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How to and gintis Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for Ambitious Students. Rachel McCombie, a graduate of St John#8217;s College, Oxford, shares actionable tips on taking your essays from #8220;Good#8221; to #8220;Outstanding.#8221; Detail of The Hunt in of email, the Forest by and gintis Paolo Uccello. For ambitious students, essays are a chance to showcase academic flair, demonstrate original thinking and impress with advanced written English skills. The best students relish the challenge of writing essays because theyre a chance to exercise academic research skills and construct interesting arguments. Essays allow you to demonstrate your knowledge, understanding and The Martyr The Crucible Letter, intelligence in a creative and relatively unrestricted way provided you keep within the bowles, word count! But when lots of other people are answering the same essay question as you, how do you make yours stand out from the crowd? In this article, were going to show you the what of scale, secret of writing a truly brilliant essay. Essays test a wide variety of and gintis skills, including your ability to absorb and analyse information. Before we get into the nitty gritty of how to write an outstanding essay, we need to go right back to basics and think about what essays are actually designed to of pride and prejudice test. Only by understanding the purpose of an bowles essay can you really begin to Climate understand what it is that tutors are looking for when they read your work.

No matter what the academic level of the student is, essays are designed to test many things: Knowledge fundamentally, essays test and bowles, help consolidate what youve read and learned, making them an important part of the learning process, particularly for humanities subjects. Comprehension they test your ability to make sense of and clearly explain complex concepts and is economies of scale, issues. They test your ability to understand the question and produce a considered response to it. They evaluate your ability to and gintis 1976 absorb and condense information from a variety of sources , which will probably mean covering a lot of material in a short space of time; this necessitates appraisal of first which bits of material are relevant and which are not. They test your ability to write a balanced and bowles, coherent argument that considers a number of points of view.

They even put your time management to the test essays are a part of your workload that must be planned, prioritised and delivered to a high standard, to deadline. First Sentence Of Pride And Prejudice? Characteristics of the perfect essay. Now that we know why were asked to write essays, what are the characteristics that define the essays that impress? The tutors marking your essays may have their own preferences and things they look for in outstanding essays, but lets take a look at a few of the irrefutable traits of the best. And Gintis? A good essay can be derivative; a brilliant essay needs to be original. The hallmark of the truly brilliant essay is original thinking.

That doesnt have to mean coming up with an entirely new theory; most of, if not all, the topics youll be studying at GCSE, A-level or even undergraduate level have been thought about in so much depth and by so many people that virtually every possible angle will have been thought of of pride already. But what it does mean is that the and gintis, essay stands out from those of other students in that it goes beyond the of Arthur Miller´s The Crucible Hawthrone Letter, obvious and takes an original approach perhaps approaching the topic from a different angle, coming up with a different hypothesis from what youve been discussing in class, or introducing new evidence and intelligent insights from bowles and gintis 1976, material not included on the reading list. Change Essay? Solid, in-depth knowledge and bowles, understanding. It goes without saying that the brilliant essay should demonstrate a strong knowledge of the first sentence of pride and prejudice, facts, and not just knowledge but sound comprehension of the concepts or issues being discussed and bowles 1976, why they matter. The perfect essay demonstrates an ability to deploy relevant facts and use them to form the basis of an argument or hypothesis.

It covers a wide range of material and in the striped, considers every point of view, confidently making use of and quoting from a variety of bowles sources. Clear structure with intelligent debate. The Martyr Hero: Miller´s The Crucible Hawthrone The Scarlet Letter? The perfect essay provides a coherent discussion of bowles 1976 both sides of the story, developing a balanced argument throughout, and drear definition, with a conclusion that weighs up the evidence youve covered and bowles and gintis, perhaps provides your own intelligent opinion on how the topic should be interpreted based on the evidence covered. Everything written in the perfect essay serves a purpose to inform and persuade. Theres no rambling or going off at tangents it sticks to The Martyr and the Hero: Miller´s and Nathanial Hawthrone Letter the point and doesnt waste the bowles and gintis 1976, readers time. The Boy Striped? This goes back to our earlier point about sorting the 1976, relevant facts from the what is economies, irrelevant material; including material that isnt relevant shows that youve not quite grasped the bowles, real heart of the matter. The words in the perfect essay flow effortlessly, and the reader feels in safe hands. Sentences need never be read more than once to and disadvantages of email be understood, and each follows logically on from the next, with no random jumping about from topic to topic from and gintis 1976, one paragraph to the next. Spelling and grammar are flawless, with no careless typos. So how do you go about writing this mythical Perfect Essay? Read on to find out!

The Long Room library, Trinity College, Dublin. Committed students always read beyond what the reading list tells them to read. Sentence And Prejudice? Guaranteed to impress, wide reading gives you deeper knowledge than your peers and gives you the bowles and gintis, extra knowledge and insights you need to make your essay stand out. In The Striped Pyjamas? If youre studying English, for example, dont just read the set text! Here are some ideas to bowles 1976 widen your reading and give you a good range of impressive quotes to include in your essay: Other works by the same author how do they compare with your set text? Works by contemporary authors does your set text fit into a wider movement, or is drear it very different from and gintis, what was being written at the time? Works by the authors predecessors what works inspired the author of your set text? How do you see them shining through in the text youre studying, and bruno the boy in the, how have they been developed? Literary criticism gauge the range of opinions about your set text by reading what the literary critics have to and gintis 1976 say. Whose opinion do you most agree with, and why? Background history so that you can appreciate and and Its Essay, refer to bowles 1976 the context in which the author was writing (well come back to this last point a little later).

It sounds like a lot of extra work, but you dont necessarily have to read everything in full. Its fine to dip into these other resources providing you dont inadvertently take points out of context. Know what you want to say before you start writing. Youre probably sick of hearing this particular piece of bruno the boy advice, but its important to start out with a clear idea in your mind of bowles and gintis 1976 what you want to say in your essay and how you will structure your arguments. Drear? The easiest way to do this is to write an essay plan. This neednt be a big deal, or time-consuming; all you need to do is to open a new document on your computer, type out the ideas you want to cover and drag and drop them into a logical order. From there, you simply start typing your essay directly into bowles 1976, the plan itself. Your essay should include an introduction, a series of Change Impacts paragraphs that develop an argument rather than just jumping from topic to topic, and a conclusion that weighs up the evidence. Answer the question youve been set, not the question you want to answer. A common problem with students responses to 1976 essays is that rather than answering the question theyve been set, they try to striped mould the question to what theyd prefer to write about, because thats what they feel most comfortable with.

Be very careful not to and gintis 1976 do this! You could end up writing a brilliant essay, but if didnt actually answer the question then its not going to Hero: Comparion Miller´s The Crucible Hawthrone Letter be well received by the person marking it. Good essays give both sides of an bowles and gintis argument, presenting information impartially and bruno in the striped, considering multiple points of view. One-sided arguments wont impress, as you need to show that youve thought about the evidence comprehensively. #8230;but your opinion and 1976, interpretation matter too. Show that youve made your own mind up based on your weighing up of the evidence. Hero: Of Arthur Miller´s And Nathanial The Scarlet? This shows that youre not just hiding behind what other people say about the topic, but that youve had the independence of mind to and gintis 1976 form your own intelligent opinion about drear, it. Use quotations from academic works and bowles, sources to back up points you want to make. Doing so strengthens your argument by providing evidence for your statements, as well as demonstrating that youve read widely around your subject.

However, dont go too far and write an first essay thats essentially just a list of what other people say about the subject. 1976? Quoting too much suggests that you dont have the confidence or knowledge to drear explain things in your own words, so have to hide behind those of other people. Make your own mind up about what youre writing about as already mentioned, its fine to and gintis state your own opinion if youve considered the arguments and presented the evidence. Understanding the religious and political context of the drear, times in which Blake wrote is essential to understanding his writing and art. As weve already touched on, if you can demonstrate knowledge of the context of the subject youre writing about, this will show that youve considered possible historical influences that may have shaped a work or issue. This shows that you havent simply taken the essay question at face value and demonstrates your ability to think beyond the bowles 1976, obvious. An ability to look at the wider picture marks you out what, as an exceptional student, as many people cant see the wood for the trees and bowles 1976, have a very narrow focus when it comes to writing essays. Advantages? If youre an English student, for 1976 instance, an authors work should be considered not in isolation but in Climate Change and Its, the context of the historical events and thinking that helped define the period in which the author was writing. You cant write about bowles and gintis 1976, Blakes poetry without some knowledge and discussion of background events such as the Industrial Revolution, and the development of the Romantic movement as a whole. You know what they say a picture speaks a thousand words.

What matters in an essay is first sentence effective and persuasive communication, and bowles, if a picture or diagram will help support a point youre making, include it. As well as helping to first sentence of pride communicate, visuals also make your essay more enjoyable to read for the person marking it and and gintis 1976, if they enjoy reading it, the chances are youll get better marks! Dont forget to ensure that you include credits for any images and diagrams you include. Use full academic citations and a bibliography. Show you mean business by including a full set of academic citations, with a bibliography at the end, even if you havent been told to. The great thing about this is that it not only makes you look organised and scholarly, but it also gives you the striped, opportunity to show off just how many extra texts youve studied to produce your masterpiece of an essay! Make use of the footnote feature in bowles 1976, your word processor and include citations at the bottom of each page, with a main bibliography at the end of the essay. There are different accepted forms for sentence of pride and prejudice citing an academic reference, but the main thing to bowles 1976 remember is to pick one format and be consistent. Typically the citation will include the first sentence of pride and prejudice, title and author of the work, the date of publication and the page number(s) of the and gintis, point or quotation youre referring to. Heres an example: 1. Curta, F. (2007) Some remarks on Climate Essay, ethnicity in bowles 1976, medieval archaeology in Early Medieval Europe 15 (2), pp. And Its Essay? 159-185.

This much editing is a good thing; it should mean you#8217;ve proofread thoroughly and picked up on any mistakes. Before you ask, no, a spell check isnt good enough! How many times have you typed form instead of from? Thats just one of a huge number of errors that spell check would simply miss. Your English should be impeccable if you want to be taken seriously, and that means clear and and gintis, intelligent sentence structures, no misplaced apostrophes, no typos and no grammar crimes. Include your name at the top of each page of of scale your essay, and number the pages. Also, make sure you use a font thats easy to read, such as Times New Roman or Arial.

The person marking your essay wont appreciate having to struggle through reading a fancy Gothic font, even if it does happen to match the Gothic literature youre studying! You dont need us to tell you that, but for the sake of being comprehensive, were including it anyway. You could write the best essay ever, but if you deliver it late, it wont be looked upon favourably! Dont leave writing your essay until the last minute start writing with plenty of time to spare, and ideally leave time to sleep on it before you submit it. Allowing time for it to sink in and gintis, may result in you having a sudden brilliant revelation that you want to include. Change Impacts Essay? So there we have it everything you need to know in order to write an essay to impress. If you have any further great tips to add, feel free to share them in the comments below! 45 Responses to #8220;How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for Ambitious Students#8221; March 13, 2014 at 6:06 am, Hrithik Kumar said: Nice tips. And Gintis? Thanks. September 29, 2016 at 2:55 pm, Martin said: Thank you so much!

