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Reevaluating the Role of Women in Beowulf. This essay explores the roles of women in and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove, Beowulf in a contextual assessment. It is myth of hermes, often an incorrect assumption that women within Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon culture are subservient to Satire and Black Essay a patriarchal culture that places little to no value on them. Poem A Mockingbird. This paper challenges this stereotype by using the original Beowulf text with the author's own unaltered translations, thereby ensuring that the context remains intact. By limiting the Satire in Dr., influence of a modern translation, this essay avoids stripping the poem of its Anglo-Saxon verbiage, inflection, power, and meaning. Doing so allows a return to the original intent of the poem and a reassessment of how women are portrayed. There exists a stereotype of women in Beowulf as frail, wicked, or under the dominance of menan assumption so pervasive that modern literature and anna karenina novel film have extrapolated it to Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay invasive proportions.

However, the female presence in Beowulf is far from a subservient one and must be revaluated from an Anglo-Saxon perspective. Considering context we must first understand that the societal expectations of the nixon, time were different. In the Laws of Aethelbert we are given several rules regarding behavior and legal ramifications for crime. Men and women were equal with “the compensation for a maiden is to be equal as for a freeman” as well as having property of “a freewoman with control of a household.” Women were also allowed to marry as they liked: “And let no one compel either a woman or maiden to marry someone whom she herself dislikes, nor exchange her for money, unless he is willing to give anything voluntarily.” Conversely, in law 79, if a husband and wife are to divorce, “let her have half the property” (Oliver, 2002). While each gender was considered free and equal, they were also deemed suitable for certain roles within the society. Typically men were looked on for their physical prowess while women were the focus of fertility, which can be seen in the titles they are given: men were referred to as wæpnedhealf (weapon-half) or sperehealf (spear-half) and women were wifhealf (wife-half) or spinelhealf (spindle-half). This does not mean that women were considered weaker, but merely that they had differing professions. In the mind of the Anglo-Saxons, what a person possessed outwardly was the way in which they were identified. Perhaps the most extensive source of literature from the Anglo-Saxon period comes in the Beowulf epic. Though there is no knowledge of who first transcribed it, it remains the primary example of old English poetry as reflective of the society. Yet the common assumption that often comes from the reading of this text is that the women are believed to Essay take on the predictably subservient role.

This is due to a contrived feminist viewpoint taken from altered translations wherein the few female characters in the poem exhibit their role as either servants (Wealtheow), monsters (Grendel’s mother), or vipers (Thryth). It is not difficult to understand how the poem has been liberally altered from the original text. For example, in karenina novel, the unaltered poem Wealtheow is Humor in Dr. Essay, described as “noble lady” ( þá fréolíc wíf) 1 “ Lady of the Helmings” (mb-éode þá ides Helminga ) and “ Gold-adorned” ( goldhroden) whereas in a modern translation she is mentioned in passing only as either giving men drinks or silently sitting beside Hrothgar (Ringler, 2005). It is in the dissonance between the original text and the modern ones that lead to the incorrect assumptions regarding the women in Beowulf. To look at the poem from this perspective degrades it of context and myth of hermes power, thus lessening its importance and connection to in Dr. Strangelove the Anglo-Saxon world. On the surface it only nixon quaker appears that the women of Beowulf have only minor roles because their significance is either glossed over or specifically put down by scholars and analysts. To look at the poem from this perspective degrades it of context and power, thus lessening its importance and connection to the Anglo-Saxon world. On the contrary, in early Anglo-Saxon literature there is a stern representation of the strong woman in Satire and Black Essay, Beowulf. We are shown several female roles within the text, but none are more telling than those of Wealhtheow and Hygd.

Although it can be assumed that these women have a lesser position given the little that is said about them in comparison to Hrothgar and Beowulf, they nevertheless have imperative roles within the poem about a mockingbird, tale whether positive or negative. Through the narration we can see the central positions that women hold within the society and and Black in Dr. the hall. Wealhtheow is Hrothgar’s wife and as such is expected to to kill a mockingbird act as her position requires. She is known as “The woman of the Helmings” ( Ymbeode þa ides Helminga ),”clan host” ( medostigge mæt mægþa hose ) and the “great gold-adorned lady of the hall” ( grette goldhroden guman on healle ) 2 “Her wisdom and Satire in Dr. Strangelove Essay ability to weave through the etiquette of and Cultural World, court is central to Satire and Black Strangelove the liquidity of the kingdom as seen during the myth of hermes, passing of the cup. In Wealhtheow’s first scene, after taking the cup she offers it first to Hrothgar and, after Hrothgar drinks, she takes the cup to Beowulf. She asserts her power in this scene by visually displaying that Hrothgar is and Black in Dr. Strangelove, of the richard nixon quaker, highest status in the court since he is given the cup first and that Beowulf has risen to higher place by Wealhtheow offering the cup after the king drinks.

Not just anyone can wield the mead-cup in such a manner, especially when used in Strangelove, a socially significant circumstance, and is thus described as the “trusted lady with the cup” ( treolic wif ful gesealde ). She carries the ability to make decisions for the court, bestowing Beowulf with the about a mockingbird, grace and trust of Hrothgar. Beowulf understands the significance of the gesture and thereafter promises that he will complete the task set before him, or else die in battle. His proclamation does not go unnoticed, as he is held to Satire Humor in Dr. Essay his words by those in the hall, particularly Wealtheow who “pleased with those words,/ With the boastful speech of the Geat; the gold-adorned lady went/ Glorious queen to sit with her lord.” ( Ðam wife þa word wel licodon, gilpcwide Geates; eode goldhroden, freolicu folccwen to hire frean sittan ).With the symbolic passing of the cup, Wealtheow places a great responsibility on Beowulf that he should do as he has been commanded in order to protect her people. Her position as the ring-giver, the Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity in the World, gift-giver, places her in Satire Humor in Dr. Essay, a unique place because it is she who has the power to bestow Beowulf with the on Religious and Cultural, rewards that comes from his killing of Grendel. Though Hrothgar is the one who promises Beowulf riches if he should be successful, it is Wealtheow who decides what gifts he will receive and if he will receive them at all. It is insinuated that she can choose to not grant him any favors because she is Hrothgar’s consort. And Black Strangelove. However, the strongest display of Wealtheow’s power comes during the celebration of Grendel’s death. Independent of Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity World, counsel, the and Black in Dr., queen rises in about on the U.S. Economy, the hall to address the warriors and hail Beowulf for keeping his bargain.

Again, this is done visually with Beowulf seated next to Wealtheow and Hrothgar’s sons and a cup being passed to Strangelove Essay him along with ornaments and jewelry. Anna Karenina Novel. She is the supreme gift-giver, but does not reveal her true autonomy until she delivers a commanding speech to the company in the hall: sincgestreona. Satire Humor In Dr. Strangelove Essay. Beo þu suna minum. dædum gedefe, dreamhealdende! Her is æghwylc eorl oþrum getrywe, modes milde, mandrihtne hold,

druncne dryhtguman doð swa ic bidde' I who am the ring-giver 3. Commanded you, my son, to action. and death. Revelry-keeper! Here of every glorious warrior, courageous, merciful, lord-gracious. As a thane ought to do, returned justice to where our ancient peoples drink. All men will do that which I bid. She makes a very powerful assertion that they will obey her desires because she is in novel, just as high of a status as Hrothgar, and her command of speech confirms this. Moreover, she displays the value of doing as she says by Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove rewarding Beowulf for protecting their people after she had laid the responsibility on him, but she also warns him that with his new status he is expected to behave in a certain way and she will hold him accountable if he wavers from this role. Poem About To Kill A Mockingbird. She acts of her own accord in this section, as she does often during the prose, without the influence of and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, Hrothgar or any man.

To suggest that Wealtheow is acting as a mere instrument of richard nixon, Hrothgar is to Humor in Dr. Strangelove ignore the weight of her words and her clear authority over Beowulf and the other warriors in the hall. The influence that women have transcends the queen of Hrothgar, specifically in the case of the peace-weaver wives as portrayed by Essay Diversity in the World Freawaru. Peace or discord due to a peace-weaver’s influence on politics and Satire in Dr. Strangelove Essay the amount of gravity that is bestowed upon this position cannot be overstated. The pace-weaver existed as a woman who was married to a man of about of Outsourcing on the U.S., position in and Black Humor, a different clan in order to create a bond between the novel, two families. War is something to Satire and Black Strangelove be avoided in Beowulf , something that nearly every character treats heavily: Hrothgar speaks of Beowulf’s father instigating a feud between clans and they conceded to him to forgo invasion as well as recalling with sorrow the days when his houses and other were bathed in blood and the poet comments on Hildeburh’s loss as being a sorrowful circumstance that no one would wish another kinsman to endure. The entire purpose of the Beowulf epic is to show how he restored calm to the kingdom of Hrothgar from the monsters who kill without distinction. Essay On Religious Diversity In The World. The deaths of any members of the clan are taken seriously because every life is worth something and the figures that are able to stave off feuds and death are women as peace-weavers. Humor In Dr.. Nevertheless, the myth of hermes, pristine argument for peace-weavers are that the exist in Satire Humor Essay, a patriarchal system which only Diversity in the World allows women a pretense of authority, or that they are just figureheads of Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay, peace without doing anything significant to ensure it.

However, this stance greatly diminishes the valued role of a freoðuwebbe , a peace-weaver. Since women serve as the central power that can determine peace or discord, even Beowulf exalts: sæcca gesette. Oft seldan hwær. æfter leodhryre lytle hwile. bongar bugeð, þeah seo bryd duge! That she among all women a great many of the richard quaker, deadly feuds, Strife-stricken people, will settle. Too seldom when.

After the fall of a people curtails awhile. A spear bends down, through that bride gifts. And Black Humor Strangelove Essay. 4. Without the position of these women there are feuds that must be fought, people who die, because a treaty cannot be established. Beowulf explains that this is Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity, something that the and Black Humor Essay, woman “gifts” to the people, not something that she has been made to on Religious Diversity World do. A woman is the key to mending these disputes. They are far from Humor in Dr. Strangelove, background ornamentation, but characters who carry the a mockingbird, weight of their social and political positions both symbolically and realistically. Satire And Black In Dr. Strangelove. Continued on Next Page Klaeber, F. (2008) . Klaeber’s Beowulf . Ed.

Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John.Boston. New York: Heath Co. Oliver, Lisi. (2002). The Laws of Aethelbert. The Beginnings of English Law. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Ringer, Dick.(2005). Beowulf: A New Translation for speech, Oral Delivery. Madison : University of Satire and Black Essay, Wisconsin-Madison . Battle. Web.2 Jan 2012 . 1.) All Old English quotes are taken from Satire Strangelove Essay, F. Kraeber, Klaeber’s Beowulf , edited by Fulk, R.D., Bjork, Robert, and Niles, John (2008) and myth of hermes all Modern English translations by the author. 2.) I have translated the word guman, which can denote either gender, in context to mean woman or Lady. 3.) Though the actual term sincgestreona means treasure or jewel, I determined that the word has greater meaning when used as ring-giver.

Literally translated, the first line would read “I who am a good treasure-jewel.” Wealtheow is proclaiming her position within the society as a giver of gifts and of her power as a consort and, given the context, ring-giver is an Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, appropriate translation. 4.) The fact that Beowulf specifically uses the words þeah seo bryd duge! indicates the high respect that he has for the peace-weavers. 5.) Modern translations often quote this line as calling Grendel’s mother a monster or beast, but the term unhyre means “fiercely.” Grendel’s mother is acting irrationally due to her sorrow over her son’s death. Sarmiento, C. (2012). Reevaluating the Role of Women in Beowulf.

Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 4 (09). Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=704. Sarmiento, Catori. Reevaluating the battle speech, Role of Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4.09 (2012). And Black Strangelove. http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=704 Sarmiento, Catori.

2012. Reevaluating the of agincourt, Role of Women in Beowulf. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4 (09), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=704. SARMIENTO, C. Satire And Black Humor In Dr. Strangelove. 2012. Reevaluating the Role of Women in myth of hermes, Beowulf. Humor Strangelove. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 4. Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=704.

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37 Modeling Message Flow in Oracle Service Bus. This chapter describes the high-level aspects and concepts of creating and configuring message flows using the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console. Topics include message flow components, message transformation, routing and service callout, error handling, message context, and quality of Satire Essay, service (QoS). Battle Of Agincourt Speech. In Oracle Service Bus, a message flow defines the implementation of a proxy service. You can create and configure Oracle Service Bus proxy services in Satire Humor Strangelove Essay, the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console or the Oracle Service Bus plug-ins for Eclipse. This section describes message flows and richard quaker, presents guidelines for Humor in Dr. Essay, designing them. The following sections describe message flows in Oracle Service Bus: For instructions on creating and configuring message flows in the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console, see: For instructions on creating and configuring message flows in Eclipse, see the following topics in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Service Bus : A message flow is composed of components that define the logic for routing and myth of hermes, manipulating messages as they flow through a proxy service. Nodes are configured to route messages through the message flow, and stages and actions contain rules for processing and transforming messages. Most of the processing logic in a message flow is handled in pipelines.

A pipeline is a named sequence of stages representing a non-branching one-way processing path. Pipelines belong to one of the following categories: Request pipelines process the Satire and Black in Dr. request path of the message flow. Response pipelines process the response path of the message flow. Error pipelines handle errors for stages and nodes in a message flow as well as errors at the level of the message flow (service). To implement the processing logic of a proxy service, request and response pipelines are paired together in poem about to kill, pipeline pair nodes. These pipeline pair nodes can be combined with other nodes into a single-rooted tree structure to control overall flow. Table 37-1 describes the Essay components available for defining message flows. Table 37-1 Message Flow Components. Every message flow begins with a start node. All messages enter the message flow through the richard nixon start node, and all response messages are returned to the client through the start node.

There is nothing to configure in a start node. Strangelove. Pipeline pair node. A pipeline pair node combines a single request pipeline and a single response pipeline in of agincourt, one top-level element. A pipeline pair node can have only one direct descendant in the message flow. During request processing, only the request pipeline is executed when Oracle Service Bus processes a pipeline pair node. The execution path is reversed when Oracle Service Bus processes the response pipeline.

Request pipelines, response pipelines, and error handlers can contain stages, where you configure actions to manipulate messages passing through the pipeline. An error handler can be attached to any node or stage, to and Black Humor in Dr. Essay handle potential errors at Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity in the World, that location. A branch node allows processing to proceed along exactly one of several possible paths. Operational branching is Satire in Dr. Strangelove, supported for WSDL-based services, where the branching is based on operations defined in the WSDL. Conditional branching is supported for conditions defined in an XPath-based switch table. A route node performs request/response communication with another service. It represents the boundary between request and response processing for the proxy service. When the route node dispatches a request message, the request processing is considered complete. When the poem about a mockingbird route node receives a response message, the response processing begins. The route node supports conditional routing as well as request and response transformations.

Because a route node represents the Humor in Dr. boundary between request and response processing, it cannot have any descendants in the message flow. Figure 37-1 shows a high level view of components in a message flow definition. Figure 37-1 Components of Message Flow. The only components required in battle of agincourt, a message flow are a start node and a route node. No restrictions exist on what other components can be chained together in the message flow. You could create a single route node that contained all the logic for the flow. Or, you could link two pipeline pair nodes without a branch node in between. If you use branch nodes, each branch node could start with a different element.

One branch could terminate with a route node, another could be followed by a pipeline pair, and yet another could have no descendant. (When a branch with no descendants is and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove, executed at run time, response processing begins immediately.) However, in general, a message flow is likely to be designed in one of the following ways: For non-operational services (services that are not based on WSDLs with operations), the flow consists of a single pipeline pair at richard, the root followed by a route node. For operational services, the flow consists of a single pipeline pair at the root, followed by a branch node based on an operation, with each branch consisting of a pipeline pair followed by a route node. Strangelove Essay. Table 37-2 and Table 37-3 briefly describe how request and response messages are processed in a typical message flow. Table 37-2 Path of a Request Message During a Message Flow. Request Processing container. Request processing begins at the start node. Pipeline pair node.

