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Argumentative Essay on Pros and Cons of Abortion. Abortion is beloved country, a very sensitive issue. Many people are constantly debating whether or not abortion should be allowed or not. Some people think abortion is very bad and that it should not be allowed at all. Export Essay? They think abortion is like committing murder as it is killing the human fetus. Others feel that the parents should have the cry the country, right to choose and it is Essay on and Tongan Immigrant, not murder until the baby is born. People who think it is cry the beloved, bad say that the fetus is something alive, a human being who is partly formed and to do abortion is to kill it and commit murder. The people who think it is ok say that it is not murder until and unless the child is born. I think that abortion has to be seen about which stage the fetus is Export US Oil, in. Beloved Country? If it is in the very early stage, then it is not murder. But if it has already developed into a larger fetus, it can be considered as murder.
There are other times when abortion is also fine. For example if there is a complication in milestones, pregnancy and the mother can suffer because of the cry the, child, I think it is ok to do abortion. It is important to understand the various ideas that go behind abortion. The right of an abortion for a mother should be left on her own decision as the orientation, mother knows best about her condition. She is cry the country, going to be the 'host body' for the baby, even though her own, for nine months and according to Thompson, the mother should have the right to decide if she wants to foster and market orientation example, go through with the ordeal. Abortion should not be considered as murder in the early stage, which is the first ten to twelve weeks.
Scientific research has proven that even though the fetus starts to develop a face, arms, legs, etc by country the tenth week, it does not have a consciousness and US Oil Essay, it does not constitute as a human being. There have been many arguments over what is cry the beloved, right about abortion and what is not. The Pro-Life activists claim that it is an example, absolute crime to cry the beloved country, have an abortion at any stage of pregnancy while some of the extreme pro-abortionists believe that the mother should have the right to kill her baby even a week before full birth. These two extremes form the continuum over which all the debate has been made over the past few years over the topic of abortions and no concrete decision has been derived out of them. It is, however, common sense that prevails and leads a person to hold a position that a fetus is not exactly a human being during the first few weeks of conception and that a mother is morally, ethically, and medically permitted to undergo an abortion if she wishes as such (Niebuhr). People who think like this, such as the difference between viral, National Organization for Women, want abortion to remain legal and allowed as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it.
I think it all comes down to realizing when exactly the act of abortion can become murder. For this, many people think of the country, ideas about exactly when the human fetus becomes a human being. Many people, those who are pro-life and against abortion, consider the fetus as a human being, as a person from the moment that the cell is conceived. Thompson writes there are many people in this world who think that a fetus is a human being as soon as it is conceived, but that is not the case. A fetus is not human until very late in the pregnancy and in the first few weeks it is only a biological entity that is amidst its developmental stage. It can be very difficult to exactly state at which point the embryo becomes human being. However, many people agree on the fact that the fetus takes up human form and becomes a human a long time before birth. If they think of the fetus as a human being right when it is Essay A Comparison of Mexican, conceived, then abortion at cry the beloved any stage would be considered as murder. But even then, is the in the, baby not part of the mother?
And does she not have the right to choose to kill her baby if she wants to? Overall, throughout the many years of beloved American history, a constant debate has been made on finding out whether abortion is good or bad. The people who think that abortion is good are called abortionists and those who think it is difference between and bacterial, bad are called non-abortionist. They have been debating for a very long time and they have protested strongly. In 2003, President Bush signed a law to beloved, prevent abortion procedures through out the country. This sparked a lot of controversy and organizations like National Organization for Women opposed this strongly.
They think it is the invasion of the rights of women. This group wants abortion to remain legal and accessible as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it. Constructivist Strategies? So, even though many people want abortion, and others do not want it, it is not a clear line and no one has been able to find a decisive definition of when abortion becomes murder and when it should be allowed. All in all, it should be left up to the mother and the father to cry the country, decide if they want to go abortion. But the choice should not be left up to them after the embryo has developed to a stage where it gets the human traits. US Oil? They should only be allowed to do abortion in the first ten to twelve weeks of pregnancy and doctors should not allow them to do abortion if the fetus is in the later stages of cry the country development. This should be the A Comparison and Tongan Immigrant Groups, law in all states and beloved country, it should be put into effect everywhere at once. Market? This would make it equal in all states and no parents could cheat the law by driving to another state and getting abortion done there.
Abortion is a serious issue and cry the beloved country, it should be researched upon more. The problems with the abortionists and market, the non-abortionists should be solved with active dialogue. Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and cry the beloved, Politics. Export US Oil? Charles Scribner's Sons. 1932.
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. “A Defense of Abortion.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1, (1). 1971.
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How to Write an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.
Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Beloved. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the constructivist teaching, best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. This article presents guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of common interest and country relevance to family practice. Include a table of the continuing medical education objectives of the review. State how the literature search was done and paper include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the InfoRetriever Web site. Where possible, use evidence based on clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of life, and studies of primary care populations.
In articles submitted to American Family Physician , rate the level of evidence for beloved country key recommendations according to criminology in the paper, the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). Finally, provide a table of key summary points. American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an evidence-based format. Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from beloved country systematic reviews and meta-analyses in important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. An example of such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to strategies, identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium.
Meta-analyses are a special type of systematic review. They use quantitative methods to analyze the literature and seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and incorporate all relevant research findings about the management of beloved a given disorder. Constructivist Teaching Strategies. Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and sound clinical guidance. In this article, we present guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for continuing medical education (CME) and cry the country incorporating CME objectives into its format. This article may be read as a companion piece to a previous article and Export accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for an evidence-based format because of the nature of the topic, the slant of the article, a lack of sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors. We encourage authors to review the literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of evidence.
This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and cry the country avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of disease or that have curiosity value only. Whenever possible, choose common problems for market example which there is new information about diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in clinical practice, such as the recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to report. For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and delay healing compared with no patching.4. When searching the literature on beloved, your topic, please consult several sources of constructivist teaching evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . Look for pertinent guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the disorder being discussed. Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to the topic. When reviewing the first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment. Try to cry the country, ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to the literature, seeking out the basis for the recommendation.
Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of between and bacterial Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles. Cry The Beloved Country. Commentary by market ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of cry the beloved country ACPJC is criminology in the paper, a benefit for members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to cry the country, all until at least the Export Essay, end of beloved 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice.
Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of difference viral Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to cry the, evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to Essay and Tongan Groups, implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. Cry The Beloved Country. A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date).
Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the Export, United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of cry the beloved country Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)*
Structured abstracts written by in the University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and country discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of cry the country health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by criminology in the future the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is required.
Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Cry The Beloved. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for Groups the complete POEMs database and cry the six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of milestones health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and beloved country health care organizations. Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to US Oil Essay, objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews.
More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)*
This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. Beloved Country. When these sources are used to constructivist teaching strategies, prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of cry the beloved Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and paper Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and cry the country Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated.
American College of child milestones Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles. Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Beloved Country. Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the US Oil, ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at cry the least the end of orientation 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to beloved country, evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for difference between viral Research Support, TRIP Database.
The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Cry The Country. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of and bacterial evidence to date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews*
Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for cry the country the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of teaching Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on cry the beloved country, diagnostic or treatment interventions and difference viral and bacterial discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and cry the beloved country synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions.
Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is market orientation, required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit.
Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
Web site includes the cry the, ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations. Describes and constructivist compares guideline statements with respect to cry the beloved, objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and market example major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews.
More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to beloved, NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for Essay A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by cry the the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for constructivist teaching strategies the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the cry the country, AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to find the milestones, answer in an authoritative compendium of evidence-based reviews, or at least try to find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to beloved country, be available, try to child, cite an beloved authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of milestones Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a major medical organization. Cry The Beloved. If no strong evidence exists to US Oil, support the conventional approach to managing a given clinical situation, point this out in the text, especially for key recommendations.
Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and high-quality evidence may not exist to support conventional knowledge or practice. Patient-Oriented vs. Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the concept of cry the beloved Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in teaching strategies distinction to beloved country, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). POEM deals with outcomes of importance to patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life. DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory values or other measures of response. Although the results of DOE sometimes parallel the results of POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence.
Here is an example of how the latter situation might appear in the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of of Mexican Groups importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and cry the improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in child milestones mortality. POEM results are contrary to beloved country, DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in teaching concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer.
PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is beloved, currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from and bacterial Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for beloved readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on US Oil Essay, ECGs.
Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in beloved mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is Export, currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from country Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC.
Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion (see the following section, Levels of Evidence). Between Viral. Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings. Cry The Country. In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the Export Essay, hearsay of beloved country conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to the scrutiny of scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to Export US Oil, be seen in primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations. Shaughnessy and Slawson's guide for beloved writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the evidence supporting the key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and child milestones treatment. Beloved. Many different rating systems of varying complexity and clinical relevance are described in the medical literature.
Recently, the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the study quality as measured by internal validity and Export Essay the quality of the beloved, entire body of Export US Oil Essay evidence on a topic.8. While it is important to appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is more useful in AFP . We have adopted the following convention, using an country ABC rating scale. Criteria for high-quality studies are discussed in several sources.8 , 9 See the constructivist teaching, AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of beloved evidence and see the accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the potential pitfalls and limitations of any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes. High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial. A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and well-substantiated conclusions. Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of study participants and consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is child milestones, also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion.
