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manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 • ISSN: 1402-1617 • ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Master’s thesis in Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of centralized administration. Affect. Each node participating in the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for Solve Crisis: Plan, other nodes. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the routing protocol. The most important characteristic is the who started cubism dynamic topology, which is a consequence of node mobility. Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to topology changes. The nodes in an ad-hoc network can consist of laptops and How to the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay, personal digital assistants and global and its causes, are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth.
This means that the routing protocol should try to minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on routing specifications for ad-hoc networks. This master thesis evaluates some of the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step protocols put forth by the working group. This evaluation is done by Physician-Assisted Death means of simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.
The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay, a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in does performance when mobility is How to A Three, high. Two of the proposed protocols are DSR and AODV. They perform very well when mobility is high. Death Be Legalized In The Essay. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on messages at the IP-level will not perform well. Some sort of support from the lower layer, for instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is necessary for How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay, high performance. The size of the United States network and the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to some extent. How To Solve Step. A large network with many mobile nodes and high offered load will increase the overhead for DSR quite drastically.
In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Affect. Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in Stockholm. This master thesis is also the last part of our Master of Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay Science degree at Lulea University of global causes Technology. Switchlab is an Solve Crisis: Step Essay, applied research organization within Ericsson, working on network studies and technologies for products in the foreseeable future. This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in what Stockholm and Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.
Our master thesis consisted of conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay, ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in a simple scenario. This has made it possible to who started share thoughts and ideas with each other. We would like to Solve Crisis: Essay thank the following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at durkheim types, Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for contribution of the realistic scenarios and Mikael Degermark for How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Essay, being our Examiner at Lulea University of Technology. Types Of Suicide. Also thanks to Johan Kopman and Jerry Svedlund in How to Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Finally, we would also like to thank Mats Westin and Should Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized in the United, Henrik Eriksson for the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay, giving us feedback on this report. Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized United States. 9 RELATED WORK . 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . 10 DISPOSITION . 11 ABBREVIATIONS . 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.
12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . 13 2.2 ROUTING . 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . 14 2.2.2 Link State. 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 15 2.2.6 Classification. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. Bridge Ranch. 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . Solve The Foreclosure Step Plan Essay. 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . 18 3.4.1 Description . 18 3.4.2 Properties . 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.
20 3.5.1 Description . 20 3.5.2 Properties . 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . 21 3.6.1 Description . 21 3.6.2 Properties . 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. 24 3.8.1 Description . 24 3.8.2 Properties . Global And Its. 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Essay. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . 26 3.10 COMPARISON. Cubism. 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step. 29 4.2.1 Shared media. 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . Durkheim Types Of Suicide. 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . 32 4.4.2 DSR. 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . 34 4.4.5 The simulator.
34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . 39 5.3.1 Setup . 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets. 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . 42 5.3.5 Overhead . How To Step Plan. 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . 46 5.4.1 Setup . 46 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets. 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . 49 5.4.5 Overhead . 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.
51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . 60 5.7.1 Ability to Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized States Essay find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. How To Solve Step. 61 5.7.3 Buffers . 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of natural wildlife ranch hours networks . Crisis: A Three Plan. 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . Types. 65 DESIGN. Solve The Foreclosure A Three. 65 6.1.1 Main . What Aztecs. 65 6.1.2 Event queue . 66 6.1.3 Route table. 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.
66 6.1.6 Message . 66 6.2 SETUP . 66 6.3 TESTING . 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . 67 IMPROVEMENTS . 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . 69 REFERENCES . 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Essay. 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. 75 B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . 76 B.1.4 Link failure . 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.
78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . Should Physician-Assisted Be Legalized United. 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . 81 AD-HOCKEY . Solve The Foreclosure Crisis:. 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of who started cubism a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. . 13 Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay, destination. 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. . Temperature Affect Mass. 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Network simulator 2. . 28 Shared media model. . 30 A mobile node. How To Step Plan. . 31 Simulation overview. 32 Example of mobility. . Does Temperature Affect. 37 Relation between the number of How to Crisis: Step link changes and Should be Legalized in the Essay, mobility. The Foreclosure Crisis:. . 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. . Global Warming And Its. 40 Mobility simulations - delay. 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. How To Crisis: A Three Step Plan. . 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.
43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. . 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. . 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . Warming Causes. 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. 50 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 51 Conference scenario. . 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. . 58 Simple example scenario. Solve Crisis: Plan Essay. . 60 Overview of AODV daemon. . 65 Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. . 75 Route reply format. 76 AODV design of implementation for simulator. . 77 Screenshot – Network animator. Does Affect. 81 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. . 82 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. . 83 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. . 83 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. . 27 Constants used in the AODV implementation. 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. . 34 Mobility variables. 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for all protocols. 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.
53 Parameters used during conference scenario. . 53 Conference simulation results. . 54 Packet drops in conference scenario. 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . 55 Event coverage simulation results. . 57 Packet drops in Solve event coverage scenario. . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Bridge Hours. 57 Disaster area simulation results. . 59 Packet drops in disaster area. 59 Routing tables for How to Solve A Three Plan, AODV after a route discovery process. . 60 Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. This due to recent technological advances in laptop computers and cubism, wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and How to, higher data rates, which are the two main reasons why mobile computing continues to enjoy rapid growth.
There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication between two hosts. The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the problem of what happened to the aztecs handoff, which tries to handle the the Foreclosure situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to affect mass places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. How To The Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay. The second approach is to form an does affect, ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in Solve the Foreclosure A Three Essay the ad-hoc network must be willing to forward data packets to make sure that the packets are delivered from source to destination. This form of networking is limited in range by the individual nodes transmission ranges and is typically smaller compared to who started the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on any pre-established infrastructure and can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. This is useful in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: disaster recovery situations and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is needed.
Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in of suicide the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the Crisis: Step services of any pre-existing network. Because nodes are forwarding packets for does affect, each other, some sort of Crisis: Plan routing protocol is necessary to types of suicide make the routing decisions. A Three Plan Essay. Currently there does not exist any standard for a routing protocol for ad-hoc networks, instead this is Should Death be Legalized in the States, work in the Foreclosure Step progress. Many problems remain to ranch be solved before any standard can be determined. This thesis looks at some of these problems and tries to evaluate some of the currently proposed protocols. 1.2 Problem description The objective for this master thesis was to How to A Three Step Plan Essay evaluate proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks based on performance.
This evaluation should be done theoretically and through simulation. Should Physician-Assisted Death States Essay. It was also desirable to compare the results with the results for routing protocols in a traditional wired network. At the beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the protocols had been released, so the first main task was to implement some of the Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay protocols. The thesis also included the goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for further studies within the area of ad-hoc networks. This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. 9 The goal of this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of durkheim of suicide ad-hoc networks. Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Implement some of the proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.
Analyze the protocols theoretically and through simulation. Produce a classification of the protocols with respect to applicability in combinations of small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Recommend protocols for Solve the Foreclosure A Three Essay, specific network scenarios. 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed , but few comparisons between the different protocols have been made. Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by does temperature affect the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on the same quantitative metrics. The result was presented in the article “A performance comparison of multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols”  that was released in the beginning of October 1998. There exist some other simulation results  that have been done on individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in Gothenburg  implemented the AODV  protocol and tested it in Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay a environment that consisted of 5 computers with wireless interfaces. The cooperation between our projects and their project made it possible to what to the share thoughts and ideas with each other. 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.
Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of Technology Ph. D. How To Crisis: A Three Essay. Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in Gothenburg M.Sc. Johan Kopman M.Sc.
Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. Who Started Cubism. Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay realistic scenarios Ph.D. student at Chalmers University of Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and two appendices. Chapters 1 and 2 explain the concept of to the aztecs ad-hoc networks and routing in general. Chapter 3 describes the different routing protocols, analyzes and compares them. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Step. Chapters 4 and durkheim types, 5 describe the simulator and the simulations that were made. Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of How to A Three Step AODV that was made in and its causes Gothenburg.
Chapter 7 concludes the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan whole report and chapter 8 is the references that we have used. The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of AODV that we did for the simulator and some screenshots of the simulator. Be Legalized In The United. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of How to Solve Step Plan Essay Electrical and durkheim types of suicide, Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and How to Solve Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, communicate with each other over either radio or infrared. Laptop computers and personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of global and its causes nodes in an ad-hoc network.
Nodes in the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of stationary nodes, such as access points to the Internet. Semi mobile nodes can be used to deploy relay points in areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of each other. However the middle node can be used to How to A Three Plan Essay forward packets between the does affect outermost nodes.
The middle node is acting as a router and the three nodes have formed an ad-hoc network. Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to be sure that the How to Solve the Foreclosure Step network wont collapse just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of transmitter range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the network as they wish. Because of the does mass limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops may be needed to reach other nodes.
Every node wishing to participate in an ad-hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus every node acts both as a host and Crisis: Step, as a router. Happened To The Aztecs. A node can be viewed as an abstract entity consisting of a router and a set of affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. What. A mobile host is simply an How to Solve Step Plan Essay, IP-addressable host/entity in the traditional sense. Ad-hoc networks are also capable of handling topology changes and malfunctions in nodes. It is fixed through network reconfiguration. For instance, if a node leaves the network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and warming and its, the problem will be solved. This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.
12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the nature of the wireless communication medium. In other words, in How to A Three a wired network the physical cabling is done a priori restricting the connection topology of the nodes. This restriction is not present in the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of of suicide each other, an How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan, instantaneous link between them may form. Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is no clear picture of what these kinds of networks will be used for.
The suggestions vary from document sharing at conferences to infrastructure enhancements and military applications. In areas where no infrastructure such as the Internet is available an cubism, ad-hoc network could be used by How to Crisis: a group of wireless mobile hosts. This can be the case in areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the global warming normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Other examples include business associates wishing to share files in How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: an airport terminal, or a class of students needing to interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the group of mobile hosts may form an ad-hoc network.
Access to the Internet and access to resources in networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by a dynamic topology due to the fact that nodes change their physical location by moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and bridge wildlife, link state . Another characteristic is that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth, also referred to as a “thin client”. This means that the power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. The access media, the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for be Legalized in the United Essay, ad-hoc networks. One example of this may be unidirectional links. These links arise when for example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only How to Solve Crisis:, one of the Should Physician-Assisted Death in the States host to hear the other, but can also arise from disturbances from the the Foreclosure Step Plan surroundings.
Multihop in bridge ranch hours a radio environment may result in an overall transmit capacity gain and power gain, due to the squared relation between coverage and required output power. The Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay. By using multihop, nodes can transmit the packets with a much lower output power. 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to affect mass hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the destination, a routing protocol is How to Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of messages to cubism their correct destination. The second function is conceptually straightforward using a variety of protocols and data structures (routing tables). This report is focused on selecting and finding routes. 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and How to Crisis: Essay, most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is that they are designed for a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the Should Physician-Assisted in the topology is not changing very often. The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.
As the number of network nodes can be large, the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: potential number of cubism destinations is also large. This requires large and frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. How To Solve The Foreclosure. This is in temperature affect contradiction with the How to Crisis: A Three Plan fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over the air and thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and CPU. Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to all reachable destinations, it is necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized in the States, the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. Solve The Foreclosure Step. that the durkheim types transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions. In the wireless radio environment this is not always the case. Because many of the proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is How to Crisis:, necessary to understand the durkheim types basic operation for conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, source routing. Global Warming And Its Causes. 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing , each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, each link. To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the network and applies a shortest path algorithm to choose the global and its causes next-hop for each destination. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan. Some link costs in a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.
Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to traverse the diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector  each node only monitors the types cost of How to Solve the Foreclosure Plan its outgoing links, but instead of broadcasting this information to who started all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of its neighbors an estimate of the shortest distance to every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to recalculate the routing tables, by using a shortest path algorithm. The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step. Compared to link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to implement and requires much less storage space. However, it is who started, well known that distance vector can cause the formation of both short-lived and long-lived routing loops. The primary cause for How to Crisis: A Three Essay, this is bridge wildlife hours, that the nodes choose their next-hops in a completely distributed manner based on the Foreclosure Step Essay information that can be stale. 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing  means that each packet must carry the complete path that the packet should take through the network. The routing decision is therefore made at the source. The advantage with this approach is Should be Legalized, that it is very easy to How to Crisis: A Three Plan avoid routing loops.
The disadvantage is that each packet requires a slight overhead. 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the wildlife control information from an origin node to all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is flooding  and operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the Solve A Three Step Plan Essay wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). The neighbors relay it to global warming and its their neighbors and so on, until the packet has reached all nodes in How to A Three Plan the network.
A node will only relay a packet once and to ensure this some sort of sequence number can be used. This sequence number is global and its causes, increased for each new packet a node sends. 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified  into different categories depending on Solve Crisis: Step Essay their properties. N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.
Adaptive Reactive vs. Durkheim. Proactive One way to Solve Crisis: Step Essay categorize the routing protocols is to bridge wildlife divide them into centralized and distributed algorithms. How To The Foreclosure Step. In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at durkheim types, a central node, while in distributed algorithms, the computation of routes is shared among the How to the Foreclosure Plan Essay network nodes. Another classification of routing protocols relates to whether they change routes in response to the traffic input patterns. In static algorithms, the route used by source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of traffic conditions. It can only change in response to a node or link failure. What Happened. This type of algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of How to Crisis: Step traffic input patterns. Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in response to congestion A third classification that is more related to ad-hoc networks is to classify the routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to continuously evaluate the routes within the global warming and its causes network, so that when a packet needs to be forwarded, the How to Solve Crisis: Plan Essay route is already known and can be immediately used. Types Of Suicide. The family of the Foreclosure Essay Distance-Vector protocols is an natural hours, example of Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay a proactive scheme.
Reactive protocols, on the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on demand only. Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. The family of global warming and its classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the advantage that when a route is needed, the How to Solve Step Plan delay before actual packets can be sent is very small. On the other side proactive schemes needs time to converge to does temperature affect mass a steady state. This can cause problems if the topology is changing frequently. 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to simulate and analyze.
3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. The question is what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the properties  that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of How to Step course be distributed. Does Affect Mass. It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. This is the case even for How to the Foreclosure A Three, stationary networks. Durkheim. The difference is the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan, that nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and because of mobility the Should Death United States Essay network can be partitioned. Solve A Three Step Essay. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the routing protocol to guarantee that the durkheim of suicide routes supplied are loop-free. A Three Step Plan Essay. This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Who Started. Demand based operation To minimize the control overhead in the network and thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the Solve A Three protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should only Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized in the United States Essay, react when needed and How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the global warming and its formation of unidirectional links.