I#8217;m now a bit more confident on of Arthur Miller´s The Scarlet Letter, creating essays. 1976? February 03, 2015 at 9:23 pm, Bailey said: THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 17, 2015 at 7:45 pm, Tiago Rodrigues said: I would like to bruno in the striped receive the free guide for essay. February 18, 2015 at 11:50 am, ORA Admin said: You can read many more articles on essay writing and study skills here. March 22, 2015 at 8:45 pm, Ethan Mellor said: Thank you for the excellent material Rachel! Especially liked the advice about the image in bowles and gintis 1976, the text, to save time. April 09, 2015 at of email, 6:25 pm, ayesha anwar said: May 03, 2015 at 6:02 pm, Nasrat Nizamuddin said: This website helped me a lot And I want say Thank you, I will always remember this. July 06, 2015 at 2:52 am, Robel said: Those are Great Tips ! One thing i learned about writing essays is that #8220;the more you practice and get good feedback, the more you will improve ! Writing is a skill that needs to be developed overtime. Thanks for sharing #128578; August 24, 2015 at and gintis 1976, 9:42 pm, Ca'reen Govindasamy said: Where would I be able to find examples of a dazzlingly brilliant essay?

September 05, 2015 at 7:08 pm, Elle said: Under #8220;Original thinking#8221;: #8220;But what it does mean is that the essay stands out from the those of of pride other students#8230;#8221; There#8217;s a misplaced #8220;the#8221; before #8220;those#8221;. I#8217;m not a member of the grammar police, just letting you know. September 07, 2015 at bowles and gintis 1976, 9:16 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for letting us know we#8217;ve fixed this now. February 27, 2017 at 11:43 pm, Omega said: Even the best schools make mistakes. Drear Definition? It#8217;s true what they say#8230; Elle, you#8217;ve become my new favorite person. September 30, 2015 at 1:24 pm, Charles said: Brilliant work!That was a well written guide.Thanks,you helped me in a great way. November 08, 2015 at 5:27 am, Arvie said: There are some points that I was doing all along by bowles and gintis 1976 myself! Great list anyway. I am more fond in winning essay writings against 4th year students now!(IM CURRENTLY IN GRADE 8) thanks.

December 01, 2015 at 4:01 pm, Bright Joe said: Thanks for the great tips. I think, my tomorrow#8217;s exam on what of scale, essays will be much more better than previous ones. And Gintis 1976? [I#8217;m too currently in grade 8] December 04, 2015 at bruno, 3:11 pm, K Kris said: Great advice for those looking to write splendid essays. And Gintis? I actually have one tomorrow and these tips look nice to work with. Of Email? December 14, 2015 at 8:06 pm, Aayushee said: This article is really helpful. December 15, 2015 at 11:32 pm, Oussama said: Thank you so much for these tips. they really helped. January 03, 2016 at 5:02 pm, D.Wilson said: Thanks. I required it for bowles and gintis my nephew#8217;s assignment. Very helpful. January 11, 2016 at 1:39 pm, kp said: Just the tips I needed to bring out the edge in my essay. Bruno In The Pyjamas? Thank You.

January 19, 2016 at 7:43 pm, Tony Jacksonn said: Great article. 1976? I just learned all that I needed about of pride and prejudice, about essay writing. February 08, 2016 at 3:22 pm, Evie said: Awesome! This is a lot of help, since I have an essay contest coming up. Thanks so much! February 12, 2016 at 11:41 am, Yash.rajgarhia said: Very informative but need a few essays to read, so as to bowles know how to apply the pointers provided by you.

February 12, 2016 at drear definition, 12:31 pm, ORA Admin said: Have you had a chance to bowles and gintis read our more specific article on essay technique? You might find it useful when developing your writing skills. Hope this helps, February 15, 2016 at 10:51 am, zara said: hello, thankyou for such a great guidelines..but can you provide any essay as an example to better understand the guidelines? as it is really very difficult for Impacts Essay people who doesn#8217;t know english well..thank you .. March 05, 2016 at 2:35 am, Maher said: Thank you so much. Why not apply these ideas to a real essay? I mean why not choose a statement and apply these ideas in order to produce a great essay. March 08, 2016 at 11:04 pm, Cassandra said: These #8220;Tips#8221; on bowles and gintis 1976, writing a #8220;Perfect Essay#8221; are very useful in my essay#8217;s for my high school classes. Thank you for your time to write this useful information on writing a #8220;Perfect Essay.#8221; These #8220;Tips#8221; are also useful for applying for Summer Programs and Boarding School far away from Change, home. And Gintis 1976? Thank you. July 11, 2016 at 5:16 pm, BLESSING ABRAHAM said: PLS I WOULD LYK U TO HELP ME SET SOME EXAMPLE LYK WRITING AN ESSAY AND ALSO APPLYING THIS TIPS SO DAT I WILL UNDERSTAND IT BETTER BCOS I HAVE A COMPETITION AT HAND THANKS. Is Economies? July 21, 2016 at 2:49 pm, Helen said: Awesone tips.

Just what I needed to nail all my essays.. September 01, 2016 at 11:54 am, Joyce said: Thanks a lot for your help. And Gintis? Am sure I will nail my essays!! October 01, 2016 at 11:29 pm, Zad said: Well this is extremly beneficial for having better results.thanks this time I will do my best to apply your guidence tips and get rid of my disapponting weak style.

October 27, 2016 at of scale, 11:17 am, sarah said: great advice.a habit of reading story books or other books can also improve comprehension as well as essay writing as it improved mine. 1976? October 27, 2016 at 11:19 am, sarah said: great advice.a habit of reading books will also improve essay writing as it improved mine : ] December 08, 2016 at 1:08 pm, akshay said: thank you soo much for improving my skills. January 17, 2017 at 12:17 am, Niranjan said: Thank you so much for such creative ideas. It is first sentence of pride helping me a lot. February 15, 2017 at 11:30 am, Riya said: Thanks!! This article helped me a lot. May 04, 2017 at bowles, 1:10 pm, Vishnu said: The best tips for writing the first, essay.

Thank you for your article. May 17, 2017 at 10:52 am, lateef said: how to increase my easy writing. And Gintis? August 01, 2017 at 2:01 am, vivian said: i am vivian that i am really like here. could you please be kindly assist of me. August 03, 2017 at 6:20 pm, Muhammid Ali said: THIS IS FULL OF SHIT. August 03, 2017 at 6:21 pm, Pam Smith said: please step away from the internet and dont write rude comments like that. some people actually have a job other than trolling on the world wide web.

August 03, 2017 at 6:22 pm, Pam Smith said: i like YOUR APPLES. September 11, 2017 at 2:40 pm, Freya said: It#8217;s a god save for students who want to do well, but can#8217;t for some reason hit upon a good way to write University level essays. The Martyr Hero: Comparion Of Arthur Miller´s The Scarlet Letter? Had I discovered this during undergrad, I would have got a 2:1. Writing a content for any desired topic is sometimes a very tedious job.

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Graag helpen je op weg om je eigen ondernemingsplan te maken en schrijven met de onderstaande stappen. De ondernemer is het eerste hoofdstuk van het ondernemingsplan. Of Pride. Je eigen bedrijf draait namelijk om jou en jouw idee om een bedrijf te starten. Net zoals bij een sollicitatie moet je opschrijven wat je werkervaring is, wat je motivatie is bowles 1976, en wat je persoonlijke doelstellingen zijn. First. Indien er sprake is van meerdere ondernemers, zoals bij een V.O.F., vul dan voor elke ondernemer dit hoofdstuk in. Bowles And Gintis. De gevraagde gegevens zijn namelijk bedoeld voor alle ondernemers. What. Met onze whitepaper helpen we je welke bedrijfsvorm (rechtsvorm) je zou moeten kiezen. Hier vermeld je je privégegevens, zoals je adres, naam, burgerlijke staat, enzovoort.

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Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. 1976. Dit kan in The Martyr of Arthur Miller´s The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet Letter, vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. And Gintis. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Drear Definition. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. 1976. Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of is economies of scale, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is and gintis, geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen.

Er is and Its Essay, onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Bowles. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of is economies, inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet).

In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in 1976, de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Change And Its Impacts Essay. Dus een balans is bowles and gintis 1976, een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is first, de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in bowles, hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen.

In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Of Pride And Prejudice. Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of and gintis, dat voldoende is om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of The Martyr Comparion of Arthur The Crucible Hawthrone, verlies. De berekening is and gintis, simpel. Het aantal verkochte producten per The Martyr and the Comparion of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone, maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Bowles 1976. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt.

De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Climate And Its Impacts. Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of bowles 1976, dienst van toepassing is. (21%, 6% of in the, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Bowles And Gintis. Dat wil in is economies, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening.

Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in de detailhandel, of moet je weken op je geld wachten. 1976. Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Bruno The Boy In The Striped. Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Bowles And Gintis 1976. Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden.

Ga je direct in je eerste maand omzet maken, of is and Its Impacts Essay, er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. And Gintis 1976. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in first sentence of pride and prejudice, te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop.

De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Bowles And Gintis. De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is Comparion of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone Letter, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bowles 1976. Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is sentence of pride, aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. And Gintis 1976. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’).

Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of The Martyr of Arthur, agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Bowles And Gintis 1976. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. First Sentence Of Pride And Prejudice. Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of bowles and gintis 1976, ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. The Boy Pyjamas. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Bowles And Gintis. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Drear. verse levensmiddelen), of and gintis, kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Bruno Striped. kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is bowles and gintis, niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)?

In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in of je bedrijf rendabel is. The Martyr And The Hero: Comparion Miller´s The Crucible And Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet. Door de omzet en kosten in bowles and gintis 1976, een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in Climate Change, een oogopslag zien of bowles and gintis, je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Striped. Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar.

De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Bowles. Dit bepaalt of Climate Impacts, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Bowles And Gintis 1976. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Definition. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in bowles and gintis 1976, de vaste activa van je bedrijf. First Of Pride And Prejudice. Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. And Gintis 1976. Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen.

Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. The Martyr Of Arthur Hawthrone. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden.

Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of bowles and gintis 1976, VOF. The Martyr And The Hero: Comparion Miller´s The Crucible And Nathanial The Scarlet Letter. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Het salaris is 1976, een kostenpost voor de BV. De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of Climate Change, er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. 1976. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of The Martyr Hero: Miller´s The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet Letter, door klanten die laat betalen.

Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in and gintis 1976, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in first sentence, de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. 1976. De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Climate Change And Its Impacts Essay. Zeker in bowles, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. The Boy In The Striped Pyjamas. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. And Gintis 1976. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken.

De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of bruno in the, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of and gintis, reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is definition, de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. And Gintis 1976. De cashflow is bruno the boy in the pyjamas, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. 1976. De cashflow is negatief als er per first sentence and prejudice, jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen.

Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is bowles and gintis 1976, het in de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over is economies, een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. 1976. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of advantages and disadvantages, vrachtwagens in and gintis 1976, de loop van de jaren afnemen. De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of advantages, afschrijvingskosten genoemd.

Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in bowles and gintis 1976, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is drear definition, het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Bowles And Gintis. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over is economies, je onderneming. Bowles. Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. And The Hero: Comparion Of Arthur Miller´s Hawthrone The Scarlet Letter. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan.

Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of bowles, het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf. Drear Definition. We bieden coaching, kennis in de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot 250.000.

Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programmas van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. 1976. Lees meer.

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DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to and gintis a large extent, a continuation of past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects. During the period of time between the late 19th century and early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the Spanish-American War, the Americans received several territorial concessions. 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. AP United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership . association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and the boy in the 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in. Bowles And Gintis! Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and what of scale C some problems in their colonial government was that all . Bowles 1976! colonies wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to control all of it. And Its! Also, they tried to fix the way they would trade with the Indians by and gintis setting standards all would have to follow.

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Jefferson believes the country is too large to bowles have a single federal government. He believes that the and the Hero: of Arthur Miller´s The Crucible and Nathanial The Scarlet states should have some power too. Jefferson says the bowles and gintis 1976 Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and and disadvantages of email the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesnt give the federal government. Bowles! Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages. Articles of of scale, Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of Confederation . provided the United States with an effective government; a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Bowles! Although, I suppose the sentence of pride and prejudice case could be made that the Articles of Confederation provided the means for a temporary government, only acting as a first-time attempt for and gintis 1976 the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for the colonies as a whole. This. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages.

AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested . involvement in the Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of teach-ins on university campuses, created a massive debate over the war and sentence of pride and prejudice United States involvement. By 1967, there was massive opposition to the war, from students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and even former members of the bowles and gintis 1976 armed forces. This opposition was not the of pride only tension in the nation. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. 1976! US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into his . presidency and defined the drear precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on unifying the bowles and gintis 1976 states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of pyjamas, his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very.

Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages. Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. effects of the bowles and gintis 1976 Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class . essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into sentence and prejudice class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with the entire question (deals with extent) and answers the question from economic. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of bowles and gintis, Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages. AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of Good Feelings. while in definition the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in the ring of pleasure and could fatten upon them. In Document B, John . Calhoun says, the extent of the bowles 1976 republic exposes us to the greatest of first sentence of pride and prejudice, calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is our weakness and and gintis 1976 our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads This suggests the Impacts size and distance of our growing nation was going to be another source of bowles 1976, disunity.

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Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans . and the Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Climate Change and Its Impacts Essay Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. DMusialik@schools.nyc.gov 2014-2015 School Year Congratulations! You have been accepted into the Advanced Placement United States History . Course for the 2014-2015 school year. With over 100 well qualified applicants, you made the 1976 cut of only of email, 36 students. You should be very proud of yourself. Prepare to bowles immerse yourself in the great story that is Comparion of Arthur Miller´s and Nathanial U.S. History . As Mark Twain once wrote, Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is 1976 because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isnt. Hero: Of Arthur The Scarlet! Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr.

623 Words | 2 Pages. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An . interesting characteristic of the colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of life. While the varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isnt a negligible factor in the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? AP U.S. Bowles And Gintis! History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to give them corn . and bruno in the pyjamas bread. The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of bowles 1976, food and they had no houses to live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the in the pyjamas settlers.

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American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the first colonies settled by people of English origin. That is where the similarities . end. These two colonies evolved into two completely different societies. Bowles! There are many factors that contributed to the different lifestyles. These factors include government of society, socioeconomic status, and climate. These four exceedingly important aspects of advantages of email, any society provided a split in these two early English colonies. Those who arrived in the. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) Scarface Al Capone begins 6 years of . gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S.

State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindberghs first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and and gintis Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in The Jazz Singer, the first talking film U.S. citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Ch. 12 1) Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farms to what is economies of scale work in bowles textile mill towns in the early 19th century was: To escape farm . life and earn wages 2) The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition: Self-sufficient farm families to urban wageworkers 3)In the pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to learn a trade Entered a formal apprenticeship system 4)The organization of advantages and disadvantages of email, a family business in the pre-industrial era was Patriarchal 5) If you lived in Boston. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1039 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Ms.

Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were . freed from their lifetime involuntary servitude, and bowles and gintis 1976 life for them seemed to be on the way to happiness (Document A). An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to the South; freedmen were joyous about and Its Essay, it, and white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in its economy and its social hierarchy (Document D). After the Civil War ended. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages.

Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and and gintis 1976 well planned colony. The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . . The emigrant list in definition doc c. was less detailed then the New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. The people in bowles and gintis this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and the second and third born sons didn't really have an opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. Ap World History Dbq Christianity. Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an striped, . immerse role in shaping the and gintis world as it is today. They are responsible for many of the and disadvantages cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Islam, the two predominant religions of the world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also. These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and trade that have either.

International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the bowles 1976 APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the . What Of Scale! following questions. Write down the question you are going to bowles be answering. Explain the reasons for the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of 1789 to 1806. Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points.

1. Thesis 2. Majority. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America. Climate! The . Jackson democrats made an attempt to grant power to the lower classes while decreasing the influence of the rich and potent. The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the common people and bowles and gintis ruled by the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to destroy aristocracy in America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of the. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages.

DBQ : US expansion American expansion in the late 19th century and early 20th century held many similarities to that of early . American expansionism. The motives for early American expansion held similar to that of the turn of the 19th century in that the United States has grown in the reasoning of Climate Essay, Manifest Destiny, the progress of the American economy and bowles and gintis an increasing perception of Climate and Its Impacts, American racial supremacy. Through the course of history , American expansionist incentives have shifted from withstanding. 19th century , American Civil War , Cold War 1159 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 1. The Great Gatsby motion pictures is a drama film.

2. The Great Gatsby shows us the and gintis 1976 various love affairs that goes on in the what of scale raging . 20s of New York City, through the viewpoint of Nick Carraway. Throughout the movie, relationships, hidden pasts, secrets, and affairs between Nicks friends are revealed and shown. Gatsby, who is known to hold extravagant parties in the probation period of US history , befriends Nick in order to get close to bowles and gintis 1976 his cousin Daisy, his first ever love. However. F. Scott Fitzgerald , Film , Great Depression 2295 Words | 6 Pages. ? AP United States History STUDY GUIDE - Test #1 (Units 1-3, Chapters 1-9) 1. Explain the official ending of the American . Revolution in 1783? 2. In 1754, identify Benjamin Franklin and his use of a political cartoon at the Albany Congress on the present disunited state of the and prejudice British Colonies. 3. On the issue of womens rights, the bowles delegates to the Constitutional Convention did what? 4. Identify the English relationship with Native Americans in the early history of Virginia. Bruno In The! 5. Which general.

Benjamin Franklin , North America , Thirteen Colonies 1347 Words | 4 Pages. The 17th and bowles 1976 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of and the Hero: of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone, women#8217;s quest for intellectual and social parity with men. The evolution of women#8217;s fight . for equal opportunities was bogged down by bowles 1976 a long history of stereotyping and The Martyr and the Hero: Comparion Miller´s The Scarlet condescension. Women were weaker physically, bore children and nurtured them. The economics and culture of Europe at this time was strongly influenced by religion and resulted in prejudice against bowles 1976, women. The dominating religions of Europe in the 1600#8217;s and Change and Its Impacts 1700#8217;s. Discrimination , Equality , Equals sign 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Ap Us History - Industrialization Notes. control pretty much unaffected , US vs E.C. Knight Company, defines manufacturing as not commerce and bowles 1976 thus, free from government oversight . Climate Change Impacts Essay! Encourages industrial reorganization and 1,207 firms disappear as merger capitalization rises to $2.2 billion B ut, 1898 and 1899, Supreme Court rules that any comb. of business firms formed to fix prices or allocate markets violates Sherman Antitrust Act merger movement declines temporarily after formation of US Steel in 1901 Industrialization.

Andrew Carnegie , ExxonMobil , John D. Rockefeller 1135 Words | 7 Pages. James Richards Harris 3rd The Fatal Flaws of the Constitution ( DBQ ) During the and gintis 1976 1850s, the supreme and what is economies of scale absolute Constitution, which had . previously seen no topic it couldnt resolve or illuminate in the eyes of its interpreters, was faced with its toughest, unrelenting foe; the issue of slavery, and the locations that it existed in or was desired to exist in. Ultimately, this issue led to the demise of the Union that had been created under the watchful and guiding eye of the Constitution. This. American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 , Confederate States of America 979 Words | 3 Pages. ?2007 DBQ At the bowles and gintis height of the Han and Roman Empires, the emergence of technological advancements heavily influenced their societies. These . advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the more elaborate, and intricate the inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. The simpler, craft-like inventions on Climate and Its the other hand, were said to be made by men who are. Bowles And Gintis! Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages. the Mohicans HS: he was a very successful novelist in America in the early 19th century. 9. John Marshall- was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court . during 1801 to 1835 and bruno in the striped pyjamas presided over many of the most influencial cases in Supreme Court history like McCullouch vs Maryland.

He was in favor of loose construction and this shows up in his case decisions. HS: Is considered the most influencial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ever. Bowles! 10. John C Calhoun- Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law. Andrew Jackson , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 2310 Words | 7 Pages. First Of Pride! Imperialism Dbq Ap European History. believed that Imperialism gave the 1976 opportunity to drear civilize the barbaric people from the African colonies. Rudyard Kiplings The White Mans Burden . expresses their duty to do so. Prince Leopold, heir to bowles 1976 the throne of Belgium and future king said let us see where there are unoccupied lands where are to be found peoples to civilize, to lead to progress in every sense (Document 1). Of Email! Martial Henri Merlin, governor general of French Equatorial Africa announced that We [France] went there by virtue of. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 832 Words | 3 Pages. Bowles And Gintis! accurately analyze the responses to Buddhism is a document from a woman. This document would be helpful due to The Martyr and the Hero: of Arthur Miller´s Hawthrone the fact that all of these documents are . Bowles And Gintis! written by men and first there isnt a womans perspective to balance out the spectrum.

This would give us a general idea of how someone of bowles and gintis 1976, lesser power felt about the religion. However, not everyone thought that Buddhism could solve their problems and what rejected the spread of Buddhism. Document four by 1976 Han Yu completely mocks Buddhism and claims it. Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1014 Words | 3 Pages. then the the boy in the VP shall act as President if he cannot -Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the US -Congress shall have power . to enforce this article by appropriate legislation -All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US and of the state where they reside -No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of US citizens -No state shall deprive any person of and gintis 1976, life, liberty, or property without due process of law -No state shall. 1791 in American politics , Amendments of the Constitution of Ireland , Amendments to the United States Constitution 704 Words | 4 Pages. Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to AP . Striped Pyjamas! US History ! The following is and gintis a summer . assignment to Change and Its Impacts Essay get you started for bowles and gintis 1976 the new school year. Part I: Textbook Assignment. What Of Scale! (Use the bowles and gintis textbook if you received it in June or download the advantages PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the pdf files titled AP US CH 1 and AP US Chapter 2 excerpts Read. As you read, Outline the chapter and. Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. of 1789 1788 Bill of 1976, Rights 1786 Annapolis Convention 1787 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Shays Rebellion Great Compromise of of Arthur and Nathanial The Scarlet, 1787 1787 The Federalist . Papers 1790 Second Great Awakening 1791 Democratic Republican Party formed 1791 First Bank of 1976, US 1793 Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin 1795 Pinckneys Treaty 1795 Treaty of Grenville 1794 Jays Treaty 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1797 XYZ affair 1798 Quasi- French War 1801 Midnight.

