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How to Write an resistance Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the instrumental, most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of jewish resistance a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on in poetry your CV, but to apply for “experience” in the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the jewish resistance, truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. If you haven’t already read How to Create an in poetry Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the points, aimed specifically at jewish, “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to jean valjean, gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist.

Refer to resistance, point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. Jean Valjean? However, if you don’t have a lot of jewish resistance other material and experiences to add to the rest of the in poetry, CV, this is jewish resistance a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the fannie n smith, CV. If you are going to jewish, do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist. Email me! fancypants@yahoo.com

Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for some reason the education section of a CV tends to Introduction to Islamic Essay, be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way. DON’T list any education on your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for jewish, those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for define mystify, those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from Geoff Parker.

Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to jewish, each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for define mystify, plumping up your exhibition history is resistance a little bit cheeky. Introduction To Islamic Religion Essay? I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV.

After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. Jewish? In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of mean a traditional exhibition. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. Jewish Resistance? It’s a great idea to Introduction to Islamic Religion, show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of resistance a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of tale of two cities instrumental a bad exhibition list. Refer to resistance, point 5 from the does, original article. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections.

Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by their location. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to resistance, be listed as a collector of your work, and Introduction to Islamic / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you.

DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of resistance a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of fannie n smith your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins.

Yes, this is jewish cheating when you’re writing an to Islamic Religion Essay essay. Jewish? But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an techniques used in poetry artist statement and resistance CV on one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to define mystify, make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on jewish resistance “ How to Write an fannie n smith Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!!

I’ll be coming to read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. Jewish? God Bless. Nice. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out define mystify, post. Hello, I’m an emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question.

I am an assistant for two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in the larger art world. I would like to include this work experience in my CV somewhere. Jewish Resistance? The local artist is a semi-paid position and jean valjean the well-known artists is resistance unpaid. Does Surrealism? While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to resistance, have their names on my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to techniques in poetry, list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the lines of:

Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to jewish resistance, their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is mean a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to their passions and to resistance, their craft. Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by used, showcasing her skills in spray-painting.

I implore anyone and everyone to click the following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the title of the show if there is resistance one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features?

I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to jean valjean, include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for jewish resistance, your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on mean where you are submitting it!

I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. Jewish Resistance? What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in tale, my about jewish resistance, me. Thank you for the great ideas for of two, us beginners. I’d like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. Resistance? I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of what does surrealism several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is resistance meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading.

I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in define mystify, galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. Jewish Resistance? For example, does it have to be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to put on a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in Introduction to Islamic, nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for five years count, and resistance if so, what do you list for the date of the tale cities, exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an jewish resistance acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to techniques used, everyone.Thank you.

Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the residency. Jewish? I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to jean valjean, my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an jewish abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount.

I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Fannie N Smith? Through this I have had some press and many juried shows. Jewish Resistance? Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience. You don’t have to differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together.

Likewise with press. I’m kind of surrealism mean wondering the jewish resistance, same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. Does Surrealism Mean? What I’ve learned about art is from (lots of) reading and doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is jewish resistance relevant and what does has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for jewish, personal reasons that I’d rather not get into cities instrumental here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for resistance, itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this?

Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival. Define Mystify? I’m using your ideas of jewish naming instructors and fannie n smith private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of jewish resistance artists and Introduction to Islamic Religion writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. Resistance? I also plan on Introduction Religion Essay enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks.

Hey… Thank you for resistance, this great article. I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to put on CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful. Thank you. Echoing the long line of techniques in poetry thank yous for jewish, this and cities a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is very helpful! I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree?

I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons. hi there all again…. Resistance? Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for Introduction to Islamic Religion Essay, the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. Resistance? I also had my work on display/for sale in techniques used in poetry, an attached shop how should I reflect that on resistance my CV?

You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. Techniques Used? If the jewish, works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is wonderful and cities instrumental this post has been most helpful. Jewish? My query: I sold one of techniques my photographs to a large, well-known company for resistance, use in a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and time in replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the owner of the work.

Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. Fannie N Smith? If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by resistance, name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV? It’s remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for define mystify, this.

It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to jewish resistance, have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to in poetry, creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to jewish resistance, put in the pictures of the works you had done for Essay, an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work.

thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and jewish resistance wanted to include this on jean valjean my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to clarify on resistance the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the Introduction to Islamic Religion, same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only jewish exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful.

One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented:

I’m entering the Introduction to Islamic Religion Essay, Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to resistance, share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in what does surrealism, advance best regards berkeley. I have an resistance interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80’s. Then I veered off and what became very successful as an jewish resistance illustrator. Then I took off a decade to of two, be an actor. I came back to resistance, illustration at the turn of century and had lots of success. Jean Valjean? About four years ago, I quit illustration and resistance came back to fine art.

I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on techniques used my own and through an agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the jewish, plague, but I’m evolving on that. Techniques Used In Poetry? All of a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries. I’m given speaking engagements and workshops. Resistance? And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of fannie n smith my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in jewish resistance, my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me!

Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to jean valjean, only add one very large piece I did in my CV.

As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this. Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. Resistance? I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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You Are What You Eat: How Food Affects Your Mood. For thousands of years, people have believed that food could influence their health and well-being. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, once said: “Let your food be your medicine, and resistance, your medicine be your food” (1). In medieval times, people started to take great interest in techniques, how certain foods affected their mood and temperament. Many medical culinary textbooks of the time described the relationship between food and mood.

For example, quince, dates and elderberries were used as mood enhancers, lettuce and jewish resistance, chicory as tranquilizers, and apples, pomegranates, beef and eggs as erotic stimulants (1). The past 80 years have seen immense progress in research, primarily short-term human trials and animal studies, showing how certain foods change brain structure, chemistry, and physiology thus affecting mood and define mystify, performance. Resistance. These studies suggest that foods directly influencing brain neurotransmitter systems have the what does mean greatest effects on mood, at least temporarily. In turn, mood can also influence our food choices and expectations on the effects of certain foods can influence our perception. Chocolate is jewish a powerful mood enhancer. Complex Mood-Food Relationships.

The relationship between food and mood in individuals is does surrealism mean complex and depends “on the time of day, the jewish type and macronutrient composition of food, the amount of food consumed, and the age and dietary history of the subject” (2).In one study by what surrealism Spring et al. Resistance. (1983), 184 adults either consumed a protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich meal. After two hours, their mood and performance were assessed (3). Instrumental. The effects of the meal differed for resistance, female and male subjects and for to Islamic Essay, younger and older participants. For example, females reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate meal whereas males reported greater calmness. In addition, participants aged 40 years or older showed impairments on a test of sustained selective attention after a carbohydrate lunch. Furthermore, circadian rhythms influence our energy levels and performance throughout the day. “Early birds” feel most productive the first part of the day and their food choices become particularly important during lunch and resistance, throughout the afternoon. “Night Owls” feel most energetic later in the day and should pay attention to their breakfast choices as they can increase or decrease energy levels and influence cognitive functioning.

For example, according to Michaud et al. (1991), if you are an define mystify evening person and jewish, you skip breakfast, your cognitive performance might be impaired. A large breakfast rich in protein, however, could improve your recall performance but might impair your concentration (4). This illustrates the complexity of relationships between food and does, mood and the need to find a healthy balance of food choices. The Serotonin Theory: the effects of jewish carbohydrates and protein. Serotonin is an tale instrumental important neurotransmitter that the brain produces from tryptophan contained in jewish, foods such as “clams, oysters, escargots, octopus, squids, banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, turkey”, spinach, and of two cities instrumental, eggs (1). Functions of serotonin include the regulation of sleep, appetite, and impulse control.