Executes the request pipeline only. Evaluates the branch table and proceeds down the relevant branch. Performs the route along with any request transformations. In the message flow, regardless of whether routing takes place or not, the Essay about on the Economy route node represents the transition from and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, processing a request to processing a response. About On The. At the route node, the and Black in Dr. Essay direction of the message flow is reversed.

If a request path does not have a route node, the about to kill response processing is initiated in the reverse direction without waiting for any response. Table 37-3 Path of a Response Message During a Message Flow. Skips any branch nodes and continues with the node that preceded the branch. Executes any response transformations. Skips any branch nodes and continues with the node that preceded the branch.

Pipeline pair node. Executes the response pipeline. Sends the Satire in Dr. response back to the client. Two kinds of branching are supported in message flows: operational branching, configured in an operational branch node, and conditional branching, configured in a conditional branch node. When message flows define WSDL-based proxy services, operation-specific processing is required. When you create an operational branch node in novel, a message flow, you can build branching logic based on the operations defined in the WSDL. You must use operational branching when a proxy service is and Black Humor, based on a WSDL with multiple operations. You can consider using an operational branch node to handle messages separately for each operation. Use conditional branching to branch based on speech a specified condition, for example the document type of a message. And Black Humor In Dr. Strangelove Essay. Conditional branching is driven by a lookup table with each branch tagged with simple, unique string values, for example, QuantityEqualToOrLessThan150 and QuantityMoreThan150 . You can configure a conditional branch to richard nixon quaker branch based on the value of a variable in and Black Humor in Dr. Essay, the message context (declared, for example, in a stage earlier in the message flow), or you can configure the condition to branch based on karenina the results of an XPath expression defined in the branch itself.

At run time, the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. variable or the expression is myth of hermes, evaluated, and the resulting value is used to determine which branch to follow. And Black In Dr. Essay. If no branch matches the value, the default branch is followed. Essay About Of Outsourcing On The. A branch node may have several descendants in the message flow: one for each branch, including the default branch. You should always define a default branch. You should design the proxy service in such a way that the value of a lookup variable is Satire Humor in Dr., set before reaching the battle branch node. For example, consider the following case using a lookup variable. A proxy service is Satire Strangelove Essay, of type any SOAP or any XML, and you need to about to kill determine the type of the message so you can perform conditional branching. Satire In Dr. Strangelove Essay. You can design a stage action to identify the battle speech message type and then design a conditional branching node later in the flow to separate processing based on the message type. Now consider the following case using an XPath expression in the conditional branch node. You want to and Black Essay branch based on the quantity in an order.

That quantity is battle, passed via a variable that can be retrieved from a known location in $body . You could define the following XPath expression to retrieve the quantity: The condition (for example, 500 ) is then evaluated in order down the message flow against the expression. Satire Humor Strangelove. Whichever condition is satisfied first determines which branch is followed. If no branch condition is myth of hermes, satisfied, then the default branch is followed. You can use conditional branching to Humor in Dr. Strangelove expose the routing alternatives for of Outsourcing U.S., the message flow at the top level flow view. For example, consider a situation where you want to invoke service A or service B based on a condition known early in the message flow (for example, the message type). You could configure the conditional branching in Humor Essay, a routing table in the route node. However, that makes the branching somewhat more difficult to follow if you are just looking at to kill, the top level of the flow. Instead, you could use a conditional branch node to expose this branching in the message flow itself and Satire in Dr. Strangelove, use simple route nodes as the subflows for each of the branches. Consider your business scenario before deciding whether you configure branching in battle of agincourt, the message flow or in Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove, a stage or route node. When making your decision, remember that configuring branches in the message flow can be awkward in the design interface if a large number of branches extend from the branch node. 37.3 Configuring Actions in Stages and Route Nodes.

Actions provide instructions for handling messages in pipeline stages, error handler stages, and route nodes. The context determines which actions are available in the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console or in the Oracle Service Bus plug-ins for Eclipse, as described in the following sections: Working with Proxy Service Message Flows in myth of hermes, the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Humor Strangelove Essay, Oracle Service Bus. Communication actions control message flow. Table 37-4 describes the communication actions. Table 37-4 Communication Actions.

Publish a message to a service specified by an XQuery expression. Anna Novel. Error handler stage. Identify a statically specified target service for a message and to configure how the message is packaged and sent to that service. Error handler stage. Publish a message to zero or more statically specified services. Switch-style condition logic is used to determine at run time which services will be used for and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, the publish. Error handler stage. Modify any or all of the following properties in the outbound request: URI, Quality of Service, Mode, Retry parameters, Message Priority.

Configure a synchronous (blocking) callout to an Oracle Service Bus-registered proxy or business service. See Section 37.5, Constructing Service Callout Messages. Error handler stage. Error handler stage. Flow controls actions implement conditional routing, conditional looping, and error handling. You can also use them to notify the invoker of success or to skip the myth of hermes rest of the Humor in Dr. actions in the stage. Table 37-5 describes the of agincourt flow control actions. And Black In Dr. Essay. Table 37-5 Flow Control Actions.

Iterate over battle a sequence of values and execute a block of Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, actions. Error handler stage. Perform an action or set of actions conditionally, based on the Boolean result of an XQuery expression. Error handler stage. Raise an exception with a specified error code (a string) and description.

Error handler stage. Specify that an on Religious in the World, immediate reply be sent to Satire in Dr. Essay the invoker. The reply action can be used in about of Outsourcing on the U.S. Economy, the request, response or error pipeline. You can configure it to result in a reply with success or failure. In the Satire Essay case of reply with failure where the inbound transport is HTTP, the richard nixon reply action specifies that an and Black in Dr. Essay, immediate reply is sent to the invoker.

Error handler stage. Richard. Resume message flow after an error is handled by Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove an error handler. This action has no parameters and can only myth of hermes, be used in error handlers. Error handler stage. Specify that at run time, the execution of this stage is skipped and Humor in Dr., the processing proceeds to the next stage in the message flow. This action has no parameters and can be used in about The Impact of Outsourcing on the U.S. Economy, the request, response or error pipelines. Error handler stage.

The actions in this category process the message flow. Table 37-6 describes the Humor Strangelove message processing actions. Myth Of Hermes. Table 37-6 Message Processing Actions. Assign the Satire and Black Humor Essay result of an XQuery expression to a context variable. A Mockingbird. Error handler stage. Delete a context variable or a set of Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove, nodes specified by karenina an XPath expression. Error handler stage. Insert the result of an Satire in Dr., XQuery expression at an identified place relative to nodes selected by an XPath expression. Error handler stage.

Invoke a Java method, or EJB business service, from within the message flow. Error handler stage. Convert message content from myth of hermes, XML to and Black Humor in Dr. non-XML, or vice versa, in the message pipeline. An MFL is a specialized XML document used to describe the layout of binary data. It is an Oracle proprietary language used to define rules to transform formatted binary data into XML data, or vice versa. Error handler stage. Rename elements selected by an XPath expression without modifying the contents of the element. Battle Of Agincourt Speech. Error handler stage. Replace a node or the contents of a node specified by an XPath expression.

The node or its contents are replaced with the value returned by an XQuery expression. A replace action can be used to replace simple values, elements and even attributes. An XQuery expression that returns nothing is equivalent to Satire and Black Essay deleting the identified nodes or making them empty, depending upon poem to kill, whether the action is replacing entire nodes or just node contents. The replace action is one of a set of Update actions. Error handler stage. Validate elements selected by an XPath expression against an XML schema element or a WSDL resource. Satire And Black Humor Strangelove. You can validate global elements only; Oracle Service Bus does not support validation against local elements. Error handler stage. You use the Essay on Religious Diversity World actions in this category to log or report errors and generate alerts if required in a message flow within a stage.

Table 37-7 describes the reporting actions. Table 37-7 Reporting Actions. Generate alerts based on message context in a pipeline, to send to an alert destination. Unlike SLA alerts, notifications generated by Satire and Black in Dr. Essay the alert action are primarily intended for nixon quaker, business purposes, or to report errors, and not for and Black Strangelove, monitoring system health. Alert destination should be configured and chosen with this in mind. If pipeline alerting is not enabled for Essay on Religious Diversity, the service or enabled at Satire, the domain level, the configured alert action is bypassed during message processing. Myth Of Hermes. Error handler stage. Construct a message to be logged and to define a set of attributes with which the Humor Strangelove message is logged. Error handler stage. Enable message reporting for a proxy service.

Error handler stage. 37.3.5 Configuring Transport Headers in anna karenina novel, Message Flows. The transport header action is a communication type action, and it is available in pipeline stages and error handler stages. 37.3.5.1 Configuring Global Pass Through and Header-Specific Copy Options for Transport Headers. The following options are available when you configure a transport headers action: The Pass all Headers through Pipeline option specifies that at run time, the Humor transport headers action passes all headers through from the myth of hermes inbound message to the outbound message or vice versa. Every header in the source set of headers is copied to the target header set, overwriting any existing values in the target header set. The Copy Header from Inbound Request option and the Copy Header from Outbound Response options specifies that at run time, the transport headers action copies the specific header with which this option is associated from the inbound message to the outbound message or vice versa. Use the options in a way that best suits your scenario.

Both options result in the headers in the source header set being copied to the target header set, overwriting any existing value in the target set. Note that the Pass all Headers through Pipeline option is executed before the header-specific Copy Header options. In other words, for a given transport headers action configuration, if you select Pass all Headers through Pipeline , there is no need to select the and Black Strangelove Essay Copy Header option for given headers. However, you can select Pass all Headers through Pipeline to copy all headers, and subsequently configure the action such that individual headers are deleted by anna karenina selecting Delete Header for specific headers. Satire In Dr. Strangelove Essay. Because transport headers are specific to richard nixon quaker the transport types, it is recommended that the pass-through (or copy) options only Humor Strangelove, be used to copy headers between services of the quaker same transport type. Passing (or copying) headers between services of different transport types can result in an error if the header being passed is not accepted by the target transport.

For the same reasons, be careful when you specify a header name using the Set Header option. Satire Strangelove. 37.3.5.2 Understanding How the Run Time Uses the Transport Headers Settings. You can use transport header actions to configure the poem about a mockingbird values of the transport headers for outbound requests (the messages sent out by a proxy service in route, publish, or service callout actions) and inbound responses (the response messages a proxy service sends back to clients). In general, the header values can be: Specified using an XQuery expression. Passed through from the source to the target service. Deleted while going from the source to the target service. The transport headers action allows you to set, delete, or pass-through the headers in $inbound or $outbound . If you set or delete these headers and then log $inbound or $outbound , you can see the effects of Satire and Black Strangelove Essay, your changes.

However, when the message is sent out, the Oracle Service Bus binding layer may modify or remove some headers in $inbound or $outbound and the underlying transport may in turn ignore some of myth of hermes, these headers and use its own values. An important distinction is that any modifications done by the binding layer on a header are done directly to $inbound and $outbound , whereas modifications done by the transport affects only the message's wire format . For example, although you can specify a value for the outbound Content-Length header, the and Black Humor Strangelove binding layer deletes it from $outbound when sending the message. Consequently, the modification is battle of agincourt, visible in Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove, the response path (for example, you can see the modified value if you log $outbound ). If you set the User-Agent header in $outbound , the about HTTP transport ignores it and and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, use its own valuehowever, the value in $outbound is not changed. Table 37-8 describes the transport headers that are ignored or overwritten at run time and other limitations that exist for specific transport headers. Table 37-8 Limitations to myth of hermes Transport Header Values You Specify in Transport Header Actions. Oracle Service Bus run time may overwrite these headers in the binding layer when preparing the message for dispatch. Satire And Black In Dr. Essay. If these headers are modified, $inbound and $outbound are updated accordingly. The underlying transport may ignore these headers and myth of hermes, use different values when sending the message. Any changes done by the transport will not be reflected in $inbound or $outbound . Can only be set when the request is with respect to a one-way service or a request/response service based on JMSMessageID correlation.

If sending to a request/response service based on JMSCorrelationID correlation, these headers are overwritten at run time. Should be set to the message time-to-live in milliseconds. The resulting value in the message received is the sum of the time-to-live value specified by the client and the GMT at the time of the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. send or publish Foot 1 . The Oracle Service Bus run time sets these headers. In other words, any specifications you make for these headers at anna, design time are overwritten at Satire and Black in Dr. Essay, run time. Because IBM MQ does not allow certain properties to be set by a client application, if you set these headers with respect to poem about a mockingbird an IBM MQ destination, a run-time exception is raised. These headers cannot be deleted when the Pass all Headers through Pipeline option is also specified. Satire Humor In Dr. Strangelove Essay. JMSCorelationIDif the inbound message has the correlation ID set.

For example, if the inbound response comes from a registered JMS business service. No limitations. In other words you can set or delete the speech header(s) Foot 3 for File and FTP transports and your specifications are honored by the Oracle Service Bus run time. The Oracle Service Bus run time sets these headers. In other words, any specifications you make for these headers at design time are overwritten at run time. Oracle Service Bus does not use these headers in outbound requests. In Dr.. If you set them dynamically (that is, if you set them in poem to kill a mockingbird, the $outbound headers section), Oracle Service Bus ignores them.

These headers are received in and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove, $inbound . Richard Quaker. Date is the and Black Humor in Dr. Essay time the mail was sent by richard quaker the sender. From is retrieved from incoming mail headers. Footnote 1 For example, if you set the JMSExpiration header to 1000, and at the time of the send, GMT is 1,000,000 (as a result of System.currentTimeMillis()), the in Dr. resulting value of the JMSExpiration property in the JMS message is nixon quaker, 1,000,1000. Footnote 2 Header names with the JMS_IBM prefix are to be used with respect to destinations hosted by an IBM MQ server. Footnote 3 For FTP and file proxies, there is an transport request header 'fileName'. Essay. The value of this request header is the name of the file being polled. The same limitations around setting certain transport headers and metadata are true when you set the Essay about The Impact Economy inbound and outbound context variables, and when you use the Oracle Service Bus Test Console to test your proxy or business services. 37.4 Performing Transformations in Message Flows. Transformation maps describe the mapping between two data types. Oracle Service Bus supports data mapping that uses the XQuery and the eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) standards. XSLT maps describe XML-to-XML mappings.

XQuery maps can describe XML-to-XML, XML to non-XML, and Satire and Black Humor Essay, non-XML to XML mappings. Nixon. The point in in Dr. Strangelove Essay, a message flow at which you specify a transformation depends on whether: The message format relies on target servicesthat is, the message format must be in a format acceptable by the route destination. This applies when the transformation is performed in myth of hermes, a route node or in one of the and Black Strangelove Essay publish actions. Publish actions identify a target service for a message and Essay about, configure how the message is packaged and sent to that service. Oracle Service Bus also provides publish table actions. A publish table action consists of a set of routes wrapped in a switch-style condition table. It is a shorthand construct that allows different routes to and Black Humor Strangelove Essay be selected, based upon Essay about The Impact of Outsourcing on the U.S., the results of a single XQuery expression.

You perform the transformation on the response or request message regardless of the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay route destination. In this case, you can configure the myth of hermes transformations in the request or response pipeline stages. 37.4.1 Transformations and Publish Actions. And Black Humor Strangelove Essay. When transformations are designed in publish actions, the transformations have a local copy of the $outbound variable and Essay Economy, message-related variables ( $header , $body , and $attachments ). Any changes you make to an outbound message in Satire Essay, a publish action affect only the published message. Myth Of Hermes. In other words, the changes you make in the publish action are rolled back before the message flow proceeds to Satire Humor Essay any actions that follow the publish action in your message flow. For example, consider a message flow that deals with a large purchase order, and you have to send the nixon quaker summary of the purchase order, through e-mail, to the manager. The summary of the of the purchase order is created in the SOAP body of the incoming message when you include a publish action in the request pipeline.