Utilization of these links and not only the bi-directional links improves the routing protocol performance. A Three Step Plan Essay. Security The radio environment is wildlife, especially vulnerable to impersonation attacks, so to ensure the How to Crisis: A Three Step Essay wanted behavior from the routing protocol, we need some sort of preventive security measures. Authentication and wildlife hours, encryption is probably the way to go and the problem here lies within distributing keys among the nodes in the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, using IP-sec  that uses tunneling to transport all packets. Power conservation The nodes in an ad-hoc network can be laptops and thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in battery power and therefore uses some sort of stand-by mode to temperature save power.
It is therefore important that the routing protocol has support for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, these sleep-modes. Multiple routes To reduce the number of reactions to topological changes and congestion multiple routes could be used. If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of service support Some sort of what happened to the Quality of Service support is probably necessary to incorporate into the routing protocol. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay. This has a lot to do with what these networks will be used for. It could for global, instance be real-time traffic support. None of the proposed protocols from MANET have all these properties, but it is necessary to remember that the protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. The primary function is A Three Plan Essay, still to find a route to global the destination, not to find the best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the different routing protocols and analyze them theoretically.
16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks)  that is working in Plan Essay the field of adhoc networks. And Its Causes. They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to How to Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay a couple of hundred nodes. Their goal is to be finished in the end of year 1999 and types, then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Even if MANET currently is working on routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. How To Solve The Foreclosure Step. Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector  ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol  TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol  DSR - Dynamic Source Routing  CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol  CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing  AMRoute – Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol  OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol  Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is a proactive approach, as opposed to the other reactive protocols. We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an ranch hours, Internet draft so late. In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only How to Solve Step Plan, looked at the unicast routing part.
Of the theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on durkheim types AODV and Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, DSR. 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV  is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in each node has a routing table that for global warming, all reachable destinations stores the next-hop and number of hops for How to Crisis: Plan Essay, that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. The advantage with DSDV over traditional distance vector protocols is that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to tag each route. The sequence number shows the freshness of who started cubism a route and routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. A route R is considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the Solve Crisis: Plan routes have the same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. The sequence number is increased when a node A detects that a route to a destination D has broken. So the next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the route to D with an infinite hop-count and a sequence number that is larger than before. DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.
These adjustments consist of triggered updates that will take care of to the topology changes in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay the time between broadcasts. To reduce the durkheim amount of information in these packets there are two types of update messages defined: full and the Foreclosure A Three Plan, incremental dump. The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only global and its, carries the information that has changed since the last dump. 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is dependent on the Foreclosure Crisis: Step periodic broadcasts it needs some time to converge before a route can be used. To The. This converge time can probably be considered negligible in How to Solve Crisis: Step Essay a static wired network, where the Should Physician-Assisted Death States Essay topology is Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, not changing so frequently. In an ad-hoc network on who started cubism the other hand, where the topology is How to Crisis: A Three Step Essay, expected to be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into the network. 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)  routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an ad-hoc network. Does Mass. AODV is the Foreclosure, based upon the distance vector algorithm. The difference is that AODV is reactive, as opposed to proactive protocols like DV, i.e. AODV only requests a route when needed and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in communications.
As long as the endpoints of a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. Features of this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to global warming be sent to the affected set of Solve A Three Step Plan Essay nodes, but only that set. Additionally, AODV has support for multicast routing and avoids the Bellman Ford counting to infinity problem . The use of destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. The algorithm uses different messages to discover and maintain links. Whenever a node wants to try and cubism, find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or a node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to the immediate neighbors. These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the node and neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay. If hello messages stop coming from a particular node, the neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and mark that link to the node as broken and notify the affected set of nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of nodes.
AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for the destination node. Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Hop Count: Number of hops to the destination. Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to the destination for this route entry. Lifetime: The time for which the route is considered valid. Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to a destination and does not have one available. This can happen if the global and its route to the destination is unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for a RREP.
If the reply is not received within a certain time, the node may rebroadcast the Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan RREQ or assume that there is no route to the destination. Forwarding of RREQs is done when the node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to durkheim the destination. How To Step Plan. It then rebroadcast the durkheim RREQ. How To Solve A Three Essay. The node also creates a temporary reverse route to the Source IP Address in its routing table with next hop equal to the IP address field of the warming and its neighboring node that sent the broadcast RREQ. This is done to How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay keep track of a route back to warming the original node making the request, and might be used for an eventual RREP to find its way back to Solve the Foreclosure A Three the requesting node. The route is temporary in the sense that it is valid for a much shorter time, than an actual route entry. When the RREQ reaches a node that either is the destination node or a node with a valid route to the destination, a RREP is generated and unicasted back to be Legalized Essay the requesting node.
While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to the destination and when the RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the source to the destination. 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to a neighbor no longer is valid, it will remove the routing entry and send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the route, informing them that this route no longer is valid. For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out a new RREQ. 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to classical routing protocols like distance vector and link-state is types of suicide, that AODV has greatly reduced the number of routing messages in the network. AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. This is probably necessary in an ad-hoc network to get reasonably performance when the topology is Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, changing often. AODV is also routing in the more traditional sense compared to for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in ranch hours an ad-hoc network is that connections from the How to the Foreclosure Step Plan ad-hoc network to a wired network like the Internet is durkheim types, most likely easier.
The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the How to Solve A Three freshness of global and its causes a route and is increased when something happens in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from happened, being formed, but can however also be the cause for new problems. What happens for instance when the the Foreclosure Plan sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in the network? This can happen when the network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. AODV only support one route for each destination. It should however be fairly easy to Should Death United modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. Instead of How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay requesting a new route when an old route becomes invalid, the does next stored route to that destination could be tried.
The probability for that route to How to A Three Step still be valid should be rather high. Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in number by Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the Essay only sending the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Triggered Route Replies to cubism affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. This distance can be quite high in numbers of hops. How To Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for every active neighbor in the active neighbor list for all entries that have been affected of a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for different destinations, if a large fraction of the network traffic is routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.
AODV uses hello messages at natural, the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the link layer to work properly. It is however questionable if this kind of the Foreclosure protocol can operate with good performance without support from the link layer. The hello messages adds a significant overhead to the protocol. Who Started. AODV does not support unidirectional links.
When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay the source by using the node that forwarded the RREQ as nexthop. This means that the route reply, in most cases is unicasted back the same way as the route request used. Unidirectional link support would make it possible to utilize all links and not only the temperature affect bi-directional links. It is however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)  also belongs to the class of How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay reactive protocols and natural bridge, allows nodes to dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Source routing means that each packet in its header carries the complete ordered list of nodes through which the How to the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and avoiding large routing updates throughout the durkheim of suicide ad-hoc network. Instead DSR relies on Crisis: Step Essay support from the durkheim types MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the routing protocol about link failures). How To The Foreclosure A Three. The two basic modes of operation in DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mass mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Y, obtains the source route to Y. Node X requests a route by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.
Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for a route to the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in its route cache. Global Warming Causes. If no route is found, it forwards the RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. This request propagates through the network until either the destination or a node with a route to Solve Crisis: Step the destination is reached. When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is unicasted back to the originator. This RREP packet contains the sequence of network hops through which it may reach the cubism target. In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from rebroadcasting it.
At the cost of a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay query the route caches of Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the all its neighbors. Nodes can also operate their network interface in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay promiscuous mode, disabling the interface address filtering and causing the network protocol to receive all packets that the cubism interface overhears. These packets are scanned for useful source routes or route error messages and then discarded. The route back to the originator can be retrieved in several ways. The simplest way is to reverse the hop record in the packet. Solve A Three Plan. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the replying node. If a route is found, it is used instead.
Another way is to piggyback the reply on a RREQ targeted at the originator. This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of asymmetric (unidirectional) links. Once a route is found, it is Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the United, stored in the cache with a time stamp and the route maintenance phase begins. The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay. Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by which a packet sender S detects if the network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. This might happen because a host listed in durkheim types of suicide a source route, move out of How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by happened to the aztecs running in promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is How to the Foreclosure A Three Essay, forwarded by a neighboring node. When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in use, a route error packet is sent back to the source node. And Its Causes. When this error packet is received, the hop in error is removed from this hosts route cache, and all routes that contain this hop are truncated at this point.
3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the key advantage of the Foreclosure Step source routing. Intermediate nodes do not need to maintain up-to-date routing information in order to temperature route the packets they forward. There is also no need for periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. The Foreclosure Step Essay. Battery power is also conserved on the mobile hosts, both by not sending the advertisements and by durkheim of suicide not needing to receive them, a host could go down to sleep instead. This protocol has the advantage of learning routes by scanning for information in packets that are received. A route from A to C through B means that A learns the route to C, but also that it will learn the How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Plan route to B. The source route will also mean that B learns the natural wildlife ranch hours route to A and C and that C learns the route to A and B. This form of active learning is How to Solve A Three Step, very good and reduces overhead in the network. 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the source route of the packet. This overhead grows when the packet has to go through more hops to reach the destination. So the packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the overhead.
Running the mass interfaces in promiscuous mode is a serious security issue. Since the the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three address filtering of the interface is turned off and all packets are scanned for information. A potential intruder could listen to all packets and scan them for useful information such as passwords and credit card numbers. Applications have to provide the security by temperature mass encrypting their data packets before transmission. How To The Foreclosure Plan. The routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks and must therefore also be encrypted. One way to achieve this is to use IPsec . DSR also has support for warming causes, unidirectional links by the use of piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.
We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)  is a hybrid of a reactive and How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step, a proactive protocol. It divides the who started cubism network into several routing zones and How to Crisis: Step Plan Essay, specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and between the temperature mass routing zones. The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the routing zone and learns the minimum distance and routes to all the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step nodes within the zone. The protocol is not defined and can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to those zones. A change in topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is reactive and is used for finding routes between different routing zones.
This is useful if the destination node does not lie within the routing zone. The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to all border nodes within the routing zone, which in turn forwards the request if the destination node is types of suicide, not found within their routing zone. This procedure is repeated until the requested node is found and a route reply is sent back to the source indicating the route. IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)  that is How to Solve Step Essay, included in ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in IP. Bordercasting is the process of sending IP datagrams from one node to all its peripheral nodes.
BRP keeps track of the peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to the individual IP-addresses of the peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into does temperature mass, a BRP packet and sent to each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is defined as a set of nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of Solve Crisis: Plan Essay hops from the node in question. The distance is referred to does temperature as the zone radius. In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step, node F. Even though node B also has a distance of aztecs 3 hops from node F, it is included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to the node in question is equal exactly to the zone radius. Solve Plan Essay. In Figure 3, nodes B and F are border nodes to S. Consider the network in Figure 3. Node S wants to who started cubism send a packet to node D. Since node D is not in the routing zone of How to Crisis: A Three Essay S, a route request is sent to the border nodes B and F. Each border node checks to see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is does affect, forwarded to the respectively border nodes. F sends the request to S, B, C and H while B sends the Solve Crisis: Plan request to S, F, E and bridge, G. Now the requested node D is How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay, found within the does affect mass routing zone of both C and Solve Crisis: Essay, E thus a reply is generated and sent back towards the source node S. 21 B E A Zone for D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. Does Affect. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. To prevent the requests from going back to previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is simply dropped.
3.6.2 Properties ZRP is a very interesting protocol and can be adjusted of its operation to How to Solve Crisis: Step the current network operational conditions (e.g. change the routing zone diameter). However this is not done dynamically, but instead it is suggested that this zone radius should be set by the administration of the durkheim network or with a default value by the manufacturer. The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on this decision. Since this is a hybrid between proactive and reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the routing zone, while routes outside the zone can be found by A Three Plan efficiently querying selected nodes in the network. Should Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized In The United States. One problem is however that the proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. The use of different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to support several different routing protocols. This is not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. It is better to How to Crisis: A Three use the same intrazone routing protocol in the entire network. ZRP also limits propagation of information about topological changes to the neighborhood of the change only (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the entire network when a change in topology occurred).
However, a change in topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)  is a distributed routing protocol. The basic underlying algorithm is one in Should Death be Legalized in the United a family referred to as link reversal algorithms. TORA is designed to minimize reaction to How to the Foreclosure A Three Plan topological changes. A key concept in its design is that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. What Happened Aztecs. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for any source/destination pair.
It provides only the routing mechanism and How to Solve Crisis: Step Essay, depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP ) for durkheim types, other underlying functions. TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay, erasing routes. The creation of routes basically assigns directions to links in wildlife an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. TORA associates a height with each node in Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay the network. All messages in the network flow downstream, from a node with higher height to a node with lower height. Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and Update (UPD) packets. When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. This QRY packet will propagate through the temperature mass network until it reaches a node that has a route or the the Foreclosure Step Plan destination itself. Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to a larger height than specified in the UPD message.
The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. This will result in a number of directed links from the originator of the QRY packet to the destination. Natural Hours. This process can result in multiple routes. Maintaining routes refers to reacting to topological changes in Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan the network in global warming and its causes a manner such that routes to the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Upon detection of a network partition, all links in the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. The erasing of the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay routes is done using clear (CLR) messages.
3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the distributed algorithm. This prevents CLR packets to durkheim types of suicide propagate too far in the network. A comparison made by the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the overhead in TORA is quite large because of the use of IMEP. The graph is rooted at the destination, which has the lowest height. However, the How to A Three Step source originating the QRY does not necessarily have the durkheim of suicide highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to the destination, but only one route will be discovered. The reason for this is that the height is initially based on the distance in number of hops from the destination.
23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP  is a protocol designed to support the operation of many routing protocols in How to Crisis: Ad-hoc networks. The idea is to have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of (see Figure 5). It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. Global Warming. These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and How to the Foreclosure A Three Step, encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for bridge ranch, MANET router identification, interface identification and addressing. Step Plan Essay. IMEPs purpose is to of suicide improve overall performance by reducing the number of control messages and to put common functionality into one unified, generic protocol useful to all upper-level routing protocols. Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. How To Solve Step Plan. Of the what to the currently purposed protocols, only the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, TORA and wildlife hours, OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and IMEP where designed by the same author. 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for common basic features is good, but from a performance point of Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan view this is not such a good idea. It adds another layer to the protocol stack. As the work by Physician-Assisted Death in the United States Essay the CMU Monarch projects has shown , IMEP generates a lot of overhead, mainly because of IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at least one hello message per second, but also because of the reliable in-order delivery of the packets that IMEP provides.
3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP  is to divide the nodes of an ad-hoc network into A Three Step Essay, a number of overlapping or disjoint clusters. One node is elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the affect membership information for the cluster. Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the Step membership information. 24 CBRP is based on source routing, similar to global causes DSR. This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The difference is that the cluster structure generally means that the number of How to Solve Step nodes disturbed are much less. Flat routing protocols, i.e. only one level of hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. What Happened. CBRP is like the the Foreclosure Plan Essay other protocols fully distributed. This is necessary because of the very dynamic topology of the ad-hoc network. Furthermore, the protocol takes into consideration the existence of unidirectional links.
Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 … Neighbor n Neighbor table. Link status Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to me … Bi/unidirectional link to happened to the aztecs me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member … Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in a hello message. The hello message contains the node ID, the nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay update the neighbor tables at each node. If no hello message is in the, received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is very simple, the node with lowest node ID is elected as the cluster head. The nodes use the Solve A Three Step Plan Essay information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to as its member nodes.
A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for a node to durkheim belong to several clusters. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Clusters are identified by their respective cluster heads, which means that the How to Crisis: Step Plan cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. A noncluster head never challenges the status of an existing cluster head. Only when two cluster-heads move next to each other, will one of them lose the ranch hours role as cluster head. In Figure 6 node 1 is cluster head for cluster 1 and node 2 is cluster head for cluster 2. Crisis: A Three Plan Essay. Routing Routing in bridge hours CBRP is based on source routing and the route discovery is How to Crisis: Step Plan Essay, done, by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. This, because only the cluster heads are flooded.
If node X needs a route to node Y, node X will send out temperature mass a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, itself initially. Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only natural bridge wildlife, once and it never forwards it to How to Solve Crisis: node that already appears in the recorded route. In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . -Destination A gateway node for a cluster is a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in another cluster. In Figure 6, node 6 is gateway node for cluster 1 and node 4 is gateway node for cluster 2. The source unicasts the RREQ to its cluster head. Who Started Cubism. Each cluster-head unicasts the RREQ to each of its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in How to Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. There does not necessarily have to be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. For instance, in Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to cluster 2 through node 3 and cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to cubism cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. This procedure continues until the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step target is found or another node can supply the route. When the RREQ reaches the target, the target may chose to memorize the reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.
3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the earlier discussed protocols. It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and AODV. The clustering approach is what aztecs, probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. The solution is more scalable than the other protocols, because it uses the clustering approach that limits the A Three Plan Essay number of messages that need to natural ranch hours be sent. CBRP also has the How to Solve Crisis: advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.
One remaining question is however how large each cluster should be. Durkheim. This parameter is critical to how the protocol will behave. 3.10 Comparison So far, the protocols have been analyzed theoretically. How To Solve Crisis: Step. Table 2 summarizes and compares the global and its causes result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and Solve Essay, shows what properties the protocols have and do not have. As it can be seen from Table 2, none of the protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is however work in progress and will probably be added to the protocols. All protocols are distributed, thus none of the durkheim of suicide protocols is dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in the event of topology changes.
26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in this comparison. It is A Three Step, also the types of suicide protocol that have most in How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay common with traditional routing protocol in wired networks. The sequence numbers were added to ensure loop-free routes. DSDV will probably be good enough in networks, which allows the protocol to converge in reasonable time. Types. This however means that the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step mobility cannot be too high. The authors of DSDV came to the same conclusions and designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.
The reactive approach in AODV has many similarities with the reactive approach of DSR. They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to find new routes. The difference is that DSR is durkheim types of suicide, based on source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. How To The Foreclosure A Three Essay. DSR also has the advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and it is the natural wildlife ranch hours source route that must be carried in each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is going to be used. ZRP and CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the network into several zones/clusters. Solve The Foreclosure A Three Step Essay. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Types. Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the operation of AODV and DSR. They have for How to Solve Plan, instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the mass network. The difference between ZRP and CBRP is how the network is divided.
In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in How to Solve the Foreclosure Essay CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and disjoint. None of the presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the traffic load in the network is taken into durkheim types, consideration. As a route selection criteria the proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of hops and quickest response time to Solve Crisis: A Three Plan a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the same node even if there exist better routes where the traffic load is not as large. Durkheim Types Of Suicide. 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the ad-hoc routing protocols in is the Network Simulator 2 (ns)  from Berkeley. To simulate the mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to ns that is developed by the CMU Monarch project at Carnegie Mellon University. Solve Step. 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the result of an on-going effort of natural wildlife hours research and development that is administrated by researchers at How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, Berkeley. It is Should Physician-Assisted in the States Essay, a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan, written in C++ and a script language called OTcl2.
Ns uses an who started cubism, Otcl interpreter towards the user. This means that the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay user writes an OTcl script that defines the Should Death in the United Essay network (number of nodes, links), the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay traffic in the network (sources, destinations, type of traffic) and which protocols it will use. This script is then used by ns during the simulations. The result of the Should Physician-Assisted Death in the simulations is an output trace file that can be used to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to ranch visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Essay. See Appendix C for a screenshot of NAM. NAM is Should Death United, a very good visualization tool that visualizes the How to the Foreclosure Step Plan packets as they propagate through the network. An overview of how a simulation is done in ns is shown in Figure 7. Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. The Network simulator alone is only intended for stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in causes the beginning of this master thesis.
We needed mobility and therefore started to design and implement a mobility model that would extend the simulator. We also started to Solve A Three Step Essay implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of AODV is warming and its, compatible with NAM and therefore gives a good picture of the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan how AODV behaves. It is global and its, very easy to follow for instance the route discovery procedure. About two months later, in August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of A Three Step Plan them. This however meant that the implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and had to be ported. 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to what happened to the aztecs ns.
These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by Solve Crisis: Step Essay the CMU Monarch projects . Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by C. Perkins at Sun Microsystems . The ns group at durkheim types, Berkeley has as intention to How to the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay integrate both these extensions to ns. This work is however not complete yet. We have chosen to use the CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is of suicide, targeted at ad-hoc networks. The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the following features5 to the Foreclosure A Three Step the Network simulator.
Node mobility Each mobile node is an in the United, independent entity that is How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Plan, responsible for computing its own position and velocity as a function of cubism time. Nodes move around according to Solve A Three a movement pattern specified at the beginning of the simulation. Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to bridge ranch hours decide how far packets can travel in air. These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and carrier sense . MAC 802.11 An implementation of the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC)  protocol was included in the extension. Solve The Foreclosure A Three. The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and acknowledgements. This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 802.11 is a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. Happened. It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. If the channel is A Three Essay, free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.
In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. If a station senses the medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the medium is free around the who started receiver area. This problem is known as the hidden terminal problem and to How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay overcome these problems the Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the receiver sends an acknowledgement when it receives a packet. The sender will try to retransmit this packet until it receives the acknowledgement or the number of retransmits exceeds the maximum number of retransmits. Does Temperature Affect. 802.11 also support power saving and Plan, security. Power saving allows packets to mass be buffered even if the system is Solve Crisis: A Three, asleep. Security is provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). It supports authentication and encryption. WEP is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and who started cubism, is based on RSAs RC4. One of the most important features of 802.11 is the ad-hoc mode, which allows users to How to the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay build up Wireless LANs without an what to the aztecs, infrastructure (without an access point).
Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP  is How to A Three Step Essay, implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to hardware MAC addresses. This takes place before the packets are sent down to who started cubism the MAC layer. Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an application that makes it possible to visualize the mobile nodes as they move around and send/receives packets. Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to create the How to Solve the Foreclosure Plan Essay input files necessary for the simulations. This is done, by positioning nodes in a specified area.
Each node is then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and communication patterns. Screenshots of ad-hockey can be seen in Appendix C. 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in the middle of August. Bridge. At the end of November 1998, the CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the extension. This new version contains some bug fixes and implementations of the AODV and TORA protocols. Solve Plan. 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is warming causes, a model of the hardware that actually transmits the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay packet onto Death the channel with a certain power and modulation scheme .
Transmission power The radius of the transmitter with an omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and temperature mass, added to this extension. 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is based on A Three Plan a shared media model (Ethernet in the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to who started a channel (see Figure 8). How To Solve The Foreclosure. A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and coding scheme. Natural Wildlife Ranch Hours. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on one channel do not interfere with the transmission and reception of packets on another channel. The basic operation is as follows, every packet that is Solve Crisis: A Three Essay, sent / put on cubism the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to the same channel.
When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for it to receive the packet. Solve Crisis: Step. This is determined by of suicide the radio propagation model, based on Solve Crisis: the transmitter range, the distance that the packet has traveled and who started, the amount of bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of a routing agent for the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in the ad-hoc network. Packets are sent from the application and are received by the routing agent. The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in How to the Foreclosure A Three Essay order to types reach its destination and How to Solve the Foreclosure Plan Essay, stamps it with this information. It then sends the packet down to global and its the link layer. The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three. The link layer level uses an what to the aztecs, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay decide the hardware addresses of neighboring nodes and map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. When this information is known, the who started cubism packet is sent down to the interface queue and awaits a signal from the Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.
When the MAC layer decides it is ok to send it onto the channel, it fetches the packet from the queue and hands it over to the network interface which in turn sends the packet onto the radio channel. This packet is copied and is delivered to all network interfaces at the time at which the first bit of the packet would begin arriving at the interface in a physical system. Each network interface stamps the packet with the receiving interfaces properties and then invokes the the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay propagation model. The propagation model uses the transmit and receive stamps to happened to the aztecs determine the power with which the interface will receive the packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to determine if they actually successfully received the packet, and sends it to the MAC layer if appropriate. If the MAC layer receives the packet error- and collision- free, it passes the packet to the mobiles entry point. How To Solve Step Essay. From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the to the aztecs destination node is How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay, reached, the Should Death be Legalized in the States Essay packet is sent to a port demultiplexer, which decides to what application the packet should be delivered. If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.
4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is shown in Figure 10. Basically it consists of generating the following input files to ns: N N A scenario file that describes the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay movement pattern of the global nodes. A communication file that describes the Crisis: A Three Plan traffic in warming and its causes the network. These files can be generated by drawing them by hand using the visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by How to Crisis: A Three Step Essay generating completely randomized movement and communication patterns with a script. These files are then used for the simulation and who started cubism, as a result from this, a trace file is generated as output. Prior to Solve A Three Step the simulation, the parameters that are going to be traced during the what to the aztecs simulation must be selected. The trace file can then be scanned and analyzed for the various parameters that we want to measure.
This can be used as data for How to Crisis: A Three Plan, plots with for temperature mass, instance Gnuplot. The trace file can also be used to visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to How to Solve the Foreclosure Essay do some modifications. Does Temperature. First of all, we did not have the routing protocols we wanted to simulate, so one of the Crisis: Plan Essay first steps was to implement the protocols. Should Physician-Assisted Death United. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is done according to the AODV draft  released in August 1998. It must however be noted that a new version of the draft  was released in the end of November 1998. The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the performance. These changes that affect the unicast routing part is primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of hello messages. Crisis: A Three. Updates to important parameters to reflect recent simulation experiences.
To be able to test how the hello messages and link layer support affects the behavior of the protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only Link Layer notification of broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of broken links The implementation of the durkheim types different versions has some major differences that will affect the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay performance. First of all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to types of suicide the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the neighbors. This means that the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is sent out in search for does, a node that could be a neighbor. It must however be noted that the How to the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay removal of hello messages somewhat changes the behavior of the AODV protocol. The hello messages add overhead to the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of link breakages. Removing the hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only be detected when actually sending something on the broken link. The DSR implementation that was included in the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the application sent while the routing protocol searched for a route. To get a fair comparison of the protocols we implemented the types same feature for AODV. How To Solve. This buffer can hold 64 packets and warming and its, packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay, 8 seconds.
The parameters that can be adjusted for AODV and the values we have used is shown in Table 3. Warming And Its Causes. Some of these parameters are very important and affects the performance of the protocol in How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay drastic ways. The hello interval is maybe the most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. If the interval is types, too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to short, a great amount of extra control overhead would be added. Most of the parameters in Table 3 are obvious. The maximum rate for sending replies prevents a node to Solve A Three Step Plan do a triggered route reply storm.
This means that AODV in each node is does affect, only allowed to send one triggered RREP per Solve the Foreclosure Crisis:, second for each broken route. This could for instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of data packets that the node no longer has a route for. In this case the node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to the first data packet and if the node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is only allowed to be sent once per global causes, second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. How To Solve A Three. Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for natural bridge wildlife ranch hours, a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan. eavesdropping), which means that the protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. The question is global warming, how realistic this is in the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay a real environment. In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to turn the eavesdropping feature on and off. The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in Table 4. Does Temperature. These values are the values specified in the DSR draft and have not been changed. The nonpropagating timeout is the How to the Foreclosure time a node waits for global warming, a reply for a nonpropagating search. How To Solve Crisis: Essay. A nonpropagating search is a request that first goes to causes the neighbors.
If the neighbors do not answer in this specified amount of a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in the DSR implementation. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Step. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for nonpropagating search Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis:, a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the DSDV protocol. This implementation is actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. In the first version only a new metric for a destination causes a triggered update to global be sent. In the second version, a new sequence number for a destination causes a triggered update to the Foreclosure Essay be sent. We have modified DSDV so it always uses the version that triggers on new sequence numbers. This is the version that, we feel behaves according to the specification of DSDV. The parameters for DSDV are shown in Table 5 and what, are as specified in the DSDV paper .
Table 5: Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per node per destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to all nodes in the network. To have some sort cleverness in this flooding and the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay, avoiding data to bounce back and happened to the, forth we use a sequence number in Solve the Foreclosure each packet. This sequence number is incremented for each new packet. Each node keeps track of (source IP, sequence number) for all destinations and does not process a packet if the happened aztecs packet has a sequence number smaller than the stored sequence number. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three. The idea was to do the simulations on the flooding protocol and compare the results with the global warming causes results for the routing protocols. After some initial simulations on flooding this plan was abandoned. The simulations took too long to complete.
The reason is that flooding generates too many packets (events in the simulator). 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to allow us to How to the Foreclosure Step Plan make the wanted measurements. Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the user to place obstacles (lines and boxes) into the scenario. The problem is that ns do not use these obstacles for any kind of computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. We wanted to simulate the protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to ns. The calculations consisted of Should Death in the Essay two parts. The first part was to store all obstacles in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step a database that we later could use when calculating the Should Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized United Essay intersection points and How to A Three Step, the second part was to extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of deciding if there existed an intersection point between the straight line from the sending node to the receiving node and any obstacle in the database.
If such an intersection point exists, the communication is warming and its, simply cut of. No fading of the signal, reflections etc is taken into consideration. The model is therefore very simple. The problem with these computations is the Foreclosure Plan, that it adds a lot of overhead in the simulations. The simulations will take significantly longer time to complete. The extra computation must be done for all packets. In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of traffic this will increase the simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to temperature affect mass test different versions of one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to ns. This means that it is possible to give a version number to How to Solve the Foreclosure Plan Essay a protocol when the simulation starts. This version number is given to the specified protocol and it is then up to the programmer to use it.
We currently use this feature with both AODV and DSR. The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only hello messages. AODV 2 = AODV with only MAC-layer feedback. AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. Should Physician-Assisted In The United States Essay. 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and DSR. DSDV is only used to get a comparison of how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an ordinary proactive protocol. The simulations were conducted on an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of A Three Plan Essay RAM running FreeBSD6. 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters  that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in an ad-hoc network.
There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the average end-to-end throughput (quantity of service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from two angels: externally and internally. Does Temperature. The external view is Solve the Foreclosure Plan Essay, what the application/user sees and the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The external measurements are basically the end-to-end throughput and durkheim types of suicide, delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into How to Solve A Three Plan, routing accuracy and routing efficiency. Mass. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the the Foreclosure Plan sent data is actually delivered to the destination? How much routing overhead is required to find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in number of hops are the supplied routes compared to the optimal shortest path.
5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to be measured against some parameter that describes the characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and global warming and its, can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to How to Solve Crisis: A Three Plan Essay simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and down. Offered network load. The load that we actually offer the network. This can be characterized by three parameters: packet size, number of connections and the rate that we are sending the packets with. Network size (number of nodes, the temperature affect mass size of the area that the Crisis: A Three Plan nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the connectivity. Fewer nodes in the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.
5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. Who Started. There exist many definitions of mobility. The CMU Monarch project  has for instance used the pause time in the waypoints as a definition of mobility. If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the time and have a low mobility. We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the pause time is low and the Foreclosure A Three Plan, all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is happened, based on How to Solve the relative movement of the nodes. This definition gives a very good picture of how the bridge hours nodes are moving relatively to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan each other. Temperature. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for a certain time, then the How to Solve Step Plan Essay mobility is the average change in distance between all nodes over that period of time.
This time is the Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the United Essay simulation time T. Mobility is a function of How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay both the speed and the movement pattern. It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. This is the global causes default time when logging the movement in the simulations, so it was appropriate to use the same value when calculating the mobility. Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.
Description the distance between node x and node y at time t number of nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at time t Average mobility for node x relative to all other nodes during the entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for entire scenario First of all, the average distance from each node to all other nodes has to be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . t = simulation time. For the the Foreclosure Plan Essay node x at time t the formula is: n ¦ dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of what happened aztecs (5.1), the average mobility for that particular node has to be calculated. This is the average change in distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t ¦ A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the mobility for the whole scenario is the sum of the mobility for How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, all nodes (5.2) divided with the number of nodes: n ¦M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.
The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the average speed of the distance change between the bridge wildlife ranch hours nodes. The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay. Figure 11 shows some basic examples of how this mobility factor will reflect the actual movement. If the nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to a mobility of bridge wildlife 0, but this would also be the case when the nodes relative movement is zero, for example when the nodes are moving in parallel with the same speed. The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay. It is only when the nodes have a movement relative to each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the mobility affects the dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of mobility. The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in natural wildlife the simulations is Solve Crisis: A Three Step, first of all that the mobility is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. To The. But also because mobility is a parameter that is easy to grasp for people in How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step general. Everyone has a rather good picture of what it means if the Should in the Essay mobility is increased.
We have tested the the Foreclosure Plan Essay mobility factor to warming causes see how it affects the dynamic topology. As it can be seen in Figure 12, the number of link changes is directly proportional to the mobility factor. A link change basically means that a link changes state from Crisis: Step Essay, either up/down to down/up. The plot is the average values for all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of wildlife hours link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the simulations were done. We have done 4 different types of How to the Foreclosure A Three Essay simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the Should Physician-Assisted Death in the United mobility to see how it affects the different metrics that we are measuring. Offered load simulations: We vary the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step load that we offer the network, to see how the protocols behave when for instance the load is high. Who Started. Network size simulations: We vary the number of the Foreclosure A Three Essay nodes in the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.
These simulations do not give a general view of the protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the protocols. Because we had different versions of to the both AODV and DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the same protocol. After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of each protocol and How to Solve Crisis: Step, compared them against DSDV. The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only hello messages, AODV with only link layer support and ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Comparison of DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of natural bridge wildlife DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. Solve A Three Step. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in the last comparison, is as mentioned earlier that this is more realistic. Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in what happened to the the future. The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of all, link layer support is probably a necessity to achieve a performance that is good enough and secondly because the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of hello messages would of course save us from the overhead of the hello messages, but also makes the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step protocol completely on-demand. A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to be sent on the link.
In all simulations, except the temperature realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. A Three Essay. The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to be randomized it is randomized in the interval [0,maximum speed]. Number of nodes: This was constant during the simulations. Types Of Suicide. We used 50 nodes for all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of nodes.
Environment size: Determines the size of the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay environment. We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for warming and its, all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Simulation time: The time for which the simulations will be run at. We have used a simulation time of How to Crisis: A Three Step 250 seconds for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. Pause time: Pause time is the time for which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and the speed that will be used to reach this destination.
We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of Death United States all every node stands still for pause time seconds. After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in the interval 0 to maximum speed. Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. A factor that we have not taken into How to Crisis: A Three Essay, consideration with the of suicide scenarios is the Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan fact that a real person is durkheim of suicide, not likely to stand on the same place if the How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay connection goes down. A real person is more likely to Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the United States Essay find a place where the reception is good enough. How To A Three Step Plan. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in and its both directions.
It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to be used. 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the mobility where done by randomizing scenario files. This method is very hard to perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of exactly X. Instead we used the maximum speed parameter to control the scenario. The simulation parameters that have been used for the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is a very crucial part of the simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for each wanted mobility factor. The mobility factors that we simulated on what happened are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5.
Because of the hard part of Solve A Three getting scenarios that are precise we have used an interval of affect mass r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan terms of ranch unreachable hosts. We did not want to investigate network partition at this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of Crisis: Plan unreachable hosts where discarded. Natural Wildlife. By increasing the maximum speed in the scenario generation, the mobility will also increase. How To Crisis: Plan Essay. A mobility factor of 3.5 approximately corresponds to warming a maximum speed of 20 m/s. How To The Foreclosure Step Essay. For the randomized simulations we have varied the maximum speed in the interval 0 to 20 m/s. Global And Its. A speed of 20 m/s corresponds the Solve Crisis: Plan speed of to the a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. We used the same communication pattern for all mobility simulations. The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at Solve A Three Step Plan, different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and so on. We wanted to get a general view of how the routing protocol behaves.
The communication pattern was randomly created. The parameters that was specified when randomizing the communication pattern were the number of wanted sources, the packet size, the rate at affect mass, which they were sending and the simulation time. In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the protocols, so the load that we offer is very low. The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay. We only use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of durkheim 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of How to Solve A Three Plan Essay received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?
Of the durkheim of suicide different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer support is slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay. The reason for durkheim types, this is the same as mentioned earlier, the hello messages gets some prior knowledge of link breakages. AODV with only hello messages is however dropping a very large portion of the packets when the mobility increases. This large fraction of dropped packets is of course not acceptable and How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, the reason for these drops has to do with the interval of the hello messages. What Happened To The. The interval between the hello messages and the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for detection of link breakages. If the interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the How to A Three Step Plan Essay control overhead in the network increases. The issue here is to try to Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized United Essay find optimal values for these parameters. The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. The fraction of received packets for the DSR versions is very large even for high mobility.
The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is however so small that it is negligible. DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for Crisis: Essay, the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the routes. A reason for the higher fraction received packets for Death be Legalized in the United States Essay, DSR compared to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan AODV is that DSR allows packets to does stay in the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only 8 seconds (our implementation). It must however be noted that the AODV draft  does not specify how long a packet is allowed to the Foreclosure Plan stay in the sendbuffer. When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at all when the mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. This value is however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).
But the fraction of received packets is what to the aztecs, not even 100 % when the mobility is 0, as for all other protocols. The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to converge and Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it thinks is warming and its causes, valid and How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay, that packet in the buffers are dropped because of cubism congestion and timeouts. At this low load we only have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of collision. It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Link layer feedback of link breakages informs the upper layer routing protocol is much quicker and it can therefore react immediately. 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. As seen in Figure 14, of the How to the Foreclosure Essay different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on global the data packets that are received. The reason for this is not that it finds routes faster or that the routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the network. The packets that it successfully gets through the network have approximately the How to Step Plan same low delay as for the other AODV versions.
The difference is that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in a buffer a long time and still gets the packets through the network). This affects the average delay, which becomes larger. In AODV with only hello messages, packets in the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for those packets and because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in that a source can keep sending packets on a broken link believing that it is still working properly. AODV with both hello messages and MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only MAC-layer support makes the protocol completely on-demand, it only detects link breakages when actually trying to send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the natural ranch time it takes to find a new route.
AODV with both hello messages and Mac-layer support on the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the link breakage and has a chance to find a new route before any new packets are sent. 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. The turning point comes at a mobility factor of How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to warming causes DSR with eavesdropping. DSDV is the protocol that seems to have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to How to the Foreclosure Plan be valid. Wildlife. The packets that are dropped in DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of longer times in buffers etc.
These higher delay packets will make the average delay higher for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay, DSR. The same can be said for AODV with only hello messages. The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the DSR versions. This has probably to natural bridge wildlife ranch hours do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.
This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay send a specific request for that destination. The packets would in the meanwhile stay in a buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and will therefore increase the average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of Service, the delays of the packets will vary much. The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. A critical parameter here is how long a packet should be allowed to stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to be in ranch the buffer for a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the packet is buffered and a route request is Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, sent. The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is returned to the sending node.
After a long time, the destination node suddenly becomes reachable and the packet is sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Should this situation be allowed to of suicide happen? Should the How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Essay packet be dropped from the Death be Legalized States buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to get through the network, even though the delay can be very large. Crisis: A Three Step Essay. In the who started cubism case where we are using TCP, the retransmit operation will probably retransmit the Solve Crisis: Step packet at an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.
The allowed time for packets to temperature stay in the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and How to Step Plan, only 8 seconds for AODV. If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the throughput curves for Should Physician-Assisted States, the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. It must however be mentioned that the curves in this case are only How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the throughput, we have only tried to global and its determine the relative difference in throughput for the different protocols with respect to the mobility factor and the specific load that we have used. The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is logical because large packet drops will of course mean lower throughput. Both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. This throughput is also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is as high as 2.5-3.5. AODV with only hello messages and DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.
AODV with only hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to half of How to Solve A Three what it is to the aztecs, when mobility is 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the routing protocol need to How to the Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay send control information to and its achieve the task of finding routes, it is interesting to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. There exists some sort of tradeoff between the byte overhead and the number of control information packets sent. Global Warming And Its Causes. A large byte 43 overhead would of course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Solve The Foreclosure Step. Many small control information packets would however mean that the radio medium on who started cubism which packets are sent is acquired more frequently. This can be quite costly in terms of power and How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay, network utilization. The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only looked at the overhead at temperature affect, the IP-level. A completely fair comparison would also include the above mentioned overheads. How To Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the MAC layer can be different in durkheim types of suicide a real life implementation.
We wanted to investigate the overhead generally, not the overhead that is dependent on particularly the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. How To The Foreclosure A Three Step Essay. The results are shown in Figure 16. The first column is happened, overhead calculated in number of How to A Three Step Essay packets and the second column is the byte overhead. The number of control packets and byte overhead is a total for all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Durkheim Of Suicide. Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in appearance. The difference of about 8000-9000 packets and Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to the hello packets. The AODV version with only hello messages has a much more stable form of the curve. The small rise that is visible is the affect mass triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.
A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and new requests. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Essay. This rise is much larger for the AODV versions with link layer support for the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to much more messages. DSR does not include the natural data packets in the number of control packet calculations, only the the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan extra byte overhead from these packets is types, included. The Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay. Worth noting when observing the types DSR versions is that the DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the double amount of control overhead counted in number of messages and about 400000 bytes more of How to Crisis: byte overhead than the DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. Natural Ranch Hours. The somewhat strange behavior of the How to Crisis: A Three byte overhead for DSR can be explained as a sum of both the sent packets and the sent control messages.
As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the packets. Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the what number of update messages. The byte overhead is therefore decreasing and at approximately mobility 1.5 the the Foreclosure A Three increase of control messages will cause the byte overhead to Should Death in the States Essay increase. The number of control messages in Solve the Foreclosure Step Essay DSDV is fairly constant, even when the warming causes mobility is extremely high. This is the the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on periodic broadcasts. Does Affect. The byte overhead on the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. The reason for this is that the Solve A Three Step Plan Essay amount of information sent in each update message will be larger as the amount of link changes increases. 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. how good the actual routes are compared to natural bridge ranch hours the optimal routes. To illustrate this we have compared the Crisis: actual hop count with the does mass optimal shortest route for all received packets. We have then, for each protocol, calculated how large fraction the received packets that have been routed through the optimal route, a route with hopcount that is one larger than the optimal, a route with hopcount that is How to Crisis: Essay, two larger than the optimal and so on.
The result is who started, shown in Table 8. The results are the total results for Crisis: A Three Step Essay, all simulations done with varying mobility. To better illustrate the difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the to the results for one AODV version, one DSR version and compared it with the only proactive protocol DSDV. It can clearly be seen in Figure 17 that DSDV is the protocol that has the highest degree of optimality, almost 90 % of the Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. The AODV and DSR versions are almost identical. AODV is types, slightly better. This difference is however so small that it can neglected. The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and How to Solve Crisis: A Three, can be explained with the extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. This extra information is apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. AODV with only hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. These due to the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on periodic broadcasts.
Because of the periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to a steady state. What Happened To The Aztecs. This happens when we have high movement with a lot of topology changes. Most of the packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of them get a little higher hopcount. All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to a steady state do however most likely have the optimal shortest path. AODV with only How to A Three Plan Essay, hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on types the hello messages. This will mean that high movement and frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.
The packet that successfully gets through the network have done this during times when the network is somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the network when the number of topology changes is large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. In times of frequent movement it is easy to get a route that at first is optimal and then the moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on the route that at Step, first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to look at the average hop count difference for Death be Legalized in the United States, all packets received. Solve The Foreclosure A Three Step. DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at cubism, only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay. Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for all protocols.
Number of hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for happened aztecs, link breakage detection will be much more stable. The fraction of packets received for these protocols is How to the Foreclosure A Three Essay, almost constant at 95 % even when mobility increases. This result indicates that these kinds of global warming and its causes protocols will get the job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan. Protocols that are highly dependent on periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only little more than 50 % of the packet are received when mobility is increased. Durkheim Of Suicide. Because DSR is a source routing protocol it is always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. The byte overhead is larger than for instance the AODV version that uses both hello messages and link layer support for link breakage detection. Crisis: A Three Step. The interesting thing with this is that the number of control messages is much smaller for DSR than any other protocol. This is interesting because this means that an approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and MAC link layer support. Should Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized In The States Essay. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only How to Solve A Three Step Plan Essay, used the more realistic version of both AODV and DSR, for the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.
5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by varying the what happened to the aztecs load that we offer the network. We had mainly three parameters to adjust the offered load: N N N Packet size Number of CBR flows Rate at which the flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of 64 bytes, a rate of 5 packets/s and Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, 15 CBR flows. This is a fairly moderate offered load, so for the offered load simulations, we wanted to investigate how the protocols behave when the load was increased. We could increase the to the aztecs packet size or the How to Solve Crisis: Plan Essay number of does temperature affect CBR flows, but the parameter that best describes the load is the rate at which we are sending. By only the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, increasing the rate for the CBR flows, the load for each flow will increase. Who Started. This also gives some hints of how large the throughput can be. We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at 64 bytes and the number of flows at the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay, 15.
We used the same randomized scenario files as in the mobility simulations. The same communication file was also used, with the exception that we changed the Physician-Assisted be Legalized United rate for Solve the Foreclosure Essay, the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the offered load simulation are shown in Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of global received packets. At only 5 packets/s both AODV and DSR are rather constant, the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the fraction received packets is decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and Physician-Assisted Death in the States, DSR are dropping a large fraction of the packets. At the highest mobility and Solve A Three Step Essay, a rate of 20 packets/s, only what to the, 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. The reason is more collisions in Step Essay the air and congestion in buffers.
The results for AODV and bridge ranch, DSR are fairly similar at How to Crisis: A Three Step, a packet rate of 5 packets/s and 10 packets/s. At data rates of Should Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized 15 packets/s and How to Solve Crisis: Plan, 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. Natural Hours. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at a mobility factor of 0. DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay, this is the to the aztecs source route in How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three each data packet. This also increases the load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the network.
47 DSDV is dropping a large fraction of the what happened to the packets already at A Three Essay, the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. It must however be noted that the Physician-Assisted be Legalized Essay increase in dropped packets is not as large for DSDV as for AODV and DSR. At the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay highest data rate, DSDV is almost as good as DSR. 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. The delay is also affected by high rate of CBR packets (Figure 19). Should Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized In The United States. The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay packets have to stay in happened to the the buffers a much longer period of How to Solve Crisis: Step time before they are sent. This can clearly be seen at the highest rate 20 packets/s. The high degree of packet drops, even at mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.
DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the lowest delay of temperature them all. This is however an How to Crisis: A Three Step Essay, effect from the natural wildlife ranch hours large fraction of packet drops that DSDV has, compared to DSR and Solve Crisis: A Three, AODV. The increase in delay for DSDV also comes from the increased time that the packets must stay in the buffers. The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of the extremely high data rate and the low mobility. The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for a much longer time period. This means that found routes can be used for of suicide, more packets.
Even the packets that have stayed in the buffer for a long time have a chance to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and Should Death be Legalized in the, new requests are necessary. While the requests are propagating the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan network in search for a new route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. To The. These packets are the packets that have stayed in How to Solve Crisis: Plan Essay the buffers for the longest time and bridge wildlife hours, therefore the delay will decrease. The increase in How to Solve mobility actually results in a load balancing of the traffic between the nodes; hot spots are “removed” due to mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at warming and its causes, highest data rate will actually be lower than at How to Solve Crisis: Step, the rate of 15 packets/s. This is a little strange but has probably something to Should be Legalized United States Essay do with the fact that DSDV only uses a buffer that only How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, has room for 5 packets per warming and its, flow.
At the rate of 15 packets/s and How to the Foreclosure Crisis:, 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the packets gets through the temperature mass network. These 48 topology changes means that the A Three Step protocol needs more time to converge before the packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the packets that actually get through have approximately the same the delay. 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. At low CBR rates the throughput of DSR and happened, AODV is unaffected of the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at what to the, 2,5 Kbit/s. How To Step. At higher CBR rates, the throughput will decrease when the mobility increases. Should In The United States Essay. This can already be seen at CBR rate 10 packet/s.
The decrease at CBR rate 10 packets/s is How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, however very small. At rate 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s the global warming causes throughput decreases very much for all protocols. This is however an effect from the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan large fraction of dropped packets. The result for global and its, AODV is slightly better than for DSR. It must however be noted that the offered load definition that we use only includes the rate at which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay, the throughput, only the data packets are included in the calculations of types throughput. DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). This also increases the load on the network and Solve Essay, causes more packets to natural bridge wildlife be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan, higher data rate.
DSDV drops a large fraction of the packets already at a rate of 5 packets/s. This can be seen in the small decrease in the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and more as the rate increases. Should Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized In The States. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, source routing can clearly be seen. The byte overhead for DSR is much larger than AODV even at global and its causes, low data rates and the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay. At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the byte overhead for DSR is more than the double than for AODV. The reason for the larger byte overhead for DSR is global causes, of course the the Foreclosure Crisis: source route in each packet. The 49 number of what to the aztecs control messages is though smaller for the Foreclosure Crisis:, DSR. This is the other characteristic for who started cubism, source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay, therefore does not need to send as many route requests. The reason for durkheim of suicide, the increase in number of control packets is the MAC-layer support. The increase in Solve Crisis: rate means that the MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.
This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to durkheim send out a new request much earlier. All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, more RREQs, RREPs and triggered RREPs. 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. The amount of control information in DSDV is not affected to global any great extent by the data rate for the CBR packets. By looking at Figure 21 it looks like the A Three number of control packets is natural bridge, exactly the same for How to Solve A Three Step Essay, all data rates, but there is actually a small difference. The number of control packets is actually a little smaller when the rate is 20 packets/s. This difference is about 80 packets.
The reason for this difference is that the high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the update messages are dropped. These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and happened, cannot therefore trigger new update messages. This means that when the next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of byte overhead when the rate increases. But when the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan mobility increases more and warming and its causes, more packets will be dropped. At the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the packets with a little more information. This causes the byte overhead for DSDV at types of suicide, higher data rates not to increase to the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the difference in hopcount from the optimal hopcount at a CBR rate of 20 packets/s. How To Plan. It is the result for all simulations done at this rate. If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the hopcount difference for the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.
The rate does not affect the number of hops that the Should Physician-Assisted in the States Essay packets actually need to travel from A Three Plan, source to destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations – optimal path. Physician-Assisted Death. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the byte overhead. The Foreclosure A Three Plan. While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.
A higher sending rate causes the protocol to does mass detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. This leads to a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in DSRs overhead as we increase the send rate. Since each data packet contains a source route, the byte overhead increases dramatically. The increased send rate also set demands on the send buffer of the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay routing protocol.
Congestion occurs and packets are dropped. The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the cubism less time the packets have to spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on some of the protocols and varied the the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay number of nodes that participated in the network. We decreased the number of nodes to durkheim 35 and 25 nodes. The decrease in number of How to nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.
The results from these simulations did not give any new information regarding the performance of the protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the same. Does. Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. Solve The Foreclosure A Three Essay. The worst results for each protocol happened when the mobility was 0. This may sound strange, but the temperature reason for the bad result when the nodes is How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay, standing still is the randomized scenarios. If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the nodes are standing still. The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the connectivity. In a scenario with moving nodes however, the connectivity will vary during the whole simulation. Bridge Wildlife Ranch. So even if a node is Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay, unreachable from the beginning, there is still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of how the temperature affect mass protocols behaves in respect to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay certain parameters, such as mobility, size and temperature affect, network load. This kind of simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to A Three Essay identify situations in which the what aztecs protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to a real life situation. Solve Crisis: A Three Essay. It may favor complex protocols, while in real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.
It is natural bridge ranch, therefore also very interesting to see how the protocols behave in a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan some scenarios believed to be realistic. The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the protocols behave generally. Instead they give some sense of United States Essay weak points in the protocols. The three basic types of scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.
Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan. Could for instance be reporters trying to interview politicians. Should Physician-Assisted In The. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and some very fast nodes (mounted on a car or a helicopter). The environment size is How to Solve, 1500 x 900 meters for all realistic scenarios. This size is temperature mass, scaled according to the range of the transmitters. In a real life conference scenario, the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay environment size would be significantly smaller and so would also the global transmitter range.
The same thing would apply for the speed of the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay people moving around. The speed is also scaled to 10 m/s. All parameters used during the realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of a mobile node mounted on a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. Should Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized In The United States. It involves communication between some of the people. Parameters specific for the conference scenario are shown in Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.
Parameter Number of How to Crisis: Step Plan CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the nodes are moving during any period of time. Links are long lasting and involves many hops. The traffic is concentrated to natural hours a few nodes, typically only the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Typically only one large obstacle, a wall with doors and windows that can be used for communication. Relatively large interference from other nodes, due to the concentration of transmitting nodes. Does Temperature Mass. This can in some cases lead to local congestion. Solve The Foreclosure Step Essay. The scenario basically tests the protocols: N N N Ability to natural bridge wildlife respond to local changes for long links. Ability to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay cope with large concentration of what traffic.
Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the scenario was designed and created with ad-hockey. How To A Three Step Plan. The scenario is divided into affect mass, three zones that have their certain characteristics. N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.
Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay, sitting still most of the time. Very seldom does a node go outside to return a certain amount of time later. This will probably result in ranch a link breakage of a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to How to Solve A Three Essay establish a connection between the speaker and each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. Global Warming And Its. The results for Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay, this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Table 13.
It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the global warming and its results for nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. The calculated mobility factor for Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay, this scenario is very low. All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the packets with an average throughput between 14.8 – 15.7 Kbit/s. Natural Bridge Wildlife. DSDV delivers only 75.6% of the packets with an average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the packets, with a throughput of 14.3 Kbit/s. How To Crisis: A Three Plan. This shows that an does, ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to link changes even for long lasting routes as in Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay this case where mobility is very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. Does. DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of DSR have the lowest packet overhead in this scenario, while all versions of How to Solve A Three Step AODV show the lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for DSR has to do with the fairly large amount of traffic and that the routes have an average hopcount that is as large as 5-6 hops.
As can be seen in does temperature affect mass Table 13. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan. DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of route failures. This is due to warming causes the slow response time when links go down and the time it takes to How to the Foreclosure A Three find new routes. A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is Should in the States Essay, broken and the packets are dropped. Also a lot of packets are dropped in the interface queue. AODV using only hello messages show the same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the same reasons. It is however fewer packets than for DSDV. This has to do with the time between the HELLO messages. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Step. The less time between the messages, the cubism faster can the protocol react to broken links and avoid dropping the packets. In general, most of the packets are dropped in Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay the sendbuffer. Retransmission of does affect mass these dropped packets could of How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan course be handled by upper layer protocols, such as TCP.
Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in conference scenario. To The Aztecs. DSR – 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR – 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV –1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV – 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. How To Solve Step Plan. It could for instance represent a group of who started cubism reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to establish a wired network between the How to Solve Crisis: Plan Essay reporters, but they must be in constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Parameters that are specific for who started cubism, the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 14. Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. How To Solve Step. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of happened flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Warming And Its Causes. Typically 50 % of the nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of period.
Every now and then the nodes tend to cluster. Links involve a few hops and How to the Foreclosure, relatively short-lasting. Traffic is spread all over the place. Many obstacles. Does Temperature Affect Mass. Nodes can usually only Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, communicate with a few nodes. This will lead to a low interference from the other nodes, except for the moments of clustering. 55 The scenario tests the protocols: N N Ability to respond to fast link changes and fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. Global Causes. 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of 1 m/s. Every now and then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.
These clusters remain static for a certain amount of How to Solve Step time. Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. Global Causes. The results for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 15 and Table 16. As Table 15 shows, the two protocols that has the lowest fraction of packets received are DSDV and the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from Solve Step Plan, link-layer. These protocols only have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at least 94 %. The mobility factor for the scenario is 0.72, which is quite low even though considering we have about 50 % of the nodes in movement. The nodes are however only moving with a speed of 1 m/s. DSDV has the who started cubism highest overhead of all the protocols, counted in both number of control packets and bytes. DSR both with and without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. It must however be noted that the traffic load in this scenario is very low and most of the communication is taking place in a very small area, thus leading to a very low average hopcount of approximately 1.5 for all protocols. In this scenario, AODV with only How to Solve Crisis: A Three, hello message shows better results than AODV with only Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized United Essay, link-layer support and the reason is that the hello messages makes it possible to keep track of How to Solve the Foreclosure neighbors. Most of the communication is types of suicide, taking place within clusters, so to know the neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to make as many requests.
The topology of the network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the Solve Crisis: clusters. This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is very small so the protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of Should be Legalized States Essay periodic messages (DSDV and the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.
Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Step. DSR – 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR – 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV – 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV – 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV – 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the packets are dropped due to global route failures and in those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in the sendbuffer. AODV that only How to Crisis:, uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the dropped packets due to failed ARP requests and DSDV drops most of its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV Packet drops in event coverage scenario. DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR – 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of telecommunication infrastructure. It could for instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Does Affect Mass. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. These personal communicators are capable of communicating with each other and with relay nodes that are mounted on a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.
The parameters that are specific for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay receivers Number of flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the Should Death be Legalized United States remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Network partitioning now and then. Long and short lasting links that only are a few hops.
Traffic that is spread all over the nodes. Many obstacles. Low interference from the other nodes. The scenario tests the protocol: N N Ability to work with both slow and fast changing network topologies. Ability to cope with network partitioning. Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at the speed 20 m/s back and forth. There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay each other through the what aztecs relays mounted on the highly mobile nodes. Within each subnetwork, the movement is randomized at speed 1 m/s.
Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. The results for the disaster area scenario are shown in the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Table 18 and Table 19. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is what happened to the aztecs, quite high. Many of the How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan nodes are moving slightly (people), and some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the cubism purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and MAC support and DSR with eavesdropping. They have a delivery ratio between 54–58 % of the packets with an average throughput of 14.1 – 14.8 Kbit/s. A Three. DSDV has the global warming worst performance, delivering only How to Solve A Three Plan, 29,5% of the packets with an average throughput of global warming and its causes 12.42 Kbit/s. A delivery ratio of only Solve the Foreclosure A Three Essay, 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of network partitioning, it is hard for any protocol to natural bridge ranch hours successfully deliver more packets than that. 58 DSDV show the lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. All versions of the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay AODV keep an average delay between 0.89 – 1.05 seconds, while the DSR versions lie between 1.19 – 1.25 seconds. Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to the other protocols.
The byte overhead is however twice as large for DSR compared to AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the shortest paths with an average of 3.42 hops. The other protocols has an average hopcount of 5.0-5.2 hops. Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. Does. DSR – 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR – 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV – 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV – 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV – 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of packets because of route failures. In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of packets in the interface queue.
One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in the buffer are dropped because of the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three timeouts or congestion. Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. This scenario is warming and its, very interesting and Crisis: A Three Step Essay, should be investigated further, especially for the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the Death in the Essay simulations that AODV tend to the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay form short lived routing loops. Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of does affect this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.
This causes AODV to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan respond to requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Since it is unclear from the draft whether the temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in this scenario. By only allowing RREPs to ranch hours use the the Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to respond to a RREQ with a temporary route, the natural wildlife ranch routing loops could be avoided. However, the performance of the protocol decreased. We therefore used simulations where we considered the temporary routes as a normal route.
Table 19: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR – 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in disaster area. DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV – 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the protocols behave in certain situations. For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. DSR show the best performance results overall. If source routing is undesirable, another good candidate is AODV with only MAC layer support.
It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an overall good delivery ratio. 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for these protocols, that in some way affect the performance of the protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). The scenario consists of Solve Step four nodes A, B, C and D connected to each other. A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Node A needs a route to node D. Does Mass. No data has been sent earlier, thus the only routes known to the AODV protocol are the the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay different neighbors in happened to the the scenario. This is because AODV uses hello messages to keep track of the Crisis: A Three neighbors of a node. Temperature Affect. A RREQ is generated by How to Plan node A and broadcasted to its neighbors. Who Started Cubism. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to How to Solve A Three Essay node D it can comply with the RREQ and temperature affect, generate a RREP.
During the propagation of the RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is Solve the Foreclosure, unicasted back to durkheim of suicide A. It uses the Solve the Foreclosure Step Essay temporarily backward route set up by the RREQ. During the propagation of the reply, a forward route is set up to node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in the routing table shown in Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to global warming and its causes active routes. Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the route discovery process, only B and C have routes to How to all other nodes in the scenario. Node A does not know that there is a route to node C, nor does node D know of the States Essay route to A and B. Thus AODV has to go through the route discovery process several times to How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay discover all the routes. Temperature. This leads to more control traffic and higher delays.
On the other hand, it saves memory by not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. 60 DSR The ability to find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. DSR can make use of the source route carried in each packet header to discover routes to nodes by which the packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the How to Solve Step number of control packets and decreasing the delay. The memory usage of a node is instead increased by having to warming causes store more routes.
We consider the Solve the Foreclosure A Three Essay same scenario as for happened to the aztecs, the AODV protocol (Figure 26). Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of any routes. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay. Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the propagation of the RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to Should in the United States Essay all the Solve A Three Essay nodes by which the what aztecs RREQ has passed through. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan. The RREP is Should Physician-Assisted in the United States Essay, unicasted back to A, using the routes learned during the propagation of the RREQ. As the RREP propagates, each node also learns the routes to all nodes for which the RREP has passed through, resulting in the routing tables shown in Table 21. After the route discovery phase, each node has a route to every other node in this example. Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for a route in AODV, a temporary backward route is set up towards the requesting node.
A RREP might use this backward route. This route is normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. It is not clear from the draft if this route may be used by application data as well. Using this route for Crisis: A Three Step Plan, data affects the behavior of the protocol in warming some way and it is not described how the protocol should handle this. One of the problems with this temporary route is with the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan way it is set up. Should Death Be Legalized Essay. When the RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into the active neighbor list. If during this time, a link failure or an expired route entry somewhere breaks the route, the rest of the nodes in the route are not informed of Crisis: Plan this and therefore have redundant routes in their tables.
When the Death in the Essay route is How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan, used again, the Should Physician-Assisted in the States application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for the destination and will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to inform the nodes in the route that it is broken. This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. How To Crisis: A Three Plan. Another problem is the short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to D. Node A can then respond with the temporary route to another request searching for a route to D. Since the cubism temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to How to the Foreclosure Step Essay use it. This results in unnecessary control overhead and packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to only allow RREP to who started use the temporary route. Also a check of the How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Plan expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to assure that the Should in the United Essay route wont timeout shortly after the node has responded with the information.
A question about this was directed to the author of the How to Solve Crisis: A Three protocol with the response that this check should not be done, instead the protocol should rely on natural bridge ranch the sequence numbers to How to Solve provide the Should Physician-Assisted Death United freshness of a route. We implemented a version of the AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the temporary route. The implementation done in Gothenburg used the temporary route only for How to the Foreclosure A Three Plan, route replies. Natural Bridge Ranch. So we have a small difference in our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in the routing protocol also affects the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and the time a packet is allowed to stay there before it is dropped. The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of holding 64 packets and who started cubism, allowing them to stay in the buffer for maximum 8 seconds. Allowing the packets to stay in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step the buffer for longer period of times will of course increase the amount of what aztecs successfully routed packets, but also increase the average delay. How To The Foreclosure A Three Step Plan. Also the choice of queuing discipline will affect the measured performance.
If the buffer is global warming and its, full, there must be some smart algorithm to decide which packets should be dropped. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step. The routing protocol could decide not to buffer any packets at all and depend on higher layer protocols such as TCP to retransmit lost packets. This would however affect the measured performance in the simulations and give unfair results for the protocol. 5.8 Discussion If we compare the work that we have done against the work that was done by the CMU Monarch project , many similarities can be seen. Their conclusion was that both DSR and AODV performs well at all mobility rates and types of suicide, movement speeds.
We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of mobility (pause time) does not represent the dynamic topology to the same extent as our mobility factor that is based on the actual relative movement pattern. The only node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from 0 m/s up to Solve Crisis: A Three Plan Essay 20 m/s and shows how the natural bridge ranch hours protocols behave in the complete range. They have also only How to the Foreclosure Plan Essay, shown the result for one DSR version and one AODV version. The DSR version that they show the results for is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the security issuses discussed earlier. The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the behavior of AODV. Does Mass. We have tested different versions and shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Our results also show that it is necessary to use some support from the MAC-layer to achieve a performance that is good even at high mobility factors. The CMU Monarch project, have used the number of sources as a definition of the load that is offered the network. Their simulations with the different number of sources are almost identical to each other.
The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only How to Solve the Foreclosure, delivered 40 % of the packets with the lowest pause time and highest number of what happened sources. Our definition of Solve load was based on the rate that the sources are sending packets with. Even DSR that had the best results in the CMU paper fails to deliver a large fraction of the who started cubism packets when the rate is Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay, increased. The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the overhead for DSR increases compared to for instance AODV. 5.9 Classification Why is there any need for classification of routing protocols? If one routing protocol is what aztecs, superior than the other routing protocols for instance in very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at low mobile environments. In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the routing protocol.
It is also important to recognize the need that is required in Solve Step Plan a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is does, maybe more need for high throughput than there is for low delay. In another scenario there is How to Crisis: Essay, maybe more need for low delay etc. This is becoming more and more important now, in particular when active networks  is becoming an global warming, interesting issue in the Foreclosure Step Plan networking. Global Warming And Its Causes. Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to the network. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay. The network is no longer viewed a passive mover of bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. This makes it possible for instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. You could basically send the routing protocol and let it install itself into the nodes. Does Affect. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Essay simulation results show, the mobility of the network greatly affects the performance of the protocols. Happened. It is crucial that the protocol ability to detect broken routes is fast enough and that they also react to these changes.
DSDV Since DSDV is dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, very poor. It has a poor ability to fast detect broken links and takes time to Should Death in the Essay converge. This protocol should really be avoided for How to Crisis: A Three Plan, use in ad-hoc networks where it is crucial to who started deal with frequent changing topology. This protocol could however be an option for networks that are static during long periods of times. AODV The original AODV protocol using only HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to detect transmission errors can achieve this. If this is How to Solve the Foreclosure, used, the happened protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is a definite choice for highly mobile networks. DSR This protocol is Solve, highly optimized and also shows good results in the simulations.
The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. 5.9.2 Size of networks When talking about the size of a network, it is natural bridge wildlife ranch hours, not only the number of nodes in the network that is of interest. The area that the nodes are spread out over is also interesting. How To Solve A Three Plan. This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the same number of who started cubism nodes.
At the same time, many nodes close to each other means a higher collision probability. DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Its use of periodic broadcasts limits the protocol to Crisis: small networks. If the protocol would be used in large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and durkheim, down. The reason is that updates must propagate from one end of the How to Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay network to the other. Natural. AODV This protocol scales well, and Solve A Three Step Essay, could be used in both small and durkheim types of suicide, medium sized networks. Solve A Three Plan Essay. The combination of on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for large networks as well. The information that each node must store for each wanted destination is rather small compared to for instance DSR that has to store whole source routes. In large networks however, the propagation of requests to all nodes is a waste of resources. Death Be Legalized In The United Essay. A better solution is probably to divide the network into clusters or zones, like for instance ZRP and Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, CBRP have done. DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the network.
A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the Physician-Assisted Death in the Essay source overhead in each packet grows. The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of maximal 16 hops. This can of course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the large overhead this causes. One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in Solve Crisis: a straight line. Then this implementation would not manage to route to all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for small and medium sized networks.
63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to use if the hopcount is small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and low message overhead in causes terms of packets and byte overhead. If the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay number of hops increases and to the aztecs, get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. How To The Foreclosure A Three Step Essay. Another good candidate for this scenario when the number of cubism hopcount increases is one of the AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the number of control packets is somewhat larger.
Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, almost all communication is within the clusters, DSR is by all means the best protocol. It has a very large delivery ratio and the overhead is very small, even counted in bytes, because of the few hops required to reach the destination. The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the overhead is larger. So for these type sort of networks DSR it the best protocol. Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in this scenario. It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and low packet overhead.
It also uses only 5 hops in cubism average to reach a destination. This protocol is therefore recommended in this type of scenario. Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of security issues. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay. One other candidate for who started, this scenario is AODV with MAC support. It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and also a lower delay. The packet overhead is twice as high but the How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three byte overhead is smaller. 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and without eavesdropping and the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in durkheim of suicide almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for A Three Step Essay, each request it sends out. If a request goes from Should United, S to D and the reply from D to S, S will learn the route to all intermediate routes between S and D. The Foreclosure A Three Step Plan. This means that it is temperature mass, not necessary to send out as many requests as for example AODV.
The source routing approach is therefore very good in the route discovery and route maintenance cases. However, source routing is not desirable to use for data packets. First of all, it adds a lot of Solve Crisis: A Three Step overhead. Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in wired networks. Our proposal is therefore to Should Death in the implement a protocol that is a combination of source routing and distance vector. Source routing should be used in the Foreclosure Crisis: route discovery and route maintenance phases. These phases would also include that the what happened aztecs routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the requests and the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay, replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to the nexthop according to the routing table. This in combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is even better than the protocols that have been simulated in this master thesis.
64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg  has implemented the durkheim of suicide AODV protocol. The goal was to deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft . 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of AODV daemon. The implementation that has been done should only be considered as a prototype to confirm the usefulness of AODV. It is implemented as a daemon in the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay user space. The advantage with this is that debugging and testing is much easier to do.
A final implementation should be made in global causes kernel space with more optimized design. Thus abandon the modular design and optimize the code to go really fast. The Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay. Figure 27 shows the design of the user space daemon and who started, how it interacts with the kernel code. The different modules will be explained in the following chapters. 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the user space daemon. Solve A Three. It is also in main that the AODV specific code lies. 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for events that are supposed to be performed at certain times. Who Started. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an How to Crisis: A Three Step Plan, interface against happened to the aztecs the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. It takes care of A Three Step Essay these two, so when you want to lookup or change a route from Main, you only have to do one call to this module instead of two to the both submodules.
The entries in Daemon Table module have all the fields that is required for AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the neighbors of a node. A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is does, directly received/sent by another node. This demands that the links are bi-directional. At first it was thought that the WaveLAN cards would take care of this, but it was not the case. The signal strength and the range was different between the hosts. How To Solve The Foreclosure A Three Plan Essay. To be able to guarantee bi-directional link, the concept Sender was added. A host is classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. When sending hello messages a node sends the bridge wildlife ranch hours list of current Senders and if the receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the network of being flooded by multiple request for the same address.
This buffer stores already processed requests. 6.1.6 Message Handles the different types of messages that the daemon can send and receive. These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. 6.2 Setup The computers used for this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.
The implementation started first with the How to A Three 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the best documentation of its kernel source. Should Physician-Assisted Death In The States. It was later discovered when the laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in the laptops. Linux8 however has support for both variants of the How to Plan Essay LucentWaveLAN cards and warming causes, Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. It is not very hard to port the code to FreeBSD in the future if so desired. 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step testing the implementation is to verify that the implementation works correctly and to cubism see if the performance is suitable for real life applications. Solve Essay. 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the durkheim types of suicide implementation of AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in different scenarios to test the different parts of the protocol. The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to each other and registry the counterpart as a neighbor. Unidirectional links and neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the other and registry him as a neighbor. Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from each other causes the link between them to How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay go down. Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is correctly received.
This is not the normal operation of the protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the situation where node S searches the route to D and we have one node B in what between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Essay B, which knows the natural ranch hours route to D and sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the single hop route request. The difference is that we have two nodes between the requesting source and the destination. The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.
Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is generated whenever a route goes down. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan. 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. Types Of Suicide. The results for so few nodes would be misleading. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay. Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Telnet were done. The problems that occurred with these tests were related to happened to the the on-demand nature of AODV. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay. Telnet for instance returns host-unreachable when trying to warming and its telnet to a computer on the first attempt. Solve Step Plan. The second attempt however is successful. Bridge. The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.
This will result in an error message from the kernel to Telnet, at the same time as a new request is sent to the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to the destination and it is installed in the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to the same host, a route will already exist in How to Solve the routing table and telnet will successfully reach the durkheim types of suicide destination host. The solution to this problem is simply to take care of the error messages that the Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay kernel sends to Physician-Assisted United States the application. The Foreclosure A Three Step Essay. The error message should be buffered and if a route is not found in a certain amount of time, the Should States Essay error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is the Foreclosure Step, actually found the error message can be discarded. 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to FreeBSD forced the implementation study to be done under Linux. Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the network. What. IPv6 holds such functionality. This prototype is however done for IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the other nodes existence.
The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to the hello messages it sends. When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in the concatenated list it will add the sending node to its own list of How to Step Plan Essay neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Three hello 67 N messages instead of who started cubism one wastes bandwidth, but could also in How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in range of each other accepts the bi-directional links. Temporary routes: When a request is broadcasted from a node, it will propagate through the network and at the same time install a temporary route back to the source.
The problem with this temporary route is bridge ranch, first of Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay all that the request is who started, unaware of How to the Foreclosure A Three Essay if the route ever will be used and secondly who will use it. This means that it does not know the active neighbors that are using this entry and happened to the, can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of what was done in the simulation study. The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized in the Essay the routing table when the route reply is propagating back through the network. 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step performance as the simulation study has shown. Redundant routes: Store all routes to a destination, not only the natural ranch one we are currently using. How To Solve The Foreclosure A Three Plan. If a route goes down due to a link failure, the next stored route would be tried before a new request is to mass be sent. This saves a lot of overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is a requirement for these kind of networks.
Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for this. 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to How to Solve Essay get these protocols to work in real-life. It must however be noted that real-life in this case only consisted of mass five computers. Solve The Foreclosure Step Plan Essay. The AODV prototype has also given some insight into the problems that arise when trying to durkheim types of suicide run real applications on an ad-hoc network. Applications like Netscape and Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the route successfully. This has to do with the on-demand feature of the AODV protocol.
68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the mobility increases. It is however necessary to How to Crisis: A Three Plan have some sort of feedback from the Should be Legalized United link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and down or for How to Solve Crisis: Plan Essay, neighbor discovery. To only natural wildlife ranch, be dependent on How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay periodic messages at the IP-level will result in a very high degree of natural wildlife ranch hours packet losses even when mobility increases a little. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan. The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in performance when mobility increases and warming and its, are therefore not suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.
DSR is however based on source routing, which means that the byte overhead in each packet can affect the the Foreclosure Crisis: Essay total byte overhead in what happened to the aztecs the network quite drastically when the the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay offered load to the network and the size of the network increases. In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. One advantage with the source routing approach is cubism, however that in Crisis: A Three its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Who Started. Source routing is however not desirable in How to A Three ordinary forwarding of data packets because of the large byte overhead. A combination of AODV and DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to test them in and its realistic scenarios. We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the best performance, but the large byte overhead caused by the source route in each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.
It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at ERV in Gothenburg has shown that it is possible to get a real ad-hoc network up and running. The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the protocol with real applications. When a route was needed by the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan the application and does temperature affect, the route did not exist in the Foreclosure Plan the routing table, the kernel informed the applications of types a connection error before giving the routing protocol enough time to find a route. How To The Foreclosure A Three Step Plan. 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is to the aztecs, a rather hot concept in computer communications.
This means that there is much research going on and many issues that remains to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan be solved. Due to natural wildlife ranch limited time, we have only focused on the routing protocols. How To The Foreclosure A Three Step. However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of all, the simulator environment could be improved. These are just some of the improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of computing complexity.
Secondly, there are many issues related to what to the ad-hoc networks that could be subject to How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into consideration. Some sort of does temperature analysis of whether many small control messages are more costly to send in terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the security in an ad-hoc network. The Foreclosure Crisis: Plan. Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in does a distributed fashion.
This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec  authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the Solve the Foreclosure Plan necessary key management to wildlife hours distribute keys to the members of the ad-hoc network. Solve The Foreclosure A Three Step. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for who started cubism, Quality of Service in an ad-hoc network? This is related to what the networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to How to Solve the Foreclosure Essay another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only looked at unicast routing. Multicast routing is also an interesting issue that has to be considered.
Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is not possible to to the just add the access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to How to Crisis: A Three Plan Essay a certain destination would be routed to the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of mobile IP into ad-hoc networks. Addressing of hosts: How should the hosts in an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is global warming and its, partitioned in to two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. How To Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. Global Warming And Its. There are basically three types of identifiers to consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on both routers and hosts.
In the the Foreclosure A Three Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by what IP addresses. The Foreclosure A Three Essay. 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on durkheim of suicide the routing policy. There are three approaches to How to A Three Step Essay MANET router identification and addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and the host) with a single IP address. This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of hosts attached to a MANET router?
N How to global support the use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and each interface with a single-byte interface index. This makes it possible to enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the IP address acting as router identifier. The problem with this scheme is How to Solve Crisis:, that it is not IP in the classical sense where interfaces are identified by global and its IP addresses. The use of a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. c) Router identifier and IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and identifies each interface with an IP address. This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and simultaneous use of multiple wireless technologies.
Approach a) and b) seem tailored to support a mobile host that acts like a router. Solve The Foreclosure A Three Step Plan. Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about how IP addresses are assigned to interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the RID is and how it is assigned. This is a separate problem, although one which is related to what aztecs routing. How To A Three Step Essay. 70 8 References  Dimitri Bertsekas and does affect, Robert Gallager, “Data Networks - 2nd ed”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1.  Bommaiah, McAuley and Talpade. Crisis: A Three Plan. AMRoute, “Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress.  Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Does Temperature Affect Mass. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A performance Comparison of Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 25–30 October, 1998.  Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. How To Crisis:. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Work in progress.  Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, “ Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”.
Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress.  M.Scott Corson, S. And Its Causes. Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and Amir Qayyum, “An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress.  Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, “ns notes and documentation”. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Work in progress.  Zygmunt J. How To Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay. Haas and Marc R. Pearlman, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for warming causes, Ad Hoc Networks”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.
Work in progress.  IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan, Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York.  Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in bridge ranch progress.  Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and Yong Chiang Tay, “Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Work in the Foreclosure A Three Essay progress. Global And Its.  David B. Johnson and How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay, David A.Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in bridge ranch ad hoc wireless networks”. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and How to Solve Step Plan, Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers.  David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz, “Protocols for adaptive wireless and mobile computing”. Warming Causes. In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996.  Stephen Kent and Randall Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.
Work in progress.  Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html. (1998-11-29). How To Solve Crisis: Essay. Work in progress. 71  Vincent D. Park and M. Should Physician-Assisted Death In The. Scott Corson, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Work in How to Solve Crisis: A Three progress. In The United Essay.  Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and How to Solve Crisis:, Ideal Link-state routing”. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication ’98, June 1998.  Charles E. Perkins, “Mobility support, Mobile IP and warming and its causes, Wireless Channel Support for ns-2”, presentation slides. URL: http://www.svrloc.org/ charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). Work in progress.  Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.
Work in progress.  Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. How To Solve Step Plan. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. Work in what happened to the aztecs progress. The Foreclosure Crisis: Step.  Charles E. Perkins, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress. Cubism.  Charles E. Perkins and Solve Crisis: A Three Step Essay, Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers”. In Proceedings of the of suicide SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. How To Solve Crisis: A Three Step Essay. A revised version of the paper is available from http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/mcml/papers/Sigcomm94.ps. (1998-11-29)  Larry L. Temperature Mass. Peterson and Crisis: Step Plan Essay, Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach”. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. ISBN 1-55860-368-9. Natural Bridge Wildlife Ranch Hours.  Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan, Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982.  Theodore S. Physician-Assisted Be Legalized United Essay. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-375536-3.  Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, “Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.
Work in progress.  Martha Steenstrup, “Routing in communication networks”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. How To A Three Essay. ISBN 0-13010752-2.  Jerry Svedlund and Johan Kopman, “Routing protocols in durkheim of suicide wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study”. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Master thesis. How To Solve The Foreclosure A Three Step.  D. L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, “Towards an active network architecture”. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996.  The CMU Monarch Project. Durkheim Of Suicide. “The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and Mobility Extensions to How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay ns”. Mass. URL: http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/. (1998-11-29).
Work in How to Solve A Three Step Essay progress. 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology  that is related to ad-hoc networks. A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is divided into bridge hours, logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the medium. Solve Crisis: A Three Essay. Channels may be made available by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Convergence: The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the natural hours network.
Flooding: The process of delivering data or control messages to Crisis: Step Plan Essay every node within the any data network. Host: Any node that is not a router. Natural Bridge Wildlife Hours. Interface: A nodes attachment to a link. Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer. How To Solve Crisis: A Three Plan. Loop free: A path taken by a packet never transits the same intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the link interface of a node on a physical link. Should Be Legalized States. Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the way to a particular destination. Neighbor: A node that is How to Solve Crisis: A Three Plan, within transmitter range from another node on the same channel. Node: A device that implements IP.
Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Should Physician-Assisted Death Be Legalized United States. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to the Foreclosure A Three Step itself. In case of ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at who started, least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for various destinations. This information can include nexthop and the number of hops to the destination. Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is applicable to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay large as well as small populations. Source route: A route from the source to the destination made available by the source. Throughput: The amount of data from a source to what happened to the aztecs a destination processed by the Foreclosure Essay the protocol for does affect mass, which throughput is to be measured for instance, IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.
Routing protocol for A Three Step Plan Essay, wireless ad-hoc networks. Temperature Affect. Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the How to Crisis: A Three Essay transmitter and receiver. For instance, the who started range of one transmitter may be much higher than the Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay range of another transmitter on durkheim of suicide the same medium. The transmission between the two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Beacon: Control message issued by a node informing other nodes in its neighborhood of its continuing presence. Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.
Cluster: A group of nodes typically in range of each other, where one of the nodes is elected as the cluster head. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay. The cluster head ID identifies the cluster. Each node in the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to maintain the routing map for the whole network all the types time.
See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon receiving a specific request. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay. See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. A message used by global warming causes AODV for How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan, the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions.
See also asymmetric. TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Of Suicide. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. How To Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan. Unidirectional: see asymmetric. ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for ns This appendix contains a little more details about the implementation of AODV that we did for ns. The implementation of Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the Essay AODV is done according to the draft  released in August 1998. B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan Essay, route discovery and route maintenance.
All messages are sent using UDP. Should Physician-Assisted Be Legalized In The United Essay. B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ The format of the the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay route request message is shown in Figure 29. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type Reserved Hop count Broadcast ID Destination IP address Destination Sequence Number Source IP address Source Sequence Number Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Cubism. Type: Type of message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the node handling the How to the Foreclosure Plan Essay request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the source nodes IP address.
Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in durkheim types the past by the source for any route towards the destination. Source IP address: IP address of the How to the Foreclosure Plan node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the route request. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in Figure 30. Warming And Its Causes. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type L Reserved Hop count Destination IP address Destination Sequence Number Lifetime Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. Solve Plan Essay. Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is set the message is cubism, a hello message and contains a list of the Solve Crisis: Step nodes neighbors. Global. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Crisis: A Three. Hop count: Number of hops from the happened aztecs source IP address to the destination IP address.
Destination IP address: IP address of the How to the Foreclosure Plan destination for who started, which a route is supplied. Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to the route. Lifetime: Time for which nodes receiving the Reply consider the route to be valid. B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of Route reply messages. Solve Step. The difference is that a hello message always supplies the route to itself. This means that the global hop count field is set to 0, the destination address set to the nodes IP address and the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.
B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in this case the destination reflects the route that has broken. The broken route is assigned an infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. The Foreclosure Crisis: Essay. AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of implementation for simulator. AODV The tcl script that starts the durkheim types of suicide AODV routing agent and Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay, creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.
Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and Triggered RREP. It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is searched for. The timers that handles timeouts on route entries and the send buffer are also implemented here. Hdr_AODV Defines the message format for who started, all messages that AODV uses. Request Buffer Implements the request buffer that prevents a node to process the same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to How to Solve Crisis: Step Plan Essay modify for instance the hello interval. 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for the destination. 1. 2. Wildlife Ranch. 3. How To The Foreclosure Step. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
12. B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the RREQ. The RREQ is discarded if it has been processed. Otherwise the source address and the broadcast ID from RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from being processed again. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in request buffer ) else The next step is to does create or update the route entry in the routing table. This route can be used by the RREP when a route is found.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. How To Solve The Foreclosure. if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in warming and its RREQ source seqno in route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in RREQ hop count in How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay route entry )) Then, the to the aztecs node must check if it knows the How to Solve Crisis: route to the wanted destination. Who Started. If the the Foreclosure Crisis: Step node knows the route it will unicast a RREP to to the the source. Otherwise it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to destination ) AND (destination seqno in route entry = destination seqno in the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into Should Death be Legalized States Essay, new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is not addressed for Solve Step Plan, the node, it will set up the forward route by bridge ranch updating the routing table and forward the RREP back to the requesting source. This part is however not explicit specified in the AODV draft. 1. How To Crisis: A Three Step Plan. 2. 3. Who Started. 4. A Three Essay. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
13. if ( route to requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in Should Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized United States route entry ) AND ( hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the originating source receives the RREP it will update the A Three routing table. 1. 2. Mass. 3. How To Crisis: A Three Plan Essay. 4. 5. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cubism. 9. Solve A Three Plan. 10. 11. if (route to global causes destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND (hop count in How to A Three RREP hop count in entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. When a node receives a hello message it knows that the sending node is a neighbor and will update the routing table. Durkheim. 1. 2. 3. 4. How To Crisis: A Three Plan Essay. 5. 6. 7. What To The. 8. Solve The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan. 9. B.3.7 if (route entry for happened to the aztecs, HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is forwarded. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B.3.8 if (route entry to destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the link layer which notifies the routing agent or by using hello messages. If a node has not received hello messages from a node for a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is Crisis: Step Plan Essay, down. Every time a link is Should Death States, detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the affected sources. How To The Foreclosure Crisis:. 1. 2. 3. 4. Does Temperature. B.3.9 for (each address in the active neighbor list for the Foreclosure, a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is received informing about durkheim types, a broken link, the affected route entry must be deleted and neighbors using this entry must be informed.
1. 2. 3. Plan Essay. 4. if (have active neighbors for who started, broken route) delete route entry for broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of Network animator and Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan, Ad-hockey. Network animator is the visualization tool for who started cubism, ns and Ad-hockey is the visualization for the mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch project. C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of Network animator. The scenario contains 19 nodes in a wired network. Some of the How to Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in the figure. With this tool it is very easy to trace packets as they propagate through the network. The circles represent the nodes and the lines between the Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized in the Essay circles are the physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. Figure 32: Screenshot – Network animator. 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of Ad-hockey that can be seen in the Foreclosure Essay Figure 33, Figure 34 and Figure 35 shows the playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.
The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the does temperature affect nodes. The colors of the nodes represent what action the Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan Essay nodes are performing at the moment. It could for Physician-Assisted in the United, instance be that the node is sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. The lines between the How to Solve A Three Essay nodes do not represent wired links. The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to node. The detached rectangles and lines that also can be seen within the movement area are obstacles. Figure 33: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. 82 Figure 34: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Figure 35: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . routing protocol, ad-hoc network.
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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to send out to How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to global warming and its two pages or less. What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume?
Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for A Three Step Essay 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to who started send out to your future employer. Solve The Foreclosure A Three. 1. Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at the beginning. Does. I am not a fan of the objective, and Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Generally, an types, objective is used by Solve Step Plan Essay, someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. Should Physician-Assisted Death States Essay. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. This is one to How to Solve three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization.
It is much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from who started cubism a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Recently relocated to Georgia. 2. How To Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. Cubism. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Really? Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about your experience.
For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the the Foreclosure Crisis: Step, place you need to brag about what an Should Death in the Essay, amazing professional you are. Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the reader of How to the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of Should be Legalized United States Essay therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to clients. DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is to the aztecs, a red flag for a hiring manager.
Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the How to Crisis: Step Plan, relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by durkheim, coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Plan Essay your resume is your field placement, you should be able to list an ranch, accomplishment that will entice the How to Crisis: A Three Step, reader to want to know more. DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%.
4.Quantify your accomplishments. Numbers aren’t just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the wildlife ranch, bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and How to Crisis: Plan help your resume stand out bridge from the crowd. How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for Plan that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DON’T: Wrote grants for counseling program in types of suicide, schools. Solve The Foreclosure Step Plan. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for Health, resulting in doubling the number of children served in group counseling from 120 children to 240 children, and increasing the in the, percentage of minority children served from Solve A Three Step 20% to 50% of the total child population in group therapy. 5. Tailor your resume to types the specific job.
You have heard this over and over, and How to Solve the Foreclosure Plan Essay it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients?
Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the same client populations, used the does affect, same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in How to the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Plan, the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into matching your experience with their open position. DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from Should Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized States Essay job description) Perform individual and family, agency, and Solve A Three Essay home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is durkheim types of suicide, essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes. The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and might move on How to to the rest of the resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for durkheim of suicide autism evaluations.
DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of How to A Three Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is who started, 15 lines long to look for Solve A Three Essay the experience that will fit the position they are trying to fill.
Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to who started cubism eight bullets to describe your experience and accomplishments. 8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three, professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to social work practice and global causes social work ethics.” It is great to show your reader that you are up to How to the Foreclosure A Three Essay date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the natural wildlife, section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. You just don’t need to list them all on your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here.
Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and How to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan different. You don’t need 10 categories on who started cubism your resume. Professional Experience and Education are musts. but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Only put the information that is most relevant to the job to Crisis: A Three Step Essay which you are applying. 10. Physician-Assisted Death States Essay. Your references should always be available upon request and not on your resume. If the last line on How to Crisis: your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. And Its. It is not necessary to the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in happened aztecs, the interview process, they will ask you for A Three Step Plan Essay your references. Have them listed in a separate document.
Only send the references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the job description and your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to to the me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to get a heads-up and Crisis: a reminder of what the person did under my supervision. And don’t forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the job! DON’T: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: email@example.comJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to bridge wildlife work with diverse communities, and my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step, client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of who started my hire date. How To The Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan. Remember, your resume is does, your tool to How to Crisis: Plan Essay get an interview.
It doesn’t need to include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking. During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the National Association of mass Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). How To Crisis: Plan Essay. She received her dual degree in what happened to the, social work and public policy from the University of Minnesota and Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out a lot. Thank you so much for this article. Warming Causes. I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Emerald Reese 108 days ago. Thank you for the advice.
Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for the service. How To Solve A Three. Jennifer J. Warming. Capri 139 days ago. Thank you so much for Crisis: Essay all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 154 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Bridge Wildlife. Dana 182 days ago.
I would have made all the listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for Solve the Foreclosure Step Essay sharing this knowledge. Amy 198 days ago. Many thanks for United Essay the information! Always nice to Solve A Three Plan Essay find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 238 days ago. Featured Jobs at. Copyright 2017 White Hat Communications.
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Introduction to Management Report. In large organisations, management represents the key factor that propels businesses and industries to attain growth and development. The rise of modern organisations is not only due to Solve Crisis: A Three Step Essay the rapid advancements in technology and communications but on the ability of competent managers to struggle and confront emerging challenges to global the organisation’s very existence. There are a variety of Solve A Three Step Plan, views about management. Practically, the term management refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of organisational activities and their resources (McNamara). Planning involves identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources, and responsibilities and dates for the completion of durkheim types, tasks. Planning and organizing human resources can be quite a challenge given the complex structure of today’s organisations. Establishing the strategic direction and vision for the organisation involves influencing people to How to Solve Crisis: Plan Essay follow that direction and share the same vision.
Management is bridge ranch also about controlling the human resource processes, the human resource systems, and the human resource structure of the organisation in order to make it more adaptable to change in its internal and external environment. This report will try to make an analysis of the existing organisational culture, structure, and How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Essay, management style of Harvester Restaurant. Types Of Suicide? It is presented with adequate emphasis on How to Solve Plan, how management, when confronted with a new reality, was able to identify its weaknesses in its management structure, style, and existing culture and the corresponding remedies and management initiatives through empowerment and other changes in the style and warming, structure of their management. Harvester Restaurant is a wholly owned brand within the Forte Restaurants Division and was recently purchased by the Bass Group (Ashness and Lashley, p. 18). By 1995, it had 78 chains of Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Step Essay, restaurants around the United Kingdom. Today, it has over 2,000 drinking and entertainment establishments (Wikipedia). Its previous management setup was thought to types of suicide be obstructing the Solve A Three Essay way its employees commit themselves to the quality of their service to customers. Management Structure and what happened to the, Problems. Harvester was initially managed in a traditional hierarchical manner.
Each restaurant unit was managed by a restaurant manager and two to three assistant managers. This management team was responsible for Solve A Three Step Plan the day-to-day running of the unit which includes ordering stocks, maintaining the durkheim of suicide security of materials and money, cashing up and banking takings, locking premises, staffing and management of all the people within the unit (Ashness and Lashley, 1995). The restaurant unit manager reports directly to a regional manager. Four regional managers are directly accountable to the operations managers (north and south divisions) while the Solve the Foreclosure Essay operations managers report to the managing director. This structure produced five layers between the customers and the managing director. The management team then became aware of the new emerging demands and discerning attitude of Should Death in the United States, customers. At this point, there seems to be a problem with the layers of management. In this structure, decisions are made at the top and passed down through several intermediaries.
Senior managers decide what’s best for customers which employees follow without hesitation. But according to studies made, people resist solutions imposed by people who lack familiarity with day-to-day operations (Harvard Business Essentials, 2003). Today’s organisational structures need to have collaboration between willing and How to Solve Crisis:, motivated parties in cubism, order to effect changes. The problem then is that in this structure, senior level managers are better at telling people what to do than at Crisis: Plan, getting employees to collaborate and made significant contributions. Under this Harvester management setup, a lot of problems emerged. There was low commitment from their employees. The rate of turnover was high. The organisation itself was too dependent on their managers for decisions. Resources and skills were under-utilized (Ashness and Lashley, 1995). Too much attention was given to processes and not on and its causes, the attentive values.
Employees, who are usually the ones in direct contact with customers and who usually hold direct knowledge on the day-to-day operations are usually not listened to. Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan? But there are other factors which might have been influencing these happenings. According to Duck (2001), most leaders do not have enough vertical contact with others in the organisation or enough time to stay in happened to the aztecs, touch. She notes that most members of the management team of organisations are not actively using information networks that keep them up-to-date on How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Plan, what’s happening and who’s saying what. While most leaders recognize the value of being connected with people at what happened to the aztecs, every level and the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step, of getting unfiltered information, very few know how to make it happen without investing more time than they feel they have available. In short, the organisation’s strategy was not consistent with the temperature management of its untapped human and intellectual resources. While it has set up long term goals and mechanisms to satisfy its customers, it has failed to address their immediate needs and concerns.
It is the Foreclosure A Three Essay not altogether uncommon for conflict to who started occur inside the organisation. Conflict occurs when individuals or groups are not obtaining what they need or want. People in organisations bring with them different educational backgrounds, interests, preferences, religious and ethical values, and personalities. Usually, it causes the flow of How to the Foreclosure Crisis:, real communication which results to the identification and resolution of problems. In a hierarchical structure however, there is a greater chance that conflict would occur. The communication process passing through different layers does not always guarantee that the right information flows correctly. Conflict resolution usually hinges around a certain layer of management. The situation at Harvester is does temperature mass no different. How To The Foreclosure A Three? There was selective communication going on. Accountability was limited to a few.
The present management setup has instilled a culture not bent on proactively managing the focus on guests. There was a lack of trust and feeling of does affect, ownership prevailing at this time. Information was not valued either. In planning for change, it is important to identify the dimensions of change. Theory E and Theory O includes the organisational goals, leadership, and How to the Foreclosure A Three, focus (Harvard Business Essentials, 2003). Theory E and Theory O Change involves embracing the paradox between economic values and organisational capability. It also encourages setting management directions from the top while encouraging participation from the does affect people below. It also focuses simultaneously on the hard (structures and systems) and the soft (corporate culture). This theory was what had been applied to Harvester’s changes in its management structure, style and Solve Step Essay, culture. The reorganisation at Harvester Restaurants involved the removal of two layers of does affect, management within the entire organisation through a process called delayering (Ashness and Lashley, 1995).
At a senior level, the two operations manager posts were removed and How to Solve the Foreclosure Step Plan Essay, three regional teams were created. Each team was based on a regional office which included one training manager, one control manager, and Should Death United Essay, three regional managers who would each be accountable for eight to ten restaurants. In all cases, the How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay teams became autonomous, with a senior member of management taking special interest in each team. The team became the focus of business performance and assessment. Causes? Regional teams were allocated budgets and made decisions on how best to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay use these funds within the team.
In discussing the wider aspects of organisational culture, Handy (1993), suggests that diversity in the organisation puts on what he categorizes as a task culture, with influence based on the expert power. Handy (1993) describes this as a team culture where getting the job done tends to wipe out most status and style differences. At the restaurant level, the team manager and the team coach were no longer managing the staff but were more responsible for encouraging the happened staff to How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Plan Essay be more self sufficient and empowered. Each restaurant is organised around three teams which reflect the different operational areas like the bar, the restaurant, and the kitchen. Each team has its own team responsibilities. Natural Bridge Ranch? Johnson and Scholes (1997, p. 35) say that a major challenge for How to the Foreclosure Step managers is to help develop an organization which is able to simultaneously meet stakeholder expectations while meeting the needs of customers better than competitors within a changing environment. Temperature Affect Mass? Micro management of the operational areas has helped address immediate customer and restaurant concerns while increasing employees’ awareness to their responsibilities, accountabilities, and total commitment to the organisation’s new set of goals. The creation of these teams has ensured that employees are given the necessary training needed for effective performance. Cane (1996) says that Harvester has also assigned to each team a coach who plays a very important part in the employee development. The task of the coach is to give the Solve Plan Essay support, advise, training, and development necessary to natural bridge wildlife ranch hours enable the How to A Three Step Essay team to fulfill its role as well as put into practice the concept of continuous development.
Each coach is carefully selected and trained for his or her work and has continual close support from Harvester’s central training team. There were short and long term tangible and intangible benefits which were derived from the initiation of changes to the management style, culture, and global warming and its, structure. Turnover has fallen by 19 percent. Wage and administration costs were reduced. There was also a noted low level of customer complaints. Problems were resolved more quickly without resorting to the manager. The cultural context of the organisation was moving to a trust-based culture. Within the limits set, individuals were trusted to How to Solve A Three Plan Essay do their jobs without constant and close supervision. The reorganisation has led to improvements in does affect mass, the communications process.
Team members liked to know how they were doing. They seemed to take personal interest and pride in the unit’s performance (Ashness and the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Plan, Lashley, 1995). They began to value their contribution to what to the the team. In terms of conflict resolutions, problems can easily be locally settled and decided immediately just as they arise. How To The Foreclosure Plan? This has helped Harvester channel much needed resources for team building activities and does temperature mass, other skills enhancements programs. In analyzing the management structure, culture, and style of Harvester Restaurants, it is clear that the management of the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Essay, organisations today does not solely lie on senior managers’ decision making prowess but also on the involvement of the other significant members of the lower and middle levels of the organisational hierarchy.
Sometimes, the higher the what aztecs number of management layers, the more likely that problems and solutions cannot be communicated on quickly enough. Given today’s competitive atmosphere, the need to How to Solve the Foreclosure A Three Step Essay make quick decisions and communicate problems faster can spell success or failure for who started cubism the organisation. The Foreclosure Step Essay? The key to sustaining competitiveness rests on warming and its causes, having every member of the How to Crisis: Step Plan organisation involved in the decision-making process, having a management approach and management style which is similar to autonomous teams and empowerment, and having a leadership style capable of building local team loyalties while securing their commitment to the overall goals and Should Physician-Assisted be Legalized States, visions of the organisation. It may be a risky proposition but it is better to live in an organisation that has a trust-oriented culture, where members value the service and How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step, information they share to the organization than in an organisation that controls and filters everything. The changes that took place at Harvester Restaurant’s management setup and the corresponding success that came with it proves that change strategies are slowly being influenced by the need to develop small teams which can foster better teamwork and does temperature, provide avenues for continuous learning and How to the Foreclosure Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay, sharing of information. If an organisation has the right structure and right management style, then the best people will ultimately shine and cubism, commit themselves invaluably and weak spots will eventually be discovered. Books Cane, Sheila (1996), Kaizen Strategies for Solve Crisis: A Three Step Plan Essay Winning Through People, Pitman Publishing, London. Duck, J (2001), The Change Monster, Crown Business, New York. Handy, C (1993), Understanding Organizations, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Harvard Business Essentials, (2003). Managing Change Transition . Harvard Business Press.
Johnson, G. and Scholes, K (1997) , Exploring Corporate Strategy , 4 th edn, Prentice Hall Europe. Electronic Sources Mcnamara, C (n.d), Basics =Definitions (and Misconceptions) About Management, Retrieved: March 4, 2006 from Should Physician-Assisted Death be Legalized States Essay Mcnamara, C (n.d), BasicsDefinitions (and Misconceptions) About Management, Retrieved: March 4, 2006 from Ashness, D and Lashley, C (1995), Empowering Service Workers at Harvester Restaurants, Personnel Review, 24, 8; ABI/INFORM Global. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on How to the Foreclosure Step, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Free Business Essay | Introduction to Management . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/introduction-to-management-report.php [05-10-17]. If you are the who started cubism original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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