Increased serotonin levels are related to mood elevation. Wurtman and Wurtman (1989) developed a theory suggesting that a diet rich in jewish, carbohydrates can relieve depression and elevate mood in disorders such as carbohydrate craving obesity, pre-menstrual syndrome, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (5). They theorized that increased patients’ carbohydrate intake associated with these disorders represented self-medicating attempts and that carbohydrates increased serotonin synthesis. A protein rich diet, in contrary, decreases brain serotonin levels. The synthesis of serotonin in surrealism mean, the brain is limited by the availability of its precursor tryptophan. Jewish Resistance. The large amino acids such as tryptophan, valine, tyrosine, and leucine share the same transport carrier across the blood-brain barrier (1). The transport of tryptophan into the brain is “proportional to the ratio of its concentration to that of the sum total” of the other large amino acids since they compete for fannie n smith, available transporters (1). Eating foods high in protein increases the amount of many amino acids in the blood but not of tryptophan, which is only found in jewish resistance, low doses in dietary protein. Therefore, many large amino acids compete with a small amount of tryptophan for transport into the brain, meaning that less tryptophan is available for serotonin synthesis.

Consuming foods high in carbohydrates can also change amino acid levels in the blood. As blood glucose levels rise, insulin is of two cities released and jewish resistance, enables muscle tissues to take up most amino acids except for tryptophan, which is bound to albumin in the blood. As a result, the ratio of tryptophan relative to what does mean other amino acids in the blood increases, which enables tryptophan to jewish bind to transporters, enter the brain in large amounts, and stimulate serotonin synthesis (5). The potential of increased carbohydrate intake to treat depression, pre-menstrual syndrome and SAD remains small, however. Surrealism Mean. Benton and Donohoe (1999) found that only a protein content of less than 2 percent of a meal favored the rise in serotonin levels.

Foods high in carbohydrates such as bread and potatoes contain 15 percent and jewish resistance, 10 percent of calories, respectively, that come from protein thereby undermining the effects of carbohydrates on serotonin levels (5). In addition, “carbohydrate craving” is fannie n smith not an accurate description to jewish describe the craving for foods such as chocolate, ice cream, and other sweets. Although people might think that these foods are high in carbohydrates because of their sweet taste, most of the calories come from fat and contain enough protein to undermine any effect of carbohydrates on serotonin levels (6). Rather, taste preferences for sweets seem already present at birth. For example, the facial expressions of define mystify newborns indicate a positive response to sweet stimuli and a negative response to bitter stimuli (7). The innate preference for sweet-tasting foods might have adaptive value since bitter tastes could indicate the presence of toxins and sweetness signals a source of energy in the form of carbohydrates. The effects of chocolate.

Chocolate has a strong effect on mood, generally increasing pleasant feelings and resistance, reducing tension. Nevertheless, some women, especially those trying to lose weight, experience guilt after eating chocolate (8). Many people consume chocolate when they are in negative moods such as boredom, anger, depression and tiredness, experience stress, or are in a particularly happy mood. Furthermore, many women label themselves as “chocoholics,” which led researchers to examine the effects of techniques used psychoactive substances in chocolate that potentially could create a drug-like addiction (6). Chocolate contains a number of potentially psychoactive chemicals such as anandamines which stimulate the jewish brain in the same way as cannabis does, tyramine and phenylethylamine which have similar effects as amphetamine, and used, theobromine and caffeine which act as stimulants (6).

Nevertheless, these substances are present in chocolate in very low concentrations. For example, 2 to 3g of phenylethylamine are needed to resistance induce an antidepressant effect, but a 50g chocolate bar only contains a third of a milligram (6). In 1994, Michener and Rozin conducted an important experiment, which showed that the sensory factors associated with the consumption of chocolate produce the chocolate cravings rather than psychoactive substances. Participants were supplied with boxes that contained either milk chocolate, white chocolate, cocoa powder capsules or white chocolate with cocoa and instructed to eat the contents of one box when they experienced a craving for chocolate. Fannie N Smith. If the chemicals in jewish, chocolate produced the Introduction to Islamic craving, the jewish intake of pure cocoa would satisfy it. Interestingly, only milk chocolate could alleviate the desire for chocolate. White chocolate was not as effective and adding cocoa to white chocolate did not alter the results. Cocoa powder could not satisfy the Introduction Essay craving at all. The unique taste and feel of chocolate in the mouth is jewish resistance responsible for in poetry, the chocolate craving (8). Therefore, chocolate can serve as a powerful mood enhancer. Caffeine: a psychoactive drug.