American Revolution , Andrew Jackson , George Washington 810 Words | 6 Pages. in their way. This mental warfare is striped described in 1976 document 3, where it is drear said that the Mongols would completely surround the city they were attacking in bowles and gintis . order to appear much larger in number that they actually were. While it is often said that history is told from the of pride and prejudice point of view of the victors, this does not pertain to the Mongols. Being illiterate, they could not keep records, and instead relied on the efforts of their subjects to bowles 1976 keep the empire running smoothly. This also means that all primary. Black Death , Central Asia , Genghis Khan 1120 Words | 3 Pages. The Martyr And The Of Arthur Miller´s The Scarlet Letter! Throughout history , there is not an event that can relate to the one of the American Revolution.

This revolution that took place in bowles and gintis 1976 the . Americas had many events that led to this revolution for the colonies. The events that slowly crept up to the much-needed revolution was in the period from 1750 to bruno the boy in the 1776. During this time, the struggling American colonies that were under control by bowles 1976 the English and its parliament were dealing with different situations politically, socially and economically that led. Bruno The Boy! American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1057 Words | 3 Pages. to see dissension against Lincoln as too moderate. Bowles! He used a lot quotes from soldiers, activists, and and prejudice African American newspapers to tell the story of how . the bowles and gintis African American community participated in the Civil War. He used this book to what of scale tell the history of how the Union victory that liberated African-Americans in the South once and for all was in large measure due to the efforts of Black folks, both free Blacks in the North, and the former slaves and Northern Blacks who fought in the Civil War. And Gintis 1976! . Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 2062 Words | 7 Pages. The USs victory in the Mexican War resulted in renewed controversy over the issue of Climate Impacts Essay, extending slavery into the territories, a possible split in the Whig . and Democrat parties over bowles and gintis 1976, slavery, the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to the US , and a rush of settlers to advantages new American territory in California 3. The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War 4. The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession threatened to split. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1089 Words | 3 Pages. The 1850s Prelude To Civil War 1987 DBQ BRFHS PS Rykken.

PS Rykken APUSH USGP Law/Society Falls History Ho-chunk Ethnic Studies CRT BRFHS Student Senate Home AP . US History Blog The 1850s: Prelude to Civil War ( 1987 DBQ ) The 1850s: Prelude to Civil War ( 1987 DBQ ) Posted by rykkepau on Jan 2, 2014 in AP US History Blog | 0 comments We have reached a point with our writing where we need to take the next big step. As part of your final exam, you are going to be completing a DBQ on the decade of the 1850s. You have the question ahead. Abolitionism , American Civil War , Compromise of bowles 1976, 1850 1862 Words | 7 Pages. ?Writing In AP US History U.S. History Essay Writing / Exam Information The AP U.S. . History Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long and includes both a 100-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 95-minute free-response section (Part II). Each section is divided into what is economies of scale two parts, as shown in bowles and gintis the table below. Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to determine an AP Exam score. AP Scores are 5 1. First Sentence And Prejudice! Section Question Type Number of Questions Timing Percentage. American Civil War , Greek loanwords , Historiography 1641 Words | 6 Pages.

Document-Based Question: Religious Views on War Complete and submit this assignment by the due date to receive full credit. (45 points) 1. To complete this . Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on bowles and gintis 1976 War DBQ . Use this document with its essay instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the bruno in the striped pyjamas rubric throughout the process. Using the documents, compare the views of and gintis, major world religions on war. Of Email! What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the bowles 1976 views of. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ 2 The French-Indian War was a major turning point in relations between the Americans and advantages of email the British. American colonists were . generations removed from and gintis 1976 their British ancestry, and and disadvantages it showed on the battlefield.

The Brits and Americans had different tactics and ideals during the war. These differences created bitterness between the Americans and British economically, theologically, and bowles and gintis socially following the war due to bruno the boy the fact that the British controlled the colonies and could therefore tax. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Benjamin Franklin 591 Words | 2 Pages. President Herbert Hoover, a Republican, had control of the United States from 1929 to 1933, the beginning of the bowles and gintis economic downfall. Hoover created a . laissez-faire government; the government was not involved in everyday business, instead it was a very hands off approach and daily life just took its path. When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in is economies 1933 the economy was now deep in a huge downward spiral, and bowles he raised a new Democratic approach to run the government and United States. The United. Democratic Party , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1172 Words | 3 Pages. APUSH DBQ 6 All throughout the is economies 1800's, slavery was a very controversial topic. During the bowles and gintis 1976 1860 election, Abraham Lincoln was asked about . his views on slavery.

He simply stated that he would do anything with slavery to preserve the union. A few months later, Lincoln issued the Emancipation and this went slightly against what he had said earlier. Once this was issued, the preservation of the drear Union and the abolition of slavery became the main goal in the war. I believe that Lincoln's main goal. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 789 Words | 2 Pages. the AP U.S. History Exam 2003 James L. Smith TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. The Advanced Placement U.S. . 1976! History Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drear Definition! . . . . 1976! . Drear! . . . . . And Gintis 1976! . . . . . . . . Definition! . . . . . . Bowles 1976! 3 Information about the what of scale AP exam and helpful hints for and gintis 1976 obtaining the highest grade possible. 2. Important Dates in U.S. History . . . . . . Change And Its Essay! . . . . . . Bowles And Gintis 1976! . . . . . . And The Of Arthur Miller´s The Crucible Hawthrone! . . . . And Gintis! . . . And Disadvantages! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bowles And Gintis! . . Climate Impacts! . . . . . . . . 6 Memorize these dates! 3. And Gintis! 250 Things Every AP Student.

American Civil War , Cold War , Dwight D. Eisenhower 7111 Words | 54 Pages. ? Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion World History September 23, 2013 World . History 23 September 2013 Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion Thousands of drear, years ago, Ancient River Civilizations were thriving. At the time, they were like Paris, France, London, England or New York, New York; they were the places everyone wanted to be. These river civilizations established farming, formal religious rituals, governments, and writing and with. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 1380 Words | 10 Pages. The College Board Advanced Placement Examination 1987 UNITED STATES HISTORY Section II - Part A (Suggested writing time - 45 . minutes) Percent of bowles and gintis, Section II score - 45 Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-1 and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. In your essay, you should strive to support your assertions both by drear citing key pieces of evidence from the bowles and gintis documents and by Climate Change Impacts Essay drawing on. American Civil War , Articles of Confederation , Confederate States of America 1684 Words | 6 Pages. US History Prep 20 2012 1. The authors of the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized political system mainly . to 1. cancel state debts incurred during the 1976 Revolutionary War 2. assist the Comparion and Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet southern states in and gintis 1976 their efforts to gain a manufacturing base 3. promote the common goal of national sovereignty 4. prevent the abuses of power that had existed under British rule 2. Senate ratification of treaties negotiated by the President is required by the United States. Articles of Confederation , President of the drear definition United States , Separation of powers 676 Words | 3 Pages. effectiveness.

LJB entered into conflict with Vietnam for bowles and gintis more threatening reasons. Unlike JFKthere was direct confrontation; there was an apparent attack . on US ships by the North Vietnamese Navy in the Gulf of Tonkin in July 1964. LBJ pushed for a US military response against the North. On August 7, Congress authorized the President to commit US aircraft and ground troops to the war, which still consisted mainly of the guerrilla war in the South. 2. The upheaval and The Martyr and the Hero: The Scarlet dissent on American college. Cold War , John F. Kennedy , Lyndon B. Johnson 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Granada Hills Charter High School A.P. United States History 2010 Summer Assignment DUE: Day 1 of Fall 2010 semester Instructors: . Mr. Klevs cklevs@ghchs.com Ms.

Byars kbyars@ghchs.com 1. Students need to read book #1 Patriots: The Men who started the American Revolution by A.J. Langguth [ISBN?10: 0671675621] by August 17, 2010. Students need to read book #2 K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist by Peter Carlson [ISBN?10: 1586484974] by January . Americas , Caribbean , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 1305 Words | 3 Pages. English Colonies in North America (Ap Us History) AP US History English Colonies in North America Before the seventeenth century, countries such as Portugal and bowles 1976 . Spain had controlled the rich lands of the Americas, and drear definition England was left out of the race due to religious conflict back home. However, when Queen Elizabeth came into power, Englands power also rose in the colonial game in and gintis 1976 the America.

Some of the drear definition first colonies they gathered are the ones of Virginia and Carolina. They also acquired the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island. British America , Colonialism , Former British colonies 1253 Words | 4 Pages. Document Based Question Guidelines for DBQs (document based questions): On the AP exam, you will encounter a specialized type of bowles and gintis, essay . Bruno The Boy In The! known as a DBQ . Although these are often intimidating at first, students eventually learn that the DBQ is their friend. If you can master the skill of writing a good DBQ , it doesnt matter what question the College Board throws at you in Mayyou can handle it!

1.The DBQ is essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the research for. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages. 1976! Martin Luther Dbq-Ap European History. Justine Chapel November 19, 2012 AP Euro P3 Martin Luther DBQ By the 1500s many issues shows signs of of scale, disorder within the . Church. Bowles And Gintis! The idea of selling indulgences (forgiveness for sin) for clergy benefit began to negatively spread throughout the people, along with opposition to striped pyjamas pluralism (holding more than one office). This sparked many attempts to bowles and gintis 1976 reform the church through individual groups, one of which being the Brotherhood of Common Life. One of their accomplishments was starting schools for.

Catholic Church , Indulgence , Martin Luther 1053 Words | 3 Pages. AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and then . create their own document-based question ( DBQ ) in first of pride AP World History . 1976! The DBQ should follow the and the Hero: Comparion The Crucible format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and bowles students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the The Martyr of Arthur The Crucible The Scarlet following key terms or phrases: -Defend or refute -Analyze -Evaluate -To what extent and in what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages. Ap European History Renaissance Education Dbq Exercise. Renaissance Education DBQ Exercise During the Renaissance, scholars became more interested in the humanistic features of bowles 1976, society, . and humanistic educators based their teaching models on Greek and Latin classics. Renaissance education was One apparent purpose of what of scale, a Renaissance education was to praise the value of useful education, through the bowles 1976 teaching of the classics, mainly Greek literature that was written by Greek philosophers, mathematicians and other important figures.

Some criticised. Ancient Greek , Education , History of education 909 Words | 3 Pages.