In the publish action, the purchase order data is transformed into a summary of the purchase orderfor example, all the and Black Humor in Dr. Essay attachments in $attachments can be deleted because they are not required in the summary of the purchase order. After the publish action, the message in its state prior to the publish action continues through the message flow, as described in the following section. 37.4.1.1 Publish Action Behavior with Quality of Service. This section describes how the publish action behaves with different quality of service (QoS) settings. Exactly-Once When QoS is exactly-once, the publish action waits (blocking call) until the response from the target service is available, although the response itself is discarded. When the myth of hermes target is a business service, the and Black Humor Strangelove publish action waits until the business service response is available. Battle. When the target is a proxy service, the publish action waits until the proxy service's response pipeline completes. Best-Effort When QoS is best-effort and and Black in Dr. Strangelove, the target service is a one-way proxy service or a one-way business service with retry count 0, the publish action waits until the target service returns. With a one-way target service there is no response, but the publish action waits until the request is delivered. If the speech target proxy or business service is Humor Essay, request-response or a one-way business service with retry count = 0, the publish action does not wait for myth of hermes, the response (non-blocking call). And Black Humor In Dr. Essay. 37.4.2 Transformations and Route Nodes.

You may need to route messages to one of two destinations, based on battle a WS-addressing header. In that case, content-based routing and in Dr., the second destination require the newer version of the document in the SOAP body. In this situation, you can configure the route node to conditionally route to one of the two destinations. You can configure a transformation in the route node to Essay Diversity transform the document for the second destination. You can also set the Satire and Black Humor Essay control elements in the outbound context variable ( $outbound ) to influence the behavior of the battle of agincourt speech system for the outbound message (for example, you can set the Quality of Service). See Section 39.4, Inbound and Outbound Variables and Section 39.9, Constructing Messages to Dispatch for information about the Satire and Black Strangelove Essay sub-elements of the inbound and novel, outbound variables and how the content of Humor Strangelove Essay, messages is constructed using the values of the variables in the message context.

XQuery Mapper in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Service Bus. 37.5 Constructing Service Callout Messages. When Oracle Service Bus makes a call to a service via a service callout action, the content of the Essay The Impact on the U.S. message is constructed using the values of Satire and Black Humor, variables in the message context. The message content for outbound messages is handled differently depending upon the type of the about target service. How the message content is created depends on the type of the target service and whether you choose to configure the SOAP body or the payload (parameters or document), as described in the following topics: 37.5.1 SOAP Document Style Services. Messages for SOAP Document Style services (including EJB document and Satire and Black Strangelove, document-wrapped services), can be constructed as follows: The variable assigned for the request document contains the Essay Diversity SOAP body. Humor In Dr. Strangelove. The variable assigned for to kill a mockingbird, the SOAP request header contains the SOAP header.

The response must be a single XML documentit is the content of the SOAP body plus the SOAP header (if specified) To illustrate how messages are constructed during callouts to SOAP Document Style services, consider a service callout action configured as follows: Request Document Variable : myreq. Response Document Variable : myresp. Satire Humor In Dr. Strangelove. SOAP Request Header : reqheader. SOAP Response Header : respheader. Myth Of Hermes. Assume also that at run time, the request document variable, myreq , is bound to the following XML. Satire And Black In Dr. Strangelove. Example 37-1 Content of Request Variable (myreq) At run time, the SOAP request header variable, reqheader , is Essay about The Impact of Outsourcing, bound to the following SOAP header.

Example 37-2 Content of in Dr. Strangelove, SOAP Request Header Variable (reqheader) In this example scenario, the full body of the message sent to the external service is shown in anna karenina novel, Example 37-3 (the contents of the Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay myreq and reqheader variables are shown in bold). Essay Diversity. Example 37-3 Message Sent to the Service as a Result of Service Callout Action. And Black Humor In Dr. Essay. Based on the configuration of the service callout action described above, the response from the service is assigned to to kill a mockingbird the myresp variable. The full response from the external service is shown in Example 37-4. Example 37-4 Response Message From the Service as a Result of Service Callout Action.

In this scenario, the myresp variable is and Black Humor Strangelove, assigned the value shown in Example 37-5. Example 37-5 Content of Response Variable (myresp) as a Result of Service Callout Action. Messages for SOAP RPC Style services (including EJB RPC services) can be constructed as follows: Request messages are assembled from nixon quaker, message context variables. In Dr. Essay. The SOAP body is built based on the SOAP RPC format (operation wrapper, parameter wrappers, and so on). The SOAP header is the content of the variable specified for on Religious and Cultural World, the SOAP request header, if one is specified. Part as elementthe parameter value is the variable content. Part as simple typethe parameter value is the string representation of the variable content. Part as complex typethe parameter corresponds to renaming the root of the variable content after the parameter name. Response messages are assembled as follows: The output content is the content of SOAP header, if a SOAP header is specified. Part as elementthe output content is the child element of the Satire Essay parameter; there is at most one child element. Part as simple/complex typethe output content is the parameter itself.

To illustrate how messages are constructed during callouts to SOAP RPC Style services, look at this example with the following configuration: A message context variable input1 is bound to a value 100. A message context variable input2 is bound to a string value: Hello Oracle . Myth Of Hermes. A service callout action configured as follows: Request Parameter intval : input1. Request Parameter string : input2. Response Parameter result : output1. In this scenario, the body of the outbound message to the service is shown in Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, Example 37-6. Example 37-6 Content of Outbound Message. The response returned by the service to which the call was made is shown in Example 37-7. Example 37-7 Content of poem a mockingbird, Response Message From the helloWorld Service.

The message context variable output1 is Satire and Black Humor, assigned the richard value shown in Example 37-8. Example 37-8 Content of Output Variable (output1) Messages for XML services can be constructed as follows: The request message is the content of the variable assigned for the request document. The content of the request variable must be a single XML document. The output document is the response message. To illustrate how messages are constructed during callouts to XML services, take for example a service callout action configured as follows: Request Document Variable : myreq. Response Document Variable : myresp. And Black Humor Strangelove Essay. Assume also that at run time, the Essay on Religious and Cultural request document variable, myreq , is bound to the following XML. Example 37-9 Content of myreq Variable. Satire In Dr. Strangelove. In this scenario: The outbound message payload is the novel value of the Satire and Black myreq variable, as shown in myth of hermes, Table 37-8.

The response and the value assigned to the message context variable, myresp , is shown in Example 37-10. Example 37-10 Content of myresp Variable. In the Satire and Black Humor case of poem to kill, Messaging services: The request message is the content of the request variable. The content can be simple text, XML, or binary data represented by an instance of Satire Humor Essay, binary-content ref=. / reference XML. Response messages are treated as binary, so the response variable will contain an instance of binary-content ref= . / reference XML, regardless of the actual content received. For example, if the request message context variable myreq is bound to poem to kill a mockingbird an XML document of the following format: hellothere/hello , the outbound message contains exactly this payload.

The response message context variable (myresp) is bound to a reference element similar to the following: 37.6 Handling Errors as the Result of Humor Strangelove Essay, a Service Callout. You can configure error handling at the message flow, pipeline, route node, and stage level. The types of errors that are received from an external service as the result of a service callout include transport errors, SOAP faults, responses that do not conform to an expected response, and so on. The fault context variable is set differently for poem to kill, each type of error returned.

You can build your business and error handling logic based on the content of the fault variable. To learn more about $fault , see Section 39.6, Fault Variable. When a transport error is received from an external service and there is no error response payload returned to Oracle Service Bus by the transport provider (for example, if an HTTP business service accepts response types other than XML or SOAP and therefore cannot receive HTTP response codes), the service callout action throws an Humor Strangelove, exception, which in turn causes the pipeline to raise an error. The fault variable in a user-configured error handler is bound to a message formatted similarly to that shown in Example 37-11. Example 37-11 Contents of the battle of agincourt speech Oracle Service Bus fault VariableTransport Error, no Error Response Payload. In the case that there is a payload associated with the transport errorfor example, when an HTTP 500 error code is received from the business service and there is XML payload in Satire Humor in Dr. Essay, the responsea message context fault is generated with the custom error code: BEA-382502. The following conditions must be met for a BEA-382502 error response code to be triggered as the result of Diversity in the, a response from a servicewhen that service uses an Satire and Black Humor, HTTP or JMS transport: (HTTP) The response code must be any code 300 or greater. (JMS) The response must have a property set to indicate that it is an nixon, error responsethe transport metadata status code set to1 indicates an error. The content type must be text/xml, application/ any_string +xml, or multipart/related. Satire And Black Humor In Dr. Strangelove Essay. If the service is AnySoap or WSDL-based SOAP, then it must have a SOAP envelope. The body inside the SOAP envelope must be XML format; it cannot be text. If the service type is AnyXML, or a messaging service of type text returns XML content with a non-successful response code (any code other than 200 or 202).

If the transport is HTTP, the ErrorResponseDetail element will also contain the HTTP error code returned with the Essay Diversity in the World response. The ErrorResponseDetail element in the fault contains error response payload received from the service. Example 37-12 shows an example of the Satire Humor ErrorResponseDetail element. Battle. Example 37-12 Contents of the Satire in Dr. Essay Oracle Service Bus fault VariableTransport Error, with Error Response Payload. The XML schema for the service callout-generated fault is shown in karenina, Example 37-15.

In case an external service returns a SOAP fault, the Satire Humor Oracle Service Bus run time sets up the context variable $fault with a custom error code and description with the details of the fault. Karenina. To do so, the contents of the 3 elements under the SOAP-ENV:Fault element in the SOAP fault are extracted and used to construct an Oracle Service Bus fault element. Take for example a scenario in which a service returns the and Black Humor Strangelove following error. About On The U.S.. Example 37-13 SOAP Fault Returned From Service Callout. The faultcode , faultstring , and detail elements are extracted and wrapped in an alsb:ReceivedFault element. Note that the faultcode element in Example 37-15 contains a QNameany related namespace declarations are preserved. If the transport is HTTP, the ReceivedFault element will also contain the HTTP error code returned with the fault response. In Dr. Essay. The generated alsb:ReceivedFault element, along with the custom error code and the error string are used to construct the contents of the a mockingbird fault context variable, which in this example takes a format similar to that shown in Satire in Dr., Example 37-14. Poem To Kill. Example 37-14 Contents of the Humor Strangelove Oracle Service Bus Fault VariableSOAP Fault. The unique error code BEA-382500 is reserved for the case when service callout actions receive SOAP fault responses.

When chaining local proxy services, SOAP fault details are not propagated from one pipeline to the next in the $fault variable. To propagate SOAP faults from proxy service to proxy service, use an error handler with a Reply with Failure action, as described in Propagating SOAP Faults Between Proxy Services in anna, the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Service Bus . Satire And Black In Dr. Strangelove. When a service returns a response message that is not what the proxy service run time expects, a message context fault will be generated and initialized with the custom error code BEA-382501. The details of the fault include the contents of the SOAP-Body element of the response. If the World transport is HTTP, the ReceivedFault element will also contain the HTTP error code returned with the fault response. The XML schema definition of the service callout-generated fault details is shown in Satire Strangelove, Example 37-15. Example 37-15 XML Schema for the Service Callout-Generated Fault Details. 37.7 Handling Errors in Message Flows. The process described in myth of hermes, the next paragraph constitutes an error handling pipeline for the stage of an error handler. In addition, an error pipeline can be defined for a pipeline (request or response) or for an entire proxy service.

The error handler at Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, the stage level is invoked for handling an Essay on Religious and Cultural, error; If the stage-level error handler is not able to handle a given type of error, the pipeline error handler is and Black Humor, invoked. If the of agincourt pipeline-level error handler also fails to and Black Humor Essay handle the error, the anna service-level error handler is Humor in Dr. Strangelove, invoked. If the Essay and Cultural in the World service-level error handler also fails, the error is handled by and Black Humor Strangelove the system. Table 37-9 summarizes the scope of the error handlers at various levels in nixon quaker, the message flow. Table 37-9 Scope of Satire in Dr., Error Handlers.

Handles all the errors within a stage. Handles all the errors in a pipeline, along with any unhandled errors from any stage in a pipeline. Handles all the errors in a proxy service, along with any unhandled errors in any pipeline in nixon, a service. Satire And Black Humor. Note : All WS-Security errors are handled at this level. Handles all the errors that are not handled any where else in a pipeline. There are exceptions to the scope of error handlers. For example, an poem about to kill a mockingbird, exception thrown by a non-XML transformation at the stage level is only caught by the service-level error handler.

Suppose a transformation occurs that transforms XML to MFL for an outgoing proxy service response message, it always occurs in the binding layer. Therefore, for example, if a non-XML output is missing a mandatory field at the stage level, only a service-level error handler can catch this error. For more information on error messages and error handling, see Chapter 24, Proxy Services: Error Handlers. You can handle errors by configuring a test that checks if an assertion is true and use the Satire and Black Humor Strangelove Essay reply action configured false. You can repeat this test at various levels. Also you can have an error without an error handler at a lower level and handle it through an error handler at an higher level in message flow. In general, it is easier to handle specific errors at a stage level of the message flow and U.S. Economy, use error handlers at the higher level for more general default processing of errors that are not handled at the lower levels. In Dr. Essay. It is good practice to explicitly handle anticipated errors in the pipelines and allow the service-level handler to handle unanticipated errors. You can only Essay on Religious, handle WS-Security related errors at Satire in Dr. Strangelove, the service level. 37.7.1 Generating the Error Message, Reporting, and Replying. A predefined context variable (the fault variable) is used to myth of hermes hold information about and Black Humor any error that occurs during message processing.

When an error occurs, this variable is populated with information before the appropriate error handler is invoked. The fault variable is defined only in error handler pipelines and is not set in request and response pipelines, or in route or branch nodes. For additional information about $fault , see Section 39.2, Predefined Context Variables. In the event of errors for request/response type inbound messages, it is often necessary to send a message back to the originator outlining the myth of hermes reason why an error occurred. You can accomplish this by using a Reply with Failure action after configuring the message context variables with the response you want to send. For example, when an HTTP message fails, Reply with Failure generates the HTTP 500 status. When a JMS message fails, Reply with Failure sets the JMS_BEA_Error property to true. The Oracle Service Bus error actions are discussed in Chapter 24, Proxy Services: Error Handlers. An error handling pipeline is invoked if a service invoked by Satire and Black a proxy service returns a SOAP fault or transport error. Any received SOAP fault is stored in $body , so if a Reply with Failure is executed without modifying $body , the original SOAP fault is returned to the client that invoked the service. If a reply action is a mockingbird, not configured, the system error handler generates a new SOAP fault message.

The proxy service recognizes that a SOAP fault is returned because an HTTP error status is set, or the JMS property SERVER_Error is set to true. And Black Humor In Dr.. Some use cases require error reporting. You can use the report action in these situations. For example, consider a scenario in which the request pipeline reports a message for tracking purposes, but the service invoked by the route node fails after the reporting action. In this case, the reporting system logged the message, but there is no guarantee that the message was processed successfully, only that the novel message was successfully received. You can use the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console to track the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay message to obtain an karenina novel, accurate picture of the message flow.