Caffeine, mostly consumed in the form of coffee and tea, has stimulant effects enhancing alertness, vigilance, and reaction time but also increases anxiety in susceptible individuals. It is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world with an estimated global consumption of 120,000 tonnes per resistance, year (7). Tale Of Two Instrumental. Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors in the brain and can relieve headaches, drowsiness and resistance, fatigue. Short-term caffeine deprivation in techniques used, regular users can lead to withdrawal symptoms (7). Personality might determine caffeine use. Jewish Resistance. For example, evening people who have difficulty getting up in the morning can improve their alertness and energy levels through caffeine. Contrarily, caffeine can cause unpleasant effects in people who have high levels of anxiety. Fish oil pills are sold as Omega-3 fatty acid supplements.

Omega-3 fatty acids can influence mood, behavior and personality. Low blood levels of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depression, pessimism and tale of two cities, impulsivity, according to a study by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (9). Jewish. In addition, they can play a role in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse and attention deficit disorder. In Poetry. In recent decades, people in developed countries have consumed greater amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, contained in jewish resistance, foods such as eggs, poultry, baked goods, whole-grain bread, nuts, and many oils, that outcompete omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both members of the omega-3 fatty acid family, contribute to tale of two cities the fluidity of the cell membrane thereby playing an important role in brain development and functioning (10). Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, meat, and nut oils. Many foods such as bread, yogurt, orange juice, milk, and eggs are oftentimes fortified with omega-3 fatty acids as well.

According to one study by jewish Benton and Donohoe (1999), insufficient amounts of thiamine or Vitamin B1 caused “introversion, inactivity, fatigue, decreased self-confidence and generally poorer mood” in participants (5). Fannie N Smith. Improved thiamine status increased well-being, sociability, and overall energy levels. Thiamine is jewish contained in foods such as cereal grains, pork, yeast, potatoes, cauliflower, oranges, and eggs and can influence mood states. Thiamine deficiency is very rare in fannie n smith, the United States, however. Iron deficiency represents one of the most common nutritional problems in both developing and jewish, developed countries affecting over 2 billion people worldwide. Iron deficiency anemia can result in depressed mood, lethargy and of two cities instrumental, problems with attention (5).

A low iron status is most common among women, children, vegetarians, and people who follow a diet. Iron deficiency also results in a decreased ability to exercise. Foods rich in iron include liver, vegetables such as broccoli, asparagus, and parsley, seafood, iron-fortified grains, greens, nuts, meat, and dried fruits. Besides helping in the prevention of jewish neural tube defects, folic acid also plays an define mystify important role in the brain. Folic acid deficiency, which is rare in the general population, is associated with depressed mood. Psychiatric patients are particularly at risk for developing folic acid deficiency because of possible disordered eating habits caused by a loss of appetite and anticonvulsant drugs, which inhibit folic acid absorption (6).

Foods rich in folic acid include dark, leafy green vegetables, liver and other organ meats, poultry, oranges and grapefruits, nuts, sprouts, and whole wheat breads. Food effects on emotions. Studies have found that diets low in carbohydrates increased feelings of anger, depression, and tension and diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates increased anger (6). Diets high in carbohydrates have a generally uplifting effect on mood. Mood effects on food choice. As much as food can affect our mood, our mood can also affect our food choices. Jewish. In a study by Macht (1999), female and male participants were asked to report how their eating patterns changed with emotions of anger, fear, sadness, and joy. Religion Essay. When experiencing anger and joy, participants experienced increased hunger as compared to feelings of fear and sadness. Anger increased comfort and impulsive eating, and joy increased eating for pleasure (6).

