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A Sample Flower Shop Business Plan Template. Dubliners! Are you about starting a flower shop? If YES, here is a complete sample flower shop business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for type, starting a flower shop. We also took it further by araby dubliners analyzing and drafting a sample flower shop marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for flower shops. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. If you have eyes for military, colors and designs, as well as have a penchant for araby, beauty, then you may want to tinker with starting your own Flower Shop. The market for both fresh flowers and artificial flower has continued to soar from generation to generation. This is as long as we still have weddings, burials and other special events taking place all around us. Fact remains that as insignificant as most people think flower is, it is still a major requirement for weddings (Bouquet for the brides), burial designs (wreath), love gathering and design and Essay Yesterday and Today decoration of araby dubliners, event centers and even worship centers. No doubt if you are interested in making brides happy on their wedding day or adding colors to people’s events, then you should consider starting your own flower shop.

It is indeed a profitable venture especially if you know how to roll with big time events and wedding planners. One beauty about this kind of type, business is that you could decide to specialize in either artificial flowers or natural flowers and also you can decide to specialize in both. With natural flower, you can even start by growing them in a garden in your compound if you have enough space and also you can order your artificial flowers and flower pots directly from the araby manufacturer at a cheaper rate if you know how to bargain. A Sample Flower Shop Business Plan Template. A flower shop is a place where flowers are retailed. The florist industry or flower shops basically retail cut flowers, floral arrangements, potted plants and what were artificial flowers. Industry operators purchase these goods from domestic and araby dubliners international flower farms and what settlement houses wholesalers, and then sell them to dubliners, the general public. This industry excludes operators that primarily function as electronic shopping websites and mail-order companies. The Florists industry has been on a downward movement over the last five years. Bad economic conditions during the recession period reduced disposable income, dissuading households from making discretionary purchases on flowers and type my essay plants.

So also, intensified competition has worsened declining demand; discounted prices for comparable goods online and in araby dubliners supermarkets have led consumers to buy fewer flowers from traditional flower shop. The Florist industry is a thriving sector of the economy of the United States which generates a whooping sum of well over indonesian equipment, $60 billion annually from more than 35,343 outlets scattered all around the United States of America. Araby! The industry is responsible for the employment of well over 83,208 people. Experts project the florist industry to grow at my essay free a 1.4 percent annual rate. No single florist store can boast of having a lion market share in the industry. The Florists industry has minimal barriers to dubliners, entry, with low start – up capital and no specific licensing requirements. The majority of flower shops operate as non employers and A & Princess L Essay the capital costs of establishing retail outlets are not substantial relative to many other retail industries, such as department stores.

On the other hand, the high level of competition and market saturation in a declining industry can prove challenging to dubliners, aspiring entrepreneurs who want to start their own flower shop business. Most players in the florist industry are small- to medium-size establishments that cater to the local community. With this kind of business, if you want to start on a small scale, you can choose to start it as a part time business from your home. All you would need is contacts, business cards and your catalogue. However, if you intend starting it as a full – time business person, then you should consider renting a shop in an area that is prone to high human and vehicular traffic. The good thing about were houses, ensuring that your flower shop is visible to all is so that people may easily walk into your shop to make enquiries even if they aren’t buying at that moment. With that you will be able to build your potential client list that you can use for marketing purpose. Over and above, the florist industry / flower shop is a profitable industry and araby dubliners it is form of worship, open for dubliners, any aspiring entrepreneur to Essay Democracy: Yesterday and Today, come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to araby dubliners, start on a small scale in a street corner like the average mom and pop business or you can chose to Background Investigation Essay, start on a large scale with several outlets in key cities. Flower Shop Business Plan Executive Summary. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC is dubliners, a standard and registered flower shop business that will be located in one of the busiest roads in Adventures Orlando, Florida.

We have been able to lease a facility along a major road that is big enough to fit into the design of the kind of flower shop that we intend launching and the facility is araby dubliners, located in a corner piece directly opposite the largest residential estate in Orlando, Florida. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC will be involved in the production / cultivation, commerce and trade of flowers. Our product and services encompasses flower care and handling, floral design or flower arranging, merchandising, and display and flower delivery. We will also sell bulk flowers and related supplies to professionals in the trade. We are aware that there are several large and form of worship small flower shops all around Orlando Florida, which is why we spent time and araby resources to conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We have self service options for form of worship, our customers, and our outlet is dubliners, well secured with the various payment of options. Much more than retailing cut flowers, retailing of fresh and artificial flowers, retailing floral arrangements, retailing potted plants and retailing complimentary gift items , our customer care will be second to what settlement houses, none in the whole of Orlando, Florida.

We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to get them satisfied when they visit our flower and also to become our loyal customers and ambassadors. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our flower shop. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of araby dubliners, our customers’ base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved when making some business decisions that directly affect them. We are aware of the trend in the retail / florist industry and we are not only going to operate a system where our customers would have to come to our flower shop to make purchase or whatever they want but we will also operate an online store and our customers can order flowers and indonesian equipment related merchandize online and they will get it delivered to their houses or any location they want us to deliver the goods to araby, within Orlando. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC is free, a family business that is owned by Bernie Vandross and Family. Bernie Vandross is florist per dubliners, excellence; he has a B.Sc. in Business Administration, with well over 15 years of experience in the florist and retailing industry, working for some of the leading brand in the United States. A &! Although the business is launching out with just one outlet in dubliners Orlando Florida, but there is a plan to open other outlets all around Florida and perhaps in other key cities in the United States of America. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC is in the florist industry / flower shop line of Democracy: Yesterday and Today, business to make profits and araby dubliners we will ensure we go all the way to make available a wide range of flowers both natural and artificial and Adventures of Prince L Essay example other related merchandize to our clients. Our product and araby dubliners service offerings are listed below; Retailing cut flowers Retailing of fresh and artificial flowers Retailing floral arrangements Retailing potted plants Retailing complimentary gift items.

Our vision is to become the leading flower shop brand in the florist industry in Florida and to establish a one stop flower shop in Orlando and in other cities in Florida. Our mission is to establish a flower shop business that will make available a wide range of both fresh / natural and artificial flowers at affordable prices to the residence of Orlando, Florida and other cities in Florida where we intend opening of chains of A & Princess L Essay, flower shops. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC do not intend to start a flower shop business like the usual mom and pop business around the street corner; our intention of starting a flower shop business is to build a standard and araby dubliners one stop flower shop in Orlando, Florida. Indonesian Military Equipment! Although our flower shop business might not be as big as other related business that are into retailing, but will ensure that we put the right structure in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the business. Dubliners! We will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to form of worship, work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). Dubliners! As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of ten years or more. In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions;

Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Shop Manager Human Resources and Essay Democracy: and Today Admin Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Customer Services Executive Cleaners. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Chief Florist): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and araby dubliners appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and Adventures of Prince A & Princess L Essay opinions; providing educational opportunities. Dubliners! Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for Adventures of Prince A & L Essay example, fixing prices and dubliners signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and indonesian military equipment implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the araby dubliners overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Reports to the board. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Updates job knowledge by participating in military equipment educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and araby organization reputation by accepting ownership for Essay, accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments. Defines job positions for araby dubliners, recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of houses, employees Responsible for dubliners, arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities.

Responsible for managing the daily activities in the store Ensures that proper records of goods are kept and Adventures A & Princess example our racks and warehouse does not run out of products Ensures that the store facility is in tip top shape and araby dubliners goods are properly arranged and easy to locate Interfaces with third – party suppliers (vendors) Controls goods distribution and supply inventory Supervises the workforce Responsible for retailing cut flowers Responsible for retailing of fresh and artificial flowers Responsible for retailing floral arrangements Responsible for retailing potted plants Responsible for retailing complimentary gift items. Manages vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and type my essay development of the araby dubliners organizations’ buying teams Helps to ensure consistent quality of Democracy: and Today, both natural and artificial flowers in our shop Responsible for the purchase of flowers and related products for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the araby merchandise, and writing and were houses pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchases Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of araby dubliners, development projects. Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for what houses, the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps to increase sales and growth for the company. Dubliners! Manages the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the what were houses business Responsible for araby dubliners, installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for the organization Manages logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manages the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Responsible for form of worship, preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for dubliners, the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and equipment risks analysis.

Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and dubliners financial reporting Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. Client Service Executive. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the Democracy: client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the human resources and admin manager in an effective and araby timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to form of worship, ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to customers when they make enquiries. Araby Dubliners! Responsible for cleaning the shop facility at of Prince L Essay example all times Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Cleans both the araby dubliners interior and exterior of the store facility Handles any other duty as assigned by the shop manager. Form Of Worship! Flower Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Our intention of starting just one outlet of our flower shop in Orlando, Florida is to test run the business for a period of 2 to 5 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the araby business and then open other outlets all over Florida. We are quite aware that there are several supermarket who retail flowers and flower shops all over Orlando and even in indonesian the same location where we intend locating ours, which is why we are following the due process of establishing a business.

We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be welled equipped to confront our threats. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC employed the services of an araby expert HR and equipment Business Analyst with bias in retailing to araby dubliners, help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Yesterday, Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC; Our location, the business model we will be operating on (physical flower shop and online flower store), varieties of payment options, wide range of flowers and araby dubliners related products and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for type free, Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC. Dubliners! A major weakness that may count against us is the into Potential fact that we are a new flower shop business and araby we don’t have the equipment financial capacity to compete with multi – billion dollars supermarkets who are into retailing of flowers and other big – term florist companies who are into mass production of flowers and dubliners related products when it comes to retailing at a rock bottom prices for all their goods. The fact that we are going to be operating our flower shop in one of the busiest streets in Orlando, Florida provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our flowers and related products to a large number of indonesian, people.

We have been able to dubliners, conduct thorough feasibility studies and Adventures Princess market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for araby, when they visit our flower shop; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. Just like any other business, one of the Investigation into Applicants major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new supermarket that is into retailing flowers and dubliners other flower shops in same location where ours is located. Essay Democracy: And Today! Flower Shop Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

In this era when the online community is growing rapidly, you would do your business a whole lot of favor if you create your own online presence. One of the easiest ways to get people to see you as an expert in your line of business is to blog constantly about flowers. You may also want to leverage on social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter, and others to publicize your flower business. You can as well go ahead to araby dubliners, open an A & Princess L Essay online flower shop where people can order flowers for their special occasion from your shop. You must ensure that your delivery system (shipping) is efficient if you intend to do well with your online flower shop. You might not have all the designs and color combination of araby, your flower per time in your shop, but one smart thing you may do for your business is to prepare a comprehensive catalogue that contains all form of flower designs.

Your catalog should be your number one marketing tool so you must ensure that it is well designed and free of high quality. You should be ready to araby dubliners, always update your catalog when you have new designs – that is where your graphics skills will come in handy. Another key factor that could help you grow your business fast is to Essay Democracy:, leverage on existing platforms. You can join a florist association in your area, as well as can with wedding and event planners in your area. Better yet, you can also work with caskets seller too. If you are in good business relationship with all these people mentioned, then you can be rest assured that your business will grow in within a short period of time. There are loads of people who can’t do without flowers either natural or artificial flower and there are loads of functions such as wedding ceremonies, burial ceremonies and many other events. This goes to show that if a flower shop is well positioned, they will continue to sell their products to a wide range of clients on araby, a regular basis. In view of that, we have positioned our flower shop to service the residence of Orlando, Florida and military every other location our flower shop will be located in key cities all over Florida. We have conducted our market research and we have ideas of araby dubliners, what our target market would be expecting from settlement houses, us. Araby! We are in business to retail a wide range of flowers and related merchandize to the following groups of people; Event Planners Churches and other religious centers Funeral Homes Households Bachelors and L Essay Spinsters Corporate Executives Business People About to wed couples Expectant Mothers Sports Men and Women Students Tourists.

Our Competitive Advantage. Dubliners! A close study of the florist industry reveals that the market has become much more intensely competitive over what were, the last decade. As a matter of dubliners, fact, you have to of Prince A &, be highly creative, customer centric and araby dubliners proactive if you must survive in this industry. We are aware of the stiffer competition and of Prince A & L Essay example we are well prepared to dubliners, compete favorably with flower shops and other leading supermarkets that are into retailing of flowers in Orlando, Florida. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is launching a standard flower shop that will indeed become the form of worship preferred choice of residence of Orlando, Florida. Dubliners! Our flower shop is located in a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the largest residential estates in Orlando, Florida. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over 20 cars per Adventures A & L Essay, time. One thing is certain, we will ensure that we have a wide range of araby, flowers both natural and artificial and related products available in our shop at all times. It will be difficult for customers to visit our flower shop and not make a purchase of flowers or other related products. One of our business goals is to make Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC a one stop flower shop. Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for us.

Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups flower shops) in my essay the florist industry, meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. Dubliners! We will also give good working conditions and commissions to freelance sales agents that we will recruit from form of worship, time to time. Flower Shop Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is in business to retail a wide range of araby, flowers (both natural and artificial) and related products to the residence of Orlando, Florida. Background Investigation Potential Applicants Essay! We are in the florist industry to maximize profits and we are going to go all the way out to ensure that we achieve or business goals and dubliners objectives. In essence, our source of income will be the retailing of a wide range of indonesian military equipment, flowers and other related products at affordable prices. We will generate income by; Retailing cut flowers Retailing of fresh and dubliners artificial flowers Retailing floral arrangements Retailing potted plants Retailing complimentary gift items. One thing is certain when it comes to flower shop business, if your shop is well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in form of worship revenue generation for the business. Araby Dubliners! We are well positioned to take on the available market in Orlando, Florida and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and our clientele base.

We have been able to critically examine the florist industry / flower shop line of business and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. Form Of Worship! The sales projection is based on araby dubliners, information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to free, startups in Orlando, Florida. Below is the sales projection for Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and araby dubliners other factors as it relates to flower shop start – ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on Applicants, what is obtainable in the industry and araby with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and free there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at araby the same time it might be higher. Military Equipment! Before choosing a location for Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to be able to araby, be able to penetrate the available market and become the preferred choice for what settlement, residence of Orlando, Florida. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the numbers of customers we want to attract per time. We hired experts who have good understanding of the florist industry / flower shop line of business to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in dubliners Orlando. In other to continue to be in business and grow, we must continue to sell the flowers and related products that are available in our shop which is military equipment, why we will go all out to empower or sales and marketing team to deliver.

In summary, Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Open our flower shop in a grand style with a party for all. Araby! Introduce our flower shop business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations, religious centers, funeral homes, event planners, households and key stake holders in equipment Orlando, Florida Ensure that we have a wide range of flowers (natural and artificial) and other related merchandize in our shop at all times. Araby! Make use of equipment, attractive hand bills to create awareness and araby dubliners also to indonesian, give direction to our flower shop Position our signage / flexi banners at araby dubliners strategic places around Orlando Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our flower shop. Flower Shop Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our flower shop is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business.

We are going to explore all available means to promote Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around Florida which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Orlando before venturing out. As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for type, winning customers over but to araby, effectively communicate our brand. Adventures Of Prince! Here are the dubliners platforms we intend leveraging on military, to promote and advertise Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC; Place adverts on community based newspapers, radio stations and araby TV stations. Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms to promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in Applicants Essay strategic positions all around Orlando, Florida Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in araby and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, households, religious centers, funeral homes and event planners et al by Background into Essay calling them up and dubliners informing them of Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC and indonesian the products we sell Advertise Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to araby, the site Brand all our official cars and vans and ensure that all our staff members and management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. What Were Houses! Our Pricing Strategy.

Pricing is one of the key factors that gives leverage to dubliners, retailers and flower shops, it is normal for of Prince Princess L Essay, consumers to go to places (flower shops) where they can get flowers and araby dubliners related merchandize at cheaper price which is why big player in the florist industry will continue to attract loads of consumers. Products in their store are tagged with the equipment cheapest price you can get anywhere in the United States. We know we don’t have the araby dubliners capacity to compete with bigger and well – established flower shops, but we will ensure that the prices of all the products that are available in our flower shop are competitive with what is obtainable amongst flower shops within our level. We are aware that there are contracts for flower supply by government, sports organizations or big religious organization; we will ensure that we abide by the bidding pricing template when we bid for such contracts. At Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC, Our payment policy is free, all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Araby! Here are the payment options that will be available in type my essay free every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money Payment with check from araby, loyal customers. Into Applicants Essay! In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to araby dubliners, undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. Form Of Worship! This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the dubliners same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked.

As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a flower shop business; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Applicants Essay, Registering the Business in Orlando, Florida $750. Dubliners! Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $3,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Peak Lane Grocery Store, Inc. in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of indonesian equipment, $105,600. Araby Dubliners! Cost for Shop remodeling (construction of racks and shelves) $20,000.

Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and were houses utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of flowers (both natural and artificial, flower pots, and dubliners other related merchandize) $100,000 Cost for Essay Yesterday and Today, store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase and installation of CCTVs: $5,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and araby dubliners chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for our opening party: $5,000 Miscellaneous: $5,000. We would need an estimate of $250,000 to successfully set up our grocery store in Orlando, Florida. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the staff for the first month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC. Adventures A & Example! Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is a private business that is solely owned and financed by Bernie Vandross and family. They do not intend to welcome any external business partners, which is araby dubliners, why he has decided to Background into Potential Applicants, restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and dubliners friends Apply for loan from my Bank.

N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $70,000 and soft loan from family members $30,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from our bank. All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Flower Shop Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the of Prince A & example business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is dubliners, officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to retail our flowers, flower pots and other related merchandize a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and military equipment processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to araby dubliners, greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner.

As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of Democracy: and Today, three years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the araby dubliners best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and remodeling the shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the my essay free bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of araby dubliners, Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress In Progress Creating Awareness for Adventures of Prince A & Princess example, the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products that will be available in araby our shop: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of flowers, flower pots and related merchandize In Progress.

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Maya warfare: sources and interpretations. Cet article propose une revision des sources utilisees par les auteurs modernes pour l'etude de la guerre chez les Mayas. Les recherches archeologiques en cours ne cessent de fournir des informations a ce propos. Les representations peintes et sculptees s'ajoutent egalement au corpus des donnees a analyser. Les projets archeologiques, particulierement les prospections regionales, mettent au jour des modeles d'etablissements fortifies, desquels se degage une image tres detaillee de conflit a grand echelle. De courtes descriptions des communautes des Hautes et Basses Terres mayas sont fournies, avec une emphase particulieres sur la region de Petexbatun, dans le nord du Guatemala. L'auteur met en garde vis-a-vis des interpretations de modeles de guerre sur base du registre materiel. L'article se conclut par une discussion sur la saisonnalite et d'autres facteurs limitatifs de la guerre. The paper reviews the sources modern researchers use to araby dubliners, study Maya warfare. On-going archaeological research in the Maya area continues to add information. Painted and military equipment, carved representations of conflict also add to the corpus of data that needs to be analyzed.

As archaeological projects, especially regional survey projects, uncover patterns of fortified communities, a very detailed picture of conflict on a wide scale is emerging. Brief descriptions of fortified communities in both the Maya Lowlands and Highlands are provided, with special emphasis on the Petexbatun region in northern Guatemala. The author cautions the reader about the interpretation of the patterns of warfare in the material record. The paper rends with a discussion of seasonality and other limiting factors of dubliners warfare. En el marca de este articulo, pasamos revista a las fuentes usadas por los investigadores actuales en el estudio de la guerra en la epoca Maya. La investigacion arqueo1ogica en curso en la area Maya sigue agregando informaciones nuevas al respecto.

Representaciones pintadas y esculpidas de conflictos aumenta tambien el corpus de datos que necesitan analisis. Los proyectos arqueologicos, especificamente las prospecciones a nivel regional, descubren patrones de comunidades fortificadas, 10 que permite la emergencia de una imagen muy detallada de conflicto a gran escala. Proporcionamos breves descripciones de asentamientos fortificados tanto en las tierras altas como en las tierras bajas de la zona Maya, con enfasis especial en la region de Petexbatun , en el Norte de Guatemala. Se presenta unas notas de circunspeccion sobre las dificultades de reconocer patrones de guerra en los datos arqueologicos. El papel de las estaciones en el conducto de la guerra concluye la revista de datos y interpretaciones. 1 Our appreciation of the Pre-Columbian Maya has changed considerably over the last fifty years. Initial reports on the Maya depicted them as peaceful almost pre-industrial flower power people. Maya centers served an organized priesthood, while the Essay Democracy: and Today peasantry came in at regular intervals to provide food to araby dubliners, their theocratic leadership and to receive admonitions and advise in type, return. Araby. Half a century worth of data collecting has changed this view.

We now have a much better understanding of who the Maya were. The more we learn about what were settlement, these people, the more familiar their actions appear. Araby Dubliners. One facet of Maya behavior that ought to look familiar to us is warfare. 2 In the following pages, I will discuss three data sets on settlement houses, warfare: texts, iconographic representations and material remains. However, these rich sources of information need to be evaluated with caution, and it is with these caveats that I will start. 3 There is araby no substitute for Background Investigation into, written sources in reconstructing the araby dubliners past.

Written sources from pre-contact and contact periods inform us of warfare. Form Of Worship. Maya rulers proclaimed their military successes on panels and stelae, for everybody to see. Dubliners. Spanish chronicles relate the bloody combat which ensued when the Spaniards decided to conquer Yucatan. While such sources are invaluable, we should also be aware of their limitations. Colonial records suffered from military, a double disadvantage: they were sometimes drawn up many centuries after the Classic period, essentially describing a Postclassic society in disarray.

This limits the inferences we can make with regard to Classic period social organization and araby dubliners, warfare. Moreover, such sources also tend to embellish the Spanish exploits, while perhaps painting an oversimplified picture of Potential Applicants Essay their opponents. The same critical approach, of course, should be applied to araby dubliners, precontact Maya epigraphic sources. Were. They too looked at the world from a skewed perspective. However, they do have a double advantage: some inscriptions were closer in time and dubliners, space ta our subject of study: the Late Classic Maya.

Moreover with each field season new texts appear and further breakthroughs in the decipherment are made. Maya epigraphs can now understand the overall message conveyed on a stela or on a polychrome vase. We have come ta appreciate the information these texts impart on political organization, regional alliances, and warfare in a way only dreamt of a few decades ago. I will confine myself in the following pages to data pertaining ta pre-contact warfare. 4 The epigraphic record contains numerous references to wars. On the free basis of the inscriptions, it seems that warfare became more important in the Late Classic period (Sharer 1994:143; Stuart 1993:333). Late epigraphic texts and the accompanying iconography abound with martial themes, which I will discuss farther below.

This represented a shift in the themes addressed in earlier texts, which, although less numerous, were more concerned with dynastic claims and descent rather than conflict. There are, however, some exceptions. 5 One possible exception was Stela 5 at Uaxactun. It was dated ta 8.17.1.4.12, or January 13, 378 A.D. and related how Smoking Frog, a member of the Tikal royal family, was installed as ruler of Uaxactun. We do not know whether this event was the result of inter-site warfare or a royal marriage.

Proskouriakoff (1993:8) interpreted Stela 5 as representing a conqueror from Tikal. Stuart disagreed, leaving unanswered the question just raised (1993:334). Araby. Others leave bath possibilities open (Matthews 1985:44; Sharer 1994:185). Proskouriakoff's argument was based on the martial iconography in Stela 5, which depicted an individual carrying an atlatl and a club set with flint knives (Graham 1986:5:143-146; Proskouriakoff 1994:8). 6 Less than ten years afterwards, about 385 A.D., Tikal may have been involved in the execution of Investigation into Essay eight or more elite individuals at Rio Azul. These executions were depicted on three round altars found at Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:192).

The executions must have been part of araby dubliners Tikal's conquest of Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:194, 265, Table 5.2). A last example comes from the tread of Black II in the hieroglyphic stairway 3 at Yaxchilan. It allegedly contained a reference ta Yaxchilan defeating Lacanha in free, 564 A.D. (Culbert 1988:l39; Graham 1982:3, 168; Hassig 1992:220; Tate 1992:256, 271). 7 The epigraphic record is replete with references ta warfare during the araby Late Classic period. References to warfare become explicit during the late eighth century (Stuart 1993:333,349). The Maya distinguished between military actions ta ken against form of worship a site and those taken against an individual. Araby. A campaign against a site was indicated by indonesian military equipment a « shell-star » glyph.

The « shell-star » glyph had celestial connotations (especially the dubliners Venus cycle), se en as portents for military equipment, the success of an araby, impending campaign (Houston 1987:58; Lounsbury 1982; Riese 1984:274-276). This glyph was often associated with a specific set of costume elements worn by Maya warrior-rulers (Schele and Miller 1986:2l3; Baird 1989:105). The capture of an individual, usually as part of a wider military campaign against another site, was depicted with an axe glyph (Riese 1982:273), or by the u bak , « his captive » expression (Marcus 1992:418; Proskouriakoff 1963:150; 1964:188; Riese 1982:258-263). The axe glyph reads most likely as ch' ak, « ta chop », an ominous reminder of the fate that awaited the type free captive (Stuart 1992:176). Regarding the depiction of prisoners, Proskouriakoff made an important observation while studying the Yaxchilan imagery: « [T]hough I speak here of the captives as if they were individual men, I hold the dubliners reservation that they may be representatives or even embodiments of form of worship tribes or towns » (Proskouriakoff 1963:150). 8 In addition to the two expressions just mentioned, u bak and araby dubliners, ch' ak, we know of other concepts and words related ta war. For example, Maya texts may have referred ta military ranks as well. Proskouriakoff suggested that the « vulture » glyph implied a military function (that of form of worship a general) (1993:10, 62, 101), an dubliners, administrative one (that of a governor) (1993:56), or a combination of both (military governor of a subject town) (1993:22, 70). Also, the jaguar glyph, in association with the parrot-feather glyph, may refer ta a military order, similar to the « vulture » glyph (Proskouriakoff 1993:104). Democracy: And Today. Finally, a rank in araby, the army may be referred ta by the double cauac sign (Proskouriakoff 1993:57).

9 This rich data set has shown how war during the Classic period did not always lead ta the incorporation of the land of the vanquished into the realm of the victor. Moreover, warfare was a very patent source of ideological and secular power for the rulers, especially when massive transfers of land, people and goods were involved. Finally, it has become apparent from the written record that the Maya elite used warfare as an Essay Democracy: Yesterday and Today, important tool of culture change (Fash and dubliners, Stuart 1991:167). 10 The Maya differentiated between hostilities against a site versus hostilities against a particular individual. The former was signalled as a « shell­star » event, the latter appeared on Dos Pilas Stela 1 (Houston 1987:51, n. 9). Aguateca Stela 2 and Dos Pilas Stela 16 were the first texts where this association was made (Graham 1967:9-19; Houston, 1987:120; Baird 1989:114). Both carry dates of 9.15.4.6.4. (November 29, 735). Their text is very similar, recording a « star » event, a battle involving the capture of a ruler and a follow-up event six days later (Lounsbury 1982:152).

An initial interpretation by Proskouriakoff that this might refer to « some sort of raid on Tikal by joint forces from Seibal and Aguateca » (Graham 1967:19) was later changed into a campaign against a lord of Seibal by Ruler 3 of Dos Pilas (Riese 1982:275; Johnston 1985:53; Houston 1987:58-59; 1993:115). 11 Another famous instance of inter-site warfare attested in the epigraphic record is that between Caracal and Tikal. Altar 21 at Caracal relates two successful engagements against Tikal, in 556 A.D. and 562 A.D. Indonesian Military. (Chase and Chase 1987:60-61; Culbert 1991:l35). 1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 12 One of the primary goals of warfare seems ta have been the ta king of captives. The « axe-events » and the title of « ah bak, » or « holder of captives » in araby dubliners, the written record point to this aspect (Marcus 1976:l35-l36; Proskouriakoff 1993:72; Riese 1982:272-274) 1 . Its iconographic component, the representation of captives, is elaborated on below, in Adventures A & L Essay, the section on iconography and dubliners, warfare.

The Maya also had a term for « contingent of soldiers, » the katun sign (Fox 1987:133; Coggins 1980:733; Proskouriakoff 1993:56,61, l32-l33, 140). 13 Logistical restraints operated in Maya warfare as weIl. Written sources indieate that Maya warfare rarely engaged in long-distance campaigns (Hammond 1991:17). The me an distance between centers recording war is 49 km, a distance one could coyer in two days, perhaps even one day by river (Hammond 1991a:277). This correlates well with Early Postclassic incidences of indonesian warfare, when Maya sometimes called upon kin up ta 20 km away for aid in battles (Fox 1989:675, n. Dubliners. 17; see also Fox 1987:32-33). 14 ln addition ta written sources, we can also rely on artwork to study warfare. Furtunately, several mural paintings depieting conflict have survived.

To judge from the frequency of known iconographie depictions of warfare, it seems that war occurred more commonly during the Late Classic than du ring the Early Classic (Miller and into Potential Applicants, Houston 1987:50). Whatever their temporal designation, these representations not only complement our written sources, the y also provide us with a glimpse of warfare before the arrival of the Spaniards. Of the wide array of warfare imagery, I will discuss muraIs first and then carved monuments. 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. ye (. Dubliners. ) 15 One of the best-known muraIs with a martial motif is the one in Cacaxtla, especially the painting in structure B (Baird 1989:108; McVicker 1985:84). Stylistic evaluation and radiocarbon dates associated with the paintings date them ta between 655 and 835 A.D. (Baird 1989:105) 2 . The interpretation of what we are looking at varies. Some have suggested we are seeing the actual battle (McVicker 1985:86, 94; Berlo 1989:23).

Others have proposed we are witnessing the aftermath of battle, with its associated sacrifices (Ruiz 1986:41; Baird 1989:105-106). However, the iconography leaves no doubt these paintings relate ta conflict. 16 The figures carry all kinds of of Prince A & Princess weaponry, such as spears, atlatls, obsidian knives, and shields (Baus de Czitrom 1986:529-530; Ruiz 1986:221, Figures 166-177, 179-192). The star shell motif and araby, its connotation with war appear as part of a costume worn by one of the individuals in Princess, the murals (Baird 1989:105). Two sets of warriors can be identified on the basis of dubliners differences in accoutrements (McVicker 1985:86), iconographic elements associated with persans (McVicker 1985:95), as well as physical types (Lapez de Molina 1979:464). Iconographic studies of all the Cacaxtla muraIs point to the importance of sacrifice in relation ta warfare, intimating blood sacrifice was one of the aims of Background Investigation Potential Essay battle (Baird 1989:119; Schele and Miller 1986:214, 221 n.8). 17 There is no agreement among archaeologists and dubliners, art historians as ta whether or not these paintings represent a historic event. Some have discounted this (Ruiz 1986:41), while others have suggested that we are possibly seeing the outcome of a clash between inhabitants of the Gulf Coast and form of worship, Maya.

The most likely place for araby dubliners, such a battle ta take place, it has been suggested, was the southern Veracruz or Campeche region (McVicker 1985: 98; Baird 1989:119). 18 Another set of type free mural paintings of equal importance is the murals of Bonampak. Araby. They consist of type my essay free a number of narrative scenes depieting preparation for battle, the araby dubliners battle and the aftermath (McVicker 1985:94). Investigation Potential Applicants Essay. Recent computer-enhanced analysis revealed dynamic details of the conflict. Dubliners. We can see how one individu al is form of worship grabbed by the hair and pulled down. The defeated warrior's legs fly and araby, his spear snaps as he is my essay free flung down (Miller 1995:67). 19 In 1901 and 1902, Adele Breton copied mural paintings found in the interior of the Upper Temple of the dubliners Jaguars, in Background Potential Applicants Essay, the ballcourt group at dubliners, Chiehen Itza. It took almost 75 years before these watercolors were analyzed (Miller 1977). Adventures Princess Example. The murals depict, among other things, two different military episodes, each represented by three narrative panels.

20 The murals at Chichen show one encounter set in a hilly territory. It involves a battle between two groups of warriors, distinguishable by araby the form of their shields. One group of warriors is shawn occupying the base of form of worship a hill, while the others are in control of dubliners hilltops above (Miller 1977:211). The men on the hilltops are rolling down boulders onto the troops below. Background Investigation. It seems the araby dubliners attackers were successful, since in parts of the mural we can see how some of the Investigation into defenders were retreating across a bridge connecting two hill tops (Miller 1977:204, Figures 5, 211; Coggins 1984:158, Figure 17). Araby. The drawings also reveal a village built on hilly ground, with the form of worship same two groups of dubliners warriors involved in conflict (Miller 1977:211). The murals apparently showed a sequence of events, for Background into Potential Applicants, in another panel, we can see how the village was sacked after conquest (Coggins 1984:165, Figure 20; Miller 1977:202, Figures 3, 212). It is possible that these drawings depict the conquest of a village possibly in dubliners, Oaxaca, based on the presence of the red hills (Miller 1977:212-214). Others have suggested the red hills refer ta the Puuc (Robles and military equipment, Andrews 1986:84; Dunning 1992:152).

21 A second set of araby narrative panels at Chi chen Itza depicts another village scene located in Democracy: Yesterday and Today, a hill and araby, gully setting. The vegetation points ta a tropieal environment (Miller 1977:214, 218). The first of the three scenes show soldiers in various stages of preparing for battle, including possibly preparing or repairing cano es (Coggins 1984:163, Figure 19; Miller 1977:206, Figures 7, 214). Military Equipment. Another scene may portray an actual siege, involving siege towers against araby dubliners a fortified hilly position. A & Princess L Essay. Standing on these scaffold-like constructions are soldiers throwing their projectiles at araby, their opponents.

Some of the warriors have jumped off the towers into the fortification and are battling the defenders (Coggins 1984:159, Figure 17; Miller 1977:207, Figures 8, 215). Some warriors have already been captured and are being prepared for equipment, sacrifice (Miller 1977:215). The final scene depicts warriors unleashing their darts (Coggins 1984:162, Figure, 19; Miller 1977:208, Figures 9, 216). It is unclear, however, if actual combat is araby dubliners shawn here, or rather a portrayal of the military capabilities of the two groups. We might even be looking at a manual of military drill (Miller 1977:216). Form Of Worship. The village scene in the same panel shows conquest and exile. Women carrying their belongings on their back are leaving the village, looking back in araby, despair at their dwellings (Miller 1977:217). Considering the more tropical scenery it is possible these scenes depict events that occurred in the Maya lowlands, perhaps in the Peten (Miller 1977:218; Wren and Schmidt 1991:209).

22 Dating these mural paintings is problematic in more than one way. The date of the structure in whieh they were found is disputed. Parsons (1969) favors a seventh-century date for the construction, while others assign this ta a later peri ad (Kubler 1962:148). 23 Other examples of late monuments featuring martial imagery would include Kabah Altar 8 and the sculptured doorjambs from Structure 2A3 and Structure 2C6 (Codz Poop) at Essay Democracy:, Kabah (Pollock 1980:Figures 333-334, 372-373, 381). The late monument, Stela 21 at Oxkintok, features a pro minent warrior in araby dubliners, the central panel (Pollock 1980:Figure 547). The most obvious emphasis on Investigation into Applicants, warfare and dubliners, captive taking is at the Nunnery Quadrangle at Adventures of Prince example, Uxmal where warrior figures and naked and bound captives adorned the araby facades of the North and West structures and appear as graffiti in the South building (Foncerada de Molina 1965:151- 152, Figure 38; Kowalski 1987:165-166; 1990:29, Figures 5-7; Se 1er 1917, Abbildung 47, 52; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:81, n.ll.). 24 Iconography of Investigation into Applicants Essay warfare appears on carved monuments as well. This set of monuments includes stelae, altars, lintels, and panels. These monuments usually refer ta warfare in two complementary ways: through a text component - as discussed earlier - and a graphic representation. The imagery involved consists of bound captives, and the representation of warriors and weapons. 25 An early example of a depiction of bound captives is Lintel 12 from Piedras Negras, dating ta the beginning of the sixth century A.D. (Proskouriakoff 1993:29).

In the Late Classie period, at times when royal power is declining, carved monuments sometimes carry blatant propaganda messages. As noted earlier, at araby dubliners, Copan, the final ruler is shown brandishing shield and lance on his last known carved monument. Background Investigation Into Potential. This representation is dubliners qui te a departure from his previous monuments, and implies serious troubles for Adventures A & L Essay, the ruler and his court (Fash 1983 Volume 1:331; Volume 3, Appendix C:39; Fash and Stuart 1991:173). 26 ln the Petexbatun area in northern Guatemala warfare-related iconography abounds. Iconographically, the costume of Dos Pilas Ruler 3 as represented in stela 2 at araby, Aguateca, signaIs warfare in a special way. His outfit, a headdress with trapeze-and-ray insignia, fringed square shield, a Tlaloc mask in front of Background into Potential Essay his face and a Tlaloc symbol on his loincloth panel, invokes images of Teotihuacan (Stone 1989:165). It is suggested that the message broadcast here is one of political domination of one site over another, conceivably of Dos Pilas over Seibal, analogous ta Uaxactun's Stela 5 message of Tikal's dominance over Uaxactun (Stone 1989:165).

27 Because of the nature of warfare, we will always be better informed about Maya defensive measures than offensive tacties. The presence of moats and ramparts signal the dubliners imminence of war. The dimensions of these constructions inform us of the size of the threat. Our perception of the past invariably is incomplete, as time has ravaged many of the form of worship remains (Webster 1979:101). Fortunately, eyewitness accounts and colonial descriptions of conflicts and fortifications exist so that we can fill up some of these lacunae. 28 The archaeological data comprise two sets: the physical remains of constructions, and their spatial patterns. Warfare and its reflection in araby dubliners, material remains will be discussed first, the influence of war on settlement patterns second. With regard to the material remains, 1 will initially deal with walls in the Maya area.

Then evidence from the Lowlands will be presented with information from the Highlands following. Finally, 1 will discuss the other functions walls may have had. 29 Detecting defensive walls is not always easy. The earliest reports on such features usually mistook them for partially destroyed field walls or even eroded sacbeob. Fortunately, the absence of a true ra in forest in the northern portion of the Lowlands and the concomitant damage through root action has preserved many of these features.

Thanks ta modern techniques such as aerial reconnaissance, detection is now easier. 30 The center of Uxmal was once enclosed by Background Investigation Potential Applicants a low wall (Marcus 1993:135). First reported on by Stephens in 1843, very little remains of the wall today (Dunning 1992:168; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:69; Graham 1992: 4:77-78, 83; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322; Saenz 1972:36; Stephens 1963:195-196). Allegedly, this wall enclosed some 50 ha (Adams 1981:303). Other walls existed at Uxmal, some of them perhaps serving as field walls, devoid of araby defensive value (Graham 1992:4:78). 31 Much better known are the fortifications at indonesian equipment, Mayapan. The site was surrounded by a wall about araby, nine kilometers long (Shook 1952:8). The stones used in the construction were quarried from nearby outcrops of form of worship bedrock.

Often, large slabs of limestone were cut from the surface and dubliners, placed in an upright position along the line of the form of worship wall. Araby. These slabs formed a retaining wall for a core of dry fill (Shook 1952:9). Military. The outer wall had a parapet, accessible by stairs (Shook 1952:9, 11, 15-16). The wall's height varied between 1.5 and 2.5 m. Araby. It is indonesian equipment likely, therefore, that it supported a palisade (Shook 1952:19). The precinct containing the temples and the palaces of the elite had its own wall, about 700 m long. It tao consisted of dry masonry. 32 The interior wall had only two gateways (Armillas 1948:148). The larger, exterior wall had twelve entranceways (Shook 1952:10). They were between one and dubliners, two meters wide (Armillas 1948:148). The gates varied in complexity, ranging from simple gaps in the wall ta a portico-style gate. Gate D is an of Prince A & Princess L Essay, example of the latter (Shook 1952:11).

In this case, the gate projected several meters beyond the exterior line of the wall. A narrow passageway led through this protrusion un ta an araby dubliners, enlarged rectangular space inside the wall proper. This space had a masonry column in military equipment, its central axis (Shook 1952:11, 26 Figure1-d). 33 Mayapan's city walls were constructed during the araby major occupation as a politieal center (Shook 1952:18). Equipment. They may have served ta defend the city. Other suggested uses include: delineating the city's (administrative and/or politieal) boundaries, controlling access to the site for araby dubliners, taxation (Shook 1952:19). Mayapan's dames tic structures were also walled. 34 Another well known fortified site is Tulum. It is defended by what settlement bath a wall and araby dubliners, its position along the shore of the Caribbean.

The wall, ca. 800 m long surrounds it on three sides, while the cliffs and the sea form a natural barrier on the fourth side (Armillas 1948:148-149). Background Applicants. This wall had a parapet, similar to Mayapan, accessible by stairs (Armillas 1948:149). The main city wall was se ven meters wide and five meters high (Armillas 1948:151). 35 North of Tulum, close ta the ruins of araby dubliners Xelha along the Caribbean coast, lies a small fortified peninsula. A single wall bars access ta the peninsula from the land side. The wall is about 50 m long and has one gate, partly protected by a baffle (Armillas 1948:150). The wall was between three ta eight meters wide and up ta three meters high (Armillas 1948:151).

36 On the Democracy: Yesterday western side of the Yucatan peninsula, in Campeche, lies the site of Champoton. Dubliners. It was surrounded by what were settlement houses a wall in dry masonry as weIl as a moat (Armillas 1948:150). Other fortified, i.e., walled, sites in dubliners, Yucatan include: Ake (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322), Chacchob and form of worship, Ichpaatun in Quintana Rao (Armillas 1948:151). Araby. Interpretation of aerial photographs point ta fortifications around the military site of Chunchucmil in western Yucatan . Araby Dubliners. This was confirmed by recent research (Dahlin 2000). 37 Chacchob lies north of the Puuc Hills, ca. 15 km southeast of the modern town of Teabo (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:82; Webster 1978:376, Figure 1). Its occupation was very short, probably limited to the Terminal Classic period, with no signs of earlier occupation (Webster 1978:380; 1979:109-111, 161; 1980:837). Chacchob was enclosed by a wall, 1.4 km long (Roys 1943:68; Webster 1978:376; 1979:73).

The wall enclosed various structures and several sinkholes (Pollock and Potential, Stromsvik 1953:84-85; Webster 1978:376). The original bedrock had not been altered, and some of its outcrops were incorporated in mounds. The builders also took advantage of topographieal differences to increase the effective height of the araby dubliners wall (Pollock and indonesian equipment, Stromsvik 1953:85; Webster 1978:377-378; 1979:100; 1980:843). Traces of plaster on araby, parts of the wall suggest it may have been completely plastered (Webster 1978:378, 380; 1979:95). 38 The wall enclosed the elite residential compound (Webster 1980:835-837). It was coeval with the founding of the town or built very shortly thereafter (Webster 1978:378-380; 1979:98, 103, 161; 1980:835; Hassig 1992:l31). The wall was up ta two meters high and five ta six meters wide (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86; Webster 1978:378, 380). The core consisted of large-sized rocks and sail between retaining walls of roughly shaped or naturallimestone blocks (Webster 1978:378; 1979:101). 39 There were three gates, each less than two meters wide (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:98; 1978:376-380; 1979:73, 88-98, 100-101). The gates were filled in and never reopened (Webster 1978:378; 1979:104, 161-162; Hassig 1992:l31). My Essay. These entrances were very simple in design; there were no abrupt turns or other impediments to traffic (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86, 96 Figure 1; Webster 1978:378).

40 The design of the wall at Chacchob was very similar ta that of Mayapan: it consisted of an inner bench and a slightly higher outer parapet (Webster 1979:101). The limited height of the parapet makes it likely it was the dubliners foundation for a palisade (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86). However, there was no evidence of what were houses a palisade (Webster 1978:380; 1979:101). The wall at Chacchob represents a major labor expenditure. Its volume is about half of araby dubliners all the non-temple architecture at the site.

Webster suggests its construction probably required between one-fifth and one-four th of all labor expended in construction (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). It is very likely the indonesian military local work force was reinforced by conscripted labor from outlying settlements (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). 41 Northwest of Chacchob lies Cuca, a much larger site (Webster 1978:376, Figure1). It dates ta the Terminal Classie period. It was founded on a location not previously occupied by a dense population (Webster 1979:64, 71, 72, 160, 161; 1980:837). Cuca was defended by two concentric walls (Hassig 1992:245, n.l35; Kurjack and araby dubliners, Andrews 1976:319; Webster 1978:382; 1980:838). The outer wall is 2.25 km long (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9,59). My Essay Free. It is still up ta two meters high in places, and between six ta ten meters wide (Webster 1978:384; 1979:59). This wall enclosed 33 ha. Araby Dubliners. The inner wall which measures 828 m, is up ta three meters high in places and is ten ta twelve meters wide (Webster 1979:9, 61; 1992:382,384). The walls protected the organizational center of the site; there is virtually no decrease in form of worship, density of structures outside the wall (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9).

3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to t (. ) 42 The inner wall ran over a major structure (Webster 1978:376, Figure l, 384). The outer wall in places bulged so as ta include certain pyramids (Webster 1978:381, Figure 5, 383-384). Dubliners. It is clear that bath walls were built ta enclose pre­existing structures, as well as a cenote (Webster 1978:383; 1979:16, 65, 160; 1980:838-839) 3 . This makes the Terminal Classic period a terminus post quem for their construction (Webster 1978:386; Kurjack and of Prince A & example, Andrews 1976:320; Webster 1979:59, 61).

43 The wall construction was simple. Araby Dubliners. Dry masonry walls retained limestone rubble (Hassig 1992:l30-l31; Kurjack and and Today, Andrews 1976:319-320; Webster 1976:364; 1978:382-384; 1979:9, 59, 61). No gateways are discernible today. Perhaps they were filled up with debris from the collapsing walls, or people entered the site over ramps and dubliners, stairways (Webster 1978:84-385; 1979:61-62). 44 The inner and outer zones at Cuca probably served different purposes.

The inner area contained all the what houses religious and dubliners, administrative structures, as well as elite residences. The outer area accommodated mostly residential structures (Webster 1979:16). 45 The two walls at Cuca clearly differ in the degree and amount of protection they could have provided. Given its present-day low height, it is hard to imagine that the outer wall would have made an Yesterday, effective barrier (Webster 1979:63; 1980:838). The addition of a palisade or a hedge of thorny plants would have achieved that goal, but no traces of such features were found (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). Dubliners. However, the inner wall did make up a strong barrier. Perhaps the outer wall served as an initial defensive screen, designed to slow the enemy down, while the Essay Democracy: Yesterday and Today inner wall was intended to actually shield the site center and dubliners, its inhabitants (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). The inner wall was probably built first, and the second wall added later as an settlement houses, outer defensive screen (Webster 1979:71). 4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Dubliners. A (. ) 46 Roughly ten kilometers northeast of form of worship Cuca lies Ake (Lawrence and Shook 1966:2, Figure 1; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This site had defensive walls estimated ta enclose a 25 ha area 4 . They are dated to the Late Classic ta Terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320, 322).

The walls trajectory ran over pre-existing structures, including a sacbe to Izamal (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322). 47 Another walled site, Dzonot Ake, lay northeast of araby dubliners Chacchob (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This community had a much longer occupational history than either Chacchob or Cuca (Webster 1978:389; 1979:169-171). Type My Essay. A single wall enclosed a 6 ha-area, thought ta be the core of a much larger site (Webster 1979:112, 114; 1980:840). 48 The wall was never more than 2-3 m in width or 1.5 m high (Webster 1979:148; 1980:840). It did not completely enclose the araby community. Instead, it began at the northern edge of indonesian military a cenote, curved around the site, and then left no trace along the southern edge of the site (Webster 1978:386-387, Figure 9, 388).

This « wall » probably served as a foundation for a perishable superstructure (Webster 1978:388; 1979:148; 1980:840). Dubliners. A ditch seems ta have run along part of the wall (Webster 1978: 388). The wall postdates the Essay Democracy: fa un ding of the site, similar to the walls at Cuca (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:364; 1978:388; 1979:149). It was one of the latest constructions on the site. Araby Dubliners. It enclosed three small elite residential groups squatting among the ruins of a much larger and aIder center (Webster 1980:840). 49 Less than 20 kilometers southwest of Cuca lies Muna. Traces of Background Investigation Potential Applicants Essay a wall remain today, enclosing a 25 ha area. Araby. This defensive feature was dated to the late ta terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320).

50 Oxpemul is classified as a hilltop fortress. Military. Its main component occupies the top of a hill, with a steep slope of at least 17 meters ( Adams 1981:234; Ruppert and araby dubliners, Denison 1943:Plate 67). The area surrounding the center is terraced, with heights reaching 7 meters (Adams 1981:234). The defensive function of this feature could have been enhanced by Background into Potential Applicants Essay a palisade, sharpened stakes (Adams 1981:234). 51 The site of Las Victorias, south of Tzibanche, is located on an east-facing natural slope. Several hectares are enclosed by right-angled walls that follow the slope contour and cross at right angles ta it, thus forming a rectangular compound in which mounds are enclosed. The walls are constructed of dubliners rough rock rubble and form of worship, reach over two meters in height, reminiscent of those on the coast at Ichpaatun, but lower and less well preserved than those of Tulum. Las Victorias was not mapped, but surface collections indicated late Postclassic ceramics (Harrison 1981:284). 52 A site whose fortifications made people rethink the long-accepted peaceful nature of the Maya was Becan in Campeche. The fortification was built at the end of the Preclassic, and probably served as a barrier weIl into the Late Classic period, when the ditch was widened (Webster 1976:1, 101, 103). Its massive defenses consisted of a dry ditch and an artificial embankment.

The ditch was 1890 m long and araby, surrounded the site's center (Webster 1976:8, 14). Seven causeways across the ditch provided access ta the Investigation site was gained. Araby Dubliners. These causeways were naturallimestone bridges left in place when the ditch was dug (Webster 1976:90). The bridges were not pierced ta let water through, nor was the form of worship ditch lined, confirming the ditch had never held water (Webster 1976:90). Araby. Ruppert and Denison, who found the site, claimed that the ditch varied in width between three and twenty-five meters, and was between two and four meters deep (Armillas 1948:152; Ruppert and Denison 1943:54). Webster's measurements range from form of worship, 12 to dubliners, 27 m wide (Webster 1976:14). 53 The defenses were farther strengthened by an artificial embankment built along the inner edge of the ditch (Webster 1976:8, 14, 88).

Originally, this parapet was 2 m high, which meant that any attacker was faced with a barrier more than 11 m high (based on an average ditch depth of 9 m) (Webster 1976:89). 54 No traces of any wood en palisade were found, although Webster surmises there must have been one (Webster 1976:89). Form Of Worship. Large, ceremonial architecture inside. the ditch may have added a desirable elevated platform for any defender (Webster 1976:93). Although excavations yielded no evidence of a successful attack on the site, it is safe ta assume that, in times of danger, the causeways may have been barricaded or even cut (Webster 1976:95). Based on the scale of the defenses, Webster suggested that a successful hostile force would have required between 3000 to araby dubliners, 4000 men ta subdue the site (Webster 1976:96). 55 The site of Edzna in Campeche possessed a feature known as the « Fortress. » This rectangular area, delineated by a moat, lay south of the site's center and measured about 500 x 30 m (Matheny et al. 1980b: Map sheet 9). Although no evidence of warfare was ever found, this « Fortress » had a number of defensive features. Essay. The area was surrounded by araby dubliners a moat, 1873 m long (Matheny et al.

1980a:191). Access was possible via a causeway raised about three meters above the bottom of the north moat, or by canoe (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). The causeway narrowed at its passage through the moat, and its banks sloped steeply on either side (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Of Prince L Essay. A lO-m high structure in the center of the « Fortress » did provide an excellent vantage point ta observe the araby dubliners immediaie surroundings.

Furthermore, at were settlement houses, the end of the causeway, two low mQJUnds located on the causeway's centerline could have served as the « Fortress'« gate (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Ceramics dated the structures inside the « Fortress » to the Late Preclassic Period, the dubliners same period during which the Becan defensive works were built (Matheny et al. 1980a:191; Webster 1976:103). 56 Aguacatal, a peninsular site in western Campeche, also relied on water as a defensive barrier.

A long embankment isolated the Background Investigation into tip of the'peninsula, and araby, may have served as a defensive wall. It has tentatively been dated ta the into Applicants Essay Late Classic and Postclassic period. There was no moat, probably due to araby, the high water table in the area. (Matheny 1970; Webster 1976:101). 57 Research conducted farther south in the Peten has unveiled the existence of numerous defensive features. The most famous ones are the indonesian military equipment earthworks north and south of araby dubliners Tikal. This Maya metropolis had an earthen wall and ditch at about 4.5 km north of the form of worship center of the araby dubliners site. The wall and dry ditch were 9.5 km long, with swamps at either end (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). Settlement. The trench was three meters deep and four meters wide (Puleston and araby dubliners, Callender 1967:42- 43). It layon the north si de of the wall (Puleston and Callender 1967:40).

58 There were four or five gaps in the wall and ditch system, probably serving as entranceways (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The date for these two features ranges between the early Classic and early Late Classic period (Puleston and Callender 1967:43, 48). Another walliocated some 8 km south of Tikal's center (Rice and Rice 1981:272). 59 The function of Democracy: Yesterday and Today both systems remains open ta suggestions. In bath cases, the y were too far away from the araby dubliners site and too long ta have been continuously guarded. Therefore, it is possible these earthworks were intended to form of worship, delay aggressors long enough ta alert the city, and to funnel them along certain routes where they could then be attacked (Webster 1976:367; Hassig 1992:78). Others suggest they were primarily boundary markers, without any defensive function at all (Culbert, personal communication 1993). Perhaps they served ta lev y taxes on commercial traffic in and out of the araby city (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). 60 At Calakmul, there is a 200-meter segment of a wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:22).

It lies in the northwestern part of the city. The wall still stands 6.15 meters high, and is about 2 meters thick. Another possible wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 61) runs north next ta the quarry area (Adams 1981:234). Form Of Worship. Conceivably, the wall may have protected only a section of the city (Adams 1981:234). 61 South of Calakmul, at El Mirador, Graham reported on a 600-m-Iong wall at araby dubliners, the site (Adams 1981:234; Graham 1967:Figure 29). Richard Hansen informed me that there were additional massive fortifications around the site, consisting of dry ditches and ramparts, similar to Essay Democracy:, Becan (Hansen, personal communication 1993). 62 Lundell reported the araby dubliners existence of type free « two walls, each approximately 150 meters in length, forming a main entrance to the central plaza » at the site of dubliners Polol (Lundell 1934:177).

Polol is located seven kilometers south of the Background Applicants Essay modern community of La Libertad, El Peten, Guatemala (Lundell 1934:175), about half way between Flores and Sayaxche. These walls do not enclose any structures, and therefore must have had a non-defensive function (LundeIl1934:180, Figure 3). 63 Finally, we turn ta the Petexbatun region, which abounds with fortified sites such as Aguateca, Dos Pilas and Punta de Chimino. Araby Dubliners. Each of these communities was fortified, and each related a different story. Dos Pilas was essentially defended by wall systems, Aguateca combined walls with natural topography such as the escarpment and the grieta running through the site, and finally, Punta de Chimino had massive ditch and rampart systems, as well as the lake to defend itself. 64 Perhaps the Essay Yesterday and Today most dramatic of all fortifications are the walls at Dos Pilas.

65 Two portions of the site were protected: the main plaza, and araby, Structure P5-7, known as « El Duende, » a temple complex east of the plaza (Houston 1987:384-385). Both areas were surrounded by concentric walls, no more than 30 meters apart. « El Duende » had a third interior wall forming a parapet along the edge of the basal platform of the temple (Houston 1987:385). 66 The walls are modest in appearance. They are preserved up ta a meter in into Applicants Essay, height and width in araby, most places. The construction material was local fieldstone, although some construction materials had been incorporated as weIl. Portions of of Prince A & Princess L Essay structure L5-33, south of the main plaza, had been dismantled and dubliners, re-used in the wall superimposed on it (Houston 1987:385). This superposition of wall and architecture is a feature unique ta Dos Pilas, it does not occur at Aguateca, or anywhere else in the Petexbatun. 67 Access to the plaza area occurred via simple gaps in the wall. The only possible exception is what could have been a baffled gate some 35 m south of the « El Duende » complex (Houston 1987:385-386).

Often, the Yesterday walls ran along the highest topographic points, which occasionally included existing architecture, yet sometimes, the wall deviated and crossed lower-lying areas which offered no defensive advantage at dubliners, all (Houston 1987:387). Free. Three test pits were dug into araby dubliners, the wall: DP 11A, DP 11C, and DP 11D. Form Of Worship. They were intended to araby, illustra te the stratigraphic relationship between the wall and the underlying structures. Type My Essay Free. Sub operation DP 11A uncovered Hieroglyphic Stairway no. Araby. 4, with the wall bisecting it (Symonds et al. 1991:239-258). In all cases, there is Princess L Essay example no humus between the walls and the underlying structures, indicating that the walls were built while the structures were still in use, or immediately after they were abandoned (Symonds et al. 1990:239).

68 The walls may have had a perishable superstructure. They were built hastily as illustrated by the superposition of wall and architecture and the quarrying of monuments for construction materials. The areas they enclosed were small: about araby dubliners, 4 ha in the main plaza, and about 3.5 ha at the El Duende complex (Houston 1987:385). 69 Aguateca's defenses were laid out much more carefully and military, ta ok advantage of the dubliners topography. Democracy:. The site was bisected by the grieta, a crevasse running NE-SW, creating two foci: the main plaza and the royal palace. The main plaza lay ta the west of the araby grieta, the palace groups were built east of the grieta, between this feature and the escarpment (Beekman 1991:398-399; Inomata 1991). This plaza was protected by four sets of walls. All walls around the plaza, except the Background Applicants Essay exterior one, define a well-circumscribed space, using the grieta as a starting and en ding point. The exterior wall started by the grieta, in araby, the south, and then arched west and eventually north. It suddenly stopped in flat terrain.

Perhaps it was intended ta continue farther north and ta link up with the grieta as well (Inomata 1991:409). 70 The second focus of occupation was ev en better protected. The royal palace group, the type my essay avenue leading up ta it, and the structures on either side of it lay ta the east of the cha sm and araby dubliners, the escarpment ta the what houses west. Dubliners. Ta these impressive natural defensive features walls were added. Walls blocked the type natural flow of traffic on the avenue (See Sharer 1994:226 Fig. 5.8), and walls were built along the narrow passages of the grieta (Inomata 1995). 71 At Punta de Chimino the defenses consisted of three large parallel moats cutting off the base of the peninsula, effectively transforming it in ta an dubliners, island.

The lake itself provided protection as well. The construction of these moats represented an enormous energy investment. Their size speaks eloquently of the L Essay example magnitude of the dubliners perceived threat. Yet, it also implied that there was enough time to complete all these defenses. This notion is further underscored by Dunning's findings of agricultural activities between the moats (Dunning et al. 1991:842). Punta de Chimino's defenses bespeak a sizeable threat, yet the agricultural activities and the fact that the type my essay moats were completed signal that the threat was not imminent, but rather must have loomed on araby, the horizon for a while. 72 Our archaeological knowledge of what were settlement houses fortified sites in araby, the Maya Highlands is often amplified by the chronicles left behind by the Conquistadores. Most sites took refuge behind walls, usually on a promontory.

Additional defensive techniques involved booby trapping the approaches to the sites. 73 An example of the latter occurred at Cehache, whose inhabitants had its access roads booby trapped. For its protection, the site further relied upon topography and two walls separated by a moat (Armillas 1948:151-152). The interior wall had towers up ta six meters high at indonesian equipment, regular intervals (Armillas 1948:152). 74 A number of Postclassic sites in dubliners, the Highlands of Guatemala were built with their defense in mind.

They were usually located on indonesian military, either plateaus surrounded by araby dubliners steep slopes on several sides or on hill tops. Examples are Zaculeu, Rabinal, Utatlan, Iximche, Chutix- Tiox and Rio Blanco (Armillas 1948:152), and Cambote (Woodbury and Trik 1953:23). 75 Zaculeu was built on a promontory. Access was possible only along a narrow land bridge. This and the steep slopes of the promontory create a very defensible location (Boggs 1946:1; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16, 23). According to Spanish eyewitness accounts, the site was fortified with a wall built across the narrow neck of form of worship land (Boggs 1946:3; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16-17). The wall had one entrance closed off by a thick stone slab (Woodbury and Trik 1953:16). Apparently, the site was defended by dubliners a number of bulwarks. They were placed at particular strategic points. They included a ditch, with the earth used ta build up a wall behind it strengthened by timbers (Woodbury and Trik 1953:17). 76 The site of Utatlan was located on a promontory, protected by steep slopes on all but one side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23, 59).

It had only form of worship, one entrance (Boggs 1946:2). Farther north on dubliners, the Guatemalan Highlands the site of Princess example Huehuetenango was surrounded by a wall and a ditch. We do not know whether this wall was made out of stone or wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:15). The town of Mazatenango had a wall and wall ara und it. The wall consisted of earth and wood (Woodbury and araby, Trik 1953:14-15). 77 Iztacamaxtitlan was a hill top site fortified with a wall, barbicans and ditches (Armillas 1948:153). Associated with the site, in the valley was a wall blocking access to the valley, two and a ha If meters in height, and ca. six meters wide. Were Settlement. It had a breastwork on dubliners, top, enabling soldiers to take caver and form of worship, fight from an advantageous position (Armillas 1948:153-154). 78 Iximche accu pied an easily defensible position.

It was built on dubliners, a promontory. Steep slopes protected it on my essay free, two sides, while a ditch and araby dubliners, associated wall cut off access from the houses plateau side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23; Guillemin 1965:14- 15; Villacorta and Villacorta 1927; 103-104). The wall may have been up ta three meters high (Guillemin 1965:15). Its gate had two doors (Guillemin 1965:40). The site also had small fortified outposts to prevent surprise attacks (Guillemin 1965:40). Concluding remarks on Maya warfare.

79 The data presented in the preceding pages permit us to reconstruct Maya warfare. Archaeological and historic sources have helped to identify various forms of warfare, some of which may not leave any imprint at all in the material record. Inscriptions also shed light on araby, the pertinent details and the seasonality of war. Finally, the interaction between all this information and settlement pattern studies help define the role played by Background Potential war in araby dubliners, the political organization of Maya society. Warfare and Princess L Essay example, its visibility in the material record. 80 As we seek to improve our understanding of precolumbian conflict resolution, we must be aware of the limitations imposed on our search. Araby. Warfare is a complex form of human behavior, some facets of which simply leave no tangible remains behind. Type My Essay Free. Other aspects of dubliners warfare can be surmised only indirectly, such as, for what houses, example, the purported seasonality of wars, or efforts ta mitigate conflict.

81 Population nucleation, especially in hilltop sites, and walled sites are a common phenomenon in the Maya area. Aerial surveys combined with extensive ground checking yield more examples every year, as the preceding overview hopefully showed. Walls and moats are visible expressions of dubliners fear, and Adventures of Prince A & Princess, this fear is often translated into araby, huge tangible defensive measures, such as moats and masonry walls. However, their absence from the material record should not always lead us to believe things were peaceful. My Essay Free. Wars were fought in many ways, and included techniques that left no physical remains behind. 82 Written sources tell us of palisades in araby dubliners, the Maya area. The Maya referred ta them as tulumche (Armillas 1948:141). Of Prince Princess L Essay Example. Sometimes people would dig holes in the road, place sharp sticks in these holes and then caver everything up with branches (Armillas 1948:151, 156). Sometimes people would grow or place spiny plants to act as barriers (Armillas 1948:156).

In their war with the Aztecs, the Chontales blocked roads with boulders, tree trunks, branches, dried magey, spiny plants and pitfalls (Armillas 1948: 158). Moctezuma had one of the access roads ta Tenochtitlan blocked with a wall of maguey plants (Anderson and Dibble 1978:26-27). The Quiche of highland Guatemala employed a fighting technique which le ft behind no traces either: they threw gourds full of wasps among the enemy ta disrupt them (Carmack 1968:79-80). 83 Pre-industrial warfare was limited not only by logistical constraints, but aIs a by cyclical natural phenomena. The agricultural cycle caused the man ta prefer certain months ta engage in conflict. Major battles in human history were fought following harvest time (Keegan 1993:73; Schele and Miller 1986: 221, n. 8; Vayda 1976:16-17).

ProskouriakoH suggested this trend also applied to the Maya, referring ta sculptured panel 4 at Altar de Sacrificios. This panel dated the start of a campaign in late December, the beginning of the dry season (Proskouriakoff 1993:56). Epigraphic information on warfare supports this idea. Before discussing these data, we need ta remind ourselves that this seasonality is caused by several factors, which probably reinforce each other. 84 The Maya did not have a standing army. Araby Dubliners. Arlen Chase (1994:45) suggested that the Late Classic Maya middle class owed their success to participation in type my essay, warfare. Moreover, Chase (1994:41) posited that some of these middle class people, at dubliners, least at Democracy: Yesterday, Caracal, had interests in agriculture. It therefore follows that the araby times when these people can engage in military equipment, warfare is closely tied the agricultural calendar. April could have been a harvesting month in precolumbian times, as it is today. Afterwards, there was time for warfare.

85 Logistical problems forced the generals ta favor the dry period over the rainy season. Large-scale intersite wars involved many men and presumably a host of supporting personnel carrying supplies and equipment. Such a crowd can only move successfully during the araby dubliners dry season, when the trails are dry, and not tao many tree falls black the type free roads. During the rainy season, climatological conditions alone could have prohibited intersite warfare. 86 Finally, we know that the Maya sometimes timed their wars according to the astronomical considerations, related to Venus and dubliners, Jupiter /Saturn stations (See Schele and Essay and Today, Freidel 1990:44-446, n. 47).

Such considerations favored action during the months of December and January, farther reinforcing the agricultural and araby dubliners, climatologieal cycle. 87 Maya texts referring to dated warfare events support the suggestion of seasonality in warfare. Essay Democracy: And Today. Warfare is dubliners waged primarily during the dry season, from December until April. 88 This seasonal trend becomes even more evident when we differentiate between the Essay Democracy: Yesterday capture and araby, defeat events, as identified above. These following remarks are based on a number of presumptions: capture refers to military equipment, the taking prisoner of an araby, individual, while defeat refers ta large-scale warfare between sites, entailing a difference in manpower involved. Prisoners could be taken by Background Investigation into Essay small raiding parties, ambushing unsuspecting victims, whereas the defeat of a site requires a hast of warriors. When we differentiate between these two types of hostile exchanges, the suggestion of seasonality is dubliners reinforced. 89 ln July and August, only a few intersite wars occurred, and most of the hostile acts in these months were probably small-scale raids aimed at capturing individuals. 90 The data from Yaxchilan for type, which we have many more dated occurrence of warfare, supports the contention that warfare was a rare event during the dubliners rainy season. For the Adventures L Essay example period between 564 ta 808 A. D., there are two capture events and one war episode in July. 91 These data show that Maya warfare was limited not only because of logistical problems, but also because of araby a preoccupation with agricultural, climatological, and astronomical considerations.

These limitations imposed by nature worked hand in hand with man-induced limitations outlined earlier. However, 1 suggest there was at least one more limiting factor, and that was the ballgame (Leyenaar and what settlement, Van Tuerenhout s.d.). Rules of dubliners warfare and Late Classic Maya behavior on equipment, the battlefield. 92 The introductory part of dubliners this presentation dealt with limitations on warfare. 1 outlined how several factors, bath man-made and natural, mitigate some aspects of warfare. These limiting factors tend ta have a stabilizing influence on the conduct of indonesian military war, until a technological breakthrough pushes back the natural impediments on warfare. Man-made restrictions are prone ta change as well, especially when new technology requires a new appraisal of what is acceptable and what is dubliners not. Princess Example. The laws of war and constraints on warfare have been on people's minds for centuries (Howard et al. 1994). 93 While it is impossible to completely reconstruct prehistoric battlefield behavior, nor even ta ascertain what, if any, the dubliners restrictions were that applied in prehistoric warfare, the material correlates of type my essay free war indirectly inform us what some of that behavior may have been.

Fortifications are a main source of information in this regard. 94 Their presence implies warfare and instability, their absence could imply political stability and dubliners, an absence of warfare. Absence of fortifications does not necessarily mean there was absolutely no organized violence. Instead, we might have carefully choreographed armed encounters, with a minimal impact on the surroundings, pre-empting the need for fortifications. The appearance of fortifications in regions where none had ever existed before or the re-emergence after a long absence herald important changes in battlefield comportment. Studies of pre-indus trial societies, and their adherence limitations on warfare have shawn how developments in methods, techniques and equipment dramatically changed the conduct of war. These reinterpretations invite us all ta also re-evaluate the law of arms.

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FASH, w. 1., and D. STUART, 1991, Dynastic History and Cultural Evolution at Copan, Honduras. Dubliners. In Classic Maya Political History, edited by P. T. Culbert. pp. 147-179. School of American Research, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. FONCERADA DE MOLINA, M. 1965, La escultura arquitect6nica de Uxmal.

Estudios y Fuentes deI Arte en Mexico No. 20. A & L Essay Example. Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico. FOX, J, W. 1987, Maya Postclassic state formation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. FOX, J, W. Araby. 1989, On the and Today Rise and araby dubliners, Falls of Tulans and Maya Segmentary States. American Anthropologist 91(3):656-681. FUENTES Y GUZMAN, F.A. Essay And Today. de, 1951, Historia de Guatemala; 0 recordaci6n florida. Bibliotheca de Cultura Popular vol. 9. Guatemala.

GUILLEMIN, J. F. 1965, Iximche. Capital deI antiguo reino Cakchiquel. Publicaciones deI Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala, Guatemala. GRAHAM, I. Araby. 1967, Archaeological Explorations in El Peten, Guatemala. Middle American Research Institute. Publication No. 33. Tulane University, New Orleans.

GRAHAM, I. 1982, Yaxchilan. In Corpus of Maya Hierglyphic Inscriptions, vol. Form Of Worship. 3, part 3. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and dubliners, Ethnology. Harvard University, Cambridge. GRAHAM, I. 1986, Uaxactun. In Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, vol. 5, part 3. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and indonesian military, Ethnology.

Harvard University, Cambridge. GRAHAM, I. 1992, Uxmal. In Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, vol. 4, part 2. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Harvard University, Cambridge. HAMMOND, N. 1991, Introduction. In Classic Maya political history: hieroglyphic and araby, archaeological evidence, edited by T. P. Culbert, pp. 1-18.

A School of American Research Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. HARRISON, P. 1981, Sa me Aspects of Preconquest Settlement in Southern Quintana Rao, Mexico. In Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, edited by W. Ashmore, pp. 259-286. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. HASSIG, R. 1992, War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. University of Califomia Press, Berkeley. HOUSTON, S. D. 1987, The Inscriptions and Monumental Art of Dos Pilas, Guatemala: A Study of Classic Maya History and indonesian equipment, Politics. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.

Department of araby Anthropology, Yale University. HOWARD, M., G. J. ANDREOPOULOS AND M. R. SCHULMAN (editors), 1994, The Laws of War. Constraints on type my essay free, Warfare in the Western World. Araby. Yale University Press, New Haven. INOMATA, T. 1991, Reconocimiento alrededor de Aguateca. In Proyecto arqueol6gico regional Petexbatun.

Informe preliminar # 3. Tercera temporada 1991, edited by A. Background Investigation Into Applicants. Demarest, T. Inomata, H. Escobedo, and J. Palka, pp. 405-410. Vanderbilt University, Nashville. JOHNSTON, K. 1985, Maya dynastic territorial expansion: glyphic evidence for Classic centers on the Pasion river. Palenque Round Table Series 7:49-56. KEEGAN, J. 1993 ,History of Warfare. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. KOWALSKI, J. K. 1987, The House of the Governor: A Maya Palace of Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico.

University of araby Oklahoma Press, Norman. KUBLER, G. 1962,The art and Background Investigation into Potential, architecture of araby ancient America: the Mexican, Maya and Andean peoples. Penguin Books, Baltimore. KURJACK, E. B., and what houses, E. WYLLYS ANDREWS V. 1976, Early Boundary Maintenance in Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. American Antiquity 41: 318-325. LAWRENCE, R., and E. M. SHOOK, 1966, Preliminary report on the ruins of Ake, Yucatan. Society for American Archaeology, Memoir No. 20. Washington, D.C. LEYENAAR, T. J. J. and D. Van TUERENHOUT, s.d., The ballgame: a mitigating factor in Precolumbian Maya warfare?

Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde. Leiden, in press. L. Araby. de RUIZ, D. LOPEZ de MOLINA, AND D. Form Of Worship. MOLINA FEAL (editors), 1986, Cacaxtla. Dubliners. El lugar donde muere la lluvia en la tierra, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico, D.F. LOUNSBURY, F. 1982, Astronomical knowledge and its uses at settlement houses, Bonampak, Mexico. ln Archaeoastronomy in Precolumbian America, edited by A. Araby. Aveni, pp. 143-168. Of Prince Princess. University of Texas Press, Austin. LUNDELL, C. Araby Dubliners. 1. 1934, Ruins of Polol and other archaeological discoveries in the department of Peten, Guatemala.

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1976, Emblem and State in the Classic Maya Lowlands: An Epigraphie Approach to Territorial Organization. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. MARCUS,J. 1992, Mesoamerican Writing Systems. Propaganda, My th, and indonesian, History in Four Ancient Civilizations. Dubliners. Princeton University Press, Princeton. MARCUS,J. 1993, Ancient Maya Political Organization. In The Peak of Lowland Maya Civilization: New Understandings of Eighth Century Maya Development, edited by J. Sabloff and Princess, J. Henderson.

Dumbarton Oaks. Washington, D.C. MATHENY, R. T. 1970, The Ceramics of Aguacatal, Campeche, Mexico. New World Archaeological Foundation, Brigham Young University, Provo. MATHENY, R. T., D. 1. GURR, D. W. Araby Dubliners. FORSYTH, and R. HAUCK 1980a, Investigations at Edzna Campeche, Mexico. Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation No. 46, vol.

1, part 1: The hydraulic system. Type. New World Archaeological Foundation, Brigham Young University, Provo. MATHENY, R. Araby Dubliners. T., D. 1. Princess L Essay Example. GURR, D. W. Araby. FORSYTH, and R. HAUCK 1980b, Investigations at Edzna Campeche, Mexico. Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation. No. Type My Essay. 46, vol. 1, part 2: Maps. New World Archaeological Foundation, Brigham Young University, Provo. MATTHEWS, P. 1985, Maya Early Classic Monuments and araby, Inscriptions. In A Consideration of the Early Classic Period in the Maya Lowlands, edited by Yesterday and Today G. Willey and P. Matthews, pp. 5-54.

Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of araby dubliners New York, Albany. McVICKER, D.1985, The Mayanized Mexicans. American Antiquity 50: 82-1Ol. MILLER, A. G. Were Settlement Houses. 1977, « Captains of the Itza » Unpublished mural evidence from Chichen Itza. In Social Process in Maya Prehistory, Essays in Honour of Sir J. Eric S. Thompson, edited by N. Dubliners. Hammond, pp. 197-225. Academic Press, New York.

MILLER, M. Type My Essay Free. E. 1995, Maya Masterpiece Revealed at Bonampak. National Geographie Magazine (187) 2: 50-69. MILLER, M. E., and s. D. HOUSTON, 1987, The Classic Maya baIlgame and its architectural setting: a study of relations between text and image. Res 14:47-65. POLLOCK, H. E. D. 1980, The Puuc, an araby dubliners, Archaeological Survey of the Hill Country of Yucatan and Northern Campeche, Mexico. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and what were, Ethnology Memoirs, vol. 19.

Harvard University, Cambridge. POLLOCK, H. E. Araby Dubliners. D. and G. STROMSVIK, 1953, Chacchob, Yucatan. Indonesian. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Current Reports 1(6):82 -101. PROSKOURIAKOFF, T. 1963, Historical data in araby, the inscriptions of Yaxchilan. Part 1. Equipment. Estudios de Cultura Maya 3:149-167. PROSKOURIAKOFF, T. Dubliners. 1993, Maya history, edited by R. Essay. Joyce. University of Texas Press, Austin. PULESTON, D. F., and D. W. CALLENDER, 1967, Defensive earthworks at Tikal. Expedition 9:40-48. RICE, DON S., and P. M. RICE, 1981, Muralla de Leon: A Lowland Maya Fortification.

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In Late Lowland Maya Civilization: Classic to were settlement houses, Postclassic, edited by J. Sabloff and E. Araby. Wyllys Andrews V, pp. Investigation. 53-98. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. ROYS, R. Araby. 1. Of Prince A & Princess Example. 1943, The Indian background of colonial Yucatan. Carnegie Institution of araby Washington. Essay. Publication 548. Carnegie Instit, Washington, D.C. RUPPERT, K., and J. H. DENISON, 1943, Archaeological reconnaissance in Campeche, Quintana Rao, and araby dubliners, Peten.

Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publication 602. Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. SAENZ VARGAS, C. A. 1972, Exploraciones y restauraciones en Uxmal (1970 - 1971). Form Of Worship. Boletin deI Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia 2:31 - 40. SCHELE, 1., and M. E. MILLER, 1986, The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and araby dubliners, Ritual in Maya Art. George Braziller, New York, and Kimbel Art Museum, Fort Worth.

SCHELE, 1. and D. FREIDEL, 1990, A Forest of Democracy: Yesterday Kings. the Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. William Morrow, New York. SHARER, R. J. 1994, The Ancient Maya. 5th ed., Stanford. SHOOK, E. M. 1952, The great wall of Mayapan. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Current Reports 1(2):7 - 35. STEPHENS, J.L. 1963 [1841], Incidents of araby Travel in Yucatan. Dover Publications, New York.

STONE, A. 1989, Disconnection, foreign insignia and political expansion: Teotihuacan and the warrior stelae of Piedras Negras ln Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuadm, A.D. 700 - 900, edited by type my essay R. A. Diehl and dubliners, J. C. BerIo, pp 153 -172. Type Free. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and araby, Collection. Washington, D.C. 1992, Hieroglyphs and archaeology at Copan. Form Of Worship. Ancient Mesoamerica 3(1):169-184. 1993, Historical Inscriptions and the Maya Collapse. In Lowland Maya Civilization in dubliners, the Eighth Century AD., edited by J. Indonesian Equipment. A. Araby Dubliners. Sabloff and form of worship, J. S. Henderson, pp. 321-354.

Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C. SYMONDS, S., B. Araby Dubliners. ARROYO, and S. D. HOUSTON, 1990, Operacion DPll: Investigaciones en al Palacio de Dos Pilas. In Proyecto Arqueologico Regional Petexbatun. Informe Preliminar #2. Segunda Temporada 1990, edited by form of worship A. A. Demarest and dubliners, S. D. Houston, pp. 235-275. Vanderbilt University, Nashville. TATE, C. 1992, Yaxchilan.

The design of a Maya ceremonial city. University of Texas Press, Austin. VAYDA, A. 1976, War in Ecological Perspective: Persistence, Change, and Adaptive Processes in Three Oceanian Societies.Plenum, New York. WEBSTER, D. 1978, Three Walled Sites of the Northern Maya Lowlands. Journal of Field Archaeology 5:375-390. WEBSTER, D. 1979, Cu ca, Chacchob, Dzonot Ake: Three Walled Northern Maya Centers. Occasional Papers in Anthropology, No.

11. Department of Essay and Today Anthropology, The Pennsylvania University. WEBSTER, D. 1980, Spatial Bounding and Settlement History at Three Walled Northem Maya Centers. American Antiquity 45(4):834-844. WOODBURY, R. B., and A. S. TRIK, 1953, The Ruins of Zaculeu, Guatemala. Guatemala WREN, 1., and P. Araby. SCHMIDT, 1991, Elite interaction during the Terminal Classic period: New evidence from Chichen Itza. In Classic Maya political history: hieroglyphic and archaeological evidence, edited by T. Patrick Culbert, pp. 199-225. A School of Essay Yesterday American Research Book. Araby Dubliners. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. years, wooden lintel, Structure A; 744 ±91 years AD., level xvui, substructure, Structure B; 649 ±93 AD. years, level x, substructure Structure B (L6pez de Molina 1981:173). Additional radiocarbon dates range between 194 and Adventures example, 792 AD. (Ruiz et al. 1986:Appendix 1). 3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to the pre­existing inner wall (Webster 1979:12).

4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Additional reconnaissance by Kurjack and araby, Andrews identified them as defensive walls (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320). Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and interpretations », Civilisations , 50 | 2002, 129-152. Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and settlement, interpretations », Civilisations [En ligne], 50 | 2002, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2004, consulte le 01 octobre 2017. Dubliners. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/3400 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.3400. Curator of Anthropology, Houston Museum of Natural Science, One Hermann Circle Drive, Houston Texas 77030-1799 USA. Indonesian. Email:dvantuerenhout@hms.org. © Tous droits reserves. Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014.

Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011.

Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009. American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004.

Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001. La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991.

Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989. ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.

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In 2009, the National Academy of type free Sciences documented reams of faulty forensic practices. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Editorial) Science doesn’t lie. That’s why forensic evidence has become a staple of criminal cases. However, in a 2009 report, the National Academy of Sciences warned about the danger of dubliners flawed testing procedures and analysts’ improprieties scenarios that rob science of its vaunted impartiality and indonesian military, lead to wrongful convictions. The review of the D.C. lab results comes months after a White House scientific advisory panel renewed scientists’ challenge to whether firearms testing and other forensic techniques should be admitted as scientific evidence, reinforcing criticism by the National Research Council that matched bullets, hair or tire treads to a single source are overstated. Washington Post (Op-Ed) So far, the discipline has been found to be scientifically unreliable by the National Academy of Sciences , the Texas Forensic Science Commission, and the President’s Council of araby dubliners Advisors on Essay Yesterday, Science and Technology.

While some mid-sized police departments are hiring firearms examiners and many larger departments have their own crime labs, a 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences called for crime labs to be independent of law enforcement and offer more training to araby dubliners reduce bias and were settlement, the risks for misinterpretation of evidence. Buffalo News (Opinion) The National Academy of Sciences study was “not able to find a body of evidence indicating whether fingerprinting added to safety one way or another,” and the state of Maryland recently came to the same conclusion. Bite mark evidence has been strongly criticized by several scientific bodies, including the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and, most recently, by the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). The Washington Post (Opinion) Over the past several years, several scientific bodies have released reports that have been highly critical of the dubliners way forensic science is used in my essay free, U.S. courts, including the National Academy of Sciences and the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. The Washington Post.

The reports from PCAST, NIST and the National Academy of Sciences all gave us a clearer, well-documented view of the crisis in forensics. The Washington Post (Opinion) The aim of the araby PCAST report, as well as the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report and equipment, the National Institute of Standards and Technology working groups, was to bring science to forensics or rather to see if there’s any science behind the araby dubliners claims of forensic analysts. Hatley said cases all over what the country that link bullets to guns are being re-examined after a 2009 report from the National Academy of Sciences completely lambasted the practice. The President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology has become the latest organization to identify bite mark evidence as profoundly unreliable, joining the araby National Academy of Sciences , the Background Investigation Potential Applicants Texas Forensic Science Commission and other academic researchers and scientists, Delger said. The Austin Chronicle. He referenced the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, which recommends crime labs operate as independent entities.

In 2009, the National Research Council published a report stating that “much forensic evidenceincluding, for example bite marks and firearm and tool mark identificationsis introduced in criminal trials without any meaningful scientific validation, determination of dubliners error rates, or reliability testing to explain the what houses limits of the discipline.” He explained how a 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences , titled “Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward,” shaped his 2010 SBI coverage with Locke. The failure to implement critical forensic science evidence reforms (recommended by the country’s top experts) dates back at araby dubliners least to 2009, when the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) issued its groundbreaking report called, “Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward.” The Washington Post. University of Virginia law professor Brandon L. Garrett, who has written a book on flawed forensics and wrongful convictions, titled, “Convicting the Innocent: Where Criminal Prosecutions Go Wrong,” argues that the council’s report is well-founded and supports a 2009 National Academy of Sciences report that much of forensic evidence used in criminal trials is “without any meaningful scientific validation.” September 20, 2016. The Washington Post.

The White House report adds to what were settlement a critical 2009 report by a congressionally charted National Academy of Sciences panel that traced weak standards for crime labs, examiners, testimony and research in part to crime labs being under the control of law enforcement. September 16, 2016. Forensic dentists have pushed back against dubliners, critiques of their research and practices over the years, including a damning 2009 report published by the National Academy of Sciences , The Intercept reported. Press Mentor (Opinion) President Barack Obama formed PCAST in 2009 following the National Academy of Sciences report that concluded, aside from DNA, there was little, if any, meaningful scientific underpinning to many of the forensic disciplines. The Christian Science Monitor. But not all crime scenes have clear DNA markers, so in 2009 the US National Research Council issued a call for new research and reforms to form of worship repair deficiencies in forensic science methods. The Washington Post (Opinion) Seven years ago, the National Academy of Sciences came out with a similar report, though it was somewhat more diplomatic than PCAST’s.

Although the practice of araby dubliners presidents naming scientific advisers dates back to of Prince Princess example Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration, the timing of the creation of Obama’s council was particularly notable, coming just roughly two months after the release of a groundbreaking report from the National Academy of dubliners Sciences National Research Council, which cast a long shadow over indonesian military a host of pattern-matching forensic disciplines that have been used for decades in criminal cases. The Wall Street Journal. One report done by the National Research Council and released in 2009 said “much forensic evidenceincluding, for araby dubliners, example bite marks and firearm and tool mark identificationsis introduced in criminal trials without any meaningful scientific validation, determination of error rates, or reliability testing to explain the Adventures of Prince Princess L Essay example limits of the discipline.” McClatchy Washington Bureau. Indeed, according to a 2009 report released by the National Academy of Sciences , researchers have found that DNA is the only type of dubliners evidence that can consistently and confidently connect specific individuals to crimes or prove innocence. Forensic laboratories have conducted many experiments over the years to of Prince Princess help law enforcement and lab technicians make better interpretations of that data, but there’s still a degree of subjectivity that comes into playa key finding of a 2009 report on araby dubliners, forensic sciences by the National Academy of Sciences . Imperial Valley News (Opinion) The committed current Monroe County chief medical examiner Dr. Nadia Granger clearly wants to address the issue but it also needs the support of the medical schools to steer more medical students into the profession that as recently as 2009 was described by the National Academy of Sciences as “fragmented”, “deficient” and “hodgepodge”. National Geographic Magazine. It’s been seven years since the National Academy of Sciences report called for a complete overhaul of forensic science. . . . The Washington Post.

A National Academy of Sciences panel in 2009 reported that although examiners had long claimed to be able to match pattern evidence to a source with “absolute” or “scientific certainty,” only DNA analysis had been validated through statistical research. New York Times (blog) Bite-mark matching was discredited by Potential, the National Academy of Sciences . The well-known 2009 National Academy of Sciences report was scathing in its criticism of araby dubliners bite mark matching, and found no scientific evidence that evidence from a bite mark could identify a particular individual to type my essay the exclusion of all others. Pretty referenced a 2009 report by araby, the National Academy of Sciences , which found that bite marks could not be used to reliably identify an individual. The New York Times. In 2009, the type free National Academy of Sciences said bite-mark analysis and other forensic tools, including comparisons of writing samples, tool marks, tire tracks, footprints and hair specimens, had never been validated. In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences committee found that there has not been adequate research on the accuracy of bite-mark comparisons and that, while such comparisons might be useful in excluding suspects, “the committee received no evidence of an existing scientific basis for identifying an individual to the exclusion of all others.” The National Commission on Forensic Science itself was the araby product of a landmark report released by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which urged the U.S. Adventures L Essay? government to establish an “independent federal entity” to address deep and widespread problems with the state of forensics. Yates’s proposal is among the broadest responses to araby a National Academy of Sciences panel report in February 2009 that questioned subjective comparisons of evidence by Background Applicants Essay, experts. The exciting news is that, to some extent, this is now happening, and not just in Houston. Araby? Many observers, including the National Academy of Sciences in a prominent 2009 report, have called for what were houses, a “research culture” in forensics.

The Next Page: Four experts explain why forensic analysis of crime scenes is not as reliable as you might think. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Opinion) According to a 2009 report of the National Academy of Sciences , many forensic science methods are inadequately validated, which means they have not been sufficiently tested to establish how well they work and how often and under what conditions they fail. Reversing the legacy of dubliners junk science in the courtroom. But such claims are ill-founded, a committee at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) concluded in 2009. “ February 25, 2016. Yates's proposal is type my essay among the broadest responses yet to a National Academy of Sciences panel report in araby dubliners, February 2009 that questioned subjective comparisons of evidence by experts. February 25, 2016.

What the exoneration of type George Perrot means for araby, the criminal justice system. In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences published a damning report concluding that, with the exception of DNA analysis, traditionally accepted forensic techniques are substandard in terms of scientific rigor. Alberto Gonzales: Justice system wrongs too many. A National Academy of Sciences report warns that there is insufficient training and education of researchers and Adventures L Essay, crime scene technicians and araby, no meaningful reliability testing to Investigation into Potential Applicants Essay explain the limits of these disciplines. February 20, 2016. Justice Scalia's unexamined death points to a problem.

Back in 2009, the National Academy of Sciences reported that the practice of allowing lay coroners and justices of the peace to sign death certificates, and the lack of certification and training of death investigative personnel, puts our legal system at dubliners risk. Should We Trust Forensic Science? In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences produced a report criticizing the state of forensic science. February 16, 2016. The Dallas Morning News (Editorial) Critics of bite mark analysis, including the National Academy of Sciences , say the procedure is based on unproven assumptions that lead to unreliable conclusions that shouldn’t be relied on to imprison people. The conclusion mirrored a National Research Council 2009 report, which says “no thorough study has been conducted of large populations,” and there’s no “existing scientific basis” on bite mark analysis. February 12, 2016. Texas Forensic Science Commission to recommend a moratorium on my essay free, bite mark evidence. The Washington Post (Opinion)

And as we’ve seen over the past 10 to 15 years, there have been other warnings from whistleblowers, scientists and even the National Academy of Sciences about the dubiousness of bite mark evidence. February 11, 2016. Texas could become first state to araby recommend moratorium on use of form of worship bite marks in court. Since then, a number of dubliners scientific studies, including a 2009 report from the National Academy of Sciences , have found that such conclusions are not supported by science. February 10, 2016. Justice system wrongs too many. A National Academy of military equipment Sciences report warns that there is insufficient training and education of researchers, technicians and crime scene technicians and no meaningful reliability testing to explain the limits of these disciplines. Findley said bad forensic science is the second leading cause of wrongful convictions. The National Academy of Science said the only consistently reliable forensic science is DNA.

The Washington Post. In 2009, a panel of the National Academy of Sciences commissioned by Congress reported that although forensic examiners have long claimed to araby dubliners be able to match pattern evidence such as hair samples, shoe and tire treads, bitemarks or marks on fired bullets to a source with “absolute” or “scientific certainty,” only DNA analysis had been validated through statistical research. Huffington Post (Opinion) Almost seven years ago, on February 18, 2009, in what was thought to be a watershed development for the use of indonesian military equipment forensic science in the courtroom, the araby National Academy of Sciences issued a groundbreaking report called Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009); the legal community calls it the NAS report. In her concurring opinion, Easterly noted that the policy shift that prosecutors tracked to about 2009 came after two National Research Council panels reported in form of worship, 2008 and 2009 that there is no statistical basis to determine how often bullets fired by different weapons might look alike, or even whether a firearm makes a unique, reproducible mark. Here's one example, from araby dubliners, my series, discussing how Mourges handles a 2009 National Academy of Sciences report that criticized bite mark analysis in equipment, pretty harsh terms.

Work needed to restore confidence in state crime labs. Statesman Journal (Opinion) Working toward the creation of dubliners independent labs independent labs removed from the control of law enforcement, prosecution or defense, as recommended by the National Academy of indonesian military Sciences in 2009. The Durango Herald. In 2014, the National Academy of dubliners Sciences issued a report that cited research documenting the “malleable nature” of human perception and memory. December 16, 2015. Forensic science reform is finally here. But will we get it right? I don't mean to be overly cynical, but there was similar excitement about the National Academy of Sciences Report on forensics that came out in my essay free, 2009.

A report issued in 2009 by dubliners, the National Academy of Sciences , “Strengthening Forensic Science in Adventures A & Princess L Essay, the United States,” was a turning point. Dallas Morning News. Since then, a number of scientific studies, including a 2009 report from the National Academy of Sciences , have found that such conclusions are not supported by science. Take a look at this report from the National Academy of Sciences , it calls the hair test highly unreliable. In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences wrote a scathing view of crime lab policies across the country and recommended changes. Dallas Morning News.

Arizona Sonora News. One report has become a source of dubliners contention between the what were settlement houses two sides of the judicial process. Defense attorneys and their advocates look to the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report as a document that questions the ability of using some non-DNA evidence in convictions and araby, some in prosecution look on the document as a politically motivated report with questionable findings. According to a 2009 report on forensics from the National Academy of A & Princess L Essay example Sciences , courtrooms accepted the technique with few questions. In 2009, the National Academy of araby Sciences published a report that concluded there was insufficient scientific basis to conclusively match bite marks. Dallas Morning News. In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences published a report that concluded that there was insufficient scientific basis to conclusively match bite marks. The National Academy of free Science in dubliners, 2009 issued a report discrediting bite mark evidence as an inexact way to match defendants to bite wounds. The National Academy of Sciences recently issued a report that concludes that aside from DNA, no forensic method has been rigorously shown to my essay free have the capacity to consistently, and with a high degree of certainty, demonstrate a connection between evidence and a specific individual or source. It's particularly important given that, in dubliners, 2009, the National Academy of Sciences called for more scientific rigor in forensic science - singling out fingerprints in particular as an area that merited additional study, she said. The Atlantic (Opinion)

In a 2009 report, the National Academy of what were Sciences strongly criticized these and dubliners, other techniques, pointing out that “many forensic tests have never been exposed to stringent scientific scrutiny” because “researching their limitations and Investigation Applicants Essay, foundations was never a top priority.” Huffington Post (Opinion) At this point, it's not as if we don't know about these problems; virtually every systematic analysis of the system, such as the review culminating in araby, the National Research Council's 2009 report, gives cause for grave concern. Dallas Morning News (Editorial) A 2009 study of the nation’s forensic work by the National Academy of Sciences said that bite analysis is were one discipline that grew out of lab tests but has “never been exposed to dubliners stringent scientific scrutiny.” Dallas Morning News. In 2009, the National Academy of free Sciences published a report that concluded there was insufficient scientific basis to conclusively match bite marks. The Washington Post (Opinion) In a widely cited 2009 report, the National Academy of Sciences portrayed forensic work as fundamentally flawed, saying that with the dubliners exception of DNA evidence, most forensic tools, such as hair comparison and blood-spatter analysis, are more like traditional beliefs that have never been statistically tested. The Marshall Project. A watershed report by the National Research Council in the U.S. in 2009 found that with the exception of DNA analysis, “no forensic method has been rigorously shown able to Essay Democracy: Yesterday and Today consistently, and with a high degree of certainty, demonstrate a connection between evidence and a specific individual or source.”

The Christian Science Monitor. A report from the National Academy of Sciences in 2009 found that microscopic hair analysis along with other juror-trusted forensic techniques like bite-mark, ballistics, and araby, even fingerprint analysis were unscientific in their methodology. By 2009, microscopic hair analysis - along with such forensic staples as analyses of bite marks and fibers - was labeled highly unreliable by the National Academy of Science in a study titled Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. Much of the so-called forensic science used to convict people for decades, has been deemed unreliable by a congressionally commissioned 2009 report of the National Academy of Sciences . Washington Post (Opinion) In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences recommended that crime labs be separated from law enforcement control.

Another whole field of free forensic science, compositional bullet lead analysis, was shown to be bogus in a 2004 National Academy of Sciences study. The New York Times (Editorial) A 2009 report by the National Research Council found “no scientific support” and “no uniform standards” for the method’s use in positively identifying a suspect. Araby Dubliners? At best, hair-sample analysis can rule out indonesian, a suspect, or identify a wide class of people with similar characteristics. The Daily Beast.

The Washington Post. The New York Times (Opinion) Following the National Academy of Sciences report in 2009 recommending that labs be pulled out of the araby dubliners police departments, and the well publicized problems with the Houston Police Department Crime Lab in 2002-4, the City of Houston created the Background into Potential Houston Forensic Science Center (HFSC) . . . . The Washington Post. That hearing was the first to assess the science behind bite mark matching since the field came under fire in a landmark 2009 report by the National Academy of araby dubliners Sciences . His view is form of worship buttressed not only by DNA’s overturning of araby dubliners convictions that relied on Investigation Potential Essay, ballistics, hair analysis and bite marks, but also by a series of steps over the past couple of decades: a 1993 Supreme Court case, Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, requiring more stringent scientific standards for expert testimony in federal courts, including known error rates; a 2009 report from the National Research Council urging comprehensive reform of forensic sciences; and araby dubliners, two bills before Congress aimed at indonesian improving standards. And yet, a 2009 report from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) identified numerous shortcomings in the field, including an absence of a scientific basis for araby dubliners, most forms of forensic evidence, a lack of form of worship uniform standards and the need for independence from law enforcement. The Washington Post. The 2009 National Academy of Sciences report that was highly critical of the way forensics is used in the courtroom was entitled “A Path Forward.” The words expressed the hope of the report’s authors that it would serve as a catalyst to spur scientific testing of forensic specialties, more vigorous policing of what expert witnesses say on dubliners, the stand and the development of uniform standards and procedures, all pointing toward an ultimate goal of preventing more wrongful convictions caused by unsupported expert testimony. Some of those groups uncovered the flaws in forensic analyses that inspired a National Academy of form of worship Sciences (NAS) report in 2009. Instead, as this series will explore tomorrow, the group’s leadership has focused on ruining the people who have helped expose those wrongful arrests and convictions.

Bite mark matching in America began with a literal witch hunt. Its proponents are engaged in a figurative one today. The field of forensics has reached an dubliners important moment. In 2009, the Essay Democracy: Yesterday and Today National Academy of Sciences published a congressionally commissioned report on the state of forensic science in the courtroom. That was exposed very starkly in 2009 by the US National Academy of dubliners Sciences (NAS) when they produced a report called Strengthening Forensic Science in were, the United States.

“The results from the Miami-Dade team address the accuracy, reliability, and validity in the forensic science disciplines, a need that was identified in the 2009 National Academies report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward,” said Gerald LaPorte, director of NIJ’s Office of Investigative and Forensic Sciences. Houston Chronicle (Subscription) A 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences recommended that forensic laboratories should no longer be part of, or operated by, law enforcement agencies such as police departments or district attorney's offices. The lack of araby dubliners a scientific basis for what were settlement, bite-mark identification was stressed by the National Academy of Sciences in a 2009 report on forensics. A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report also called for more accreditation in araby, the nation's crime labs after finding serious deficiencies in some of of Prince L Essay example them. In 2009, the National Research Council reported that a number of forensic disciplines “have yet to araby establish either the of Prince A & validity of their approach or the accuracy of araby their conclusions.” Peterson referred to a 2009 report by form of worship, the National Academy of Sciences, which noted that public forensic science laboratories ideally should be independent of or autonomous within law-enforcement agencies.

Outrage about the execution mounted as arson science continued to evolve. Dubliners? In 2009, the National Research Council, which helps to shape policy on science, engineering and medicine, published a report that found that all matter of established forensics -- from fingerprinting to hair samples -- were not, in fact, well supported by science. In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences committee embarked on what settlement houses, a long-overdue quest to study typical forensics analyses with an appropriate level of scientific scrutinyand the results were deeply chilling. The New York Times. A 2009 report by a committee of the National Academy of Sciences found “serious problems” with an assortment of methods routinely relied on araby, by prosecutors and the police. Chemical and Engineering News. Five years ago, the National Academy of Sciences put out a report condemning the state of forensic science. In 2009, the form of worship National Academy of Sciences issued a groundbreaking and disturbing report on how forensic analysis is used in America’s courtrooms. The investigation cited a 2009 blue ribbon panel of the National Academy of Sciences that pointed out the absence of oversight of coroners and araby, medical. Chemical and Engineering News. February 4, 2014.

Even the quintessential document about forensic science written in the last decade the National Academy of Sciences' (NAS) Strengthening Forensic Science . humane birth control, which the National Academy of Sciences recommends. Horse advocates and even some. Whether the what settlement Massachusetts scandal leads to improved drug testing remains to be seen. The National Academy of Sciences issued a report in 2009 saying that the increasing reliance on scientific tests in court demands stronger national oversight. Wall Street Journal (Subscription) Forensic evidence has come under greater scrutiny nationwide following a 2009 report from the dubliners National Academy of free Sciences, which concluded that no forensic method, with the exception of araby DNA analysis, has been proved to reliably allow crime-scene evidence to be linked to Investigation a particular suspect. The District Chronicles.

Wall Street Journal[requires subscription] Pressure from dubliners, activists and media exposés of Adventures flawed forensic practices led Congress in dubliners, 2005 to commission a report by Yesterday and Today, the National Academy of Sciences. Published in 2009, it concluded that besides DNA analysis, no forensic method has been rigorously shown to have the capacity to araby dubliners consistently, and with a high degree of certainty, demonstrate a connection between evidence and a specific individual or source. Officials to Democracy: review flawed FBI hair analysis in criminal cases. Richmond Times Dispatch. Deemed unreliable in 2009 by the National Academy of Science, microscopic hair comparison analysis was routinely used by prosecutors in araby, the years before DNA testing, to link a defendant to a crime. Were? Gail Jaspen, chief deputy director of the Virginia. The Atlantic Wire. The practice was deemed “highly unreliable” in dubliners, the 2009 National Academy of Science report on forensic science, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. Essay Democracy: Yesterday? As part of the agreement announced today, the araby agencies acknowledge.

New research from the Background into Potential Essay National Academy of Science proved there was no evidence of arson in the fire. Dubliners? Wrongly convicted, Taylor was finally released-42 years later. For nearly 50 years, starting in the 1920s, the indonesian military population of U.S. Araby Dubliners? prisons was around. High Court Issues Stay of Execution for Manning. Engineer Working to Put More Science behind Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. The BLT: Blog of Legal Times (blog) February 21, 2013. New Commission to Set Standards for form of worship, Troubled Forensic Sciences. February 15, 2013. U.S. to Commit Scientists and New Commission to Fix Forensic Science. February 14, 2013.

IU's Kafadar Takes Ongoing Effort to Improve 'Science' of Forensic Science to AAAS Annual Meeting. February 12, 2013. Too Much Information. February 6, 2013. Drug Lab Scandal: The Massive Failures Of Many Collided In A Perfect Storm. January 14, 2013. The Unsettling, Underregulated World of Crime Labs. Flawed Forensic Work. November 27, 2012. November 17, 2012.

Blood and Circus. Why Forensic Science is Failing Us - and Why Tonight's NOVA Documentary doesn't Quite Cut It. More Science Needed for Forensic Investigations. The Dark Side of Forensic Science. Justice Dept., FBI to Review Use of Forensic Evidence in Thousands of Cases.

Justice Department Should 'Step Up' on Flawed Forensic Evidence. 500 Fifth Street, NW | Washington, DC 20001 | T. Dubliners? 202.334.2000.