This allows you to view the original reported message indicating the message was submitted for processing, and also the subsequent reported error indicating that the message was not processed correctly. To learn how to configure a report action and use the data reported at run time, see Chapter 22, Proxy Services: Actions. 37.7.2 Example of Action Configuration in Essay, Error Handlers. This example shows how you can configure the report and reply actions in error handlers. Essay About On The U.S.. The message flow shown in Figure 37-2 includes an error handler on the validate loan application stage. The error handler in this case is a simple message flow with a single stage configuredit is represented in the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console as shown in Figure 37-2. And Black In Dr. Strangelove Essay. Figure 37-2 Error Handler Message Flow. The stage is, in turn, configured with actions (replace, report, and reply) as shown in Figure 37-3. Figure 37-3 Actions in Stage Error Handler. The actions control the behavior of the richard nixon stage in the pipeline error handler as follows: Replace The contents of a specified element of the Satire Humor in Dr. Essay body variable are replaced with the contents of the fault context variable.

The body variable element is specified by an XPath expression. The contents are replaced with the value returned by an XQuery expressionin this case $fault/ctx:reason/text() Report Messages from the reporting action are written to the Oracle Service Bus Reporting Data Stream if the error handler configured with this action is invoked. The JMS Reporting Provider reports the messages on the Oracle Service Bus Dashboard. Oracle Service Bus provides the capability to deliver message data to one or more reporting providers. Richard Nixon. Message data is captured from the body of the Satire and Black Humor Essay message and from any other variables associated with the message, such as header or inbound variables. You can use the message delivered to the reporting provider for functions such as tracking messages or regulatory auditing. When an error occurs, the contents of the Essay about The Impact Economy fault context variable are reported. The key name is errorCode , and Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, the key value is extracted from the fault variable using the following XPath expression: ./ctx:errorCode . Key/value pairs are the nixon key identifiers that identify these messages in the Dashboard at run time. To configure a report action and use the data reported at run time, see Chapter 22, Proxy Services: Actions. Reply At run time, an immediate reply is sent to the invoker of the loanGateway3 proxy service (see Figure 37-3) indicating that the message had a fault The reply is With Failure . When you do not know the service you need to invoke from the proxy service you are creating, you can use dynamic routing. For any given proxy service, you can use one of the following techniques to dynamically route messages: In a message flow pipeline, design an XQuery expression to dynamically set the fully qualified service name in Oracle Service Bus and use the dynamic route or dynamic publish actions.

Dynamic Routing can be achieved in a route node, whereas dynamic publishing can be achieved in a stage in a request pipeline or a response pipeline. With this technique, the proxy service dynamically uses the service account of the endpoint business service to Satire in Dr. send user names and passwords in Essay in the, its outbound requests. In Dr. Strangelove Essay. For example, if a proxy service is routing a request to Business Service A, then the proxy service uses the service account from Business Service A to send user names and passwords in its outbound request. See Section 37.8.1, Implementing Dynamic Routing. Configure a proxy service to route or publish messages to a business service.

Then, in the request actions section for the route action or publish action, add a Routing Options action that dynamically specifies the URI of a service. With this technique, to speech send user names and passwords in its outbound requests, the proxy service uses the service account of the statically defined business service, regardless of the URI to which the request is actually sent. This technique is Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay, used when the about a mockingbird overview of the and Black in Dr. Essay interface is fixed. The overview of the interface includes message types, port types, and nixon quaker, binding, and Satire and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, excludes the concrete interface. Anna Novel. The concrete interface is the and Black Humor transport URL at which the service is located. For a working example of dynamic service invocation, see the Oracle Service Bus samples at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/service-bus/learnmore/index.html . 37.8.1 Implementing Dynamic Routing. You can use dynamic routing to determine the destination during the runtime of a proxy service. To achieve this you can use a routing table in an XML file to create an XQuery resource. Instead of using the Essay on Religious Diversity in the XQuery resource, you can also directly use the Humor in Dr. Essay XML file from on Religious Diversity, which the resource is created. An XML file or the XQuery resource can be maintained easily. At run time you provide the entry in the routing table that will determine the routing or publishing destination of the proxy service.The XML file or the and Black XQuery resource contains a routing table, which maps a logical identifier (such as the anna karenina name of a company) to the physical identifier (the fully qualified name of the service in and Black, Oracle Service Bus).

The logical identifier, which is extracted from the message, maps on to the physical identifier, which is the speech name of the service you want to invoke. And Black In Dr. Strangelove. To use the dynamic route action, you need the fully qualified name of the service in Oracle Service Bus. In a pipeline the logical identifier is obtained with an XPath into the message.You assign the XML table in the XQuery resource to a variable. You implement a query against the variable in the routing table to extract the physical identifier based on the corresponding logical identifier. Using this variable you will be able to invoke the required service. The following sections describe how to implement dynamic routing. You can create an XQuery resource from the following XML file. Quaker. Save this as sampleXquery.xml. Example 37-16 Sample XML File. 37.8.1.2 Creating an Humor in Dr. Strangelove, XQuery Resource From the Sample XML. To create an XQuery resource from the sample XML: In an active session, select Project Explorer from the left navigation panel.

The Project View page is displayed. Select the project to which you want to add the XQuery resource. In the Project View page, select the XQuery resource from the Select Resource Type list. The Create XQuery page is displayed. In the Resource Name field, enter the name of the resource. This is a mandatory.

In the Resource Description field, provide the a description for the resource. This is optional. In the XQuery field, provide the path to Essay on Religious the XML you are using as an XQuery resource. Click on Browse to locate the file. Optionally, you can copy and paste the XML in the XQuery field.

This is mandatory. Save the XQuery resource. Activate the session. 37.8.1.3 Creating and Satire, Configuring the Proxy Service to Implement Dynamic Routing. Poem About To Kill A Mockingbird. To implement dynamic routing with a proxy service: In an active session, select Project Explorer from the left navigation panel. The Project View page is displayed.

Select the project to and Black in Dr. which you want to add the proxy service. In the Project View page, select the Proxy Service resource from the Select Resource Type list. The General Configuration page is poem a mockingbird, displayed. In the Service Name field of the General Configuration page, enter the name of the proxy service. In Dr. Essay. This is mandatory.

Select the type of service by clicking on about the button adjacent to various types of services available under Service Type . For more information on selecting the service type, see Chapter 22, Proxy Services: Actions. Click Finish . And Black Humor. On the Summary page, click Save to battle save the proxy service. On the Project View page, click the in Dr. Strangelove Essay Edit Message Flow icon against the newly created proxy service in the Resource table. The Edit Message Flow page is displayed. Click on the message flow to add a pipeline pair to the message flow. Click on Essay about of Outsourcing on the Economy Request Pipeline icon select Add Stage from the Satire Humor in Dr. Essay menu. Click on speech the Stage1 icon to and select Edit Stage from the menu.

The Edit Stage Configuration page appears. Humor Strangelove. Click Add Action icon. About A Mockingbird. Choose Add an Action item from the menu. Satire Humor Strangelove Essay. Choose the battle of agincourt Assign action from Message Processing . Click on Expression . In Dr.. The XQuery Expression Editor is speech, displayed. Click on XQuery Resources . Satire Humor Strangelove. The browser displays the page where you can import the XQuery resource. Click on the Browse to locate the XQuery resource. Click on Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity Validate to validate the imported XQuery resource. Save the imported XQuery resource on successful validation. On the Edit Stage Configuration page, enter the name of the variable in Satire and Black in Dr. Essay, the field. This assigns the XQuery resource to this variable. About A Mockingbird. The variable now contains the externalized routing table.

Add another Assign action. Enter the following XQuery: In the above code, replace $logicalidentifier by the actual XPath to extract the logical identifier from the message (example from $body ). Click on Humor Validate to validate the XQuery. Save the anna novel XQuery on successful validation. On the and Black in Dr. Essay Edit Stage Configuration page, enter the name of the variable (for example, routeresult ) in the field. This extracts the XML used by the dynamic route action into about on the U.S. this variable. Click on the message flow to add a route node to in Dr. Strangelove Essay the end of the message flow. Click on the Route Node icon and Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity, select Edit from the menu.

Click the Add Action icon. Choose Add an Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove, Action item from the anna menu. Choose the Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay Dynamic Route action. Click on Expression . The XQuery Expression Editor is displayed. Enter the variable; for example, $routeresult . 37.8.1.4 Guidelines for Implementing Identity-Based Routing. If you want to dynamically route message based on the identity of an authenticated user, OSB stores information such as username, group membership (/principals/group), and the name of the subject (/subject-properties/property/name in Essay on the U.S. Economy, the following inbound context variables: Using the guidance provided in Section 37.8, Using Dynamic Routing, use XQuery or simple XML to map authenticated user identity characteristics to different endpoints using the desired mapping technique. The following predefined OSB XQuery functions are also available to perform security checks in identity-based routing: For a working example of dynamic service invocation, see the Oracle Service Bus samples at Satire Essay, http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/service-bus/learnmore/index.html . 37.9 Accessing Databases Using XQuery.

Oracle Service Bus provides read-access to databases from proxy services without requiring you to write a custom EJB or custom Java code and without the need for a separate database product like Oracle Data Service Integrator. You can use the execute-sql() function to make a simple JDBC call to a database to perform simple database reads. Any SQL query is legal, from a query that gets a single tax rate for the supplied location to Essay on Religious World a query that does a complex join to obtain an order's current status from several underlying database tables. A database query can be used to Satire and Black Essay get data for of agincourt, message enrichment, for Satire Strangelove, routing decisions, or for customizing the behavior of a proxy service. Take for example a scenario in which an Oracle Service Bus proxy service receives request for quote messages. The proxy service can route the requests based on the customer's priority to one of a number of richard quaker, quotation business services (say, standard, gold, or platinum level services). The proxy service can then perform a SQL-based augmentation of the results that those services returnfor example, based on the selected ship method and the weight of the order, the shipping cost can be looked up and that cost added to the request for in Dr. Strangelove Essay, quote message. Section 43.2.5, fn-bea:execute-sql() describes the syntax for the function and provides examples of its use. The execute-sql() function returns typed data and automatically translates values between SQL/JDBC and Essay about The Impact of Outsourcing on the, XQuery data models. And Black In Dr. Strangelove. You can store the returned element in a user-defined variable in of agincourt speech, an Oracle Service Bus message flow. The following databases and in Dr. Strangelove Essay, JDBC drivers are supported using the execute-sql() function: The sample database provided by Oracle WebLogic Server.

IBM DB2/NT 8 XXX This should probably be IBB DB2 for Windows NT 8.x or 8.x or higher, as applicable. Microsoft SQL Server 2000, 2005. Oracle8 i , Release 8.1.x. Oracle9 i , Oracle Database 10 g. Sybase 12.5.2 and 12.5.3 XXX Again, please be clear about the product. Is it Sybase Adaptive Server. WebLogic Type 4 JDBC drivers XXX Oracle WebLogic Server. Third-party drivers supported by about to kill a mockingbird Oracle WebLogic Server. Use non-XA drivers for datasources you use with the Section 43.2.5, fn-bea:execute-sql() functionthe function supports read-only access to the datasources.

In addition to specifying a non-XA JDBC driver class to use to connect to the database, you must ensure that you disable global transactions and and Black Humor Strangelove, two-phase commit. (Global transactions are enabled by default in the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console for JDBC data sources.) These specifications can be made for your data source via the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console. Richard Quaker. See Create JDBC Data Sources in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console Online Help . For complete information about database and JDBC drivers support in Oracle Service Bus, see Oracle Fusion Middleware Supported System Configurations at: Databases other than the core set described in the preceding listing are also supported. However, for the core databases listed above, the XQuery engine does a better recognition and mapping of data types to Satire Humor in Dr. XQuery types than it does for the non-core databasesin some cases, a core database's proprietary JDBC extensions are used when fetching data. For the non-core databases, the XQuery engine relies totally on the standard type codes provided by the JDBC driver and standard JDBC resultset access methods. When designing your proxy service, you can enter XQueries inline as part of an action definition instead of entering them as resources. Richard Nixon. You can also use inline XQueries for conditions in If. Then. actions in message flows. Satire And Black. For information about using the inline XQuery editor, see Section 37.11.3, Creating Variable Structure Mappings. 37.10 Understanding Message Context. The message context is a set of variables that hold message context and information about messages as they are routed through the Oracle Service Bus. Together, the header , body , and attachments variables, (referenced as $header , $body and $attachments in XQuery statements) represent the poem to kill message as it flows through Oracle Service Bus.

The canonical form of the message is SOAP. Even if the service type is not SOAP, the message appears as SOAP in the Oracle Service Bus message context. In a Message Context, $header contains a SOAP header element and in Dr. Strangelove, $body contains a SOAP Body element. The Header and Body elements are qualified by the SOAP 1.1 or SOAP 1.2 namespace depending on the service type of the proxy service. Also in a Message Context, $attachments contains a wrapper element called attachments with one child attachment element per attachment. The attachment element has a body element with the actual attachment. When a message is received by a proxy service, the message contents are used to initialize the header, body, and of Outsourcing on the U.S., attachments variables. For SOAP services, the Header and Body elements are taken directly from the Humor in Dr. envelope of the received SOAP message and assigned to on Religious and Cultural in the World $header and $body respectively.

For non-SOAP services, the entire content of the message is typically wrapped in a Body element (qualified by Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove the SOAP 1.1 namespace) and myth of hermes, assigned to $body , and an empty Header element (qualified by the SOAP 1.1 namespace) is assigned to $header . Binary and Satire Humor Strangelove Essay, MFL messages are initialized differently. For MFL messages, the Essay and Cultural in the equivalent XML document is inserted into the Body element that is assigned to $body . For binary messages, the message data is stored internally and a piece of and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay, reference XML is inserted into the Body element that is on Religious and Cultural Diversity, assigned to $body . The reference XML looks like binary-content ref=. / , where . contains a unique identifier assigned by the proxy service. The message context is and Black Strangelove, defined by an XML schema. You must use XQuery expressions to manipulate the Essay about on the Economy context variables in the message flow that defines a proxy service. The predefined context variables provided by Oracle Service Bus can be grouped into the following types: Inbound and outbound variables. Satire And Black Humor In Dr.. For information about the predefined context variables, see Section 39.2, Predefined Context Variables. The $body contains message payload variable. When a message is dispatched from Oracle Service Bus you can decide the variables, whose you want to include in the outgoing message. That determination is dependent upon whether the target endpoint is expecting a SOAP or a non-SOAP message: For a binary, any text or XML message content inside the Body element in $body is sent. For MFL messages, the Body element in $body contains the XML equivalent of the MFL document. For text messages, the battle of agincourt Body element in $body contains the and Black Humor Strangelove Essay text.

For text attachments, the body element in $attachments contains the text. If the contents are XML instead of simple text, the XML is sent as a text message. For XML messages, the and Cultural in the Body element in $body contains the XML. For XML attachments, the body element in Satire and Black Essay, $attachments contains the XML. SOAP messages are constructed by wrapping the contents of the header and body variables inside a soap:Envelope element. (The SOAP 1.1 namespace is used for SOAP 1.1 services, while the SOAP 1.2 namespace is battle, used for SOAP 1.2 services.) If the body variable contains a piece of reference XML, it is sent.That is the referenced content is not substituted in the message. Humor In Dr.. For non-SOAP services, if the Body element of $body contains a binary-content element, then the referenced content stored internally is sent 'as is', regardless of the target service type. Essay And Cultural In The. The types for Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, the message context variables are defined by the message context schema ( MessageContext.xsd ). When working with the message context variables in myth of hermes, the Oracle XQuery Mapper, you need to reference MessageContext.xsd , which is available in Satire and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, a JAR file, OSB_ORACLE_HOME /lib/sb-schemas.jar, and the transport-specific schemas, which are available at. To learn about the message context schema and the transport specific schemas, see Section 39.10, Message Context Schema. 37.10.2 Guidelines for Viewing and Altering Message Context.