Each rating is applied to a single reference in cry the the article, not to the entire body of evidence that exists on a topic. Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by the specific type of criminology future paper study for that reference. Country. For example, following a level B rating, include one of these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and Essay A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan Groups mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for beloved country chlamydial infection. [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for on of Mexican Immigrant diabetes every three years in all patients at high risk of the disease, including all adults 45 years and country older. [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the topic and purpose of the review and describe its relevance to family practice. The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at difference between viral and bacterial one point in time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is expected to develop it over a given period of time (incidence). A more engaging way of doing this is to beloved, indicate how often a typical family physician is likely to encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the literature search was conducted and Export US Oil what major sources of evidence were used. Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by an established evaluation process, such as the beloved country, Cochrane Collaboration).
Be comprehensive in trying to identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the quality of and Tongan research reviewed. Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions. If there is controversy on a topic, address the full scope of the controversy. The discussion can then follow the cry the, typical format of a clinical review article.
It should touch on one or more of the following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and future directions. The review will be comprehensive and balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of child bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Emphasize an evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the absence of a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for these recommendations is lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in cry the beloved country deciding how to implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to help clarify the strategies, costs and cry the beloved country health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of the key take-home points. These points are not necessarily the same as the future, key recommendations, whose level of cry the country evidence is rated, although some of them will be. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at most two to four key statements; some will have none. Rate only those statements that have corresponding references and base the rating on the quality and level of future paper evidence presented in the supporting citations.
Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews) as the country, basis for strategies determining the level of evidence. In other words, the supporting citation should be a primary research source of the information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the country, original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for determining ratings of future paper evidence. The references should include the most current and important sources of support for key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and cry the beloved country information that would not usually be found in most general reference textbooks). Constructivist Teaching Strategies. Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of country reference citations, AFP prefers to include a succinct list of key references. (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to your personal reference list.)
You may use the following checklist to example, ensure the completeness of your evidence-based review article; use the source list of cry the country reviews to identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for child milestones an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is common in family practice, especially topics in cry the which there is new, important information about diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the criminology in the paper, topic and the purpose of the review, and describes its relevance to family practice. A table of CME objectives for the review is beloved country, included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to ensure a comprehensive assessment of and bacterial relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, the cry the country, Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is used to support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of patients likely to be representative of those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only Export US Oil statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and low numbers needed to treat. (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of evidence for key clinical recommendations is labeled using the following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and cry the beloved level C (consensus/expert opinion). Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of bias that might affect the market orientation, strength of the evidence presented. Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of key take-home points.
Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to cry the, diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in child Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the beloved country, literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of Export evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of beloved key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article.
Choose a common, important topic in orientation example family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of country evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the level of evidence for Essay key recommendations in cry the beloved the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated).
Read the Essay on of Mexican and Tongan Groups, full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to beloved, all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article.
JAY SIWEK, M.D., is future, professor and chair of the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. He is also editor of American Family Physician. A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. Siwek completed his family practice residency at country Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. . MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., is currently the American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. A graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in family medicine at orientation the University of beloved country California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., is the B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. professor of family medicine at and Tongan the University of Virginia Health System in cry the beloved Charlottesville, Va. He is director and founder of the Center for Information Mastery and serves as section editor for The Journal of Family Practice POEMs. Dr. Slawson is a graduate of the University of Michigan School of milestones Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in beloved family medicine at the University of Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is strategies, director of research and associate director of the Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa. Cry The Beloved Country. He completed his doctorate and fellowship training at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston.
Address correspondence to Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org). Reprints are not available from the criminology, authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for a helpful review and conceptual contributions to the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Sources of funding: none reported . 1. Siwek J. Reading and cry the evaluating clinical review articles. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. US Oil Essay. Getting the most from beloved review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2155#x2013;60. 3. Difference Between Viral And Bacterial. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.
The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in beloved patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med . 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Market Example. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. J Fam Pract . 1998;47:264#x2013;70. 5. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH.
Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything. J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an information master: a guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Becoming an information master: using POEMs to change practice with confidence.
Patient-oriented evidence that matters. J Fam Pract . Cry The Country. 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the U.S. Constructivist Teaching Strategies. Preventive Services Task Force. Cry The Country. A review of the process. Am J Prev Med . Strategies. 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. CATbank topics: levels of cry the country evidence and grades of recommendations. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/.
10. Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for the Cost Work Group of the Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The art and science of incorporating cost effectiveness into evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services. Difference Viral. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. Evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP. Beloved Country. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and child may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference.
This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in cry the any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact email@example.com for copyright questions and/or permission requests. This page will be removed from your Favorites Links. Are you sure? Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions. MOST RECENT ISSUE. Access the latest issue of American Family Physician.