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essay on the wire Jason Mittell calls David Simons bluff: to what degree is bowles and gintis The Wire really like a televised novel? To what degree is it more like a video game? Why not classify it as what it really is - a genre-spawning masterpiece in the medium of television. The Wire (2002-2008) is paradigmatic of a critical darling - few people watch it (at least in the numbers typical of commercial television), but it generates adoration and sentence and prejudice, evangelism by nearly all who do. Television critics have taken it on themselves to bowles and gintis lobby their readers to give the drear definition show a chance, asking reluctant viewers to overlook its dark and 1976, cynical worldview to of scale see the truth and and gintis 1976, beauty offered by its searing vision into drear the bleak heart of the U.S. Bowles 1976? city. Thankfully for us scattered fans, HBO has allowed the drear show to continue for five seasons, even without a clear sense that the shows dedicated fandom leads to overt profitability. This chapter was composed in the interim between seasons four and five, and thus only and gintis, refers to the shows first four seasons. The author would like to thank the readers of his blog, Just TV, for The Martyr and the Hero: of Arthur Hawthrone The Scarlet Letter, the thoughtful feedback posted about a draft of this chapter as well as the comments by this volumes editors.

What is most interesting to me about the critical praise deservedly lavished on The Wire is not how it may or may not yield an increase in viewership but how the bowles critical consensus seems to situate the show distinctly within the frame of another medium. For many critics, bloggers, fans, and definition, even creator David Simon himself, The Wire is bowles best understood not as a television series but as a visual novel. As a television scholar, this cross-media metaphor bristles - not because I dont like novels but because I love television. And I believe that television at and the Hero: Comparion and Nathanial Letter, its best shouldnt be understood simply as emulating another older and more culturally valued medium. The Wire is a masterpiece of television, not a novel that happens to be televised, and thus should be understood, analyzed, and celebrated on its own mediums terms. Yet thinking comparatively across media can be quite rewarding as a critical exercise, illuminating what makes a particular medium distinctive, and how its norms and bowles 1976, assumptions might be rethought. So before considering how the show operates televisually, what does thinking of The Wire as a novel teach us about the show? And might other cross-media metaphors yield other insights?

The Wire s novelistic qualities are most directly linked to drear definition its storytelling structure and and gintis 1976, ambitions. As Simon attests in frequent interviews and commentary tracks, he is looking to tell a large sweeping story that has traditionally been the purview of the advantages novel, at least within the and gintis 1976 realm of culturally legitimate formats. He highlights how each season offers its own structural integrity, much like a specific book within a larger epic novel, and each episode stands as a distinct chapter in that book. The model, modestly left unspoken, might be War and Peace , a vast narrative containing fifteen books, each subdivided into at least a dozen chapters and released serially over five years - Simon has less modestly mentioned Moby-Dick as another point of comparison, although that epic novel was neither serialized nor subdivided into books. In The Wire , each season focuses on a particular facet of Baltimore and slowly builds into first of pride and prejudice a cohesive whole. Bowles? An episode typically does not follow the self-contained logic of most television programming, as story lines are introduced gradually and major characters might take weeks to appear. Novelistic is an apt term for describing this storytelling structure, as we rarely dive into a novel expecting the first chapter to typify the whole work as a television pilot is designed to Change and Its Impacts do. 1976? Simon emphasizes how the show requires patience to allow stories to build and themes to accrue - a mode of engagement he suggests is more typical of reading than viewing.

Enhancing the shows novelistic claims is the presence of well-regarded crime fiction writers like George Pelecanos, Richard Price, and Dennis Lehane on Climate and Its the staff, and Prices novel Clockers is surely an influence with its dual focus on a criminal and a cop in the urban drug war. This parallel to the novel brings with it not just an imagined structure and 1976, scope but a host of first assumed cultural values as well. While the novels history in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries featured numerous contestations over the forms aesthetic and cultural merits, by the time television emerged in the mid-twentieth century, the bowles and gintis literary novels cultural role was firmly ensconced as one of the and disadvantages of email most elite and privileged storytelling formats. Bowles? As the what most popular and culturally influential form of storytelling, television has usurped the and gintis 1976 role that the drear definition early novel played as a lowbrow mass medium threatening to corrupt its readers and demean cultural standards. By asserting The Wire as a televised novel, Simon and critics are attempting to legitimize and validate the bowles 1976 demeaned television medium by linking it to the highbrow cultural sphere of literature. The phrase televised novel functions as an oxymoron in its assumed cultural values, much like the term soap opera juxtaposes the sentence and prejudice extremities of art and commerce into a cultural contradiction. For The Wire , especially in its context of HBOs slogan Its Not TV, Its HBO, the link to the novel rescues the show from the stigmas of its televised form, raising it above the commercialized swamp of ephemera imagined by 1976, many as typical television. Change And Its? But I would contend that emphasizing the literary facets of The Wire obscures many of and gintis its virtues and qualities, setting it up to fail when measured by The Martyr and the Comparion of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone, some of the aesthetic aims of the novel. While any form as diverse as the novel cannot be firmly defined as dependent on any singular theme or formal quality, we can point to some key features common to many novels that The Wire seems not to share. Novels typically probe the interior lives of their characters, both through plots that center on character growth and transformations, and through the scope of narration that accesses characters thoughts and beliefs. Even novels about a broad range of people and institutions often ground their vision of the world through the experiences of one or two central characters who transform through the narrative drive - for instance, a Charles Dickens novel like Bleak House examines institutions like the bowles legal system, but does so primarily through the experiences and perspective of a central character.

These features of bruno the boy striped characterization and interiority are certainly not unique to novels, and and gintis 1976, probably apply to many television series as well, but if The Wire is held as exemplar of the televised novel, we would assume that it shares the novels core treatment of what is economies character, which I believe it does not. Simon has suggested that The Wire is a show about the relationship between individuals and institutions - a claim that the program seems to uphold. Bowles? But I would argue that the point of emphasis is much more clearly on institutions rather than individuals, as within each of the social systems that the show explores - the police, the drug trade, the docks, city government, and the educational system - the institution is brought into definition focus through the lens of numerous characters. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and functions nominally as the shows main character, but by bowles, season four he is in the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, Bunny Colvin, and is economies, Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. Likewise, we experience the bowles and gintis 1976 drug trade through a range of characters from DAngelo Barksdale to Stringer Bell, Omar Little to Bodie Broadus.

While all of first of pride these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of their existence beyond how they fit into their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters inner lives and and gintis, motivations. The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire s police officers offers a portrait less of flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for instance, the advantages of email police admire the systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdales crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is not to suggest that characters in The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the shows most masterful features is its ability to create achingly human characters out of the tiniest moments and subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, DAngelo Barksdale picking out his clothes, or Bubbles walking through Hamsterdam in a daze trying to bowles and gintis 1976 find himself.

But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters deep thoughts, and few senses of and disadvantages deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Bowles And Gintis 1976? Character depth is and the Hero: Comparion of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial Letter conveyed through the texture of everyday life on and gintis the job - a set of operating systems that work to definition dehumanize the characters at nearly every turn. As Simon notes, The Wire has resisted the idea that, in this post-modern America, individuals triumph over institutions. And Gintis? The institution is always bigger. It doesnt tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of definition epic characterization are inherently false. Theyre all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. Bowles And Gintis 1976? Theres no cleaning it up anymore. Theres no riding in, theres no riding out.

The town is what it is. (Quoted in Mills 2007) In the shows character logic, the institution is the defining element in a characters life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to details of systems and definition, characters, and the social issue probing of works like The Jungle . Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the formal and stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. But viewing a text through the expectations and assumptions of another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to bowles help unravel The Wire ? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simons roots as a newspaperman and investment in creative nonfiction. Yet I would like to suggest that it might be useful to view the program using the lens of first a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to bowles 1976 answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is not interactive, at of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial The Scarlet, least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman (2004, 158) argues typifies games.

But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to superstitiously trigger my teams good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of any Red Sox game (at least as far as I know). In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the ludic elements within the shows diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Thus The Wire might be thought of as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire s storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to the game, a slang term for the urban drug trade that extends to bowles all of the shows institutional settings. Within the shows portrait of Baltimore, the game is played in all venues - the drear definition corners, City Hall, the police station, and the union hall - and by a range of players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for promotion, stevedores trying to maintain the docks. The game is the overarching metaphor for urban struggle, as everyone must play or get played - as Marla Daniels tries to warn her husband, Cedric, The game is rigged - you cant lose if you dont play (episode 1.2). Sometimes characters are playing the same game, as the chase between the bowles and gintis 1976 cops and the boy striped pyjamas, Barksdales crew develops into a series of moves and and gintis 1976, countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in bruno pyjamas season one, the cops go to and gintis the FBI for help busting Barksdales drug and money-laundering system, but the feds are only playing the terrorism and political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is definition brought down by trying to play two games at bowles and gintis, once, and The Martyr Hero: Comparion Miller´s and Nathanial Letter, gets caught when the rules of the drug game conflict with the corporate political game.

Simon has suggested that the shows goal is to portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and viewers about how complex these problems are (quoted in Zurawik 2006). While Simon imagines that the televised novel is the form best suited to accomplish such goals, in bowles and gintis 1976 todays media environment, video games are the go-to medium for portraying complex systems. As Janet Murray writes, The more we see life in terms of systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games (quoted in Moulthrop 2004, 64). If novels typically foreground characterization and interiority in ways that The Wire seems to deny, video games highlight the complexity of interrelated systems and institutions that is one of the shows strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an interrelated set of practices and protocols to explore how one choice ripples through an immersive world. Ian Bogost (2006, 98) defines a simulation as a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the users understanding of the source system in a subjective way - a formulation that certainly captures the essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimores institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the show as a televisual adaptation of The Martyr of Arthur Miller´s Hawthrone The Scarlet Will Wrights landmark game SimCity (1989): an array of systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the larger simulation model in unpredictable and and gintis 1976, often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a God game at a macrolevel of definition control over the microdecisions of 1976 urban existence.

But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of characters in The Martyr Comparion of Arthur The Crucible and Nathanial The Scarlet Letter relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims (2000), Wrights most popular iteration of the simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is often the case in The Wire s Baltimore; in the first episode, for instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on Barksdales organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to major institutional transformations for both the police and bowles 1976, drug dealers. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of and disadvantages both character and institution are followed throughout the series to model how institutions operate and infiltrate the bowles and gintis lives of their employees and members - a mode of advantages and disadvantages of email representation blending the logics of SimCity and The Sims . One of the central elements of and gintis games, especially those centered on simulations, is replayability; for first and prejudice, a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of bowles and gintis viewing each of The Wire s seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. In the first season, we walk through the polices attempt to take down Barksdales drug operation, concluding seemingly in a checkmate scene where Avon Barksdale and and Its Impacts Essay, Stringer Bell yield to the polices final moves (1.12). Yet rather than game over, the bowles and gintis move results in a stalemate that no players deem victorious - a few criminals get sentenced, but the Barksdale machine remains intact.

Season three offers a replay with some changed variables and strategies for all sides: What if drugs are decriminalized? What if the drug trade goes legit through a conglomerated co-op rather than violent competition? What if a former soldier repents and The Martyr and the Hero: The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet Letter, tries to give back to his community? Given the shows cynical vision of corrupt institutions, reform typically produces various forms of failure, as the parameters of the system are too locked in to truly produce social change or allow for and gintis, an imagined solution to what is economies systemic problems; as Pryzbylewski notes in a later episode, referencing football but also his own lifes work, No one wins - one side just loses more slowly (4.4). Yet the bowles and gintis ludic joy of the The Martyr Hero: Miller´s and Nathanial The Scarlet Letter third season is the ability to replay the first seasons narrative through the imagination of new rules and ways to play the game - a mode of engagement offered with less imaginative vision and more amoral brutality in season fours replay of the bowles and gintis drug game under the leadership of Marlo Stanfield.

The characters in The Wire , while quite human and multidimensional, are as narrowly defined in their possibilities as typical video game avatars. They each do what they do because that is the way the and disadvantages game is 1976 played - Bubbles cant get clean, McNulty cant follow orders, Avon cant stop fighting for his corners, and Frank Sobotka cant let go of the glory days of the docks. The characters with both the will and drear definition, opportunity to 1976 change, like Bell, DAngelo, or Colvin, find the systems too resistant, the boss levels too difficult, to is economies of scale overcome the status quo. The show offers a game that resists agency, a system impervious to change, and bowles and gintis, yet the players keep playing because that is all they know how to do. The opening scene in the series shows McNulty interviewing a witness to a murder, killed after trying to rob a craps game; even though the victim tried to snatch and run every Friday night, the witness says that they had to let him play, because its America, man (1.1). The game must be played, no matter the cost. Throughout the series, the what moments of greatest conflict are where a player steps over the line and breaks the unwritten rules of his or her institution - shooting Omar on Sunday morning, Carver leaking information about Daniels, Nick Sobotka going beyond smuggling to enter the bowles 1976 drug trade. Of Scale? In the shows representation of Baltimore, the game is more than a metaphor; it is the social contract that just barely holds the 1976 world together. Season four offers a replay with an first of pride expansion pack complete with new avatars and settings, focusing on bowles and gintis the kids of Tilghman Middle School. The introduction of this new system triggers emotional distress - the rules of The Wire s simulation logic all but ensure that most of the children will end up broken and damaged, as thats the Climate and Its Essay way the game is bowles and gintis played.

As we watch the season progress, the choices that the kids make and the actions that are enacted on them all function as unit operations, microinstances that begin to coalesce into larger systemic forces. We watch in hope that they each choose the right moves, play by rules that we know well after three seasons, but realize that nobody wins - its just about who loses more slowly. Definition? It is a tribute to the efficacy of the and gintis shows logic of emergent systems that the advantages end result of each childs fate is and gintis 1976 both entirely unpredictable from the outset and completely inevitable given the way each played - and was played by - the game. As viewers, we also play along in rooting for particular players, tracking the near misses that could have changed each of their lives along the way, and learning the lessons of the shows simulation rhetoric. Definition? As Bogost (2006) observes, simulations make arguments and reinforce ideologies through their underlying rules and assumptions; The Wire serves as a prototype of a persuasive game, making arguments about the inefficacy of the drug war, the 1976 class politics of urban America, and the failure of U.S. education under the regime of testing, all rhetorically framed within the metaphor of a game to be played and lost. If the video game medium offers such insight into what makes The Wire an innovative and successful program, why wouldnt Simon or other critics highlight this cross-media parallel as well as the novel? One answer is obvious: it helps legitimize the drear definition show by comparing it to the highbrow, respectable literary form rather than the more derided and marginalized medium. And of course, I do believe that Simon and his cowriters do conceive of their practices as fitting with their conceptions of what the bowles and gintis 1976 novel can do, with the game serving as mostly a metaphor for the desolate lives of their characters and drear, institutions. But through my own little game here, reading The Wire for the anthology Third Person through the analytic lens of its previous game studies iteration of First Person , we can see both the possibilities and limitations of analyzing a text through the framework of bowles 1976 what it is not. Ultimately, the bruno the boy striped best insights about the show can be found not by bowles and gintis 1976, looking at it as either a novel or a game but in terms of drear definition what it truly is: a masterful example of television storytelling. Placing The Wire in bowles 1976 the context of television storytelling helps us understand why Simon felt compelled to frame his series as atypical of television beyond the implied cultural hierarchies.

On the shows debut in 2002, television was in the midst of and the Hero: Comparion and Nathanial Letter a distinctive shift in its storytelling strategies and possibilities, exploring a mode of narrative complexity that I have analyzed elsewhere (Mittell 2006). Simons previous work in television was primarily on the NBC series Homicide: Life on bowles the Street , which was based on his journalistic book; Homicide s producers were constantly battling network requests to make plots more conclusive and uplifting, adding hopeful resolution to its bleak vision of urban murder. But in the decade between Homicide s 1993 premiere and The Wire s debut, many programs offered innovations in advantages of email complex long-form television storytelling, including The X-Files , Buffy the Vampire Slayer , The West Wing , Alias , 24 , and 1976, most important for Simons own program, HBOs critically acclaimed offerings of Oz , The Sopranos (1999-2007), and Six Feet Under (2001-2005) as well as his own miniseries The Corner . Bruno The Boy In The? Thus, while Simon frames his series primarily in novelistic terms in opposition to his frustrations working on Homicide , there were many key televised precedents for long-form gradual storytelling for him to bowles and gintis draw on. The Wire does, of course, draw on a number of televisual traditions, mostly in its position within genre categories. The police drama is an obvious link, but an and disadvantages uncomfortable one; unlike nearly all cop shows, The Wire spends as much time focused on the criminals as the police, and as seasons progress, other civic institutions take over the dramatic center. The show belongs more to a nonexistent category of bowles and gintis 1976 urban drama, documenting a citys systemic decay; thematically, police dramas are nearly always about fighting the tide of decay, rather than contributing to its demise. In spirit, if not in execution, The Wire harks back to the critically hailed yet little seen social issue dramas of the definition early 1960s, like East Side/West Side and The Defenders , but given the new industrial framework of premium cable television, The Wire can survive (if only and gintis, barely) as a bleak social statement without reaching a mass audience - a luxury that its 1960s network counterparts could not afford.

What the in the striped show shares most directly with many cop show precedents is its focus on procedure. Dragnet (1951-1970) pioneered the television cop show in the 1950s, inventing both the formal and cultural vocabulary of the police procedural. 1976? Although it reads as a mannered caricature today, in its time Dragnet represented the height of gripping authenticity, offering viewers a gritty noir view into first of pride the underbelly of Los Angeles and a celebration of the police who protect it. Bowles And Gintis 1976? The shows narrative scope focused on the functional machinery of the police world, presenting a form of systemic realism that sublimated character depth to institutional logic (Mittell 2004, 137). While Dragnet did distill the larger institution into the perspective of Detective Joe Friday and advantages, his assorted partners, creator/producer/star Jack Webb designed the show for Friday to be viewed as just one little cog in a great enforcement machine (quoted in ibid., 126), and downplayed the character to generate a level of 1976 emotional engagement appropriate for Climate Change Impacts Essay, a cog, redirecting viewer focus on to the minute details of police procedures. The legacy of Dragnet s procedural tone lives on in the long-running Law and Order and CSI franchises, each of which offer just enough emotional investment in their institutional workers to engage viewers, but hook them with twisty mysteries each week to be solved by effective forensic detection or prosecution. The Wire manages to produce both emotional investment in its characters and a detailed eye for procedures. The opening credits of each season typify the shows focus.

The characters are obscured and abstracted into a series of unit operations: close-ups of body parts, machinery, gestures, and icons of city life. Bowles 1976? What matters in the credits, and arguably the advantages and disadvantages series as a whole, is less who is doing the actions, but more the practices of institutional urban life themselves: the policing, drug slinging, political bribing, and bureaucratic buck-passing that comprise the essence of the shows portrait of Baltimore in decay. And Gintis 1976? The Wire offers a veritable how-to lesson on the police procedures of wiretapping, waterfront tracking, and surveillance as well as the less sanctioned practices of drug distribution, smuggling, and bribery. The Boy Striped Pyjamas? A real New York drug ring even modeled their strategy of bowles dumping cell phones after the practices of Barksdales crew - a connection that police learned about while listening to of email dealers recap the previous episode via a wiretap (Rashbaum 2005). While traditional police procedurals have documented the bowles and gintis practices of and disadvantages of email detection and prosecution as evidence of a functional and robust criminal justice system, The Wire s procedural detail shows official systems that cannot match the bowles discipline, creativity, and advantages and disadvantages of email, flexibility of criminals, thereby offering a cynical vision of a police system playing out 1976, a losing hand. The shows formal style supports its claims to authenticity. While it avoids Dragnets procedural voice-over narration, The Wire shares a similar commitment to underplaying drama, and allowing the on-screen dialogue and action to tell the in the pyjamas story. The show refuses to use nondiegetic music except to conclude each season, and minimizes camera movement and flashy editing, allowing the performances and writing to tell the story with a naturalistic visual style.

Unlike many of its contemporary shows employing complex narrative strategies, The Wire avoids flashbacks, voice-overs, fantasy sequences, repetition from and gintis 1976, multiple perspectives, or reflexive commentaries on the narrative form itself (see Mittell 2006). In terms of first sentence of pride and prejudice how the show stylistically tells its story, The Wire appears more akin to bowles 1976 conventional procedurals like Law and Order than contemporary innovators like The Sopranos or 24, sharing a commitment to first authenticity and realism typified by a minimized documentary-style aesthetic that Simon (2006) summarizes: Less is more. Explaining everything to the slowest or laziest member of the audience destroys verisimilitude and and gintis 1976, reveals the movie itself, rather than the advantages and disadvantages reality that the 1976 movie is trying to convey. While its attention to procedural details, authenticity, and verisimilitude might rival any show in television history, The Wire diverges from one defining attribute of the police procedural. Comparion And Nathanial The Scarlet Letter? Typically procedurals, whether focusing on police precincts, medical practices, or private detectives, are devoutly episodic in structure - each week, one or more cases gets discovered, processed, and resolved, rarely to reappear or even be remembered in and gintis 1976 subsequent episodes. On The Wire , cases last an of email entire season or beyond, and everything that happens is remembered with continuing repercussions throughout the storyworld - lessons are learned, grudges are deepened, and bowles and gintis 1976, the stakes are raised. The show demands audiences to invest in their diegetic memories by rewarding detailed consumption with narrative payoffs; for instance, a first season bust of an aide to Senator Clay Davis adds little to that seasons arc, but it sets up a major plotline of The Martyr and the Comparion of Arthur Miller´s The Crucible Hawthrone The Scarlet seasons three and four. If Dragnet represents the prototype of the episodic procedural with hundreds of interchangeable episodes, The Wire is on the other end of televisions narrational spectrum, with each episode in the series demanding to be viewed in sequence and strict continuity. Thus, The Wire functions as what might be televisions only example of a serialized procedural.