Consider the following guidelines when you want to inspect or alter the myth of hermes message context: In an XQuery expression, the root element in a variable is not present in the path in a reference to an element in that variable. For example, the following XQuery expression obtains the Content-Description of the first attachment in a message: To obtain the Satire and Black Humor Strangelove Essay second attachment. A context variable can be empty or it can contain a single XML element or a string value. However, an XQuery expression often returns a sequence. When you use an XQuery expression to assign a value to a variable, only the first element in the sequence returned by the expression is stored as the variable value. Richard Nixon. For example, if you want to assign the value of a WS-Addressing Message ID from a SOAP header (assuming there is one in the header) to a variable named idvar , the Satire and Black Strangelove assign action specification is: In this case, if two WS-Addressing MessageID headers exist, the idvar variable will be assigned the value of the first one. The variables $header , $body , and on Religious in the World, $attachments are never empty.

However, $header can contain an empty SOAP Header element, $body can contain an empty SOAP Body element, and $attachments can contain an empty attachment element. In cases in which you use a transformation resource (XSLT or XQuery), the transformation resource is defined to transform the Satire Humor Strangelove Essay document in battle of agincourt speech, the SOAP body of and Black, a message. To make this transformation case easy and efficient, the input parameter to the transformation can be an XQuery expression. For example, you can use the following XQuery expression to feed the business document in Essay U.S., the Body element of a message ( $body ) as input to a transformation: The result of the transformation can be put back in $body with a replace action. That is Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove, replace the content of quaker, $body , which is the content of the Body element. For more information, see Chapter 11, XQuery Transformations and Chapter 15, XSL Transformations. In addition to inserting or replacing a single element, you can also insert or replace a selected sequence of elements using an insert or replace action. You can configure an XQuery expression to return a sequence of elements. For example, you can use insert and and Black Strangelove, replace actions to copy a set of transport headers from $inbound to $outbound . The Impact Of Outsourcing On The U.S. Economy. For information on adding an action, see Section 22.1, Adding and Editing Actions in Message Flows.

For an example, see Section 37.10.3, Copying JMS Properties From Inbound to Outbound. 37.10.3 Copying JMS Properties From Inbound to Outbound. It is assumed that the in Dr. Strangelove interfaces of the proxy services and of the invoked business service may be different. Therefore, Oracle Service Bus does not propagate any information (such as the transport headers and JMS properties) from the inbound variable to the outbound variable. The transport headers for the proxy service's request and response messages are in $inbound and the transport headers for the invoked business service's request and response are in $outbound . For example, the anna karenina following XQuery expression can be used in a case where the user-defined JMS properties for a one-way message (an invocation with no response) need to be copied from inbound message to outbound message: Use the transport headers action to set. as the first child of: in the outbound variable. To learn how to configure the transport header action, see Section 22.7, Adding Transport Header Actions.

37.11 Working with Variable Structures. This section includes the Satire and Black Strangelove following topics: 37.11.1 Using the Inline XQuery Expression Editor. Oracle Service Bus allows you to import XQueries that have been created with an external tool such as the Oracle XQuery Mapper. You can use these XQueries anywhere in the proxy service message flow by binding the XQuery resource input to myth of hermes an Inline XQuery, and binding the XQuery resource output to Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay an action that uses the result as the input; for example, the Essay Diversity in the World assign, replace, or insert actions. Satire In Dr. Strangelove Essay. However, you can enter the XQuery inline as part of the action definition instead of entering the myth of hermes XQuery as a resource. Satire And Black Essay. You can also use Inline XQueries for the condition in an If. Then. Poem About. action. Use the Inline XQuery Expression Editor to enter simple XQueries that consist of the following: Fragments of XML with embedded XQueries.

Simple variable paths along the child axis. For more complex XQueries, it is recommended that you use the XQuery Mapper, especially if you are not familiar with XQuery. Inline XQueries can be used effectively to: Create variable structures by Humor in Dr. using the Inline XQuery Expression Editor. See Section 37.11.2, Using Variable Structures. Extract or access a business document or RPC parameter from the SOAP envelope elements in $header or $body . Extract or access an attachment document in $attachments . Set up the parameters of a service callout action by extracting it from the SOAP envelope.

Insert the result parameter of a service callout action into the SOAP envelope. Extract a sequence from the SOAP envelope to drive a for loop . Update an item in the sequence in a for loop with an Update action. Essay On Religious And Cultural Diversity World. You can also use the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay Inline XQuery Expression Editor to create variable structures. For more information, see Section 37.11.2, Using Variable Structures. Oracle Service Bus allows you to import XQueries that have been created with an external tool such as the Oracle XQuery Mapper.

You can use these XQueries anywhere in the proxy service message flow by binding the XQuery resource input to an inline XQuery, and binding the Essay on Religious and Cultural World XQuery resource output to an action that uses the result as the action input; for example, the assign, replace, or insert actions. However, you can enter the Satire Humor Essay XQuery inline as part of the karenina action definition instead of entering the XQuery as a resource. And Black Humor In Dr. Essay. You can also use inline XQueries for the condition in an If. Then. action. The inline XQuery and karenina, XPath editors allow you to declare a variable's structure by mapping it to a type or element and then creating path expressions with a drag and drop action from the graphical representation of the structure. You can also enter the path expressions manually. You can use this feature directly for all user-defined variables, as well as $inbound , $outbound , and $fault . However, you cannot use it directly to access XML attachments in $attachments , headers in $header , or documents and RPC parameters in $body , with one exception you can use it directly to access documents and parameters in $body for request messages received by a WSDL proxy service.

To learn more about XQuery engine support and the relationship with Oracle functions and operators, see Chapter 43, XQuery Implementation. Satire In Dr. Strangelove Essay. 37.11.1.2 Uses of the Inline XQuery Expression Editor. Richard Quaker. You typically use the Inline XQuery Expression Editor to enter simple XQueries that consist of the Strangelove following: Fragments of XML with embedded XQueries. Myth Of Hermes. Simple variable paths along the child axis. For more complex XQueries, we recommend that you use the Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Oracle XQuery Mapper, an Essay on Religious and Cultural, editor with drag-and-drop functionality. And Black In Dr. Essay. See XQuery Mapper in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Service Bus . Examples of good uses of Essay of Outsourcing U.S., inline XQueries are: Extract or access a business document or RPC parameter from the SOAP envelope elements in $header or $body . Extract or access an Satire Strangelove, attachment document in $attachments . Set up the parameters of a service callout by extracting it from the SOAP envelope.

Fold the result parameter of a service callout into the SOAP envelope. Myth Of Hermes. Extract a sequence from the SOAP envelope to and Black Humor in Dr. Essay drive a for loop . Update an item in The Impact of Outsourcing, the sequence in a for loop with an Update action. You can also use the Satire Humor Strangelove Inline XQuery Expression Editor to create variable structures. For more information, see Section 37.11.2, Using Variable Structures. 37.11.1.2.1 Best Practices for richard nixon quaker, Type-Dependent Expressions. To help ensure expected results when using type-dependent expressions, manually cast values to the desired types. For example, the following statement casts counter as an integer for Humor, the XQuery compiler, which ensures a single return value: You can use the Inline XQuery Expression Editor to create variable structures, with which you define the anna structure of a given variable for design purposes.

For example, it is easier to browse the XPath variable in the Administration Console rather than viewing the XML schema of the XPath variable. It is not necessary to create variable structures for your run time to work. Variable structures define the structure of the variable or the variable path but do not create the variable. Satire And Black Humor In Dr.. Variables are created at run time as the target of the assign action in the stage. In a typical programming language, the scope of variables is static. Their names and types are explicitly declared. The variable can be accessed anywhere within the myth of hermes static scope. In Oracle Service Bus, there are some predefined variables, but you can also dynamically create variables and assign value to them using the assign action or using the loop variable in the for-loop. When a value is Satire Humor Strangelove, assigned to a variable, the variable can be accessed anywhere in the proxy service message flow.

The variable type is not declared but the type is essentially the underlying type of the value it contains at any point in time. The scope of the for-loop variable is limited and cannot be accessed outside the stage. When you use the Inline XQuery Expression Editor, the XQuery has zero or more inputs and one output. Because you can display the structure of the inputs and the structure of the output visually in the Expression Editor itself, you do not need to open the XML schema or WSDL resources to see their structure when you create the about Inline XQuery. The graphical structure display also enables you to drag and drop simple variable paths along the child axis without predicates, into the composed XQuery.

Each variable structure mapping entry has a label and Humor, maps a variable or variable path to one or more structures. The scope of these mappings is the stage or route node. Because variables are not statically typed, a variable can have different structures at different points (or at the same point) in the stage or route node. Therefore, you can map a variable or a variable path to Essay The Impact of Outsourcing Economy multiple structures, each with a different label. To view the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay structure, select the corresponding label with a list. You can also create variable structure mappings in the Inline XPath Expression Editor.

However, although the variable or a variable path is mapped to a structure, the XPaths generated when you select from the structure are XPaths relative to the variable. An example of a relative XPath is ./ctx:attachment/ctx:body . About On The Economy. 37.11.3 Creating Variable Structure Mappings. The following sections describe how to create several types of variable structure mappings: This sample WSDL is Satire Humor in Dr. Essay, used in most of the examples in this section. You need to battle of agincourt save this WSDL as a resource in your configuration. For more information, see Section 37.11.3.2, Creating the Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay Resources You Need for the Examples.

Example 37-17 Sample WSDL. 37.11.3.2 Creating the Resources You Need for the Examples. To make use of the examples that follow, you save the sample WSDL as a resource in your configuration and create the sample business service and proxy service that use the anna sample WSDL. The instructions that follow tell how to accomplish the tasks in the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console: 37.11.3.2.1 Save the Humor Essay WSDL as a Resource. Perform the myth of hermes following steps: In the left navigation pane in the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console, under Change Center , click Create to and Black in Dr. create a new session for Essay about of Outsourcing, making changes to the current configuration.

In the left navigation pane, click Project Explorer . In the Project View page, click the project to which you want to Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay add the WSDL. In the Project View page, in Essay on the, the Create Resource field, select WSDL under Interface . And Black. In the poem Create a New WSDL Resource page in the Resource Name field, enter SampleWSDL . This is a required field. In the WSDL field, copy and paste the Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay text from the sample WSDL into this field. Essay And Cultural Diversity. This is Satire Essay, a required field. Click Save . The new WSDL SampleWSDL is included in battle, the list of resources and Humor in Dr. Essay, saved in the current session. You must now create a proxy service that uses this WSDL, see Section 37.11.3.2.2, Create a Proxy Service That Uses the Sample WSDL.

37.11.3.2.2 Create a Proxy Service That Uses the Sample WSDL. Perform the following steps: In the left navigation pane, click Project Explorer . In the Project View page, select the project to which you want to add the proxy service. In the Project View page, in poem about a mockingbird, the Create Resource field, select Proxy Service under Service . In the Edit a Proxy Service - General Configuration page, in the Service Name field, enter ProxywithSampleWSDL . This is Satire and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, a required field. In the Service Type field, which defines the types and packaging of the messages exchanged by the service: Select WSDL Web Service from under Create a New Service . Click Browse . The WSDL Browser is displayed.

Select SampleWSDL , then select POBinding in the Select WSDL Definitions pane. Quaker. Keep the default values for all other fields on the General Configuration page, then click Next . Keep the default values for all fields on the Transport Configuration pages, then click Next . In the Operation Selection Configuration page, make sure SOAP Body Type is Satire and Black Humor Essay, selected in the Selection Algorithm field, then click Next . Review the configuration data that you have entered for The Impact of Outsourcing Economy, this proxy service, then click Save . The new proxy service ProxywithSampleWSDL is included in the list of resources and saved in Satire and Black Humor in Dr., the current session.To build message flow for myth of hermes, this proxy service, see Section 37.11.3.2.3, Build a Message Flow for the Sample Proxy Service. 37.11.3.2.3 Build a Message Flow for the Sample Proxy Service. Satire. Perform the following steps: In the Project View page, in the Actions column, click the Edit Message Flow icon for the ProxywithSampleWSDL proxy service. In the Edit Message Flow page, click the richard nixon quaker ProxywithSampleWSDL icon, then click Add Pipeline Pair . Humor Strangelove Essay. PipelinePairNode1 is displayed, which includes request and response pipelines. Click the Request Pipeline icon, then click Add Stage . The Stage Stage1 is anna karenina, displayed.

Click Save . The basic message flow is created for the ProxywithSampleWSDL proxy service. 37.11.3.2.4 Create a Business Service That Uses the Sample WSDL. Perform the following steps: In the left navigation pane, click Project Explorer . The Project View page is displayed. Select the project to which you want to add the business service. From the Satire and Black Strangelove Essay Project View page, in the Create Resource field, select Business Service from under Service . The Edit a Business Service - General Configuration page is displayed.

In the Service Name field, enter BusinesswithSampleWSDL . This is battle speech, a required field. In the Service Type field, which defines the types and packaging of the messages exchanged by the service, do the following: Select WSDL Web Service from under Create a New Service . Click Browse . And Black Strangelove Essay. The WSDL Browser is displayed. Select SampleWSDL , then select POBinding in the Select WSDL Definitions pane. Keep the default values for all other fields on the General Configuration page, then click Next . Enter an endpoint URI in of agincourt, the Endpoint URI field on the Transport Configuration page. Click Add , and then click Next . Use the default values for all fields on the SOAP Binding Configuration page. Review the configuration data that you have entered for and Black in Dr. Essay, this business service, and then click Save . The new business service BusinesswithSampleWSDL is included in the list of resources and is saved in the current session. From the myth of hermes left navigation pane, click Activate under Change Center . The session ends and the configuration is deployed to run time.

You are now ready to use the Humor Essay examplescontinue in Section 37.11.3.3, Example 1: Selecting a Predefined Variable Structure. 37.11.3.3 Example 1: Selecting a Predefined Variable Structure. In this example, you select a predefined variable structure using the proxy service ProxyWithSampleWSDL , which has a service type WSDL Web Service that uses the binding POBinding from SampleWSDL . The proxy service message flow needs to know the structure of the message in order to on the Economy manipulate it. To achieve this, Oracle Service Bus automatically provides a predefined structure that maps the body variable to the SOAP body structure as defined by the WSDL of the proxy service for all the messages in Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove, the interface. About The Impact Economy. This predefined structure mapping is labeled body . This predefined structure is also supported for messaging services with a typed interface. To select a predefined variable structure : In the Variable Structures panel on the XQuery Expression Editor page, select body from the list of and Black, built-in structures. The variable structure body is poem, displayed in Figure 37-4. Figure 37-4 Variable Structuresbody. 37.11.3.4 Example 2: Creating a Variable Structure That Maps a Variable to a Type. Suppose the proxy service ProxyWithSampleWSDL invokes a service callout to Satire Humor in Dr. the business service BusinessWithSampleWSDL , which also has a service type WSDL Web Service that uses the binding POBinding from SampleWSDL . The operation GetInvoiceType is invoked. In this example, the message flow needs to know the structure of the a mockingbird response parameter in order to manipulate it.

To achieve this, you can create a new variable structure that maps the response parameter variable to the type InvoiceType . To map a variable to a type: In the Variable Structures panel, click Add New Structure . Additional fields are displayed in Figure 37-5. Figure 37-5 Variable StructuresAdd a New Structure. Select the XML Type . In the Structure Label field, enter InvoiceType as the display name for the variable structure you want to create. This display name enables you to give a meaningful name to the structure so you can recognize it at design time but it has no impact at Strangelove, run time. In the Structure Path field, enter $InvoiceType as the path of the variable at run time. Of Agincourt Speech. To select the type InvoiceType , do the following: Under the Type field, select the appropriate radio button, then select WSDL Type from the list. Click Browse . Satire Humor Strangelove Essay. The WSDL Browser is displayed. In the WSDL Browser , select SampleWSDL , then select InvoiceType under Types in Essay of Outsourcing on the U.S. Economy, the Select WSDL Definitions pane. Click Submit . InvoiceType is displayed under your selection WSDL Type . Click Add . Satire And Black In Dr. Strangelove. The new variable structure InvoiceType is included under XML Type in the list of variable structures. The variable structure InvoiceType is on Religious and Cultural Diversity World, displayed in Figure 37-6.

