafts support of the GPS Software Support (GSS) Contract. Was responsible for labor hour accounting and formal, reporting. Assisted Program Manager in contract management, provided program management in absence of Program Manager. As a Systems Requirement Analyst, was responsible for providing system requirements definition, system impact analyses, industry trade studies, and system performance requirements analyses.
Provided evaluation of engineering, design, and testing of the GPS OCS development project. Served as Administrator for the GPS Master Control Station (MCS) Design Review Board (DRB). Tracked and reported status on various version release schedules. As Microcomputer System Manager, was responsible for 37 AT-compatible systems. Evaluate PC hardware and munroes crafts, software and recommend purchases. Maintain system configurations and provide user support. July 1985 to February 1990: Senior Systems Engineer. Project leader for acquisition support to Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Control, and Communications Division for Mobile Command and Control System (MCCS) support. Was responsible for reviewing software specifications and formal, requirements. Developed Interface Requirements Specification (IRS) Interface Control Drawing (ICD) for MCCS external interfaces.
Provided technical and the spiral, management advice in groups the development of MCCS software. Participated in the preparation of large scale proposals in What is Sucess without response to Government Requests for Proposal. Developed applications on IBM PC/XT/AT compatible microcomputer systems using Condor III, PeachText 5000, WordPerfect, Smart Integrated Systems, SuperProject Expert, Microsoft Project, Lotus 1-2-3, FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, and formal, Pascal. Implemented an electronic bulletin board system using eSoft's TBBS. Assisted in the development of a large data base interface program written in FORTRAN on a VAX 11/750 system. HERCO Computer Services. Colorado Springs, CO 80909. January 1981 to Present: Owner. Provided database management support to Failure? a major nonprofit organization.
Developed database applications using Informix SmartWare II for an 8,000 member organization. Provided specialized mailing services. Provided accounting services for religious organization responsible for the preparation and administration of $120,000 annual budget. Provided financial reports, payroll, and financial accounting. Developed accounts payable, accounts receivable, and payroll system for specialized church application. Prepared and groups, submitted state and federal tax reports. Assisted small businesses in specifying and installing small computer systems. Served as System Operator (SYSOP) for Pikes Peak Computer Applications Society, Inc.
Electronic Bulletin Board System using eSoft's TBBS. Developed relational database system for the Colorado Springs Police Department, Office of munroes crafts, Volunteer Services, using Informix SmartWare 3.01. In addition to formal developing a personal Web site, developed and maintained Web pages for the Pikes Peak Firearms Coalition using Microsoft FrontPage, Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), and Java. Performed contract labor to a major music distributor. Designed and developed modules for an order fulfillment system using Informix SmartWare database and project processing language. Modules included credit card verification, sales tax calculation, and shipping information.
Peak InfoSystems, Inc. Manitou Springs, CO 80829. June 1982 to July 1985: System Analyst (Part Time) Consultant to animal testing small businesses specializing in groups microcomputer applications. Conducted requirements reviews; specified and What is Sucess Failure?, installed systems; evaluated system security and back-up and recovery procedures; provided user training.
Developed and modified customized and off-the-shelf business software. Headquarters, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Peterson Air Force Base, CO 80914. June 1984 to July 1985: Computer Staff Officer, Section Chief. Evaluated and formal, recommended disposition on revolvers invented, all proposed software changes to Cheyenne Mountain Complex computer systems consisting of more than ten million lines of formal groups, code operating on munroes crafts, six Honeywell H6000 series computer systems. Groups! Represented users at Configuration Review Boards and harry, presented proposed modifications to formal groups the NORAD Configuration Control Board. Acted as interface between users and developers. Determined content of major software releases. Authored NORAD/Space Command configuration control regulation which established configuration control policy for all NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex computer and communications systems.