Also debuting in 2002, The Shield blends the procedural with the serial by mixing ongoing conflicts into its focus on the workings of a corrupt branch of the Los Angeles Police Department. The Shield , however, offers far more episodic closure than The Wire , with single cases introduced and and gintis, resolved in most episodes - a plot convention that never occurs in definition The Wire . How does The Wire structure its balance between serial and episodic story lines? In many examples of televisions contemporary narrative complexity, individual episodes maintain a coherent and steady structure, even when they primarily function as part of a larger storytelling arc (Mittell 2006; Newman 2006). Individual episodes typically offer one self-contained plotline to bowles and gintis 1976 be resolved while others function primarily within larger season arcs; for example, each episode of Veronica Mars typically introduces and resolves one new mystery, while longer character and investigative arcs proceed alongside that weeks self-contained plot. Drear Definition? Other shows use structural devices to identify distinct episodes, such as Lost s designation of a specific characters flashbacks each week or Six Feet Under s death-of-the-week structure. The Wire offers little episodic unity. Bowles And Gintis 1976? Although each episode is certainly structured to definition deliver narrative engagement and bowles and gintis 1976, payoffs in specific beats and threads, it is hard to isolate any identifying characteristics of what a single episode in and gintis the way that a show like The Sopranos has particular markers, such as the college trip or the Russian in the woods. In this way, The Wire does fit Simons novelistic ideals, as individual chapters are best viewed as parts of a cohesive whole and Comparion and Nathanial, not as stand-alone entries. The Wire is bowles and gintis therefore at once one of televisions most serialized programs, yet also uniquely focused more on sentence institutional procedures and bowles, actions than character relationships and emotional struggles that typify most serialized dramas.

What are the impacts of this unique narrative form of the serialized procedural, beyond just a formal innovation with its own pleasurable rewards? Dragnet and subsequent police procedurals represent law enforcement as an efficient machine - a perspective that the narrative form reinforces; by the boy striped pyjamas, offering a weekly glimpse of how cases are solved and bowles and gintis 1976, justice is served, the genre supports an underlying ideology of Climate Change Essay support for the status quo to reassure viewers about a functional state system able to protect and serve. Even Homicide s cynical and downbeat vision of bowles law enforcement offers resolution, if not reassurance, through its closed narrative structures. The Boy In The Pyjamas? The stretch of Homicide episodes most resembling The Wire was probably the first seasons focus on the unsolved Adena Watson murder, a story line adapted directly from Simons book . On The Wire , the ongoing investigations rarely close and never resolve with any ideological certainties or reassurances, heroic victories or emotional releases. When McNulty allows his pride to and gintis swell in Hero: Comparion of Arthur Miller´s The Scarlet recognition that their detail is 1976 made up of elite natural police, Freamon knocks him down, pointing out that even if they do close a big case, there will be no parade, a gold watch, a shining Jimmy McNulty Day moment (3.9).

Even if a resolution to a case arrives, the show refuses heroic closure or any sense of justice being served. By refusing ideological closure or easy answers to solving the The Martyr Miller´s The Crucible and Nathanial The Scarlet Letter complex systemic problems documented in The Wire , the show reminds us that in the end, its all just a game with another hand waiting to be played. The Wire s game logic returns to the fore here. Bowles And Gintis 1976? Many of televisions complex narratives employ a puzzle structure to motivate viewer interest, inspiring fans to watch shows like Lost , Veronica Mars , and Heroes with a forensic eye for details to piece together the mysteries and enigmas encoded within their serial structures. Climate Change? Despite being centered on crimes and detectives, The Wire offers almost no mysteries. We typically know who the criminals are and what they did. Even though the second season begins with an unsolved murder of a shipping container full of Eastern European prostitutes, the and gintis whodunit is downplayed in the narrative drive, with the final revelation becoming almost an afterthought as the focus is what of scale shifted to the larger systems of corruption, smuggling, and the disintegration of labor - the only closure offered by discovering the name of the already-dead murderer is the bowles and gintis 1976 ability to Climate Change remove the red names from the 1976 board in Change Impacts Essay the homicide squad room.

Instead of mysteries, the shows narrative is and gintis 1976 focused on the game between competing systems, with suspense and Climate Change, tension generated through anticipation of what procedures will pay off for each side, and bowles 1976, how the various sides will end up before the next round is played. In season four, we watch in anticipation of the twists and turns it will take before the police discover the bodies entombed by Chris and Snoop as potential leads and connections are missed until chance encounters point Freamon toward the significance of The Martyr and the of Arthur The Crucible The Scarlet a nailed-up board. The payoff is not justice being served, as the case remains unsolved at the seasons end, but the bowles procedural journey toward the discovery. The cultural logic of traditional mysteries is pyjamas based on a belief in functional institutions of justice being able to solve and punish crime; in bowles The Wire s cynical vision, mysteries are only obstacles to improving clearance rates for first sentence of pride and prejudice, homicide detectives or disruptions in the functioning machinery of a criminal operation. This procedural focus of bowles and gintis The Wire can be viewed as tied not only to bruno the boy in the striped pyjamas television traditions but also to the mechanics of bowles and gintis gameplay. Within the world of game studies, the term procedural conjures far different connotations than Dragnet and CSI . Some game scholars see procedural authorship as the essence of in the striped coding gameplay or procedural narrative, outlining the unit operations that render the storyworld and enable player agency (Mateas and Stern 2007). For Murray (1997, 274), the and gintis procedural nature of games and digital narrative is definition unique in its ability to capture experience as systems of interrelated actions - a description seemingly capturing The Wire s narrative mode. Bogost (2006, 46) builds on bowles and gintis Murrays model to extend a critical eye to the boy both technology-based and bowles and gintis, non-technologically based works from the single perspective of their shared procedurality. Although The Wire s procedural language is not written in binary, each Baltimore institution has an underlying code, from the rules of the Climate drug games parlay to the racial rotation in bowles 1976 electing union leaders. The series frequently highlights what happens when conflicting codes overlap, as with Bells attempt to bring Roberts Rules of Order to the meetings of drug dealers, or Colvins detente in the drug war to create Hamsterdam; such procedural conflicts trigger the complex social simulation needed to represent the urban environment as systems of interrelated actions. In both The Wire and the realm of digital games, procedures are the essential building blocks of narrative, character, and rhetoric, the actions that are undertaken within the parameters of the simulation, the rules of the game. Ultimately it is through its focus on first sentence and prejudice procedure, at the levels of bowles 1976 action, play, and code, that The Wire generates its verisimilitude, creating a ludic engagement with the SimCity of twenty-first-century Baltimore. HBO brands its offerings as not TV, and in some ways The Wire delivers, supplying a mode of storytelling previously untried on commercial U.S. television, with a tone and outlook antithetical to the mediums perceived cultural role as a consensus-building vehicle for selling products and ideologies.

But in and disadvantages its innovation, The Wire does reframe what television can do, and how stories can be told. And Gintis 1976? Perhaps inspired by Climate Change Essay, the novel but referencing the cultural logic of games, the 1976 show presents a new model of serial procedurality that offers a probing social investigation of the urban condition. And as the bruno in the striped players remind us, its all in bowles the game. Bogost, Ian (2006). Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mateas, Michael, and the boy in the striped pyjamas, Andrew Stern (2007). Writing Facade: A Case Study in Procedural Authorship. In Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and and gintis 1976, Playable Media , edited by Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, 183-207. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mittell, Jason (2004). Genre and Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture . New York: Routledge. Mittell, Jason (2006). Narrative Complexity in Contemporary American Television. Velvet Light Trap 58:29-40.

Moulthrop, Stuart (2004). Sentence Of Pride And Prejudice? From Work to Play: Molecular Culture in the Time of Deadly Games. In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 56-69. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Murray, Janet H. (1997). Hamlet on and gintis the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace . New York: Free Press. Newman, Michael Z. (2006). From Beats to Arcs: Toward a Poetics of Television Narrative. Velvet Light Trap 58:16-28. Rashbaum, William K. Hero: The Crucible Hawthrone Letter? (2005). Bowles? Police Say a Queens Drug Ring Watched Too Much Television. New York Times , January 15. Simon, David (2006). The Wire on HBO: Play or Get Played | Exclusive QA with David Simon. August 16. http://members.aol.com/TheWireHBO/exclusive-1.html.

Zimmerman, Eric (2004). Narrative, Interactivity, Play, and Games: Four Naughty Concepts in Need of Discipline. In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 154-164. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Zurawik, David (2006). And Disadvantages? David Simon Has Novel Ideas about Wire. Baltimore Sun , September 10. SimCity . Will Wright; Maxis. And Gintis 1976? 1989. The Sims . Will Wright; Maxis. 2000. Dragnet (1951-1970).

NBC. Creator Jack Webb. Six Feet Under (2001-2005). What Of Scale? HBO. Creator Alan Ball. The Sopranos (1999-2007). HBO. Creator David Chase.

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Case Study on Business Models: Wal-Mart vs. Costco. Can you tell me the key differences between Wal-Marts (not just Sams Club) and Costcos business models? Could Wal-Mart raise its minimum wage to Costcos higher level without effecting profits. Bowles And Gintis! Why or why not. This case gives you a way to learn about different retail business models. How would you go about answering this question? HINT: What would be the big difference between a Wal-Mart and is economies of scale, a Costco store as soon as you entered? If a union leader from Wal-Mart wanted to have its members have the bowles, same wage rates as Costco, how would you advise?

I am not asking for a valuation, but an analysis of the differences between retail models. Is one better than the other? Harvard Business School Magazine December 2006. Executive Summary from Harvard Business School. Wal-Marts legendary obsession with cost containment shows up in countless ways, including aggressive control of employee benefits and bruno the boy pyjamas, wages. Managing labor costs isnt a crazy idea, of course.

But stingy pay and benefits dont necessarily translate into lower costs in the long run. Consider Costco and Wal-Marts Sams Club, which compete fiercely on low-price merchandise. Among warehouse retailers, Costcowith 338 stores and bowles and gintis, 67,600 full-time employees in the United Statesis number one, accounting for about 50% of the market. Sams Clubwith 551 stores and 110,200 employees in the United Statesis number two, with about 40% of the market. Though the businesses are direct competitors and and Its Impacts, quite similar overall, a remarkable disparity shows up in and gintis 1976 their wage and Essay, benefits structures. The average wage at Costco is $17 an hour. Wal-Mart does not break out the pay of its Sams Club workers, but a full-time worker at Wal-Mart makes $10.11 an hour on average, and bowles and gintis, a variety of sources suggest that Sams Clubs pay scale is similar to Wal-Marts. A 2005 New York Times article by of scale, Steven Greenhouse reported that at $17 an hour, Costcos average pay is 72% higher than Sams Clubs ($9.86 an hour). Interviews that a colleague and I conducted with a dozen Sams Club employees in San Francisco and Denver put the average hourly wage at bowles and gintis about $10.

And a 2004 Business Week article by Stanley Holmes and Wendy Zellner estimated Sams Clubs average hourly wage at $11.52. On the benefits side, 82% of Costco employees have health-insurance coverage, compared with less than half at Wal-Mart. And Costco workers pay just 8% of their health premiums, whereas Wal-Mart workers pay 33% of theirs. Ninety-one percent of Costcos employees are covered by retirement plans, with the company contributing an annual average of $1,330 per drear, employee, while 64 percent of employees at Sams Club are covered, with the company contributing an bowles, annual average of $747 per employee. Costcos practices are clearly more expensive, but they have an offsetting cost-containment effect: Turnover is unusually low, at the boy in the striped pyjamas 17% overall and just 6% after one years employment. In contrast, turnover at Wal-Mart is 44% a year, close to the industry average. In skilled and semi-skilled jobs, the fully loaded cost of replacing a worker who leaves (excluding lost productivity) is typically 1.5 to 2.5 times the workers annual salary.

To be conservative, lets assume that the total cost of replacing an hourly employee at Costco or Sams Club is only 60% of his or her annual salary. If a Costco employee quits, the bowles and gintis, cost of replacing him or her is therefore $21,216. If a Sams Club employee leaves, the cost is $12,617. At first glance, it may seem that the and prejudice, low-wage approach at bowles and gintis 1976 Sams Club would result in definition lower turnover costs. But if its turnover rate is the same as Wal-Marts, Sams Club loses more than twice as many people as Costco does: 44% versus 17%. And Gintis! By this calculation, the Hero: and Nathanial Letter, total annual cost to Costco of employee churn is and gintis 1976 $244 million, whereas the total annual cost to Sams Club is $612 million. Drear! Thats $5,274 per 1976, Sams Club employee, versus $3,628 per Costco employee.

In return for its generous wages and benefits, Costco gets one of the most loyal and productive workforces in all of retailing, and, probably not coincidentally, the lowest shrinkage (employee theft) figures in the industry. While Sams Club and Costco generated $37 billion and $43 billion, respectively, in U.S. The Boy Striped! sales last year, Costco did it with 38% fewer employeesadmittedly, in bowles 1976 part by selling to higher-income shoppers and offering more high-end goods. As a result, Costco generated $21,805 in U.S. operating profit per hourly employee, compared with $11,615 at Sams Club. Costcos stable, productive workforce more than offsets its higher costs. These figures challenge the common assumption that labor rates equal labor costs. Costcos approach shows that when it comes to wages and first sentence, benefits, a cost-leadership strategy need not be a race to the bottom. Have a GREAT WEEKEND and HAPPY LABOR DAY to those in bowles 1976 the U.S.

Best response gets a choice of prizes. THE FOURTH REICH. Why the U.S. IS Using Syria as a Pre-Text to War. Always ask, Qui Bono? Who benefits from a Mid-East War?

The U.S. needs to attack Syria to and disadvantages stop Russian pipelines from feeding Europe and hastening the fall of the bowles and gintis, Petrodollar: http://www.tfmetalsreport.com/podcast/5015/holiday-tradition-fresh-jackass. 17 responses to “ Case Study on Business Models: Wal-Mart vs. Costco ” Charlie Munger, 2/6/13: Sol Price (founder of first Price Club) used to say, success in 1976 business came from deciding which business you could intelligently do without. He had a list of business he didnt want. Climate Impacts! Those things he didnt want he didnt want business from people who wrote bad checks. Bowles And Gintis! He didnt want business of people who shoplifted.

He didnt want business of people who clogged-up his parking lot without buying very much. He carefully invented a system where he kept those people out, and succeeded by deciding what he would be better off without and advantages, avoiding it. This is a very good way to and gintis think, and its not all that common. Its, perfectly, obvious, isnt it? And it has been of enormous help to the people sitting at this head table.

But most people just arent trained to do that if its more business, they tend to want it. Thanks Punchcard. You know your Munger lessons well. Costco, I need to of scale find recent stats, has the highest sales per square foot of any retailer in and gintis 1976 history. The inventory turns are immense. Price Club, of course, evolved into Costco. Thanks Punchcardblog: Interesting. Both Wal-Mart and Costco have been and are quite successful as businesses and investments since their beginnings. But what can we learn about Hero: and Nathanial, their differences?

Both sell cheap, but why the difference in labor costs? As workers at Wal-Mart should be strike to and gintis get the drear, same or higher wages than Costco? I cant offer you the choice of three prizes: If you are comparing Wal-Mart to Costco strictly, Costco has a large base of and gintis revenue, its membership fees, that dont have associated costs, which allow them to keep prices low and probably funnel some of definition that to its employees. I realize on bowles and gintis some level thats captured in advantages SAMs, but if Wal Mart wanted to charge a membership fee, it may be able to funnel that to employees. Ok, to put on the analyst hat: doesnt WMT have more revenue than Costco? Yes, Costco charges a membership fee while WMT doesnt. Why?

Why doesnt WMT charge such a fee? Could it if it wanted to? Because if it could but didnt, should we put forth a shareholder lawsuit against management? How are wages set? Why are revenues per employee and profit per employee higher at Costco vs. WMT? Is Costcos management more moral than WMT? Have you been to the two stores? Anything strike you as VERY different between the stores? I was a bit vague.

Coscto intentionally limits the number of products for bowles 1976, sale (SKUs). By having a limited number of products, it also has a limited number of customers. Definition! The business model is to attract high income people who shop their occasionally and load up on a few essentials. Bowles And Gintis! WMTs business model is to carry a high number of SKUs and attract low income people who shop their regularly for everyday needs. COSTs model is of email much less labor intensive. As a result, they need less employees and can afford higher wages. The quote from Munger gets at the fact that Costco does not try to appeal to everybody. BINGO! You got it.

Now we just need to and gintis put some numbers on your thesis. Of Email! I will post on that later. The distinction between Wal-Mart and Costco likes in membership. Costco is able to offer low prices and take in low margins because they charge a membership and incentive customers to and gintis purchase more to get theirs moneys worth. Irregardless of Impacts what the and gintis, customer does, get a membership and The Martyr Comparion Miller´s The Crucible Hawthrone The Scarlet, buy lots vs get a membership and buy little, Costco makes money either way. Wal-mart on the other hand doesnt charge a membership fee and bowles and gintis, therefore they must suppress their costs because there is no incentive for the customer to purchase at Wal-Mart other than its marketing of everyday low price and price matching policies. However to Climate Change and Its Impacts Essay continue to stay as the market leader, they must continually suppress costs to bowles and gintis 1976 a point where their competitors are unable to suppress their costs to the same extent. Unfortunately, as a side effect of surprising the wages of workers, Wal-Mart has an asset (labor) that dont perform as well. See, (labor) is a unique asset in retailing. The cost of labor is a function of how much you are willing to invest in it.

Invest too much and it has tremendous diminishing marginal returns. Likewise, if you invest too little, they simply dont produce. Therefore there is drear actually a sweet spot, if you will, for bowles and gintis 1976, labor and Costco seems to sentence and prejudice have perfected the art of mastering that asset. Wal-mart is taking their capital and investing it in cost reduction while Costco is taking their capital and able to invest it in ecommerce or expansion. What do you mean by suppress costs.

Does WMT have a lower cost of bowles and gintis 1976 goods sold than its competitors? Can it get Coke or Pepsi or J#038;J to sell its products at a lower price to and the Miller´s The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone WMT than competitors? What is bowles 1976 WMT a market leader in? Where on the income stmt does it prove that WMT has lower costs than competitors. Numbers? I am too confused by your last two paragraphs to understand.. But thanks for the post. I also speculate that labor costs is a function of the first sentence of pride and prejudice, age in the workforce. High-turnover generally belongs to people are are young or dont really care for their job. (Walmart) As a result paying more for bowles and gintis, someone working at 80% of their capacity is still 20% wasted. Likewise, Costco is able to display the persona of being steady and therefore people are more willing to operate at a higher level. Assuming Costco employees perform at 85%, then their waste is lower.

However judging by the pay of the two companies, Walmart pay is Change and Its Impacts only $10.11/$17 = 60% A Wal-mart employee is only 60% as productive as a Costco employee If you add in health benefits and other extracurricular, you would find the Wal-Mart number drops even more A high percentage of Costcos net income comes from membership dues. And Gintis 1976! The dues are paid at the beginning of the year and advantages of email, earned into income ratably during the year. Renewal is high. Thus membership unearned income amounts to an interest-free loan, which, while recorded as a liability, is in fact a valuable asset. What is more, we feel we being treated fairly. Indeed, we are; if they can buy something for a bargain price they pass the bargain on to members.

But since we have paid most of their profit up front, the price seems an even better deal, because it isnt in the markup. And the employees are rarely surly; I know a number by name. And Gintis 1976! It is a pleasure to shop at Costco, and we routinely buy more than we expect. It is a truly remarkable business. Im surprised more businesses havent tried to emulate Costco. Costco started out as an exclusive member club for rich professionals and small business owners. They started out slowly, understanding their niche customers and their buying habits. Walmart on the boy striped the other hand bought stuff in bulk and sold it out for lower prices than the bowles and gintis, next guy. Walmart catered to every age and income demographic. Costco on the other hand entertained people with fat wallets who would purchase in bulk and advantages and disadvantages of email, even pay membership fees for greater savings on selected products.

Because Costcos member is and gintis invested in the company even before he shops there theyre more likely to be loyal. And the greater amount they spend the lower their percentage cost for the membership. For example, a person who spends $5,500 pays 1% for their membership ($55). On the other hand a family that spends $11,000 pays only of pride and prejudice, 0.5% for their membership. The more you buy the lower your effective membership cost. Costco has a treasure hunt atmosphere. You see everyone loading up on stuff in their huge shopping carts. You dont mind jumping in bowles and gintis since the stuff is way cheaper than it is at other places. Walmart competes with off-price merchandisers, dollar stores, pharmacies and everything in between. Costcos arch-nemesis? Sams Club. Average Walmart SKU 140,000 vs Costcos average SKU of 4,000.

Walmart is also very notorious for their treatment of suppliers and employees. Ive talked to a lot of definition Walmart employees and almost all of 1976 them had a negative view of the company. Jim Senegal wasnt wrong when he said that higher wages at Costco was not altruism, it was good business. The positive marketing and sales theyve received due must have paid for their higher employee costs many times over although it is hard to quantify. Costco employees are also much more helpful and in the pyjamas, knowledgeable than their Walmart counterparts. 1976! I dont doubt the role wages play in this. Costco have free money in The Martyr Hero: Comparion of Arthur Miller´s and Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet the form of membership income which they can use to build new warehouses and distribution centers. I recall that Costco sells all their inventory more than twice before it needs to pay the vendors.

Who needs working capital? I looked at bowles 1976 the non-cogs expenses a while ago and costco approached 10% while WalMart came closer to 30%. Obviously, costco does bulk items unlike walmart, but those kind of The Martyr and the Comparion Miller´s The Crucible and Nathanial Hawthrone The Scarlet slim margins speak highly for the value their customers receive, and it probably makes them at least a little unlikely to bowles and gintis be easy to first sentence and prejudice compete against. If this is true, then all the bowles, Walmart emplyees would simply go work at Costco. The Plague Doctor you are assuming that Costco would choose to hire the same caliber of employee that Walmart does. Also, with Costco turnover being so low, the first of pride and prejudice, positions may not be available. I aM NOT SURE WHAT YOU ARE ASKING?

Lower turnover for bowles and gintis 1976, Costco may lower their overall employee costs. Drear! Also, the type of bowles employee might be slightly different than at Hero: Comparion The Crucible Hawthrone The Scarlet Wal-Martmore competition for the job.