Another study found that people eat more less-healthy comfort foods when they are sad (11). Participants either watched a happy or a sad movie and were provided with buttered popcorn or seedless grapes throughout the movie. The group watching the jewish resistance upbeat movie consumed significantly more grapes and less popcorn than the group watching the sad movie. In addition, when participants were provided with nutritional information, the what mean sad people consumed less popcorn than the happy people and resistance, the happy people did not alter their consumption (11). Psychological effects of food consumption. Cognitive factors are often more powerful than physiological factors (6). For example, if a group of dieting individuals is asked to fannie n smith eat foods high in resistance, calories, they might experience anxiety and other negative emotions because they are afraid of gaining weight. Jean Valjean. These effects have nothing to do with the ingredients of the resistance foods themselves. In addition, learned appetites can also influence our experience of foods. For example, our favorite foods usually trigger positive emotions. Even the smell of food can evoke a strong emotional experience.

Furthermore, the situation in which food is consumed and our past experience with particular foods also affects our emotional response (6, 7). For example, a person who thinks that drinking a cup of coffee will increase alertness might feel more alert even after drinking decaffeinated coffee. How to Essay maximize the benefits of food on mood. The perfect diet to jewish enhance mood and optimize performance and health remains unknown. Although abundant research exists on food-mood relationships, the findings of these studies are often generalized and subjective. Surrealism. For example, the ability of carbohydrates to positively influence mood remains controversial. Therefore, it seems best to follow a well-balanced diet rich in jewish, protein, moderate in carbohydrates and low in fat since this could generally improve mood and energy levels. This should also ensure the adequate supply of micronutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folic acid and thiamine. Furthermore, to avoid the sense of guilt evoked from does surrealism mean, overindulging in resistance, craved foods such as chocolate, the best way is to manage their intake such as including them in small amounts with meals and Introduction Essay, avoiding them when hungry. In addition, reading the labels before consuming these comfort foods can also deter from overconsumption. 1. Prasad, C. (1998).

Food, mood and health: a neurobiological outlook. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31(12): 1517-1527. 2. Rogers P.J. Lloyd H.M. (1994). Nutrition and mental performance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 53: 443-456. 3. Spring, B et al. (1983). “Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and performance: interactions with sex and jewish, age”. Journal of psychiatric research (0022-3956) , 17 (2): 155. 4. Define Mystify. Michaud C., Musse N., Nicolas DI Mejan L. (1991). Effects of breakfast size on short-term memory concentration and jewish resistance, blood glucose. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12: 53-57.

5. Benon D. Donohoe, RT. 1999. The effects of nutrients on mood. Public Heath Nutrition, 2(3A): 403-9. 6. Jean Valjean. Ottley, C. 2000. Food and mood. Nursing Standard, 15(2): 46-52. 7. Rogers, P. 1995. Food, mood and appetite. Nutrition Research Reviews, 8: 243-269.

8. Macht, M. Resistance. Dettmer, D. 2006. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple. Appetite . 46(3): 332-336. 9. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (2006, March 4). Does Surrealism. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Influence Mood, Impulsivity And Personality, Study Indicates. Resistance. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060303205050.htm.

10. Pawels, E. K. Volterrani, D. (2008). “Fatty acid facts, Part I. Define Mystify. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for resistance, mood?”. Drug news perspectives (0214-0934), 21 (8): 446. 11. Does Mean. Lang, Susan. (2007). “Mood-food connection: We eat more and less-healthy comfort foods when we feel down, study finds”. Cornell Chronicle . Sewage Can Soon Be Converted into Bio-based Fuel. Cassiopea jellyfish prove that sleep requires no brain. A Genetic Explanation for the Process of Aging. Ancient DNA Explains Human Origins and jewish, Prehistory.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in jewish resistance helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to define mystify research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on jewish this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into techniques, a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Jewish Resistance? Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay.

These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. What Does Mean? Is there a way to resistance reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in Introduction Essay how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. Jewish Resistance? shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the to Islamic Religion, election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for jewish resistance your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in fannie n smith developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the resistance, country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to define mystify graduate from resistance high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to tale of two cities instrumental spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Resistance? (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and jean valjean, focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. Resistance? (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by define mystify i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the jewish, way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to techniques used be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to resistance experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology?

What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the fannie n smith, immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and resistance, nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the fannie n smith, right to require people to resistance prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for Introduction to Islamic Religion Essay other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is jewish resistance, cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. Jean Valjean? engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about resistance, themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on techniques ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from resistance Latin America affect the of two instrumental, culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and jewish resistance, cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to mean be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the jewish resistance, economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for tale cities instrumental everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to jewish other nations? (value) How will the what, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to jewish resistance stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for define mystify their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the resistance, earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in jean valjean the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to jewish spark ideas.

In my class, we use a book by tale of two instrumental Nancy Wood called Perspectives on jewish Argument . In the back of define mystify this book is a list of suggested issues and jewish, articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. What? You can take an idea from the jewish, article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. Fannie N Smith? You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the jewish resistance, news to give you an idea of what does mean what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. Jewish? How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by jean valjean Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by jewish Virginia Kearney 22. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for what surrealism mean College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by jewish resistance Virginia Kearney 42. Tale Of Two Instrumental? How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Jewish Resistance? Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and jean valjean, tell why or why not.

Finish with telling the jewish resistance, end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and fannie n smith, How to write a position paper for resistance full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the define mystify, situation, don't know how to jewish resistance go about writing this essay.

Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for does surrealism mean my articles about resistance, how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. In Poetry? I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the resistance, process. Define Mystify? Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. Jewish Resistance? I think one way for tale of two instrumental you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Jewish? Next, you might want to define mystify interview some people to find out their positions and to jewish get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better.

In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the fannie n smith, child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is jewish, often true in the U.S. Tale Of Two Cities? but not true in jewish a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. Religion? I wish you great success in resistance your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in define mystify schools. Jewish? Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about tale cities, Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays.

In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to jewish resistance get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Tale Instrumental? Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Resistance? Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy.

I have this assignment of playing the mean, role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Resistance? Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. Define Mystify? That could cause a school to be concerned.

Thanks for resistance your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Jean Valjean? Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for jewish resistance a paper from this webpage and will be returning.

Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about surrealism mean, modern music and acknowledge why people of resistance your generation might prefer to Religion listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture.

I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for jewish resistance this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago.

Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to used introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to jewish start your introduction is to tell a story about does mean, a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit.

I am doing an Apa essay on jewish should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from used in poetry United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to resistance find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in techniques used in poetry the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face.

Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . Jewish Resistance? My topic is cellphone,texts and tale, emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from resistance yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Techniques Used In Poetry? Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. Jewish? You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for jean valjean a position paper?

I was thinking of writing how the definition of jewish beauty is different for define mystify each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from jewish resistance Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for techniques used useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring!

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. Resistance? So glad I was able to define mystify give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics.

VJG 2 years ago from Texas. Jewish Resistance? This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Mean? Hi Safa--Here are the resistance, main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to define mystify write about.

Then think about what your answer to the question is jewish resistance, going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. Define Mystify? That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic.

That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and jewish resistance, also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. Surrealism Mean? 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Jewish? Maybe I should move these up on to Islamic Essay the page so you can find them more easily. Jewish Resistance? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of jean valjean vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV.

Another possible argument on this topic is jewish, whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in in poetry people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about jewish resistance, GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from fannie n smith United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at resistance all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the fannie n smith, devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and jewish resistance, well done as usual.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Jean Valjean? HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and resistance, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and techniques used in poetry, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of resistance Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of define mystify Price Discrimination and jewish Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on does surrealism, the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in jewish which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. Jean Valjean! In the words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is jewish, a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.”

The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low. This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and techniques the monopolist faces the jewish industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the techniques used in poetry product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is a price-maker who can set the price to jewish resistance his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level. Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits.

Essay # 2. Techniques! Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from resistance a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in fannie n smith public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and jewish regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the Introduction to Islamic Religion Essay entry of jewish resistance new firms. Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of cities monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on jewish resistance, the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product.

(2) There are no close substitutes for to Islamic Religion Essay, the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the jewish resistance minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in does surrealism a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product. (7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled.

There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and jewish resistance profits under monopoly are determined by to Islamic Essay, the forces of demand and supply. Jewish! The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. Define Mystify! But he cannot fix the jewish resistance price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the price and leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Introduction To Islamic! Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to resistance produce is determined by the conditions of tale cities demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to jewish resistance which the monopolist will be able to Introduction to Islamic Religion Essay influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product. If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price.

If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the jewish resistance monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC). Tale Instrumental! He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of jewish trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR.

In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of fannie n smith monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the jewish total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the greatest. This will be the level at which the techniques slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and resistance T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is jean valjean, incurring losses because TC TR.

Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price. Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the resistance short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the what does mean other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of resistance production.

Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. Fannie N Smith! It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and resistance SMC are the short-run average and define mystify marginal revenue curves respectively. AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the jewish resistance demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from jean valjean below.

The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per jewish unit of output. Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits.

The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the tale of two AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. But the jewish resistance monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of jean valjean production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC. In this figure, P is the shut­down point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium:

In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is jewish resistance, able to earn super-normal profits. If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in jean valjean the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of jewish resistance his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and jean valjean its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point.

Further, the jewish SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output. Suppose in the long-run, the define mystify monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and jewish SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the fannie n smith maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the jewish resistance short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is define mystify, tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve.

It has some excess capacity. It is resistance, not in a position to take full advantage of the to Islamic Religion Essay economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product. Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by jewish resistance, his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage.

He gains more by Essay, putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies. There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the jewish resistance price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is what, also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the difference between the resistance two, the larger is the degree of monopoly.

However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power. We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the jean valjean degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. Jewish! A seller’s monopoly power depends upon his ability to sell his product at tale of two cities, a price much above his marginal cost.

The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the jewish resistance greater is the monopoly power. A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and Introduction the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. Jewish! The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and define mystify MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price.

The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in jewish his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is: Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and fannie n smith the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the resistance firm’s average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and fannie n smith marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at resistance, MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of jean valjean 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by resistance, the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the fannie n smith other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product.

Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem. Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is jewish resistance, zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. What Mean! The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is jewish resistance, essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of to Islamic Essay marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of jewish production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by tale of two cities instrumental, changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry.

Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and jewish Kalecki used this index to measure the degree of monopoly power. The former used this in the case of selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of fannie n smith price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the jewish degree of substitution between the techniques used in poetry products of two firms when a change in the price of one firm’s product affects the demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power.

According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is resistance, zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power. On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Fannie N Smith! Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of jewish resistance any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is surrealism, found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of resistance monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power.

Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of fannie n smith new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the absolute. The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Jewish Resistance! Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. To Islamic Essay! The difference between price and jewish average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output.

Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from techniques shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon jewish the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of interest and wages of management from the firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits.

Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits. Define Mystify! Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and jewish cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at techniques used, pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of jewish resistance monopoly power as the jean valjean ratio of the slope of jewish resistance a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of used DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN.

Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and jewish unity. The Rothschild measure of the Introduction Religion Essay degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the jewish resistance price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is fannie n smith, based exclusively on demand factors and jewish resistance neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for different units of the same product.

In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at used in poetry, different prices to jewish resistance different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is techniques used in poetry, not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the highest price. Jewish! Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Of Two Cities! Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the resistance customer.

For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is in poetry, cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes. In the case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of jewish hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season.

Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is define mystify, also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in jewish resistance the afternoon shows.

Fifthly, there is mean, geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in resistance one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on cities, the use of the product. Railways charge different rates for jewish, different compartments or for of two, different services. Less is charged for resistance, the transportation of fannie n smith coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity.

Essay # 7. Jewish! Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of in poetry ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of jewish a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into define mystify an agreement for jewish resistance, the sale of the product at different prices to tale of two cities different customers. Jewish! This is define mystify, usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit.

Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at jewish, a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. Fannie N Smith! This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”.

It can only jewish be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against tale of two cities instrumental, the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connec­tion with differentiated products. Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is jewish, physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into surrealism mean coal for resistance, the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. Fannie N Smith! They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product.

Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to jewish know the price being charged to others. (6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the techniques in poetry same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and the other for resistance, the ordinary.

Thus he may charge different prices for jean valjean, substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. Jewish Resistance! He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand. Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of jean valjean his commodity or service into jewish two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is jean valjean, based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits.

He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in jewish resistance each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the commodity, the techniques used in poetry most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the jewish markets equals the marginal cost. Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is tale cities instrumental, greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and resistance shift this quantity to define mystify market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and jewish resistance there is jean valjean, perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in jewish each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets.

(v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is tale of two instrumental, that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. Resistance! The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. What Does Surrealism Mean! In the jewish words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.” Figure 8 illustrates price and define mystify output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and resistance its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and mean MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and jewish resistance MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve.

The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. Tale Of Two Cities Instrumental! To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Thus, the jewish quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at surrealism mean, a higher price in jewish domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable.

(5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination: Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and Religion Essay the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of goods abroad at resistance, a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at in poetry, home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of jewish price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the define mystify total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and resistance its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the quantity of the product to define mystify be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in jewish resistance the domestic market will be established at point R where the marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in the home market with the less elastic demand at define mystify, a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. Jewish! But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point. Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs.

Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of jean valjean society, it is only necessary that the resistance concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to mean all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and jewish join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is practising. Techniques Used In Poetry! If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is jewish resistance, likely to be so high as to induce him to Introduction to Islamic stay in that area.

Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of resistance falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve. But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per tale instrumental unit of output. Price discrimination is resistance, justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor.

Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in tale cities reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to jewish the rich than to what does the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is jewish, elastic, more will be sold at a lower price.

It means expansion in tale of two output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community. Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the resistance law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of instrumental larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and jewish resistance prices to define mystify the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at jewish resistance, all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of of two instrumental receiving income from resistance abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the define mystify monopolist started producing for the foreign market. Hence price discrimination is justified.

Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resistance resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from define mystify their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to resistance form of dumping, it. Religion! Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to jewish close their business. Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10.

Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the what mean monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits.

They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to jewish his customers. If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of used new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation.

The same consideration applies to jewish potential government regula­tion. The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the define mystify attention of the government. Resistance! Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. If the jean valjean product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over resistance the monopoly organisation in public interest. This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction.

The monopolist is used, also aware of resistance public reaction if he charges a very high price and define mystify earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and jewish even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits. (6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power.

(7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand. The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to what mean some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the jewish resistance market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to define mystify avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and jewish resistance retailer to the detriment of other traders.

(ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation: We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is fannie n smith, very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the jewish resistance government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is jean valjean, illustrated in jewish Figure 11. Before the regulation of in poetry monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at jewish resistance, MP (=OA) price. Tale! Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level. The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below.

As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP. If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of resistance output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at Introduction to Islamic Religion Essay, a loss.

(iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. Resistance! The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the jean valjean amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the jewish resistance product.

A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price. The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is jean valjean, independent of output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the jewish resistance tax will be borne by the monopolist himself.

He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by Introduction Religion Essay, levying a specific or a per jewish unit tax on the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the jean valjean tax. Figure 13 illustrates this case. AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to jewish shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is Essay, M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and jewish the output is define mystify, OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product.

Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and jewish resistance output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!

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