Figure 37-6 Variable StructuresInvoiceType. 37.11.3.5 Example 3: Creating a Variable Structure that Maps a Variable to an Element. Suppose a temporary variable has the Satire Humor Essay element Invoice described in myth of hermes, the SampleWSDL WSDL. In this example, the ProxyWithSampleWSDL message flow needs to access this variable. To achieve this, you can create a new variable structure that maps the in Dr. Essay variable to The Impact of Outsourcing on the U.S. the element Invoice . To map a variable to an element : In the and Black Essay Variable Structures panel, click Add New Structure . Make sure you select the XML Type . In the Structure Label field, enter Invoice as the meaningful display name for the variable structure you want to create. In the Structure Path field, enter $Invoice as the path of the World variable structure at run time. To select the element Invoice , do the following: For the Type field, make sure you select the Satire Humor appropriate radio button.Then select WSDL Element . In the WSDL Browser , select SampleWSDL , then select Invoice under Elements in the Select WSDL Definitions pane. Click Submit . Invoice is displayed under your selection WSDL Element . Click Add . The new variable structure Invoice is included under XML Type in the list of variable structures. The variable structure Invoice is poem about to kill a mockingbird, displayed in Figure 37-7.

Figure 37-7 Variable StructuresInvoice. 37.11.3.6 Example 4: Creating a Variable Structure That Maps a Variable to a Child Element. The ProxyWithSampleWSDL proxy service routes to Satire and Black the document style Any SOAP business service that returns the myth of hermes Purchase Order in the SOAP body. In this example, the ProxyWithSampleWSDL proxy service message flow must then manipulate the response. To achieve this, you can create a new structure that maps the body variable to the PO element, and specify the PO element as a child element of the variable. Humor In Dr. Strangelove. You need to specify it as a child element because the body variable contains the Essay and Cultural Diversity World SOAP Body element and the PO element is a child of the Body element. To map a variable to a child element: In the Variable Structures panel, click Add New Structure . Make sure you select the XML Type . In the and Black Humor Essay Structure Label field, enter body to PO as the meaningful display name for the variable structure you want to create. Richard. In the Structure Path field, enter $body as the path of the variable structure at run time.

To select the PO element: Under the Satire and Black Type field, make sure you select the appropriate radio button, and then select WSDL Element . Poem About To Kill. In the Satire and Black Humor Strangelove Essay WSDL Browser , select SampleWSDL , then select PO under Elements in the Select WSDL Definitions pane. Essay About The Impact Of Outsourcing On The U.S. Economy. Select the and Black Humor Set as child check box to poem about set the PO element as a child of the body to Satire and Black Humor Essay PO variable structure. Click Add . The new variable structure body to PO is included under XML Type in the list of variable structures. The variable structure body to PO is displayed in to kill, Figure 37-8. Figure 37-8 Variable Structuresbody to PO.

37.11.3.7 Example 5: Creating a Variable Structure that Maps a Variable to a Business Service. The ProxyWithSampleWSDL proxy service routes the message to the BusinessWithSampleWSDL business service, which also has a service type WSDL Web Service that uses the binding POBinding from SampleWSDL . In this example, the message flow must then manipulate the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove response. To achieve this, you can define a new structure that maps the body variable to Essay and Cultural Diversity World the BusinessWithSampleWSDL business service. This results in a map of the body variable to the SOAP body for Humor Essay, all the messages in the WSDL interface of the service. Novel. This mapping is Satire in Dr. Strangelove Essay, also supported for messaging services with a typed interface. To map a variable to a business service. In the Variable Structures panel, click Add New Structure . Select Service Interface . Poem To Kill. In the Strangelove Essay Structure Label field, enter BusinessService as the meaningful display name for battle, the variable structure. In the Structure Path field, $body is already set as the default. This is the path of the variable structure at run time. Strangelove Essay. To select the business service, do the following: Under the Service field, click Browse . The Service Browser is displayed. In the Service Browser , select the BusinessWithSampleWSDL business service, then click Submit . The business service is poem to kill a mockingbird, displayed under the Service field.

In the Operation field, select All . Click Add . The new variable structure BusinessService is Satire Strangelove Essay, included under Service Interface in the list of of agincourt, variable structures. The variable structure BusinessService is displayed in Figure 37-9. Figure 37-9 Variable StructuresBusiness Service. 37.11.3.8 Example 6: Creating a Variable Structure That Maps a Child Element to Another Child Element. Modify the SampleWSDL so that the ProxyWithSampleWSDL proxy service receives a single attachment. The attachment is a Purchase Order. In this example, the proxy service message flow must then manipulate the Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay Purchase Order.

To achieve this, you can define a new structure that maps the body element in $attachments to the PO element, which is myth of hermes, specified as a child element. The body element is specified as a variable path of the form: You can select and Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, copy the in the World body element from the predefined attachments structure, paste this element as the variable path to be mapped in and Black Humor Strangelove, the new mapping definition. To map a child element to another child element: In the Variable Structures panel, select attachments from the list of built-in structures. The variable structure attachments is displayed in richard nixon, Figure 37-10. Figure 37-10 Variable Structuresattachments. Select the body child element in the attachments structure. The variable path of the body element is Humor in Dr., displayed in the Property Inspector on the right side of the page: Copy the variable path of the body element.

In the Variable Structures panel, click Add New Structure . Select the XML Type . In the Structure Label field, enter PO attachment as the meaningful display name for this variable structure. In the Structure Path field, paste the variable path of the body element: This is the path of the variable structure at run time. To select the PO element: Under the Type field, make sure the Essay on Religious Diversity in the World appropriate radio button is selected, then select WSDL Element . In the WSDL Browser , select SampleWSDL , then select PO under Elements in the Select WSDL Definitions pane. Select the Set as child check box to and Black Essay set the PO element as a child of the myth of hermes body element. Click Add . And Black In Dr. Essay. The new variable structure PO attachment is included under XML Type in the list of myth of hermes, variable structures. And Black Humor Strangelove. If there are multiple attachments, add an index to the reference when you use fields from this structured variable in your XQueries. For example, if you drag the PO field to the XQuery field, but as PO will be the second attachment, change the inserted value from. The following sections discuss quality of service features in Oracle Service Bus messaging: Oracle Service Bus supports reliable messaging. When messages are routed to another service from a route node, the myth of hermes default quality of service (QoS) is exactly-once if the proxy service is configured to Humor in Dr. Strangelove be transactional; otherwise best-effort QoS is supported.

Quality of service is set in the qualityOfService element in the $outbound context variable. The following delivery guarantee types are provided in Oracle Service Bus, shown in Table 37-10. Table 37-10 Delivery Guarantee Types. Exactly-once reliability means that messages are delivered from inbound to outbound exactly-once, assuming a terminating error does not occur before the outbound message send is initiated. Exactly-once means reliability is optimized. Exactly-once delivery reliability is a hint, not a directive.

When exactly-once is specified, exactly-once reliability is provided if possible. If exactly-once is not possible, then at-least-once delivery semantics are attempted; if that is not possible, best-effort delivery is about The Impact U.S. Economy, performed. Proxy services configured to be transactional have exactly-once quality of service. The default value of the qualityOfService element is also exactly-once for a route node action for the following inbound transports: MQ (with Backout Threshold set to zero) Note : Do not retry the Satire Humor Strangelove Essay outbound transport when the QoS is exactly-once. At-least-once semantics means the message is delivered to the outbound from the inbound at least once, assuming a terminating error does not occur before the outbound message send is initiated. Delivery is considered satisfied even if the target service responds with a transport-level error. Diversity. However it is not satisfied in the case of a time-out, a failure to connect, or a broken communication link. If failover URLs are specified, at-least-once semantics is provided with respect to at least one of the URLs. And Black Humor In Dr. Strangelove. At-least-once delivery semantics is attempted if exactly-once is not possible but the qualityOfService element is exactly-once . Best-effort means that there is no reliable messaging and about The Impact of Outsourcing on the U.S. Economy, there is no elimination of duplicate messageshowever, performance is optimized. It is Satire and Black Essay, performed if the qualityOfService element is best-effort . Best-effort delivery is also performed if exactly-once and battle of agincourt, at-least-once delivery semantics are not possible but the Strangelove Essay qualityOfService element is richard, exactly-once . The default value of the qualityOfService element for Humor Strangelove Essay, a route node is best-effort for the following inbound transports: MQ (with Backout Threshold set to Essay on Religious and Cultural in the World greater than zero) The default value of the qualityOfService element is Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay, always best-effort for the following: Service callout action always best-effort , but can be changed if required. Publish action defaults to best-effort , modifiable.

Note : When the value of the battle of agincourt speech qualityOfService element is best-effort for a publish action, all errors are ignored. However, when the value of the qualityOfService element is best-effort for a route node action or a Service Callout action, any error will raise an exception. For more detailed information about quality of service for other transports, see Transports in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for Oracle Service Bus . 37.12.1.1 Overriding the Default Element Attribute. To override the default exactly-once quality of service attribute, you must set the qualityOfService in the outbound message context variable ( $outbound ). For more information, see Section 39.10, Message Context Schema. You can override the default qualityOfService element attribute for the following message flow actions: To override the qualityOfService element attribute, add a Routing Options action to any of the above actions, select the QoS option, and choose the override value. For more information on Strangelove Essay message context variables, see Section 39.10, Message Context Schema. Nixon. The delivery guarantee supported when a proxy service publishes a message or routes a request to a business service depends on the following conditions: The value of the qualityOfService element. The inbound transport (and connection factory, if applicable).

The outbound transport (and connection factory, if applicable). However, if the inbound proxy service is a Local Transport and and Black in Dr. Essay, is invoked by another proxy service, the inbound transport of the invoking proxy service is responsible for the delivery guarantee. Myth Of Hermes. That is because a proxy service that invokes another proxy service is optimized into a direct invocation if the transport of the invoked proxy service is a Local Transport. For more information on transport protocols, see Chapter 20, Proxy Services: Creating and Managing and Chapter 19, Business Services: Creating and Managing. Essay. No delivery guarantee is provided for responses from a proxy service. The following rules govern delivery guarantees, shown in Table 37-11. Table 37-11 Delivery Guarantee Rules. The proxy service inbound transport is transactional and the value of the qualityOfService element is exactly-once to an outbound transport. The proxy service inbound transport is file, FTP, or e-mail and the value of the qualityOfService element is exactly-once . The proxy service inbound transport is transactional and the value of the qualityOfService element, where applicable, is exactly-once to an outbound transport that is about to kill a mockingbird, not transactional. No delivery guarantee.

All other cases, including all response processing cases. To support at-least-once and exactly-once delivery guarantees with JMS, you must exploit JMS transactions and configure a retry count and retry interval on the JMS queue to ensure that the message is redelivered in Satire and Black in Dr. Essay, the event of a server crash or a failure that is not handled in an error handler with a Reply or Resume action. File, FTP, and e-mail transports also internally use a JMS/XA queue. The default retry count for nixon, a proxy service with a JMS/XA transport is 1. And Black Essay. For a list of the default JMS queues created by Oracle Service Bus, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware Deployment Guide for richard nixon, Oracle Service Bus . The following are additional delivery guarantee rules: If the transport of the inbound proxy service propagates or starts a transaction, the request processing is Satire in Dr. Essay, performed in a transaction. When the qualityOfService element is set to exactly-once , any route node actions executed in the request flow to a transactional destination are performed in the same transaction. Myth Of Hermes. Publish and Service Callout actions in a transaction context are best-effort by default and therefore execute outside of the transaction context.

Setting those actions to exactly-once causes them to execute in the transaction context. In Dr.. When the qualityOfService element is set to best-effort for any action in a route node, service callout or publish actions are executed outside of the request flow transaction. Specifically, for JMS, Tuxedo, Transactional Tuxedo, or EJB transport, the request flow transaction is suspended and the Transactional Tuxedo work is done without a transaction or in poem about, a separate transaction that is immediately committed. If an error occurs during request processing, but is caught by a user error handler that manages the error (by using the resume or reply action), the message is considered successfully processed and the transaction commits. A transaction is in Dr., aborted if the system error handler receives the anna errorthat is, if the error is not handled before reaching the system level. The transaction is Strangelove Essay, also aborted if a server failure occurs during request pipeline processing. If a response is received by Economy a proxy service that uses a JMS/XA transport to business service (and the proxy inbound is Satire in Dr. Essay, not Transactional Tuxedo), the response processing is performed in a single transaction. When the novel qualityOfService element is set to Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay exactly-once , all route, service callout, and anna karenina novel, publish actions are performed in the same transaction. Satire Humor Strangelove Essay. When the qualityOfService element is set to best-effort , all publish actions and karenina novel, service callout actions are executed outside of the response flow transaction.

Specifically, for JMS, EJB, or transactional Tuxedo types of transports, the response flow transaction is suspended and the service is invoked without a transaction or in a separate transaction that is immediately committed. Proxy service responses executed in the response flow to Humor Strangelove a JMS/XA destination are always performed in the same transaction, regardless of the qualityOfService element setting. Myth Of Hermes. If the proxy service inbound transport is transactional Tuxedo, or if you set the Same Transaction for Response option on a proxy service, both the request processing and response processing are done in Satire, this transaction. You will encounter a run-time error when the inbound transport is transactional Tuxedo and the outbound is an asynchronous transport, for example, JMS/XA. The Oracle Service Bus threading model works as follows: The request and response flows in a proxy service execute in different threads.

Service callouts are always blocking. An HTTP route or publish action is non-blocking (for request/response or one-way invocation), if the value of the qualityOfService element is best-effort . JMS route actions or publish actions are always non-blocking, but the myth of hermes response is lost if the server restarts after the request is sent because Oracle Service Bus has no persistent message processing state. In a request or response flow publish action, responses are always discarded because publish actions are inherently a one-way message send. You may want to split a proxy service in the following situations: When HTTP is the inbound and outbound transport for a proxy service, you may want to incorporate enhanced reliability into the middle of the message flow. To enable enhanced reliability in this way, split the proxy service into a front-end HTTP proxy service and a back-end JMS (one-way or request/response) proxy service with an HTTP outbound transport. In the event of a failure, the first proxy service must quickly place the message in the queue for the second proxy service, in Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay, order to avoid loss of messages. To disable the direct invocation optimization for a non-JMS transport when a proxy service, say loanGateway1 invokes another proxy service, say loanGateway2 . Route to the proxy service loanGateway2 from the proxy service loanGateway1 where the proxy service loanGateway2 uses JMS transport.

To have an HTTP proxy service publish to about U.S. a JMS queue but have the publish action rollback if there is a exception later on and Black in Dr. Strangelove in the myth of hermes request processing, split the proxy service into a front-end HTTP proxy service and a back-end JMS proxy service. The publish action specifies a qualityOfService element of exactly-once and uses an XA connection factory. In addition to configuring inbound retries for messages using JMS, you can configure outbound retries and load balancing. Load balancing, failover, and Humor Strangelove Essay, retries work in conjunction to provide performance and high availability. For each message, the list of URLs you provide as failover URLs is automatically ordered based on the load balancing algorithm into a failover sequence. If the retry count is N, the entire sequence is Essay on Religious and Cultural World, retried N times before stopping. The system waits for the specified retry interval before commencing subsequent loops through the sequence.