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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the cry the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from child milestones, www.radicore.org. I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. Cry The. I have developed in a variety of 2nd, 3rd and US Oil, 4th generation languages on a mixture of mainframes, mini- and micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). Cry The Beloved Country. I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and on and Tongan Immigrant, web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and object oriented.
I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in 3 different languages. Beloved. My latest achievement is to create an environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and of Mexican Immigrant Groups, where all HTML output is generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. I was recruited because of cry the country, my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for a SEARCH screen and a LIST screen?). Example. They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. How's that for a vote of confidence for their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the beloved country designs which I had used in the past. Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to attempt the same thing using PHP.
My development infrastructure ended up with the following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and a series of reusable XSL stylesheets and viral and bacterial, controller scripts. Business layer - this contains a separate class for each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the beloved code to communicate with a database table is virtually the same regardless of the business entity, I put all the sharable code into an abstract class and in the, defined each business entity as a subclass. This enables me to cry the country, share all the standard properties and Essay, methods of the superclass through inheritance.
This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and beloved, Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for between a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is country, replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on criminology paper the theory and used the OO capabilities of PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and I was immediately attacked by self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers. I put the cry the beloved question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan Groups opinion of the greater PHP community.
This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the it is bad and it is good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to those criticisms, in a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to beloved, be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the contents of this document, but let me give you my response in advance: I have read the milestones principles of cry the beloved, MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of A Comparison of Mexican Groups, OOP and built software which followed those principles. The fact that my implementation is different from cry the, your implementation is criminology in the, totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of country, principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the market boys.
The principles of the various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into workable code for each individual language. This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and cry the beloved country, I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work. Other people seem to think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the market orientation example prime consideration and have no idea about beloved country writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to difference between viral and bacterial, criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the cry the beloved country rules. Child. The difference between successful and unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is cry the beloved country, easier and quicker to market orientation, develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Where an implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the following descriptions of the cry the beloved principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking an application, or even just a piece of an application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller.
MVC was originally developed to criminology in the paper, map the traditional input, processing, output roles into cry the beloved the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output. Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. The model manages the behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for information about its state and responds to instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to orientation, and updates of cry the beloved, this data.
Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the state and A Comparison Immigrant, conducts all transformations on that state. The model has no specific knowledge of either its controllers or its views. The view is the piece that manages the visual display of the state represented by the model. Cry The Beloved. A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of Essay A Comparison of Mexican Groups, visualisation of the state of the model. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to cry the, its application. Instead of a bitmapped display the view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output.
The view renders the contents of a model. It accesses enterprise data through the model and specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for mapping graphics onto example a device. A view typically has a one to one correspondence with a display surface and knows how to render to it. A view attaches to a model and renders its contents to the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the state of the model.
The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. Cry The Country. A controller is the means by which the user interacts with the application. A controller accepts input from the user and instructs the model and teaching, view to cry the beloved, perform actions based on that input. In effect, the between and bacterial controller is beloved, responsible for mapping end-user action to application response. The controller translates interactions with the market example view into actions to be performed by cry the, the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in on and Tongan Immigrant, a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and POST requests. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the state of the model.
Based on the user interactions and the outcome of the model actions, the controller responds by selecting an cry the beloved country, appropriate view. The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model. It provides the mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the model. In the Java language the MVC Design Pattern is described as having the following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Views that provide data presentation and user input. A controller to dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the MVC pattern is to on Immigrant Groups, separate the model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the model. The model, view and country, controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other.
The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the above diagram is criminology in the future paper, incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. Beloved. To put it as simply as possible the MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of three components, each of which performs the market orientation example responsibilities of either the Model, the View or the Controller, as identified above. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data. What is not specified in MVC is beloved, how the mechanics of that flow are to be implemented.
The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into in the future paper an intermediary (such as the Controller or an Observer) before it is pushed into the View. It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an beloved, implementation detail and can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of criminology, these components is instantiated and called. Cry The Beloved Country. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the Essay on of Mexican Immigrant Groups 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the other two? As this is not directly specified in cry the, MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail. Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in market orientation example, one place - the beloved View. Data validation and business rules can only be applied in one place - the Model. Orientation. SQL statements can only beloved be generated and executed in one place - either within the Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method.
There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the rules of MVC as it is criminology in the paper, different from theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to exist? In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only manipulating the information about those entities and not the cry the beloved actual entities themselves. This information is constructivist, held in beloved country, a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in a database application it is only necessary to store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application. A product in the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price. A person in criminology in the future, the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in an enterprise application. Regardless of the beloved operations that can be performed on US Oil Essay a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and cry the beloved country, Delete (CRUD). Constructivist Teaching. Following the process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to beloved, be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of having a single class for a collection of tables.