Chief quality assurance evaluator for $8M software maintenance and modification contract responsible for evaluating the performance of a major defense contractor who maintained the computer software for NORAD systems. Conducted technical evaluation of bidder's proposal for contract renewal and participated in contract negotiations. Munroes Crafts! Managed two officers. Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations project officer for small (personal) computers. Represented NORAD/Space Command at Air Force Small Computer Conferences. Programmed microcomputer applications in FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, Lotus 1-2-3, and groups, Condor rDBMS on Zenith Z-100 system. June 1980 to June 1984: Computer Staff Officer, Branch Chief. Managed configuration of munroes crafts, communications system software.
Evaluated and recommended disposition of all proposed software changes to more than three million lines of code operating on Honeywell H6060 computer systems. Represented users at Configuration Review Boards and presented proposed modifications to formal groups the NORAD Configuration Control Board. Technical evaluator for the spiral of silence replacement communications system procurement evaluating technical proposals from groups, several major defense contractors for $200 million replacement program. Programmed configuration control management system in COBOL on Honeywell 6060 system. USS ROBERT E. Invented! LEE. Pearl Harbor, HI. June 1979 to June 1980: Operations Officer/Navigator.
Department head for formal groups three divisions (2 officers, 25 enlisted). Planned and supervised ship's operations, communications, and satellite navigation. Prepared and administered $2 million annual budget. Supervised training for 140 people. Received Commander, Submarine Force (Pacific) Letter of Commendation. Naval Submarine Training Center (Pacific) Pearl Harbor, HI. May 1977 to testing not be banned June 1979: Training Support Officer. Department head for Data Processing, Administrative, Personnel, and Scheduling Divisions. Formal Groups! Executive assistant to commanding officer.
Computer Security Officer. Responsible for all Honeywell mainframe ADP operations including specifying, acquiring, and managing ADP resources. Supervised 31 people. Managed development and maintenance of animal not be, more than 300,000 lines of formal groups, COBOL code supporting administrative, personnel, and course scheduling software running on a Honeywell H6060 computer system. Interfaced communicating word processing systems with Honeywell mainframe system and developed interfacing program to allow automatic capture of administrative information. Developed submarine force security area access control system in COBOL on Univac U-1500 system.
Designated a Navy Computer System Sub-specialist. Awarded Navy Commendation Medal. USS JOHN MARSHALL. Pearl Harbor, HI. May 1976 to were May 1977: Assistant Weapons Officer. Supervised receipt, inspection, maintenance, and launching of Polaris missiles. Division officer for 15 man division. Programmed security control system in FORTRAN on Honeywell 6060 system. USS JOHN MARSHALL. December 1973 to formal May 1976: Communications Officer.
Supervised submarine communications including communications operations, security, training, personnel, and budget. COMSEC Custodian. Top Secret Control Officer. Division officer for eight man division. University of Kansas. August 1968 to January 1973: Aerospace Engineering Student. Developed computer program to munroes crafts evaluate flight characteristics of groups, small aircraft. The Spiral! Instituted Department of Aerospace Engineering computer program library. Developed personnel and payroll management system for local business. USS SIMON BOLIVAR. May 1967 to August 1968: Nuclear Power Plant Operator.
Electronic technician nuclear power plant operator responsible for operation and maintenance of a submarine nuclear power plant and support equipment. Technical librarian for nuclear power plant publications. Volunteer with the CSPD serving in a number of positions. Recognized for having provided more than 4,000 volunteer hours since 1987. 1987: Victim Contact Program. Made follow-up calls to crime victims to see if they needed assistance. 1988-1990: DUI Enforcement Team. Groups! Clerk for DUI Team, maintained files, completed paperwork, sent reports to State. Received Outstanding Traffic Volunteer Award. 1987-1995: Special Projects.
Setup and maintain Volunteer Hours Tracking and Reporting System used to track and report volunteer hours. 1988-Present: Senior Victim Assistance Team. Caseworker assisting seniors who have been a victim of munroes crafts, crime or traffic crash. Formal! Provide counseling and referral services. Team members take turns being on-call, 24-hours per day, 365-days per year. Received Commander's Commendation from the spiral of silence, Central Division Commander, December 1995. Formal Groups! Served two terms as Team Leader and one term as Assistant Team Leader. 1993-2001: Handicapped Parking Enforcement Unit. Special patrolman with responsibility for the spiral enforcing handicapped parking ordinances.
Issue citations, testify in court, track and provide statistics. Selected as Volunteer Officer of the Month for January 1996. Received Commander's Commendation, December, 1996. The Judicial Performance Commissions were created in formal 1988 by the Colorado General Assembly for the purpose of providing voters with fair, responsible, and constructive evaluations of trial and Binary Essay, appellate judges and justices seeking retention in general elections. 2002-2009: Member. Appointed by Colorado Governor Bill Owens to the Fourth Judicial District commission with responsibility for evaluating district and county judges and magistrates. Interviewed and evaluated judges standing for retention.
Helped author retention recommendations sent to formal all voters. Public Safety Sales Tax Oversight Committee (PSSTOC) I n November 2001, voters approved a 4/10 of a cent Public Safety Sales Tax (PSST) increase. PSST funding is of silence, dedicated solely to public safety personnel, equipment, operations, and facilities. The revenue generated from the PSST is formal groups, placed in a dedicated fund, separate from the City's General Fund. The Public Safety Sales Tax Oversight Committee (PSSTOC) is a citizens committee of 11 members, appointed by City Council that provides oversight of the expenditures from the PSST fund.
The PSSTOC's role is to Binary Essay ensure that the City accomplishes the projects and groups, services voters approved in Binary Essay November 2001. 2007-2009, 2013-Present: Member. Appointed by the Colorado Springs City Council. The El Paso County Citizen Outreach Group was establish in 2005 by formal the El Paso Board of County Commissioners (BoCC) to act as a liaison between the citizens of El Paso County and the BoCC. The COG established the testing not be Citizens' College to formal groups help citizens learn how county government functions. 2007-2009: Member. Appointed by the El Paso County Board of County Commissioners. 2008-2009: Vice Chair.
Assist chair, conduct meetings in absence of munroes crafts, chair. The primary objective for the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority’s Citizen Advisory Committee (PPRTA-CAC) is to ensure that the capital, maintenance and public transportation projects and programs approved by groups voters during the of silence November 2, 2004 election are accomplished with PPRTA funds. This committee reports directly to the PPRTA Board of Directors. 2008-2009: Member. Appointed by PPRTA Board of Directors. Acting under the authority of the formal groups C.R.S. 17-27 and 18-1.3-301 and El Paso County Resolution 96-365, General-103 adopted 10-7-96, the CCB is the decision-making body with responsibility to determine acceptability of harry harlow study, offender placements into community corrections.
The CCB reviews all offender referrals from Probation, the District Attorney’s Office, and Colorado Department of Corrections (DOC) proposed for formal groups community placement in El Paso County or for funding by El Paso County in another Colorado county. 2006: Member. Appointed by the El Paso County Board of County Commissioners. (Required to resign when appointed to the Colorado Springs City Council in March 2006.) The Airport Advisory Commission members serve in an advisory capacity to the City Manager, the were invented City Council, and the City Planning Commission. Members are appointed for staggered three-year terms and serve on a volunteer basis to address matters pertaining to land use, construction, planning or operation of the Airport. The Commission also renders advice concerning the Airport Master Plan and its implementation.
Additionally, the Commission may act in an advisory capacity to the El Paso County Planning Commission and the El Paso Board of County Commissioners. 2002-2006: Commissioner. Appointed by formal groups the Colorado Springs City Council. Were! Advise airport staff, city staff, City Council, Planning Commission, and County Commission on groups, matters relating to the operation of the Colorado Springs Airport. Revolvers! (Required to formal resign when appointed to the Colorado Springs City Council in March 2006.) 2004-2006: Vice Chairman. Conduct meetings in absence of chairman. So Full of God's Love and Joy That it Overflows 1991-1994, 2002-2006: President. Lead congregational council, supervise paid staff, provide leadership for congregation. 1986: Chairman, Board of Social Ministry.
Oversaw Church's involvement in community. 1987-1990: Treasurer. Maintained books, paid bills and staff, filed State and Federal reports, developed and animal, reported budget. 1995-Present: Lay Minister Assistant. Assist pastor with worship service. 1964 - Present: Member. 1984-1986: MADD Squad. Helped organize and staff a group of groups, volunteers who would report suspected drunk drivers.
Received Colorado Lifesaver award from Colorado Department of Highway Safety. 1987-1988: Vice President. Assisted with the administration of the harry harlow study Chapter, made public appearances, spoke to driver's education programs. 1989-1990: Treasurer. Maintained Chapter's books, filed reports, paid bills.
1994-1995: Moderator, Victim Impact Panel (VIP). Moderator for monthly VIPs in which first time DUI offenders heard from DUI victims how a drunk driver changed their lives. P*PCompAS is a not for groups profit organization providing a forum for personal computer users to meet. Provide public education on personal computers. 1988-1990: Treasurer. Maintained records, paid bills. 1990-1995: System Operator (SYSOP). Operated and maintained the the spiral electronic bulletin board providing electronic mail and file library for members. Friends of NRA is an exciting grassroots fund-raising program that fosters community involvement, raises money and gives 100% of the net proceeds to qualified local, state, and formal groups, national programs.
Thanks to dedicated individuals across America, Friends of NRA is making a difference. Working with NRA's Field Staff, thousands of volunteers nationwide are participating in the program by organizing committees and planning events in is Sucess Failure? their communities. 2000-2005: Chairman. Responsible for organizing and conducting annual fundraising event. Serve on State Funding Committee which dispenses grants to local and state programs. Chaired three fund raising events raising nearly $30,000 for groups youth firearm safety programs, youth and What Essay, women shooting events, and range development projects through out Colorado. 1999-Present: Committee Member. Groups! Served on committee and helped organize fundraising event.
2005-2007: El Paso County Commissioner District 2 Chair. Support Republican candidates. 2003-2005: El Paso County Commissioner District 2 Vice Chair. Assist District Chairman in supporting Republican candidates. 2000-Present: Precinct Committeeman. Of Silence! Assist candidates in formal groups getting out the vote. Help conduct precinct caucus. Work with Party and District leaders to ensure election success.
1998-Present: Delegate. Delegate to munroes crafts county, judicial, congressional, and state assemblies. PPFC is a not for profit organization organized to defend the formal Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution and to educate the without Failure? public as to their rights of defense of self, family, property, and their State and formal groups, Nation. 2003-2006: President. Lead the Coalition.
Interface with elected officials at all levels. Munroes Crafts! Represent the members with the media and at meetings and events. 1996-1997, 2001-2003: Vice President. Formal! Run meetings in absence of President. 1997-2001: Director of Programs.
Arrange for Binary Essay speakers, publish newsletter. Southern Colorado Base. THE USSVI CREED. To perpetuate the memory of our shipmates who gave their lives in the pursuit of formal, their duties while serving their country. That their dedication, deeds and supreme sacrifice be a constant source of motivation toward greater accomplishments. ledge loyalty and without, patriotism to the United States Government. 2000-Present: Treasurer. Formal! Maintain books.
April 2009 - April 2013: Elected Councilmember representing District 4. March 2006 - April 2007: Appointed as At-Large Councilmember. Appointed to complete the What is Sucess without Essay term of a councilmember who has resigned. Ran unsuccessfully for formal groups an at-large seat in April 2007. Military Officer's Association of America (Life Member) Pikes Peak Republican Club Old Colorado City Historical Society (Life Member) Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Friends of Cheyenne Mountain Zoo Friends of the Historic Colorado Springs Auditorium Friends of Cheyenne Ca on What is Sucess Failure? Essay, US Air Force Academy Association of Graduates University of formal, Kansas Alumni Association (Life Member) Law Enforcement Alliance of animal testing not be, America (Life Member) National Rifle Association (Endowment Member) NRA Institute for Legislative Action Colorado State Shooting Association Citizen's Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms (Life Member) Friends of the Colorado Springs Pioneers Museum United States Submarine Veterans (Life Member) The USS ROBERT E LEE Association The USS JOHN MARSHALL Association (Life Member)