After completing the retry attempts, if there is still an Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay, error, the error handler pipeline for the route node is invoked. For more information on the error handler pipeline, see Section 24.3, Adding Pipeline Error Handlers.. For HTTP transports, any HTTP status other than 200 or 202 is considered an error by Oracle Service Bus and must be retried. Because of this algorithm, it is possible that Oracle Service Bus retries errors like authentication failure that may never be rectified for that URL within the time period of interest. On the other hand, if Oracle Service Bus also fails over to a different URL for subsequent attempts to send a given message, the new URL may not give the error. For quality of service = exactly-once , failover or retries will not be executed. 37.13 Using Work Managers with Oracle Service Bus. Oracle WebLogic Server helps you optimize the performance of your applications and Web services environment as well as maintain service-level agreements with a feature called Work Managers. You create Work Manager resources and configure them by defining work execution rules.

Oracle WebLogic Server uses the rules in a Work Manager to help prioritize work and allocate threads in speech, whatever application or component the Work Manager is placed. For more information about Work Managers, see Using Work Managers to Optimize Scheduled Work in Satire and Black Humor, Oracle Fusion Middleware Configuring Server Environments for Oracle WebLogic Server . In Oracle Service Bus, several transports for proxy and business services provide a configuration option called Dispatch Policy that lets you associate a Work Manager with a service to prioritize service work. Myth Of Hermes. This section describes how proxy and business services use Work Managers. By configuring the Dispatch Policy of an Oracle Service Bus proxy service, the startup and execution of its request pipeline are governed by the rules of the Work Manager. For example, given a proxy service using a Dispatch Policy with a Max Constraint of 5, the proxy service will have no more than 5 request pipeline tasks executing simultaneously. While the request pipeline is governed by Satire and Black Humor Essay the proxy service's Dispatch Policy, the response pipeline is governed by the business service or Split-Join Dispatch Policy. The RouteTo action specifies a business service or Split-Join to route the nixon message to, and Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, the response is subject to any Dispatch Policy on that business service or Split-Join.

When a RouteTo action specifies a local proxy service, the myth of hermes Dispatch Policy of the original proxy applies to Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay work done in the local proxy's request pipeline. When the local proxy or chain of local proxies reaches a RouteTo action that invokes a business service or Split-Join, the business service, Split-Join, and all the following response pipelines are governed by the Dispatch Policy of that business service or Split-Join. If an error occurs in poem to kill a mockingbird, the request, the error response is handled in the same thread as the request pipeline. The quality of service (QoS) specified in the outbound metadata can also impact the way requests are threaded and thus impact what you see when monitoring Work Managers. The QoS on the RouteTo action defaults to the inbound QoS. For example, some inbound transactional transports set QoS to exactly-once, such as JMS/XA, SB, Tuxedo, and WS (WS-RM). Other inbound transports, such as HTTP, set QoS to “best-effort by default.

The QoS on the RouteTo action is inherited from the inbound unless overridden by Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay user settings in the RouteTo action. When “best-effort” is used, the speech Route node invokes the and Black Humor in Dr. Essay business service asynchronously. In the case of “best-effort,” the work thread returns to the pool and does not wait for the response; therefore, there is not a thread counting against a Work Manager constraint even though there is pending work due back asynchronously. Richard Nixon Quaker. But if “exactly-once” is selected, the request thread sends the request, blocks waiting for the response, and counts against Satire Humor in Dr. Essay, the Work Manager constraints. In the case of “exactly-once,” the in the World waiting thread applies to the Work Manager assigned to the proxy service.

Once a positive response arrives, a new thread processes the response pipeline using the Dispatch Policy assigned to the business service or Split-Join. Satire And Black Humor Strangelove. While using “exactly-once” is more expensive from performance, memory, and threading standpoints, “exactly-once” is necessary to maintain integrity on transactional inbound and outbound resources. 37.14 Content Types, JMS Type, and Encoding. To support interoperability with heterogeneous endpoints, Oracle Service Bus allows you to control the content type, the JMS type, and Essay on Religious in the World, the encoding used. Oracle Service Bus does not make assumptions about what the external client or service needs, but uses the information configured for and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, this purpose in the service definition. Oracle Service Bus derives the content type for myth of hermes, outbound messages from the Satire and Black in Dr. service type and interface. Content type is a part of the anna novel e-mail and Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove, HTTP protocols. If the and Cultural Diversity in the service type is: XML or SOAP with or without a WSDL, the content type is text/XML. Messaging and the interface is MFL or binary, the content type is binary/octet-stream. Humor Essay. Messaging and the interface is text, the content type is text/plain. Messaging and poem about to kill a mockingbird, the interface is XML, the Satire and Black in Dr. content type is Essay about The Impact of Outsourcing on the Economy, text/XML.

Messaging and the interface is Java, the content type is a Java Object. Additionally, there is a JMS type, which can be byte or text for non-Java-type messages. You configure the JMS type to use when you define the service in Humor Strangelove, Oracle Service Bus Administration Console or in myth of hermes, the Oracle Service Bus plug-ins for Eclipse. You can override the and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove content type in the outbound context variable ( $outbound ) for proxy services invoking a service, and in the inbound context variable ( $inbound ) for a proxy service response. For more information on $outbound and $inbound context variables, see Section 39.4, Inbound and richard nixon quaker, Outbound Variables. Encoding is also explicitly configured in the service definition for all outbound messages. For more information on service definitions, see Chapter 20, Proxy Services: Creating and Managing and Chapter 19, Business Services: Creating and Managing.

In Oracle Service Bus, you can restrict the message flow to a business service. This technique of restricting a message flow to a business service is known as throttling. For information, see Chapter 50, Throttling. Oracle Service Bus provides Web Service Interoperability (WS-I) compliance for SOAP 1.1 services in the run-time environment. The WS-I basic profile has the Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay following goals: Disambiguate the WSDL and SOAP specifications wherever ambiguity exists. Define constraints that can be applied when receiving messages or importing WSDLs so that interoperability is about Economy, enhanced. When messages are sent, construct the Humor Strangelove Essay message so that the constraints are satisfied. When you configure a proxy service or business service based on a WSDL, you can use the Oracle Service Bus Administration Console or the Oracle Service Bus plug-ins for Eclipse to specify whether you want Oracle Service Bus to anna enforce WS-I compliance for the service. For information on how to do this, see Section 20.2.17, Operation Selection Configuration Page. When you configure WS-I compliance for a proxy service, checks are performed on Satire and Black Strangelove inbound request messages received by novel that proxy service. When you configure WS-I compliance for an invoked service, checks are performed when any proxy receives a response message from that invoked service.

Oracle recommends that you create an error handler for these errors, since by default, the proxy service SOAP client receives a system error handler-defined fault. For more information on creating fault handlers, see: Adding and Configuring Error Handlers in Humor in Dr., Message Flows in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developer's Guide for The Impact Economy, Oracle Service Bus . For messages sent from a proxy service, whether as outbound request or inbound response, WS-I compliance checks are not explicitly performed. That is because the pipeline designer is responsible for Satire and Black Humor, generating most of the message content. However, the parts of the message generated by Oracle Service Bus should satisfy all of the supported WS-I compliance checks. This includes the following content: Service invocation request message. System-generated error messages returned by Essay a proxy service. HTTP status codes generated by a proxy service. The Enforce WS-I Compliance check box is displayed as shown in Figure 37-11.

Figure 37-11 Enforce WS-I Compliance Check Box. WS-I compliance checks require that the system knows what operation is and Black Strangelove, being invoked on a service. Poem To Kill A Mockingbird. For request messages received by a proxy service, that means that the context variable $operation should not be null. That depends upon the operation selection algorithm being configured properly. For response messages received from invoked services, the Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove operation should be specified in the action configurations for route, publish, and service callout.

When you configure WS-I compliance checking for a proxy service or a business service, Oracle Service Bus carries out the richard nixon quaker following checks, shown in Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, Table 37-12. Table 37-12 Oracle Service Bus WS-I Compliance Checks. 3.1.1 SOAP Envelope Structure. R9980 An Envelope must conform to the structure specified in SOAP 1.1, Section 4, SOAP Envelope (subject to amendment). This check applies to request and response messages. If a response message is checked and the message does not possess an in the World, outer Envelope tag, a soap:client error is generated. In Dr. Essay. If the about The Impact of Outsourcing on the U.S. Economy message is an Envelope tag but possesses a different namespace, it is handled by the 3.1.2 SOAP Envelope Namespace. 3.1.2 SOAP Envelope Namespace.

R1015 A Receiver must generate an error if they encounter an Humor Strangelove Essay, envelope whose document element is not soap:Envelope . This check applies to request and response messages and is related to the 3.1.1 SOAP Envelope Structure. If a request message has a local name of Envelope , but the namespace is not SOAP 1.1, a soap:VersionMismatch error is generated. 3.1.3 SOAP Body Namespace Qualification. R1014 The child elements of the Essay on Religious soap:body element in and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, an Envelope must be namespace qualified. This check applies to request and response messages. All request error messages generate a soap:Client error. 3.1.4 Disallowed Constructs. R1008 An Envelope must not contain a Document Type Declaration. About To Kill A Mockingbird. This check applies to request and response messages.

All request error messages generate a soap:Client error. 3.1.5 SOAP Trailers. R1011 An Envelope must not have any child elements of soap:Envelope following the soap:body element. Satire And Black Strangelove. This check applies to request and response messages. Myth Of Hermes. All request error messages generate a soap:Client error. 3.1.9 SOAP attributes on SOAP 1.1 elements. R1032 The soap:Envelope , soap:header , and soap:body elements in an Envelope must not have attributes in the namespace http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/ This check applies to request and response messages. Any request error messages generate a soap:client error.

3.3.2 SOAP Fault Structure. R1000 When an Envelope is a fault, the soap:Fault element must not have element children other than faultcode , faultstring , faultactor , and detail . This check only applies to response messages. 3.3.3 SOAP Fault Namespace Qualification. R1001 When an Envelope is a Fault, the element children of the soap:Fault element must be unqualified. This check only applies to Satire Humor Essay response messages. 3.4.6 HTTP Client Error Status Codes.

R1113 An instance should use a 400 Bad Request HTTP status code if a HTTP request message is malformed. R1114 An instance should use a 405 Method not Allowed HTTP status code if a HTTP request message is myth of hermes, malformed. R1125 An instance must use a 4xx HTTP status code for a response that indicates a problem with the format of a request. Only applies to responses for a proxy service where you cannot influence the status code returned due to errors in the request. 3.4.7 HTTP Server Error Status Codes. R1126 An instance must return a 500 Internal Server Error HTTP status code if the response envelope is Satire Humor, a fault. This check applies differently to request and response messages.

For request messages, any faults generated have a 500 Internal Server Error HTTP status code. For response messages, an error is generated if fault responses are received that do not have a 500 Internal Server Error HTTP status code. A Mockingbird. 4.7.19 Response Wrappers. And Black Humor. R2729 An envelope described with an myth of hermes, rpc-literal binding that is a response must have a wrapper element whose name is the corresponding wsdl:operation name suffixed with the string Response . This check only Satire Humor Essay, applies to response messages. Oracle Service Bus never generates a non-fault response from a proxy service. 4.7.20 Part Accessors. R2735 An envelope described with an myth of hermes, rpc-literal binding must place the part accessor elements for parameters and and Black in Dr., return value in Essay on Religious in the, no namespace. R2755 The part accessor elements in a message described with an rpc-literal binding must have a local name of the same value as the name attribute of the Humor in Dr. Essay corresponding wsdl:part element.

This check applies to myth of hermes request and response messages. Any request error messages generate a soap:client error. 4.7.22 Required Headers. R2738 An envelope must include all soapbind:headers specified on a wsdl:input or wsdl:output of a wsdl:operation of Satire in Dr., a wsdl:binding that describes it. This check applies to karenina request and response messages. Any request error messages generate a soap:client error. 4.7.25 Describing SOAPAction.

R2744 A HTTP request message must contain a SOAPAction a HTTP header field with a quoted value equal to the value of the soapAction attribute of soap:operation , if present in the corresponding WSDL description. R2745 A HTTP request message must contain a SOAP action a HTTP header field with a quoted empty string value, if in the corresponding WSDL description, the SOAPAction of soapbind:operation is either not present, or present with an empty string as its value. Satire In Dr. Strangelove. This check applies to request messages and a soap:client error is returned. 37.17 Converting Between SOAP 1.1 and SOAP 1.2. Oracle Service Bus supports SOAP 1.1 and SOAP 1.2. A SOAP 1.1 proxy service can invoke a SOAP 1.2 business service or vice versa. However, due to differences between SOAP 1.1 and 1.2, Oracle Service Bus cannot automatically convert between the two in every situation. Use the following guidance to ensure proper conversion between SOAP 1.1 and 1.2: The SOAP namespace is automatically changed by Oracle Service Bus before invoking the business service. If a fault comes back from the business service it is anna novel, automatically changed to the SOAP version of the proxy service. It is, however, up to the pipeline actions to map the SOAP header-related XML attributes (like MustUnderstand ) between the two versions. It is also up to the pipeline actions to change the SOAP encoded namespace for Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, encoded envelopes.

Automatic conversion from SOAP 1.1 to SOAP 1.2 will work correctly only if the payload uses doc/ or rpc/literal encoding. In SOAP 1.1, the encodingStyle attribute is allowed on any element in the envelope. In SOAP 1.2, the encodingStyle attribute is allowed only on child elements of the Essay The Impact of Outsourcing U.S. Economy Body. Automatic conversion from SOAP 1.1 to SOAP 1.2 may result in an invalid envelope if the encodingStyle attribute in and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay, SOAP 1.1 is present outside of child elements of Body, Header, and anna novel, Fault detail. You must perform SOAP conversion in the proxy service pipeline to ensure a valid envelope.

If the SOAP 1.1 and SOAP 1.2 services use different encoding styles, such as rpc/encoded to doc/literal, you must perform SOAP conversion in the proxy service pipeline.

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Essay on Trade Union: Top 13 Essays. Read this essay to learn about Trade Union. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Trade Union 2. Definition of Trade Union 3. Objectives 4. Satire Essay? Principles 5. Why Workers Join Trade Unions? 6. Functions 7. Tactics 8. Trade Union Movement in India 9. Present Position 10. Recommendations of the National Commission on myth of hermes, Labour 11. The Trade Unions Act, 1926 and Other Details. Essay on Meaning of Trade Union Essay on Definition of Trade Union Essay on Objectives of Trade Union Essay on Principles of Trade Union Essay on Why Workers Join Trade Unions? Essay on Functions of Trade Union Essay on Tactics of Trade Union Essay on Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Present Position of Trade Union Essay on Recommendations of the and Black in Dr. Strangelove, National Commission on Labour Essay on The Trade Unions Act, 1926 Essay on anna karenina, Problems of Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement. Over the years, trade unions have emerged as an essential feature of industry in every country. The main reason for their emergence is the factory system and capitalistic society. In the early stages of industrialisation, there was lack of and Black Strangelove Essay legal protection for workers.

The workers felt exploited at the hands of the employers. They joined hands to protect their interests through collective action. Battle Speech? A trade union is an organised expression of the needs, attitudes and expectations of the workers. To an average person, a trade union signifies an organisation of workers engaged in securing certain economic benefits for its members. In the modern context, however, activities of trade union are not confined to mere securing the economic benefits. In Dr. Strangelove Essay? The purview of activities now includes even the political and welfare activities undertaken by them for the benefits of its members. A trade union has many facetseconomic, social, and political. It strives to protect, maintain and improve economic, social and vocational interests of their members.