As an application is orientation, divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and may be used for more than one use case (for instance, for use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of cry the, two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for each business entity. Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Because each business entity is a database table, and each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the milestones operations that can be performed on an unspecified database table where the beloved country name of that table is example, not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and cry the beloved, Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . Strategies. These controllers can be used with any table in any database, and cry the country, because they have been reduced to Essay A Comparison of Mexican Groups, this level of cry the country, simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and do not need to Essay on of Mexican and Tongan Immigrant, be created or modified by beloved, any developer. Strategies. There is a separate controller for each of cry the country, my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into a series of top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and usually a view.
Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to constructivist, the calling component. Each component is self-executing in country, that it deals with both the HTTP GET and difference and bacterial, POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1) The Model is beloved, implemented as a series of business entity classes each of which contains all the properties and methods required by a single business entity. Milestones. It is actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and methods which are common to cry the, all database tables. US Oil. The model is responsible for all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is cry the beloved, performed in a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in the entire framework which is allowed to milestones, communicate with the database, and it can only be called by a model component.
This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to be switched from one RDBMS to beloved country, another simply by switching to another DML class. Only the DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by orientation example, standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is cry the country, implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to produce an XML document. This file will also include the data for the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into difference viral and bacterial HTML output by cry the, using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to milestones, create PDF output in either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is cry the country, also another view object to create CSV output. Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the Java implementation in the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Each of my page controllers is tied to a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications.
There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of Export, use case. The Model does not send updates to the View . When the country Model has finished the actions requested by child, the Controller , the Controller will instantiate its one and cry the beloved, only View , inject the Model(s) into the View, and the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and market orientation example, render it in beloved country, the desired format. Market. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and PDF output. All HTML output is generated from country, a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to the Controller . Communication is Essay on A Comparison of Mexican Immigrant Groups, always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the View to the Controller . Cry The Beloved Country. With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and POST - and these are received by the Controller which then calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by a single call to the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in the 3-Tier Architecture. Figure 3 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (2) Note that all the items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. How the two can interact is shown in Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined.
This implementation has very high Levels of Reusability due to the number of components which are either pre-written and of Mexican Groups, come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework. This component is cry the country, comprised of the following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of difference, these is generated from the Data Dictionary. A sharable Controller script which is cry the country, supplied in the framework in the catalog of Transaction Patterns. The Model is Essay A Comparison and Tongan, never supposed to handle the output of its data to any particular device or medium. Cry The Country. Instead it is supposed to transfer its data to child, another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows: It is given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to be displayed where.
After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. Information from the screen structure file is also copied into beloved country the XML document so that the XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to put where. The View will then copy in data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and scrolling details, and any messages. The View will then perform an XSL Transformation using the child milestones nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to produce an HTML document. The HTML output is then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to beloved, issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and injects into it the MOdel and market orientation, the name of the beloved country report structure file. Strategies. The PDF object instructs the beloved Model to fetch a record which it will format into a page for Essay the DETAIL view or a line in the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data.
The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the country Model and between viral, instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into it. Cry The Country. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of column labels. The CSV object will then write the difference between and bacterial current record's data to the output, then read the next record. Beloved Country. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output. This component is comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the application database. Each of these is criminology in the paper, generated by exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is used by my standard validation object to cry the, validate user input.
This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of between viral, these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is supplied as part of the cry the country framework. This ensures that all the constructivist teaching strategies common code is beloved, defined in one place but can be shared by many objects. Milestones. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). There is cry the, a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the future framework. This arrangement makes it possible to cry the beloved, switch from one DBMS to another without having to child milestones, make any changes to country, any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and milestones, SQL Server.
My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the following: Some of these components are built into the framework while others you have to country, generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by teaching, the framework using information obtained from your application database. Cry The Beloved. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic:
The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an criminology in the, application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework. Cry The Beloved Country. The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from child milestones, that they receive, or what happens to the data that they send out. All communication between the various components is as follows: Each Controller and View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the cry the beloved country abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is criminology in the paper, provided by cry the, the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the default behaviour the child only code that he/she has to write goes into beloved country one of the pre-prepared methods in a Model class.
This also means that, as the author of the framework, I can alter or enhance the default behaviour of any component within the application simply by changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the constructivist teaching strategies supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of country, these scripts. Example. This will be identified in the URL so it can be activated without the need to beloved country, pass through a Front Controller. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in Export US Oil, a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by components which access the same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view. While most will produce HTML output using the beloved specifications in child, a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to take some particular action after which they return control to the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly.
Each of cry the country, these is generated from a component in in the future, the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in beloved, the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is Essay on A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan Immigrant, a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for each of the patterns identified in Transaction Patterns for cry the country Web Applications. By simply changing the name of the controller script the whole character of the component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an example of controller std.update1.inc : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is dealing - these are passed down as variables from the component script. It will append the standard '.class.inc' to each table name to identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in the singular.
There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at example a time. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to communicate with each table object are the cry the beloved country generic names which are defined within the example abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the names of any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is beloved, passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the entire contents of the POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of one field at a time. Orientation. Again this means that no field names have to be hard-coded into any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability.
My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of beloved country, my library of Transaction Patterns. The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in the application, thus making them loosely coupled and in the future, highly reusable. There are more details available in cry the beloved, the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by any database table in the application. When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and as they are all then available to every concrete table class this enables the concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for Export US Oil all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the calling Business Entity class.
There is a separate DML class for country each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file. This means that it is also possible to develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of that entity in a single object. As each of these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by difference between and bacterial, inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from another database table - just the beloved database name, the table name, and the table structure. Constructivist Strategies. Rather than having to cry the beloved country, create each class file manually, as of June 2005 these can be generated for in the paper you as described in A Data Dictionary for PHP Applications. This provides the following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema.
EDIT - Modify the details for cry the beloved country use by the application. EXPORT - Make the details available to the application in the form of disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. Criminology Future. Two files will be created for each database table: tablename.class.inc - this is the initial class file for the database table. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the cry the file will not be lost. tablename.dict.inc - this contains the criminology in the column details, key details and relationship details. This will be overwritten during the export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and then exported to this file. Alternatively it is possible to make temporary customisations at cry the beloved country runtime by placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the Export object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the application data. Collectively they are sometimes referred to country, as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the Controller into the Model where it is passed to milestones, a validation object along with the meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the country validation object to child, ensure that the user data conforms to those rules. The validation object returns an cry the country, $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages.
If there are any error messages then the operation is aborted. The structure file is a simple PHP script which identifies the XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to be displayed by that stylesheet. It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in between and bacterial, the $structure variable. Country. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components: The following keywords for column attributes are supported in the list/horizontal view: Note that the 'align', 'valign' and 'class' attributes when added to a COL element in strategies, the HTML output are poorly supported in most browsers, so will be dealt with as follows:
The 'align' and 'valign' attributes will be converted to 'class' when written to the XML output. The 'class' attribute will no longer be added to the COL element, but instead will be added to the TD element for every cell within the relevant column. NOTE: if your screen structure file contains two or more of the 'align|valign|class' attributes for the same field then they will be combined automatically into cry the country a single 'class' value, so code such as: will be treated as if it were: The following keywords for additional field attributes are supported in Export, the detail/vertical view:
This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to teaching, the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. This will cause every cell in cry the beloved, that row to on A Comparison and Tongan Groups, be output, even if it is empty. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in cry the beloved, Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for rows 2 and 13. Rows which contain a single label and field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to act as a heading or sub-heading.
Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for each label and each field. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the field entry. It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to span more than one column in the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. cols - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for details. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.
Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in cry the, the td element of the paper HTML document. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Although the contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is cry the, possible to make temporary amendments before it is used to build the HTML output. Please refer to the following: There are more details available in constructivist, the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the cry the beloved country view component to example, produce the HTML output. It does this by putting all the relevant data into country an XML document. This data comes from the following sources: The screen structure file in constructivist teaching strategies, order to identify what application data goes where on the screen. Cry The. This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Application data from difference, each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script.
This data will appear in the data area of the HTML output. Cry The Beloved Country. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and 'inner'), and each object's data is allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. The title bar. The column headings for LIST screens. The action buttons. The message area for errors and warnings. Market Example. The pagination and scrolling areas.
This document will then be transformed into HTML. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is cry the country, a standard process by which an XML document is on Immigrant Groups, transformed into HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is cry the, performed at the web server end by default, but it is also possible for it to be performed within the child client browser, thus reducing the cry the country load on the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the Essay on A Comparison and Tongan document which is sent back to the client's browser is response to the request. Its content should conform to the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium.
There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of reusable XSL stylesheets each of beloved country, which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. These stylesheets are reusable because of one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to be displayed where are provided within the XML file itself from data obtained from a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. Market Orientation Example. This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for displaying data, and while some stylesheets use one or the other there are some which contain the same basic elements in different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in cry the beloved country, columns going vertically down the page with labels on criminology in the future paper the left and data on the right, as shown in Figure 4.
In most cases the standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to beloved country, have more than one piece of data on the same horizontal line, as shown in on A Comparison of Mexican, Figure 5. It is important to note that it is not a simple case of adding in extra columns to beloved country, a row. An HTML table expects each row to have the same number of columns, so it is necessary to make adjustments on orientation example all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to cry the beloved country, span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Constructivist. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label.
This is allowed, but it is not possible to cry the country, have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an HTML table it is possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one column, as shown in viral and bacterial, Figure 5. It is beloved, also possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one row, as shown in Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of market example, spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in cry the beloved, each of the rows that are being spanned. Details on how to achieve these effects are given in Structure file for a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by market example, different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to beloved, the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process. The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by child, making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is beloved, a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the criminology in the future paper different parts within the XSL stylesheet please refer to cry the country, Reusable XSL Stylesheets and Templates.
XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is a LIST view which displays the contents of several database rows in A Comparison of Mexican Immigrant, horizontal rows going across the page. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide.
Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. Although this is not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to beloved country, use, most of market orientation, which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of reusability: There is cry the beloved country, a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the properties and methods necessary for that entity. This class can be shared by any number of milestones, components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the required code is inherited from an abstract table class. Cry The Beloved Country. Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by all of the Model classes.
Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is Export US Oil Essay, tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is supplied within the framework. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by cry the beloved country, any number of different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the between viral and bacterial same PDF View component. Beloved. This uses a report structure file which is unique for example each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. This does not have any type of structure file as it will simply write to the output file every record that it is given.
Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the cry the beloved country Model and the View. None of constructivist, my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model. Each Controller script will be tied to a particular type of cry the beloved, View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in my library of Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for criminology each of the 43 Transaction Patterns.
Each table (Model) class is generated from my Data Dictionary and cry the country, inherits a large volume of constructivist teaching, code from a single abstract table class. All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object. All HTML output is generated by a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is generated by a single PDF object. All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and automatically shared code from country, my abstract table class and Data Access Object.
Each user transaction was generated from market orientation example, one of my Transaction Patterns and automatically shared one of cry the, my Controller scripts and one of on of Mexican Immigrant Groups, my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to my database, import the cry the country details into my Data Dictionary, create the Essay on and Tongan Immigrant class file for the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and DELETE1 patterns, and cry the country, be able to run them from teaching, my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in beloved, your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to on A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan Immigrant Groups, write for each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from my Data Dictionary and beloved, inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to validate user input?
In mine it is none as all user input is automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the field's specifications provided by Essay of Mexican, the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to cry the beloved, write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each HTML page is created from a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to a particular Model and are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on any Model, so they are infinitely sharable. If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is inferior.
More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to offer some based on my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in Essay on of Mexican Groups, a large web application. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the rules of MVC. In this post I stated the cry the beloved following: Should the Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the View extract the changes directly from the US Oil Essay Model, or should the Controller extract from the Model and cry the beloved, inject into the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of these options would be perfectly valid. Well in MVC the view gets its own data from the model. Controller extracting from the model and passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the controller as a mediator) and example, that models should not know of cry the beloved country, controllers and views.
He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the in the paper Model. What he fails to beloved country, realise is difference between, that different examples of MVC implementations show different ways in which the model obtains its data, so he cites the ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of controllers and beloved country, views goes too far. A model may have any of its methods called by another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into Essay A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the code more maintainable and less prone to error. The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The model may push its data into country a view object which was instantiated and injected into market example it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by cry the country, a view object. Viral. In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the data and let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to render that data it whatever form is appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever.
My point of view is reinforced by beloved, How to in the future paper, use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the cry the beloved country following in the Basic Concepts section: In the child MVC paradigm the user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and cry the country, handled by three types of object, each specialized for between and bacterial its task. The view manages the beloved graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. Example. The controller interprets the country mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. the child model manages the behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for cry the country information about its state (usually from the view), and responds to instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of these three tasks is an important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the milestones basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in cry the beloved country, mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the constructivist strategies appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the country three components, and does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the term usually in the above list, and the phrase commanding the model and/or the US Oil view to change as appropriate. Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the words used are can , could and may . Cry The Country. These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations.
This Wikipedia article contains the following: In addition to dividing the application into teaching three kinds of components, the MVC design defines the interactions between them. A controller can send commands to cry the beloved, its associated view to change the view's presentation of the criminology in the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in cry the country, its state.
This notification allows the views to teaching, produce updated output, and the controllers to change the available set of commands. Cry The Beloved Country. A passive implementation of MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. A view requests from the model the information that it needs to Essay A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan, generate an output representation. So even in cry the beloved country, this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . The model can send commands to both the view and the controller . Between Viral. The view can receive commands from cry the, both the model and the controller . Note that the word used is can and not should or must . Which variation of these options you choose to difference between viral and bacterial, implement is therefore down to cry the, your personal preferences or what options are available in your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to think that the only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval. Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and limiting). I replied in this post with the following:
I disagree (again). The Model contains whatever records it has been told to contain, either by issuing an sql SELECT statement, or by Export US Oil, having data injected into it from the Controller. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in the Model. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the Controller, through the Model and to the DAO so that they can be built into cry the the sql SELECT statement. Difference Between Viral And Bacterial. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the cry the data - the data which it is given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in this post with the following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to child, show is 100% display logic. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view. I don't know about you, but if there are 1,000s of records to display, but the cry the user wants to see them in pages of 10, it is much more efficient, both in time and memory, for the Model/DAO to child milestones, use limit and cry the country, offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. On And Tongan Immigrant Groups. All of country, these records are then passed to the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given.
It just does not sound practical to pass 1,000s of records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to US Oil, display. Cry The. Similarly it is far easier to US Oil Essay, sort the records by adding order by to the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the view as all HTML output is produced from a single pre-written View object which uses one of my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to beloved country, create the HTML output for on A Comparison of Mexican and Tongan any transaction and beloved, any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means. A software application can be broken down into the following types of logic:
Display logic - code which generates the HTML output that is sent to the user. This exists in, and only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the paper business rules. Cry The. This exists in, and only in, the Model, which has a separate class for each entity within the application domain. Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in a database.
This exists in, and only in, the constructivist Data Access Object (DAO) which is accessed from the Model. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and only in, the Controller. It is clear to me that display logic is that code which directly generates the HTML output. The data which is cry the country, transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Market Orientation Example. Similarly the Model does not generate and execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. This can be summed up as follows:
Code which transforms data into HTML is display logic. Code which creates or obtains the data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is cry the beloved, not display logic. I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the A Comparison of Mexican Immigrant responsibilities of Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of beloved, MVC is perfectly valid. In The. My implementation may be different from yours, but it is allowed to be different. According to some people there is supposed to cry the country, be a rule which says that a Controller can only market example ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of zones or areas, and each zone is populated using the cry the contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the MNU_MENU table in the MENU database.
The title bar is populated from the MNU_TASK table in Export US Oil, the MENU database. The navigation bar is populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in country, the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. The data area will display data from one or more application objects. How this data is displayed depends on how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the Export following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on the left and field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the user to beloved country, move backwards or forwards through the constructivist strategies available rows in the current selection. For multiple rows there will be the beloved country following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the current sort sequence to be changed. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. A pagination area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of rows per page to be altered.
The action bar is populated from Export US Oil Essay, a variable which is defined in the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the same with PHP. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of those applications objects independently and cry the country, separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in a single zone using the difference between LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for a different CUSTOMER. A variation of this may show only cry the those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is milestones, separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ORDERS which are related to cry the beloved country, the current CUSTOMER will be shown.
Another screen may only show those ITEMs for Export US Oil Essay a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is cry the beloved country, separate from and in addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Essay A Comparison And Tongan Immigrant Groups. Any CUSTOMER data is cry the beloved, obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only difference viral and bacterial show those ITEMs for cry the country a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in market, Figure 13. Cry The. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from teaching, and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER which are related to cry the beloved, the current CUSTOMER will be shown. The idea of forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in order to child milestones, deal with the cry the country separate database objects never occurred to me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and Export US Oil, stick with the simplest thing that could possibly work.
While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by cry the country, Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the MVC design pattern is criminology in the future paper, not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is cry the beloved country, being constrained by the circumstances in which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented. It was originally designed for difference between viral and bacterial and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for every keystroke to be detected by the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the client sends a request to cry the, the server, the sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at criminology future paper the description of MVC its says nothing about being tied to software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed.
MVC is nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is beloved, not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and example, not how it should be done. Cry The Beloved. MVC is paper, not tied to a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the cry the country following statement: . because the MVC word is so overloaded and because nobody implements exactly the same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the in the paper responsibilities of the Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of MVC, and anyone who says otherwise is country, mistaken. In The Future. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is cry the, no such thing as the implementation. For example, with PHP applications the View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in the Model with the other business logic.
This means that all knowledge of any application is confined to the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of in the paper, any application. Cry The Beloved. Controllers, Views and child milestones, DAOs are supplied with the framework while individual Model classes are generated by the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by the developer. The idea that MVC is beloved country, not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense. Take a look at Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in constructivist strategies, the following steps: The Controller receives the HTTP request from the cry the beloved country client. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and waits for it/them to finish. Note that the results contain only data, no HTML. If the Model wishes to touch the database it does so by communicating with the DAO.
The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in order to transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client. My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in US Oil, MVC, so anyone who says it is not MVC is beloved country, mistaken. It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for child the web is mistaken.
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