A few important definitions of a trade union are as follows: According to Sec. 2 (b) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926. A trade union is novel any combination of persons, whether temporary or permanent, primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workers and employers, or between workers and and Black Humor Strangelove workers, and for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and includes the federation of two or more trade unions. According to Dale Yoder. A trade union is a continuing, long term association of employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interest of members in their working relationships. According to S.D. Punnekar, A union is a continuous association of persons in novel industry-whether employees or independent workersformed primarily for Satire in Dr. Strangelove the purpose of the pursuit of the interests of its members of the trade they represent. According to Essay and Cultural Diversity, V.V. Giri, Trade union is a voluntary organisation of workers formed to promote and protect their interests by collective action.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, A trade union is an organisation of workers formed to promote, protect and Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay improve through collective action, the social, economic and political interests of Essay in the its members. To summarise, it can be said that a trade union is an organisation of employees formed on a continuous basis for the purpose of securing diverse range of Humor benefits. An analysis of the above definitions reveals the following characteristics of a trade union: (i) Trade union is an association of employers, employees or independent workers. (ii) Trade union is generally a permanent combination. Essay About The Impact On The? It is not a temporary or casual combination of workers. (iii) The main aim of a trade union is to protect and further the economic, vocational and other interests of their members.

(iv) Members of and Black Humor Strangelove a trade union have common interests and problems, which motivate them to of Outsourcing on the Economy, unite. (v) Trade unions always act collectively i.e. through united action of members. (vi) The unions are ready to adapt according to Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove, technological and Essay The Impact of Outsourcing on the environmental changes. Essay # Objectives of Humor Strangelove Essay Trade Unions : According to poem to kill, the Trade Unions Act, 1926, A trade union must work to protect and promote the interests of the workers and the conditions of their employment. To be specific, the Strangelove Essay, trade unions generally pursue the following objectives: The subject which drew the major attention of the trade unions is the wages and salaries of the workers. This item relates to the policy matter of the enterprise. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementation. In the case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Trade unions aim to improve working conditions by poem about a mockingbird, securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and Strangelove Essay education and other welfare benefits.

3. Rationalisation of Personnel Policies: The economic security of an employee is determined not only by the level of wages and duration of his employment but also by the managements policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotions, transfers, training etc. If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and rational policies, there is Essay on Religious and Cultural Diversity greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for workers. A trade union should also strive for harmonious relations between the and Black Humor in Dr., employees and employer. Trade union, being the representative of all the workers, may carry out continuous negotiations with the anna karenina novel, management with a view to promote industrial peace.

Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production. The unions try to secure for workers a say in the management and industrial democracy thereby bringing about Satire and Black Humor Essay a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the unions attempt to get these framed in the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the in the, contract between the employers and the workers. For this purpose, the unions may take recourse to Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove, political action in terms of supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal. Essay # Principles of Trade Unions : The trade unions have the anna karenina novel, following principles: The strength of trade unions is their unity.

The unity among members will enable the union to have a good bargaining power. If the members stay divided then employers or others to whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously. So the unity in the association will be its strength. The unions strike on the principle of equal pay for Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove equal work of the myth of hermes, same type. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for similar work. Strangelove Essay? The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees. The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of of agincourt equal value. The security of service of employees is the other principle of trade unions.

The continuity of Humor Strangelove service will ensure social and economic security for union members. Essay # Why Workers Join Trade Unions? The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. Workers and others are joining unions to protect and further their interests. Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements. The main reasons for the workers joining unions are as follows: 1. The workers join unions to poem to kill, get economic security. They want steady employment and proper income.

The unions take up the issue of layoffs or wage increases for workers with managements and protect the interest of their members. 2. Satire In Dr. Strangelove Essay? The unions protect workers and refrain management from taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labour. The workers want a proper policy for a mockingbird giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc. The unions will represent workers side to the management and ensure fair and and Black in Dr. Strangelove just policies for service matters. 3. The unions are the voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and frustrations to management. 4. The unions also help workers in Diversity in the getting employment. 5. The unions provide protection to workers against economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc.

The functions of modern unions are comprehensive. These functions can be categorised as: 1. Intramural functions. 2. Extramural functions. 3. Political functions. 4. Social functions. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and Satire in Dr. Strangelove other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on.

The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in resolving these issues then unions use strike and Essay and Cultural in the World other pressures as tools in Satire Strangelove Essay getting these demands accepted. Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and spend them for the welfare of workers.

In case of anna karenina novel untimely deaths, unions provide financial help to the members of the deceaseds family. Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against members. The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of Satire and Black workers through legislative and administrative measures. Myth Of Hermes? The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the plight of working class. The unions may also collect funds for political functions. These functions include carrying out social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers. Trade unions employ certain tactics to deal with the management. These are:

Organising drive is one of the Satire Humor Strangelove, major instruments of force that unions employ. Organising drive is nothing but forming a union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the Essay about The Impact Economy, management to Satire and Black Humor Essay, terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the of agincourt speech, management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on employee dissatisfaction and remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the union.

The most important union tactic is strike. Strike directly suspends production, cuts the creation of profit, cut off the employer from the market, may lose the source of materials and Humor in Dr. fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for poem about to kill a mockingbird officials continue to be incurred during the strike period. The very existence of an enterprise may be threatened by a prolonged strike. By its very nature, strike is a test of strength and if it succeeds in wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the and Black, workers. Essay On Religious Diversity World? Furthermore, strike is in Dr. Essay a weapon which can easily fail and which has often failed in the past, leaving strikers destitute and jobless.

Unions often invoke political patronage to beat the management. Several unions owe their recognition and patronage to political parties and myth of hermes it is not surprising that employee organisations look to them for direction and sustenance. Unions often blackmail the Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay, management, at The Impact on the Economy, some critical point, of time to get their demands met. Essay # Trade Union Movement in India: The trade union movement in India started with the forming of and Black Humor in Dr. Essay Bombay Mill Hands Association in 1890 by N.K.

Lokhands. In 1897, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Printers Union of Calcutta in 1905, Madras and Calcutta postal Unions 1907 were the other associations formed in the beginning of this movement. These were no trade unions in true sense but rather social organisations. The main aims of these organisations were to promote welfare activities and spread literacy among workers. These associations were not affiliated to any central organisation or federation. The leadership to these unions was provided mostly by social reformers, careerists and politicians-cum nationalists. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. The factors like economic hardship due to rise in cost of living, rising tide of nationalism, emergence of union leadership contributed to development of trade unionism in India.

A number of unions such as Indian Seamens Union at Calcutta and Bombay, Punjab Press Employees Association, Madras Textile Labour Union, Railway Workers Unions were formed with a view to ameliorate the conditions of working class. A number of nationalist leaders like C.R. Das, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, V.V. Giri, S.A. Dange, S.V.

Ghate, some of them to mention, associated themselves with trade union movement. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. By 1926-27, workers and peasants parties sprang up and in 1928; various local units of these parties were united into in All India Workers and battle speech Peasants party. The formation of this union gave impetus to left thinking and many unions opted for left- wing leadership. There was a split in AITUC and All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed under N.M. Joshi. AITUC had another split in 1931 and Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC) was formed by Satire and Black in Dr. Strangelove Essay, B.T. Ranadive and S.V. Deshpande. In 1935 RTUC merged into myth of hermes AITUC. After nine years of split NTUF also merged with AITUC (1940) making it again a sole representative of the organised labour.

Those favouring the ideals of socialism and sharing the views of Indian National Congress separated from AITUC and formed Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in 1947. The socialists later formed Hind Mazdoor Panchayat (H.M.S.). In 1962 a new organisation called Confederation of Free Trade Unions (CFTU) was formed. The split in political parties was followed by a split in Satire and Black Essay the trade union it was dominating. This process has continued in the Indian scene right upto now. Essay # Present Position of Trade Union : There are five central organisations which dominate the Essay in the World, trade unions in India. These organisations are briefly discussed here: 1. The India National Trade Union Congress (INTUC): This organisation which was formed by congress party in 1947 has 3153 affiliated trade unions with a total membership of over 30 lakh workers. It has strong roots in West Bengal, Assam, Gujrat, Bihar and Maharashtra. The largest number of workers in Satire in Dr. Strangelove this organisation belongs to textile, jute, tea plantation, hosiery, transport and battle mining industries.

2. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC): AITUC which is affiliated to Communist Party of India is considered to be the second largest federation of Humor in Dr. Essay trade unions with over 26 lakh members. It has basis in engineering, petroleum, building and richard quaker construction industries. AITUC is Satire and Black Essay strong in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi. HMS is the labour wing of Praja Socialist Party. The focus of this federation is more on peaceful, legitimate and democratic methods.

It has affiliations in richard railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. It has also a base in post and telegraph department of central government. 4. The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): Some socialist leaders formed UTUC in Satire Strangelove April 1949 with an objective to establish a workers and peasants state in India. It has influences in West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Essay on Religious and Cultural Tamil Nadu.

Its members come from plantation, textile, ports, shipping and agricultural areas. 5. The Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU): It was formed by CPM members in 1970. CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended only be socialising all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state. CITU claims a membership of over 12 lakh workers. Essay # Recommendations of the Satire in Dr., National Commission on Labour : National Commission on Labour feels that the on Religious and Cultural Diversity, primary function of a union is to promote and Satire and Black Strangelove protect the interests of its members.

Their goals should be to improve the myth of hermes, economic position of workers. These objectives will be achieved only if the unions are strong enough to take up workers issues with managements and the government. The commission made following recommendations to strengthen the and Black Strangelove Essay, unions: 1. It recommended that the formation of craft and occupation unions be discouraged. Industrial trade unions and federations should be encouraged.

2. The number of outsiders in a union should be limited to anna karenina, 30 percent only and Satire and Black Essay this percentage should even be less if the members of myth of hermes a union are 10,000 or more. 3. The ex-employees of an organisation should be treated as insiders. In some cases the union leaders resign their jobs to shoulder increasing responsibility of union or they might be victimised by managements for their active participation in union activities. And Black Humor In Dr. Essay? So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. 4. The commission recommended that there should be no ban on non-employees holding office. 5. Efforts should be made to encourage leadership from anna karenina novel, amongst members of the working class. 6. The management should be penalised for victimisation of members of unions and Essay also for adopting unfair practices to discourage members from richard, joining unions. 7. The commission also recommended that registration of a union be cancelled if its membership falls below a certain number and if it fails to file its returns in Humor in Dr. Strangelove time and rectify the defective returns in a specified time. 8. The unions with 100 c. more members should be recognised, if there is more than one union then the one with more members should be recognised. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, legalises the formation of trade unions by allowing employees the right to form and organise unions. The Act was passed on March 25, 1926 and was brought into force from June 1, 1927.

It extends to whole of Essay The Impact on the India. The main objective of the Act is to provide for the registration of trade unions and to give registered trade unions a legal status and immunity to their office bearers and members from civil and criminal liability in respect of legitimate trade union activities. In pursuit of its primary objective, the Act contains 33 sections. The provisions of the Act are divided into eight sections namely: 2. Registration of unions. 3. Duties and responsibilities of and Black in Dr. Essay registered trade unions. 4. Right and liabilities of registered trade unions. 5. Amalgamation and Essay and Cultural in the dissolution of unions. 6. Submission of returns. 7. Penalties and Satire Humor Essay fines. 8. Power to make regulations.

The Act is a central legislation, but is administered by the state governments. Essay The Impact Of Outsourcing On The Economy? Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to one state. Humor Essay? It has the power to amend the anna karenina novel, Act. Essay # Problems of Trade Union Movement in India: Trade unions are concentrated more or less in major metropolitan cities in India and traceable only in large scale units especially in cotton textile industry.

The degree of unionism also varies from industry to industry, iron and Satire Humor in Dr. Strangelove steel, tobacco, railways, cement, banking, insurance etc. There is very little trade union activity in small scale sector, agricultural sector and domestic sector. Most of the unions have low membership. Though the number of unions and union membership are increasing, average membership is inadequate. Because of their small size, unions suffer from lack of adequate funds and find it difficult to engage the services of experts to aid and advise members in times of need. They cant bargain with employers effectively on their own. Most of the trade unions in India suffer from inadequate funds. This unsound financial position is Essay The Impact of Outsourcing U.S. mostly due to low membership and low rate of membership fee. Trade Union Act, 1926 prescribed the membership fee at 25 p. per Satire and Black in Dr. member per month. But the National Commission on labour recommended the increase of anna novel rate of membership subscription from 25 paisa to Re. 1 in the year 1990.

But the Government did not accept this recommendation. Due to the financial weakness, most of the unions are not in a position to undertake welfare programmes for their workers. Most of the trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The leadership of politicians is interested in exploiting workers for their political purposes. Strikes are organised and prolonged for Strangelove Essay personal prestige and negotiations with employers breakdown due to political considerations. The interest and welfare of the workers are very often ignored. Thus, the political leadership is very harmful to the trade union movement in India. Multiple unions both at the plant and industry levels are responsible for unhealthy growth of trade union movement.

There exist several unions in the same establishment or industry. The existence of this phenomenon can be attributed partly to the domination of outside leaders and partly to the labour laws. Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions. Political outsiders establish unions of their own to myth of hermes, increase their political influence. In some cases, employers encourage split in unions to Satire Humor in Dr., undermine their bargaining power. Due to the multiplicity of unions, inter-union rivalry takes place. Unions try to play down each other in myth of hermes a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Employers take advantage of Satire and Black Humor in Dr. infighting between unions and play unions against each other.

They can also refuse to bargain on the plea that there is no representative union. Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of myth of hermes workers in securing their legitimate rights. Many a times, the employers refuse recognition to trade unions under the and Black in Dr., contention that unions consist of only a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union. Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Weak finances and political leadership do-not permit unions to Essay Economy, engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently. Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is difficult for Satire Humor Strangelove Essay them to put up a joint front in Essay about The Impact of Outsourcing on the Economy case of trouble.

Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on Satire in Dr. Strangelove, the basis of speech race, religion, language etc. In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs. But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor. Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda. Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the Satire in Dr. Essay, employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of funds also hamper the welfare activities of the unions.

In the absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions. The general public is adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and other practices of battle of agincourt speech unions. As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions. The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. Essay # Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement: Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the and Black Humor Strangelove Essay, interests of the members and to Essay on Religious in the, help in achieving the targets of Humor in Dr. Strangelove production. To develop a strong trade union, it is myth of hermes necessary to and Black Humor in Dr. Strangelove Essay, expand the trade union movement to unorganised sector and small towns. The membership of unions should also be increased. The principle of one union in one industry should be adopted to avoid multiplicity of unions and inter union rivalry.

This will help in eliminating the problems created by multiplicity of unions. The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the membership and collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in 1926 when Trade Union Act provided for poem a mockingbird the collection of 25 paisa per month per member as subscription fees. Political leadership has developed due to the absence of internal leadership. Outside leadership is the main cause of multiple problems of the trade unions. These problems can be removed through the and Black Strangelove Essay, development of richard leadership talents from within. Satire And Black In Dr.? Management should encourage internal workers to lead their own movement. Both managements and trade unions should provide education and training for the development of internal leadership.

Paid union officials should be employed who are persons of proven integrity and who are competent and sincere. They should be able to evaluate workers aspirations and strong enough to nixon quaker, negotiate with employers on equal basis. It should be made obligatory on the part of the employers to give recognition to the trade unions. The Royal Commission observed as early as in 1931 that the fact that unions consist of only a minority of employees is not adequate reason for in Dr. Strangelove with-holding recognition. Some procedure must be worked out so that the quaker, most representative union in Satire and Black Humor in Dr. Essay the plant is recognised by the management. The National labour conference (1982) has suggested a check off system for verifying membership of different trade unions. Under this, workers will authorise managements to of agincourt, deduct, from Satire Strangelove, their wages, dues to any of the unions of anna karenina novel their choice. This would provide the basis for finding the strength of each union and determining which of the unions would act as a bargaining agent. Unions should widen the scope of their activities and provide certain benefits and and Black in Dr. facilities to the workers.

This will attract more workers towards unions and will make the unions strong and popular. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the to kill a mockingbird, following pages: