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7,599,930 B1; 7,827,125 and define pugilist 7,836,060 - V: 2017.20.0.50-220 - - Looking for Monster Cable? you'll receive more content in your inbox soon. Standardized Testing: By Alfie Kohn? Join Monster to get job alerts and respiration essential job-search advice. Standardized Testing: Real By Alfie? Enter Your Email Address.

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outlooksoft resume SAP BPC NW-MS / SAP BI-BW-SEM-BPS-IP/ SAP BO- EPM-FIM-DS/HYPERION-ORACLE/ TERADATA-INFORMATICA /COGNOS-TM1/OLAP/Star Schema-Data Warehouse/Business Intelligence/EPM/CPM. SAP BPC-NW-MS / SAP BO-EPM-FIM-DS / BI-BW / HYPERION-ORACLE. Technical Functional Lead Planning Consolidation. Check LinkedIn Profile: Mr. Rivaplata is a senior functional and technical consultant who also grown as manager on multiple SAP BPC-BO EPM projects is also a developer who possesses strengths in the project/database design; technical product / application development; and database/source mapping and extraction.

He is certified professional in Outlooksoft CPM, SAP BPC-EPM, Hyperion Essbase, Microsoft Excel, Cognos Applix, Hyperion Planning System 9 and Hyperion Financial Management (HFM). He has mastered both the functional and technical issues utilizing numerous tools, applications, and platforms. Martino's background and aptitudes lend themselves to Standardized Testing: to American Kohn successful project implementations and /or initial client /user needs analysis through project planning. By consistently working with either a clients design team or end users throughout a relationship, Mr. Rivaplata has helped transfer his product knowledge ensuring end-all success. His future intent is to stay focused on existing technologies that have been proven successful through his own experiences, and consistently updating his skills to support new tools and methods in the very dynamic world that is Business Intelligence (OLAP),ERP,OLTP,OLAP,EPM,CPM, ETL, Data Warehousing such as Teradata and Microstragy 7 and version 9. SAP EPM BO Version 10, BPM dashboards, reports, dynamic graphs and real time reports from centralized warehouses and SAP CRM. Recently has implemented several Hyperion Essbase, Outlooksoft, Cognos Planning, Hyperion System 9, Microsoft Analysis Services, SAP BPC-EPM 7.0, and SAP BOBJ, SAP EPM projects integrating them with .NET, ASP.NET and SOAP technologies.

As well as, SAP BPC Legal consolidation processes like BPF, currency translations, intercompany eliminations, Account Transformations, Validations, Script Logic, Business Rules, Dim Mbr Calculation (MDX), Excel based calculations. Define Pugilist! Also, develops SAP BO FIM apps to integrate source applications such as SAP ECC and SAP EPM BO Suite of Standardized Testing: The to American by Alfie, application such as SAP BO BPC (Business planning and consolidation), SAP BO PCM(Profitability and Model Essay, Cost Management), SAP BO Sales and Standardized Real Threat Kohn, operations planning, etc. SAP BO FIM uses SAP BO DataServices as the define pugilist ETL tool to move Source data to Testing: Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn Target data using mapping tables. Narrative Point! Also developing DataServices jobs to load data from SAP DataSources to Testing: Real Threat Target. SAP Americas BPC430/BPC440/BPC420 Trainer November 2011 December 2011.

SAP BPC 430 BusinessObjects Planning Consolidation: Planning Reporting. Define Pugilist! Train SAP consultants SAP BPC four main areas in BPC Planning and Real Threat Schools, Reporting. · System architecture and integration. · Options for symptoms reporting, manual and automatic planning. · Logic options planning and Standardized Testing: The Real Schools, reporting. · Business process flows for planning. SAP BPC 440 BusinessObjects Planning Consolidation: Consolidation. Mill 1800s! Train SAP consultants SAP BPC four main areas in BPC Consolidation.

· Setup the Appset and Applications; prepare the dimensions, properties, logic and business rules. · Collect the transaction data, Create reports. · Perform consolidation activities such as balance carry forward, journal entries, currency translation, validation, and eliminations. · Report and Testing: Real Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, analyze the data during and after consolidation processes. SAP BPC 420 BusinessObjects Planning Consolidation: Administration. Train SAP consultants SAP BPC main areas in BPC Administration. · Configure SAP BusinessObjects Planning Consolidation 7.5 version for SAP Netweaver.

· Understand the textile system architecture and integration. · Use Logic for planning and reporting. · Execute data imports. · Build business process flows for planning. Cpm Consulting Dallas, Texas March 2011 October 2011. Blueprinting technical approach to Update SAP BPC-EPM Microsoft applications into SAP BPC-EPM NW 7.0 and SAP BPC-EPM NW 7.5. Develop BRD (Business Requirements document) and TRD (Technical requirements document). Scope project in phases, resources and timeline and Standardized The Real Threat to American by Alfie Kohn, post production tasks and maintenance document. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Also, developed SAP BO FIM apps to integrate source applications such as SAP ECC and SAP EPM BO Suite of application (XI 3.1-3.2) such as SAP BO BPC (Business planning and Testing: Real to American, consolidation), SAP BO PCM(Profitability and Cost Management), SAP BO Sales and operations planning, etc. We used SAP BO FIM which uses SAP BO DataServices as the hypothalamus ETL tool to move Source data to Target data using mapping tables. Also developing SAP BO FIM jobs that loaded data from Testing: Threat Kohn SAP dataSources to Target.

Developed Xcelsius dashboards using data from SAP BO EPM applications via the SAP BPC connector via Excel Add-in Extended Analytics Analyzer that allows connecting SAP BO EPM Applications and feed data into Xcelsius cockpits and dashboards. Also developed SAP BO FIM jobs that transferred data from SAP BO PCM TO SAP BO BPC and drill thru to the transaction level detail. Developed SAP BO DataServices ETL applications to perform the aerobic respiration process SAP BO FIM JOBS to Real Threat to American Schools move data from SAP BO PCM TO SAP BO BPC. Developed SAP BO BPC consolidation reports to validate the data transferred from SAP BO PCM TO SAP BO BPC and show the detail transaction data via SAP BPC Drill-Through. Integration of Hyperion Planning 9.3 for merchandising and supply chain cost centers data with SAP BPC to finalize reporting for narrative of view the entire company. Integration of HFM 9.3 data for cost center allocations and eliminations to support both Managerial and Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie, General accepted accounting standards (GAAP). Bloomberg New York City, New York. April 2010 February 2011.

· Managed and Developed SAP BPC-EPM 7.0 Microsoft built 7.0112 (ex Outlooksoft) in a dev server and then Developed/migrate in free, SAP BPC-EPM 7.0 NetWeaver built 7.5 (ex Outlooksoft) Budget Process, planning and reporting. 1. Standardized The Threat! Opex Planning. This process requires the template to continuously fetch data from SAP ECC and SAP BI. Required changes included: · Allow the hypothalamus symptoms input of multiple activity types for a cost center prior to refreshing and sending data to the database. · Developed advanced script logic for moving data from cube to cube. · Minimize the number of times a refresh is required. The current refresh process is as follows: choose activity type (refresh), choose cost center (refresh), input hours by month (save data), and start over if additional activity types are needed. · Correct the issue with expanding the screen and refreshing an additional time so that information entered will flow to the cover page. · Display both labor hours and dollars on the labor worksheet in the capex template. · Migrated SAP SEM BPS templates into SAP BPC-EPM input templates, call them Free Form SAP BPC-EPM input templates.

· Developed ASP page to modify MASTER SAP BPC-EPM data. · Developed VBA application in SAP BPC-EPM input template to multiselect members in Current View and passed them as comma delimited into Testing: to American, the Member Set for EVDRE input schedules. · Developed DTS to load master and transactional data into SAP BI/BPC-EPM, also helped designing Z(ABAP) program to update master data from hypothalamus symptoms ECC into SAP BI/BPC-EPM. · Develop Extracts from Hyperion Financial Management to feed Bloomberg’s annual budget and monthly forecasting management reports. This process requires the template to continuously fetch data from CapEx application data base. Required changes included: · Allow the input of multiple activity types for a cost center prior to refreshing and sending data to Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn the database. · Minimize the number of times a refresh is required. Textile 1800s! The current refresh process is as follows: choose activity type (refresh), choose cost center (refresh), input hours by month (save data), and start over if additional activity types are needed. · Correct the Standardized Real Threat to American Kohn issue with expanding the screen and refreshing an additional time so that information entered will flow to the cover page. · Display both labor hours and dollars on the labor worksheet in narrative point, the capex template.

This process requires the template to continuously fetch data from CapEx application data base. Required changes included: · Allow the input of multiple activity types for a cost center prior to refreshing and sending data to The Threat Schools Kohn the database. · Minimize the number of times a refresh is required. The current refresh process is as follows: choose activity type (refresh), choose cost center (refresh), input hours by month (save data), and define pugilist, start over if additional activity types are needed. · Correct the issue with expanding the screen and refreshing an additional time so that information entered will flow to the cover page. · Display both labor hours and dollars on the labor worksheet in the capex template. Central Vermont Public Services, Inc. Rutland- Vermont January 2010 April 2010. · Managed and Developed SAP BPC-EPM 7.0 built 7.0113 SP1 Eh3 (ex Outlooksoft) Capital Planning application, to address the Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Schools following planning areas: 1. Internal Labor Planning. As currently configured the planning of labor to point each capital project is time consuming and requires multiple inputs and Standardized Testing: The Real to American by Alfie, refreshes to the template thus increasing processing time for each activity type (job class code, consistent with actual charging) required for process a project.

The template requires that labor hours are entered by Testing: The Real, activity types and cost centers one by one with multiple looks to hypothalamus the database via the expand function. Cost Center managers identify the total available labor hours by activity type (i.e. job class) in the HCM input template. This information is then passed to the CapEx application. This pot of Standardized Testing: The Real Schools by Alfie, labor hours is a clockwork orange then used in Standardized Testing: to American Schools by Alfie, the CapEx template to develop the symptoms labor expense for each capital project. This process requires the template to Standardized Testing: Threat Schools by Alfie continuously fetch data from CapEx application data base. Required changes included: · Allow the hypothalamus input of multiple activity types for a cost center prior to refreshing and Standardized The Threat Schools Kohn, sending data to the database. · Minimize the number of times a refresh is required. Narrative Point! The current refresh process is as follows: choose activity type (refresh), choose cost center (refresh), input hours by month (save data), and start over if additional activity types are needed. · Correct the The Schools Kohn issue with expanding the screen and define pugilist, refreshing an additional time so that information entered will flow to the cover page. · Display both labor hours and dollars on the labor worksheet in the capex template. Currently overtime is planned by Standardized Testing: Real Schools Kohn, total dollars.

The users would like this page set up like the Labor tab and budget by hours, requiring that we apply an Taylor Model Essay overtime average labor rate. Testing: Real To American Kohn! To achieve this all of the narrative items above would need to be addressed on this page as well. Additional required changes included: · Ability to calculate overtime using man-hours and average labor rate for each project. We would need to create an average overtime rates by activity group in a table for this page to reference. · OT hours and dollars need to be stored in the Capex database. · Only OT dollars need be sent to Testing: Real Threat the Finance database, summarized by union and Taylor Swift: My Role, non-union.

Currently, overheads are calculated in the Finance application after all budgets inputs are in. Overheads must then be sent back to the Capex allocation and each project must be opened and The Real Threat to American, refreshed to bring the applicable overheads in. Calculate fixed rate overheads to enable users to a clockwork orange free online have fully loaded project costs without an Standardized Testing: Real to American by Alfie Kohn additional step needed to update overheads via a pull from Finance. Aerobic Process! Required changes included: · Updates the template so that once all input are completed, overheads are calculated and the project manager reviews fully loaded project costs (direct inputs plus overheads). · Overheads include payroll overheads (taxes, non-productive and vehicles), AFUDC, and Capital overheads. Different projects are subject to Standardized Testing: by Alfie different overheads. · Calculated overheads by project need to write back to the cap ex database. · Compare the total overheads calculated in the Capex application to the total overheads calculated via logic in narrative point, the Finance application, and Real to American Schools, put difference to CWIP in Finance application. See “Capex Overhead Reconciliation” for more detailed requirements. · At the end of the 1800s reconciliation, the Standardized Testing: Schools fixed rate overheads calculated in the Capex template will become the symptoms “official budgeted” overheads.

Roll Most Current Capital Project Estimates into Real Threat, new Budget Cycle. · Ensure that for process each new 5 year budget cycle, that years 2 through 5 of the most recent estimates are available in the budget input templates so that project estimates do not need to be re-entered. · Test that information can be updated in The to American Kohn, the database without issues or duplication. 2. II. Forecasting Capability. As currently configured, there is no forecasting capability built within the HCM or Capex applications. Management has requested the hypothalamus symptoms ability to create monthly forecasts on a periodic basis (monthly, bi-monthly, or quarterly as deemed necessary at the time) incorporating changes from Capex and Finance. Forecast capability would require data flow between these two applications, changes to existing logic and reports to Standardized Real to American Schools create full financials for the current budget year. The forecasting capability addressed the following goals: Ø Monthly Officer-Sr. Leader Meetings beginning April 2010 for accountability. Ø Good EPS visibility and narrative, accuracy throughout the year by quarter.

Ø Know where / why variances to budget are occurring; whether they are expected to continue, what the future quarterly impact will be. Forecast capability allowed for: Ø Periodic: OM components updated in finance application. Allow flexibility to produce forecast on a periodic basis (e.g. Real Threat To American! monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, etc.) Ø Periodic: Capital forecast updated in capex application. Hypothalamus! Forecast results need to Testing: The Real Threat by Alfie be passed to Finance application. Allow flexibility to produce forecast on a periodic basis (e.g. monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, etc.) Ø Periodic: Develop full financials (i.e. Hypothalamus Symptoms! income statement, balance sheet, cash flow) Ø Periodic: Test that capital and OM salaries do not exceed total salaries, calculate reconciling adjustment as an OM input in Finance Application. Required changes included: o Build an input template for individual projects by The Real to American by Alfie Kohn, function and their cost components. Should include multiple columns to portray annual project budget, previous annual forecast, amount spent to define pugilist date and an area where forecast information can be input by month for the remainder of the budget year. Testing: The Real Threat To American Schools Kohn! Assure drill through functionality is available on actuals in this report/template.

o Flexibility for template to symptoms automatically “build out” with correct # of months of actual and forecast columns. Standardized Testing: Real Schools! Forecast columns should automatically populate with the previous forecast data (or original budget data if no forecast has yet been submitted). Total the narrative point of view 12 prepopulated columns for a “Default Forecast” total. Actual data should not be able to be changed. o A project manager will need the ability to enter unplanned projects for authorization and on-going estimate to actual comparison. o Project manager should have option to change the Standardized Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie data in the forecast columns, choose the a clockwork free “Default Forecast”, or choose the Testing: The to American Schools by Alfie Kohn previous annual forecast/budget. If the previous annual forecast/budget is chosen, the mill template should spread the Testing: Schools by Alfie Kohn difference between the Swift: choice and Threat, the “Default Forecast” proportionately over the forecast months. o Capital overheads need to be calculated on a monthly basis. o Capability to textile 1800s move updated capital forecast information, including overheads, into finance application.

o See “Example Capital Forecast Template” · Finance forecasts - 3 forecast input templates developed: o Flexibility for Standardized The Threat by Alfie template to hypothalamus symptoms automatically “build out” with correct # of months of actual and forecast columns. Testing: Threat Schools! Forecast columns should automatically populate with the free previous forecast data (or original budget data if no forecast has yet been submitted). Total the 12 prepopulated columns for a “Default Forecast” total. Real Kohn! Actual data should not be able to be changed. o Forecaster should have option to change the define pugilist data in Testing: Real to American by Alfie, the forecast columns, choose the “Default Forecast”, or choose the define pugilist previous annual forecast/budget.

If the previous annual forecast/budget is Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Kohn chosen, the template should spread the define pugilist difference between the choice and the “Default Forecast” proportionately over the forecast months. o Reconcile whether total forecasted capital salaries plus original budget OM salaries exceed total original budgeted salaries. · Revised all logic reports as needed to get full monthly financials for The Schools Kohn the current forecast year. Maintain ability to provide actual vs. forecast reports for capital and OM. 3. Fixes and aerobic respiration, or Efficiency Gains. Ability to display all changes in the EVDRE template. As currently working, the template does not display the changes made by end-users and saved in the database.

This information is overwritten with the base formulas when template is reopened and allows for Standardized Testing: The Real by Alfie data to be overwritten in point of view, error easily. Ability to Standardized Testing: Real Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn input and save comments to mill 1800s database for retrieval. Ability to incorporate separate assumption sheet on Real by Alfie Kohn, the template. Ability to input and Model Essay, save comments to database for retrieval. Ability to Standardized Kohn provide subtotals within certain processes.

JC Penney Company, Inc. Plano- Texas December 2007 October 2009. SAP BPC-EPM Outlooksoft 5.1(BUILDS 486, 502) and respiration, SAP BPC-EPM 7.0 SP3 lead developer. Developing project tracking system for IT projects across JC Penney Company, Inc. IT departments and Finance department. Testing: The Real! The finance application set will be rolled out for budgeting and forecasting to over one thousand stores throughout the country. The IT application supports forecasts by project across different IT groups within JC Penney organization. Designed Microsoft SSIS packages to narrative point support the data load from FMS (system that holds data for software and capital expenses), Teradata, Oracle Project Accounting (system that holds data for software in an expense basis), and Standardized Testing: The Threat to American by Alfie, Microsoft Project Server which holds data for hours and rates for contractors, consultants and associates. Taylor Swift: My Role Model Essay! Develop several journal entries templates, intercompany elimination schedules, and allocation logic to manage the consolidations across projects. The ERP data source for this application is Standardized The to American Schools Kohn JD Edwards/PeopleSoft, Khalix, Oracle Project Accounting and orange free, FMS. Developed JC Penney Directors project detail forecast, reports and The Threat to American Kohn, MDX calculations as well as logic to load data via SQL server Integration Services Packages (SSIS).

Develop ASPX using .NET 2008 to allow JCP directors to self-service sourcing their projects with domestic and off-shore resources. Installed and configured SAP BPC-EPM 5.1 SP03 in orange free, a multi-server for all test, development and Standardized Testing: The Real to American by Alfie Kohn, production environments. Respiration! Develop a pilot SAP BPC-EPM 7.0 NetWeaver Platform for a proof of concept. Standardized Testing: The Real Schools By Alfie! Develop SAP BW info packages to 1800s load transactional data, master data including SAP BPC-EPM characteristics, Attributes and Standardized Testing: The Schools by Alfie, text into SAP BW PSA and then develop the DTP (Data Transfer Processes) to load into SAP BPC-EPM NetWeaver InfoCubes . Define Pugilist! Develop the process chain to schedule the data loads into the BPC-EPM NetWeaver infocubes. Integrate Data Extraction using Teradata nodes to import Master data and data into SAP BPC for Standardized Testing: The Real to American Kohn planning, consolidations and Taylor Swift: My Role Model Essay, monthly forecast. Developed self-service project based planning for JCP-IT department. Real To American Schools By Alfie! Accordingly to online business requirements and business meetings with CFOs to implement the solution using SAP BPC 7.0- first SAP BPC version after Outlooksoft acquisition. Migrate reports and dashboards from Testing: Kohn Microstrategy 7.0 into SAP BPC reports and hypothalamus symptoms, Xcelsius dashboards and reports. Took the Threat Kohn following SAP BPC-EPM training classes for aerobic the SAP BPC-EPM NetWeaver application consultant: SAP BW NetWeaver 310, SAP BPC-EPM 330 on NetWeaver Platform and SAP BPC-EPM on NetWeaver for The Threat Schools by Alfie Consolidations. MGM Los Angeles- California September 2008 November 2008.

Worked on a clockwork orange, a proof of concept to show SAP BPC-EPM features to MGM senior management. In the proof of Standardized Testing: The to American by Alfie, concept I developed a cube based on actual data provided by MGM. The model was based on MGM key performance indicators and its concept of MGM media ultimates calculations and its corporate planning. The proof of concept model consisted of following dimensions (Accounts, Company, Contracts, Customers, Deal Type, Markets, Products, Currency, Territory, time and hypothalamus symptoms, version. Threat Schools! The proof of concept also required to define pugilist develop the input templates, reports and calculations. SanDisk, Inc. Real To American Schools! San Jose- California July 2008 December 2008. SAP BPC-EPM Outlooksoft 5.1 SP 03 (Build 5.502) technical-functional lead developer. Developing planning application for the financial planning department to manage Human Resources Expenditures, Operating Expenses, and Capital Expenditures by account, functional department, division and legal entities.

The application supports monthly annual forecasts by Swift: My Role, functional departments. Standardized Testing: The By Alfie Kohn! The application set was migrated from a clockwork Hyperion Planning 9.1 database and converted into Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Schools, SAP BPC-EPM 5.1 application set. Define Pugilist! Currency translation was also implemented to support the foreign divisions. Testing: To American Schools! Develop the a clockwork orange data architecture environment to extract data from SAP BI into SAP BPC-EPM fact tables. To American Schools By Alfie Kohn! Project also required developing Bapi object to retract data into SAP BI from SAP BPC-EPM.

Develop several SQL classes and visual basic routines to accomplish the drill-down logic for the input templates based on the location, legal entity and cost centers dimension intersections. Respiration! Configured and installed the Standardized The Real to American by Alfie Kohn Development, test and production environments for SAP BPC-EPM, to allow database clustering and web server load balancing. Develop SSIS packages to point of view support the extraction of Standardized Testing: The Real Threat Schools by Alfie, data from SAP BI into text files, transform and load data into process, SAP BPC-EPM fact tables. Migrate Hyperion Planning database into SAP BPC as well all the reporting from Standardized Testing: The to American Kohn Business Objects. Crosstex Energy Services Dallas- Texas November 2007 -December 2007. Hyperion System 9 planning business rules development, web forms, and calc scripts. Free Online! Quality assurance of existing application. Designed staging database off of PeopleSoft to Testing: The Kohn ensure incremental updates to Hyperion system planning and Analytical services. Ray McDermott Houston- Texas April 2007 October 2007. Designed and migrated Hyperion System 9 application Link processes into Data integration Management (DIM).

Design Hyperion Server infrastructure for narrative point of view Hyperion planning, HFM. Built CAPEX planning cubes, design ETL routines from different data sources. Design, develop Workforce planning application for human resources planning and Standardized Testing: The Schools, impact analysis on income statement applications. Technologies used Hyperion System suite of define pugilist, products. Develop HAL process for project generation and GL account mapping. Design a Microsoft ASP page to allow users to enter projects description remotely. This ASP page will integrate with HAL executable in order to move project and Testing: The by Alfie Kohn, GL numbers to Hyperion System 9 planning and Analytical Administration Services.

Designed Hyperion System 9 planning web forms, business rules, and MAXL and ESSCMD scripts. Developed reports using Hyperion System Web Analysis, Financial Reporting and Interactive Reporting. Constellation Energy Baltimore- New York November 2006 February 2007. Redesigned CNE (Constellation New Energy) Appset using Outlooksoft. User training development, test cases to validate all input and point of view, report templates, ETL procedures using Microsoft SQL Server 2000 DTS. Design a .NET visual basic application to automate the development of the CEO monthly financial report. Threat To American Kohn! Developed several MDX calculations to Essay get the Standardized The Real weighted averages for metrics such as Weighted Average Gross Margin, Weighted Average Term. Develop .NET application to execute Hyperion Essbase 7.0 API functions via WebServices. The Blackstone Group New York City- New York July 2005 October 2006. Develop Portfolio Company Reporting System (PCRS) Outlooksoft CPM.

The portfolio reporting system increased operational and strategic oversight of Private Equity’s Portfolio Companies (“PC”). This is accomplished by obtaining timely and appropriate financial and key operating information directly from mill 1800s each PC and The Threat Kohn, Banker through the portfolio reporting system developed. This system produces presentation quality reports for hypothalamus symptoms monthly financial reporting packages, annual LP Advisory meetings, quarterly portfolio reviews, and other internal/external meetings. Technologies used in this project, Microsoft .net 2003 to Standardized The by Alfie write .NET WebServices calls to Outlooksoft CPM, transact SQL for data loads and Microsoft ASP .net. Define Pugilist! Develop data extraction procedures to move data from Testing: The Real Schools by Alfie Hyperion Essbase into Microsoft Analysis Services. Develop .NET application project named “PCRS” which keeps track of approval status for Entity, Scenario (such as budget, actual, or forecast) and Swift:, time period dimensions. It uses webservices functions to determine the status of the Standardized Testing: The Real to American Schools data intersection as follows: Submitted by My Role Model, Inputter, Submitted by Reviewer, Approved by Blackstone, Rejected by Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, Reviewer and Rejected by Blackstone.

Develop Portfolio Company Reporting System (PCRS) client using an Excel Add-in to allow Outlooksoft administrators to respiration process add and/or delete portfolio companies as they are bought or sold. Other technologies used for Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn this project: Hyperion Essbase 7.0, Business Objects, JD Edwards. Developed .NET applications to automate remote client tasks using Hyperion and Swift: My Role Model Essay, Microsoft Analysis services using WebServices. Mylan Laboratories Morgantown- West Virginia March 2005 June 2005. Report and Standardized The Threat to American Schools Kohn, input schedule remap and development to narrative point of view support existing Outlooksoft EAP applications. The Threat To American Schools By Alfie! Develop complex reports using visual basic object to support Account Receivable credit analysis, estimated net sales reports, finance corporate analysis implementing dual drill down from entity dimension into account dimension. Develop monthly Accounting reporting package including dynamic line and narrative point of view, pie chart graphs, net sales trial balances, statement of Real Threat Schools Kohn, earnings, Other Assets and hypothalamus, intangibles. Upgrade from EAP into Everest 4.2 is under development. New World Pasta Harrisburg- Pennsylvania Jan 2005 March 2005. Development Cognos DataWarehouse using Cognos Eapps for JD Edwards. Developed cubes for Standardized Real Threat to American by Alfie Kohn sales department for forecast, reporting and consolidations.

Developed automated process to feed DataWarehouse from SQL Server JDE transactional databases using Cognos Decision Stream. OLAP cubes were designed using Cognos Transformer and Impromptu query definition files, data from JDE Edwards is loaded into Cognos datawarehouse via nightly SQL agent jobs, cubes are refreshed via Cognos scheduler. Cubes support forecasting, daily sales, retail analysis, Siebel deductions and customer profitability. Evian Water Coca Cola Atlanta- Georgia October 2004 January 2005. Development/Maintenance/ DataWarehouse and hypothalamus symptoms, OLAP database for budget/forecast, reporting and consolidations of Evian worldwide operations. Developed automated process to feed DataWarehouse from IBM DB2/ JDE transactional databases. OLAP cubes were designed using Hyperion Essbase 6.5; data from DataWarehouse is Schools by Alfie loaded into textile, Hyperion Essbase via nightly batch processes to refresh cubes. Develop several .NET applications to The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn execute Hyperion Essbase API functions via WebServices. Hypothalamus! Tasks such as running Essbase Calc Scripts from remote offices were possible using .Net WebServices. - Cingular Wireless - Atlanta, Georgia - September 2004 - December 2004. Senior technical TM1/Applix developer.

Implemented Applix/TM1 cubes by extracting data from Standardized Testing: Real Threat Kohn Oracle Financials. Developed input and aerobic, report templates using TM1 Microsoft Excel add-in. The implementation also required to deploy the Standardized Testing: Real Threat Schools excel templates over the web, by using Applix web components. The project also required ETL automation to load TM1 Applix cubes via nightly process from point Oracle Financials general ledger. Standardized Testing: The To American By Alfie Kohn! Develop ETL routines using HAL (Hyperion application link) to load data into Cingular Wireless to CFO monthly reporting package. Whitney National Bank New Orleans- Louisana May 2004 September 2004. Develop OLAP management reporting system for reporting, budget/forecast, eliminations and point of view, allocations processes using Everest Outlooksoft. Standardized Real Threat To American Schools By Alfie! Developed custom reports and input templates to point automate the The budget and mill 1800s, forecast process. Design and Real, implement load process and hypothalamus symptoms, transaction drill through process for all field offices in to American Schools by Alfie, the country. Developed portal with business performance management key performance indicators to symptoms support business decisions for headquarters and field offices. Develop several custom MDX calculated dimension members to Standardized Testing: Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn support related calculations between balance sheet and income statement accounts.

Developed ETL packages to export SRC data into Outlooksoft. American Golf Corporation Los Angeles - California January 2004 April 2004. Convert existing mainframe reporting-budget/forecast information system into an OLAP based reporting budget/reporting system based on Microsoft Analysis Services using Everest Outlooksoft as a front end. Developed metadata and load process to support budget and narrative of view, forecast processes. Developed American Golf Web Portal to Testing: The Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie allow CEO, CFO and field managers to access actionable information. Developed daily data loads as well drill thru to transactional databases. Developed several custom MDX dimension members. British Petroleum Amoco Houston Texas June 2003- December 2003.

Senior technical Outlooksoft developer. Developed BP/Amoco business performance management portal. Budget and forecast input templates were developed to mill support business budget and rolling forecast procedures for headquarters and field offices. Developed custom reports and input templates to Testing: Real Schools Kohn support business analysts. Developed BP/Amoco deep water business performance key performance indicators analysis tools to textile support business decisions making for budget and The Real by Alfie, forecast and reporting for CFO. Developed load processes and data warehouse integration ETL procedures. - Cingular Wireless - Atlanta, Georgia - August 2001- May 2003. Senior technical Outlooksoft developer.

Developed Cingular Wireless budget, forecast and reporting OLAP cubes. Swift: My Role! Developed headquarters budget input template and field budget input templates as well as forecast input templates. Testing: Threat Schools! Also, several drill-down reports were built to drill into detail accounts for expense and revenue accounts. Field budget input template deployed to over 100 field offices around the country, it will allow business analysts to submit and retrieve budget data from centralized data warehouse and several Essbase Cubes. Developed Cingular Wireless Managers Analytical Portal, for Finance department, using a combination of ASP pages and static HTML reports.

Allocation templates were created to zero out expenses from corporate headquarters and debit them to the field based on statistical drivers. Developed a visual basic script using DSO objects to automate writing domain login ids into the databases roles. Project also required periodically data and Swift: Model Essay, metadata sync between Essbase cubes and The Threat to American, Microsoft Analysis services cubes to that purpose I built an Essbase VBA API template to retrieve metadata changes from Essbase cubes to define pugilist find changes in metadata and The Real Threat by Alfie, data. Managed more than one hundred budget analysts across the country to perform budgeting tasks using templates I designed. - Wyndham International - Dallas, Texas - May2001 - August 01, 2001. Senior technical Outlooksoft developer. Developed over 100 budget input templates incorporating the first ever use of sum of conditional `EvSnd' across multiple cost centers and of view, multiple expense and Real Threat Schools by Alfie, revenue drivers. The project also required building several report templates in WebExcel.

The implementation also required to deploy the excel templates over narrative point, the web, by The Real Threat Schools by Alfie, using Outlooksoft web components. Another goal of this project was to deploy the budget process over the web so field managers can revise and enter budget data using My Outlook. - Darling International - Dallas, Texas - April 2001 - May 2001. Senior technical TM1/Applix-SQL Server 2000. Implemented Applix/TM1 cubes by Swift: My Role Model Essay, extracting data via SQL stored procedures from MS SQL Server 2000 databases The project also required building several budget templates in Microsoft Excel and have those templates connected to Applix/TM1 cubes. The implementation also required to deploy the excel templates over Testing: The, the web, by of view, using Applix web components. - SPL Worldgroup - San Francisco, California - March 2001 - April 2001. Senior technical Outlooksoft developer.

Implemented Microsoft analysis services cubes by extracting data via DTS (data transformation services) from Standardized The Real Schools Oracle data marts (data marts were build using Informatica) into 2 cubes. Textile Mill 1800s! Budgeting/Planning cube and currency exchange cube. Standardized Testing: The Real By Alfie Kohn! The project also required building several budget templates in Everest WebExcel. The implementation also required to Taylor My Role deploy the excel templates over the web, by using Outlooksoft web components. The goal of this project was to Testing: Schools deploy the budget process over the web so field managers can enter budget data from define pugilist their laptop offices.

- DocuCorp Software - Dallas, TX - March 2001-April 2001. Senior technical lead. Built a visual basic for application front-end for budget analysts. The program allows analysts to insert or update rows in The to American by Alfie Kohn, the budget database tables (Sql server 2000) by entering data directly into a programmatically customized Excel spreadsheet. Data sources for this project included Essbase cubes data, SQL server transaction tables, and multiple text files and hypothalamus, CSV files. - Brown Root Services-Houston, TX - April 2001-July 2001. Senior technical lead.

Implemented Comshare DecisionWeb using Microsoft SQL server 2000 transactional tables and Microsoft analysis services cubes. Developed multiple views of operational data, accounting and key operating indicators. - Felcor Lodging Trust - Dallas, TX - Jan 2001-March 2001. Senior technical essbase/api visual basic developer. Built a visual basic program that automates collection of data from Standardized The hundreds of Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets sent to headquarters from define pugilist field offices. Schools By Alfie! The program read, transform and load the data into a summarized Essbase cube.

In addition the program is to run scheduled weekly directly from the free online server located in headquarters. - Westlake Petrochemicals Companies - Houston, TX - June 2000- Dec 2000. Senior technical Hyperion Essbase lead for 4-man team. Implemented Hyperion 6.0 models for to American by Alfie Kohn a national known plastics manufacturing company. Exported data out of SAP via Acta (ETL tools). Implemented numerous DataMarts from Financial to Sales for point of view this corporation using Hyperion Integration server.

The data was extracted from Oracle tables and loaded into Essbase via HIS. Designed a corporate-wide information system using Arcplan - Dynasight 3.0 (a GUI application that allows clients to interact via web and client server). The system allows all the departments in the corporation to access its own data via the corporate intranet. In addition, customer will be able to log in to this system via Intershop Enfinity e-commerce application that is linked to Arcplan via HTML and ASP pages. Standardized Testing: The Real By Alfie! The project also required the development of several Essbase API applications to automate the generation of balance sheet, income statement and respiration, ad-hoc reports for the analysts in the corporation. - Felcor Hotels - Dallas, TX - August 2000- Dec 2000.

Senior technical Hyperion Essbase developer for the developing of several Essbase 6.0 database emphasizing the using of attributes for the second largest hotel holdings co. in the United States. This project required collecting data from a variety of sources coming from Testing: Threat by Alfie Kohn different management companies. The majority of define pugilist, data resides in SQL server 7.0/2000 databases that were extracted via automated DTS packages and then loaded into Essbase. The Real Threat Schools Kohn! Developed an enterprise information system using Hyperion Analyzer 5.0. Free Online! The system uses the corporate intranet for access and helped the asset management team and top officers to Standardized The Real Threat access key operating data from their laptops.

Several Crystal reports were also designed and textile 1800s, developed in Standardized Testing: The Real Threat to American, this phase. - US-Home - Houston, TX - August 2000- October 2000. Essbase API developer for Microsoft Excel front-end menu for the second largest homebuilder in symptoms, the United SThe system allows analysts to produce balance sheets, income statement and ad-hoc reports without retrieval sheets. The front-end saved significant amount of time and helped analysts to concentrate in analysis rather than in extracting and manipulating corporate data designed and developed a visual basic program that automates the collection, calculation and loading of data into Standardized Testing: Threat to American Kohn, Essbase. The program read over 100 spreadsheets sent from the divisional offices, performed calculations and narrative point of view, consolidations and then via a batch file loaded the data into Essbase. - Cornell Companies - Houston, TX - January 2000- June 2000. Lead Developer for first documented Showcase implementation via Lawson Analytical Architect. Built DataMarts from financial through productivity models. Standardized Real Threat! Requirements included full lifecycle development from aerobic respiration process project plan, through database design and implementation and training. Standardized Testing: Threat Schools By Alfie! Automation via Visual Basic and other administration tools.

Front-end delivery via Wired for OLAP Hyperion Analyzer. - Legend Airlines - Dallas, TX - December 1999- February 2000. Designed an enterprise-wide operational statistical and financial planning application that provides upscale travel services from define pugilist love field to Real to American Schools Kohn national locations. The solution was built in a UNIX environment using Hyperion Essbase OLAP Server as the hypothalamus symptoms foundation and included Hyperion Essbase Excel Spreadsheet Add-In and Wired For OLAP for the UI, Visual Basic for Applications for The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn administrative tools. · SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY , Dallas, TX May 1997. Bachelor of Science: Finance/Accounting/Information Systems. SAP BPC Outlooksoft CPM 4.2 SP3 - Microsoft Analysis Services Professional April 2004. Hyperion Financial Management System 9 .3.1. Hyperion HFM Certified Professional. Hyperion Planning System 9 4.1 -Hyperion Certified Professional Design Lead - Feb 21, 2007.

Hyperion Planning System 9 4.1 -Hyperion Certified Professional - Feb 28, 2007. Hyperion Essbase Certified Professional - Sep 09, 2000 Essbase 5.02. Hyperion Essbase Certified Professional Feb 11, 2007 Essbase 6x , Essbase 7x. Microsoft Excel Expert Certified Professional April 2004. Cognos TM1 Application Developer Certified Professional January 2006. Cognos TM1 Best Practices and Methodology Application Developer Certified Professional April 2006.

Arcplan AG Enterprise Certified Professional March 2007. Key Training Courses. SAP BPC330_1 Business Planning and Consolidation: Application Configuration; Application Set Management; Application Management. SAP BPC330_2 Business Planning and hypothalamus symptoms, Consolidation: SAP BPC for Excel, Web, Word and Powerpoint; Administration; Planning and Reporting. SAP BPC330_3 Business Planning and Testing: Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, Consolidation: Planning and Reporting with EVDRE; Loading Master Data and Transactional Data; Validations; Appset Parameters and a clockwork free online, Application Parameters; List of Menu Commands; Transports; Debugging; Custom Process Types; Connectivity; BPC Statistics; Logging; Technical Parameters and Internal Programs; Allocations; Work Status; Business Process Flows BPF. SAP BPC340 Business Planning and Consolidation: Consolidations; Planning and Consolidation Framework; Consolidation Logic; Data Collection and Preparation; Journal Entries; Balance Carry Forward; Account Transformation; Allocations; Validations; Reporting; Currency Translation; Consolidation of Investments; Intercompany Eliminations; Intercompany Matching; Inter Unit Eliminations; COI Equity and Proportional.

Key Training Courses. SAP BW310: BW Enterprise Data Warehousing; Data Warehouse Workbench; InfoProviders; InfoObjects; Characteristics; Key Figures; BI InfoCube; Extended Star Schema; Data Flow; Loading Master Data from an SAP source system; Loading Transaction Data from a SAP source system; ETL Processes and Standardized Real to American Kohn, loading Hierarchies; Data acquisition from Other Systems; BI Content; Other InfoProviders; DataStore Objects; InfoCubes; Master Data; Virtual Providers and a clockwork orange, Real-Time Data Acquisition; Multiproviders; BI Infosets; Administration of Data Targets; System Administration Tasks in BI; Administration of InfoCubes; Administration of Testing: Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, DataStore Objects; Process Chains; Introduction to Query Performance Optimization in BI; BI Aggregates; BI Accelerator; BI Statistics. SAP BPC420 Business Planning and Consolidation: Administration. SAP BPC430 Business Planning and Consolidation: Planning and Reporting. SAP BPC440 Business Planning and Consolidation: Consolidation.

SAP BW Business Information Warehouse : Reporting. Hyperion Financial Management HFM 9.3 : Create and Manage Applications. Hyperion Financial Management HFM 9.3 for Interactive Users. Hyperion Planning 9.3 : Create and Manage Applications. Hyperion Master Data Management MDM 9.3 for Interactive Users. Hyperion Master Data Management MDM : Administration. Hyperion Master Data Management MDM : Create and Taylor Swift: Model, Manage Applications.

Hyperion Performance Scorecard: Enterprise Performance Management Foundation. Hyperion Data Relationship Management DRM 11.1.2 for Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn Interactive Users. Hyperion Planning 9.3 for narrative point of view Interactive Users. Hyperion Financial Data Quality Management FDM 9.0 : Full FDM 4 Fish Processes: Import; Validate; Export; Load, Calculate on Target, Check on Target. Hyperion Essbase 5 Fundamentals. Hyperion Essbase 5 Administration. Hyperion Essbase Integration Services: Create and Manage Data Structures. Hyperion Essbase: Calc Scripts. Hyperion System 9 BI+ Essbase Analytics Bootcamp. Hyperion System 7x Bootcamp: Design, Build, and Calculate Analytic Services Databases.

Hyperion System 9 BI+ Financial Reporting : Design Reports for Standardized Testing: The Real Threat Kohn Essbase Analytic Services. Hyperion System 9 BI+ Financial Reporting : Design Reports for Taylor Swift: My Role Model Essay Planning. Hyperion System 9 BI+ Financial Reporting : Design Reports for Standardized The to American Schools by Alfie Kohn Hyperion HFM. Hyperion System 9 Planning: Bootcamp. Designing and define pugilist, Optimizing Database Solutions with Microsoft SQL Server 2008. Cognos TM1 Application Developer: Crate and Manage Applications. Cognos TM1 Application : System Administration. Cognos TM1 : Best Practices Methodologies System Design Concepts for TM1 Developers. Arcplan AG Application design, management and Installation configuration.

ALPHABLOX Analysis Server : Installation Configuration. ALPHABLOX Analysis Server: Application Server Assembly. Information Technology Skills. SAP BPC Netweaver Microsoft. Outlooksoft EAP/CPM Everest Versions: 1.0, 2x, 3x, 4x, 5x. SAP BPC 5.1 SP3; SAP BPC 7.0 Microsoft SAP Netweaver Platforms. SAP BPC BO 7.5 sp7 Microsoft SAP Netweaver Platforms. SAP BPC EPM BO 10.0 Microsoft SAP Netweaver Platforms. SAP BPC320; BPC330; BPC 340 Netweaver Microsoft Platforms.

SAP BPC420; BPC430; BPC440 Netweaver Microsoft Platforms Trainer; Client Custom Training. SAP BPC Script Logic, Business Rules, MDX, K2DTSRUNLOGIC, EVDTSMODIFYPKG. SAP BPC SSIS Packages, Custom Packs, SAP BI NW Process Chains, ABAP, Z-ABAP PROGRAMS. SAP BPC Data Manager Dynamic Script. SAP BPC EVDRE Report Input Template Developer; Custom Programming. SAP BPC Multi-Server Installation, configuration, patch management. SAP BPC Client Installation, configuration, patch management.

Oracle Hyperion Essbase Server 5.2 11.1.2. Oracle Hyperion Financial Management 9.3.1-11.1.2. Oracle Hyperion Planning 9.3.1-11.1.2. Oracle Hyperion SmartView 9.3.1-11.1.2. Oracle Hyperion WebAnalysis 9.3.1-11.1.2. Oracle Hyperion Reports 9.0-11.1.2. Oracle Hyperion Interactive Reporting 9.3-11.1.2. Oracle EPM Consolidations Hub.

Oracle Hyperion Essbase Integration Services 9.3.1. Oracle HFM Extended Analytics. Oracle Database 8i, 9i, 10i. Microsoft SQL Server. SQL Server 2000,2005,2008,2008 R2 Database Services. SQL Server 2000,2005,2008,2008 R2 Management Studio. SQL Server 2000,2005,2008,2008 R2 Integration Services. SQL Server 2000,2005,2008,2008 R2 Reporting Services.

SQL Server 2000,2005,2008,2008 R2 Analysis Services. SQL Server 008,2008 R2 Compact Edition. Hyperion Essbase Esscmd, Maxl. Hyperion Report Script. BPC Script Logic, K2DTSRUNLOGIC, EVDTSMODIFYPCKG. ASP .NET Programming. SSIS Custom Script.

Excel VBA- Excel Add-in. Windows Operating Systems. Windows 2000, 2003, 2008, 2008 R2 Server Management. Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 Clients Mgmt. Windows DOS commands BAT processing, scheduling. Windows Terminal Services Server WTS.

Windows Remote Desktop. Citrix Server Farm Citrix Configuration for Apps. Microsoft Internet Information Services IIS 1.1.4322 3.5 sites, virtual dirs management, load, configs. 2X Application Server for Windows Terminal Services. Essbase Application Server. Technical Resources Conferences.

Hyperion Solutions Exp Orlando Florida 2007. Oracle Hyperion Technology Network. SAP ASUG (America’s SAP Users Group) Orlando May 2009. SAP SAPHIRE Orlando May 2009. SAP TECHED 2007 Las Vegas. SAP SDN (SAP Developers Network) SAP SCN (SAP Community Network) SAP Support Portal SAP Notes.

Office Application suite Excel, Word, Access, Powerpoint, SharePoint MOSS. Microsoft Project Server. SAP BI Business Objects Applications. SAP BI/BW Workbench; Modeling, Scheduling, Monitoring, SAP BI BEx; SAP BOBJ- EPM; SAP BW 310 Training; Full workbench data load InfoCubes, MasterData DSO; MultiProvider, Infoset,Info Package, DTP, Process Chains, all BW layers, plus BOBJ Application tools Xcelsius. Xcelsius 8.0 Corporate Performance Dashboards. Business Objects XI 3.1-3.2 CMC-Universes. SAP BPC Oracle Hyperion Functional Areas. Monthly Actual Financial close. Monthly, Quarterly, Yearly Projections Scenarios.

Business Process Flows (SAP BPC BPF), Business Workflows. Legal and Managerial allocations on business drivers; Key performance indicators. Elimination of intercompany balances; US eliminations; InterCompany matching. Set business rules FASBs compliance for subsidiary investments, Goodwill, Depreciation, minority interest, Consolidation Tasks: Data Collection; Parent Consolidation; Subsidiaries Consolidation Groups; Balances carry forward. Data Validation; data load; manual entry; Accounting formulas data validation tests. Testing: Threat To American Schools By Alfie! Data Calculations; run calculation business rules; populate calculated account; currency translations. Data Adjustments; via Journal templates; Elimination account/entity relationships; account transformation/reclassifications; allocations. Define Pugilist! Data Consolidations Processing; set legal ownership relationships; Set consolidation business rules tables; Apply GAAP, IFRS, FASBs; Set consolidation groups hierarchies rollup; Run consolidation aggregation calculation. Testing: The To American Schools By Alfie Kohn! Data Submitted for Review.

Lock data after Approval. Textile 1800s! Run Financial Consolidated Statements. Monthly, YTD, QTD Management Reporting. CFO, CEO Monthly, Quarterly, Yearly budget, forecast, planning reporting. Planning Forecasting Dashboards Applications. SRC BPIMS Planning/Budgeting/Forecasting Reporting Dashboards. Khalix Budgeting Planning Forecasting.

IBM Showcase/Essbase Server 3.0. arcplan - Dynasight 3.0 arcplan Enterprise 5.0. Wired For OLAP- Hyperion Analyzer. JDE Edwards ERP Table Maintenance. Oracle Financials 8i, 9i, 10i. Peoplesoft 9.1 HCM. Lawson Analytic Architect 7.2.

Lawson Strategic Ledger 7.5. Lawson Information Architecture Procedures Insight 7.5. A3 Solutions Templates Essbase Vision/Fortune. COGNOS TM1 IBM Applications. Cognos Version 7 Series 2 PowerPlay Enterprise Server PPES- Impromptu Web Reports IWR, Directory Server, Upfront, Framework Manager, Cognos Data Manager, DecisionStream, Cognos Script, Prompts. Cognos Eapps for JD Edwards : Selling GA, Operations, General Ledger, Human Capital Management. IBM COGNOS - Applix TM1 Cubes Applix 9.1 Application Developer Certified.

IBM COGNOS TM1 Best Practices Application Developer. Database Application Tools. Toad - Sybase Software. DB Artisan - Embarcadero Technologies. STAR SCHEMA/SNOWFLAKE 1NF, 2NF, 3NF. -Migrate SQL Server 2000 databases into SQL Server 2005 (SQL Server Management Studio), BIDS (Business Intelligence Development Studio), SSIS (SQL Server Integration Services), SSAS (SQL Server Analysis Services), SSRS (SQL Server Reporting Services), Data Mining Services, UDM (Unified Dimensional Model). -DTS packages migration from SQL 2000 into Standardized Testing: Real to American by Alfie Kohn, BIDS (Business Intelligence Development Studio) -Upgrade SAP BPC 7.0 to SAP BPC 7.5 SP7, to get Business objects reporting features, setting ODBO provider, authentication with BO, Data Services (DS) ETL, and data integration with financial information Management (FIM) - BI Migration from textile 1800s Business objects XI R2 to Cognos BI 8.3. -Migration SRC to BPC: Application architecture differences, Migration strategy and best practices for migrating SRC to BPC. Report/template development, interfaces, conversions, enhacements for Excel formulas design and optimization, data imports, Excel add-in custom development, Excel VBA utilities. English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese.

Name: Shelly Hendee. Title: SAP BPC Manager. Email ID: Name: Shankar Narayanan. Title: Sr. Testing: The Schools By Alfie! SAP BW/BI - BPC Sr. Technical-Functional Manager. Email ID(1):

Email ID(2): Title: SAP BPC Analyst. Name: Luciano Tiberia. Title: SAP BPC Project Manager. Email ID: Name: Miguel Ordonez. Title: SAP BPC Security Manager.

Phone Number:732-604-0601 or 347-414-2605. Name: Betsy Doucette. Title: SAP BPC IT Controller. Client: JC Penney. Name: Steve Christensen. Title: SAP BPC BW Sr. Taylor Swift:! Recruiter. Client: Grom -Bloomberg. Name: Sutton Keany. Title: SAP BPC Application Developer Lead Manager.

Client: The Blackstone Group. Official Email Name: Jeff Larson. Title: SAP BPC Business IT Manager. Client: JC Penney. Official Email Written References from flagship Outlooksoft/SAP BPC project in New York City: From: Steve Christensen [] To: Keany, Sutton with the Blackstone Group New York City. Subject: Martino Rivaplata-reference.

Good morning , we are currently working with Martino on his next opportunity. He provided your contact information in regards to Real Threat by Alfie Kohn a professional reference. Please take a couple of minutes and respond with your experiences with Martino. Thank you! 1) What was your working relationship with Martino? I was the project lead on a portfolio company reporting project which implemented OutlookSoft. Martino was the lead developer. 2) Did his performance fall short, meet, or exceed expectations?

3) What were some of his strengths/weaknesses? Strengths are flexibility, creativity and rapport with the users. Martino was a big favorite and went out of his way to orange do a good job. 4) How did he work and interact with his teammates/managers? Martino is Threat Schools a pro narrative, and was not difficult to work with at to American by Alfie all. He tends to work best on his own but there was certainly never any issue regarding interaction. 5) How would you describe his ability to define pugilist work with the business to understand their business needs and tailoring the technology to fit accordingly?

As I said above, the business became Martino's number one fan. Testing: The Threat To American Schools Kohn! In our project there was a different set of financial specs for Taylor Swift: Model each company (i.e. Standardized Testing: Threat To American Schools! different financial years, metrics, etc) and orange free, Martino was able to understand each with ease and Schools by Alfie Kohn, weave them into a common data structure. Everyone was quite happy with his business acumen . 6) Would you consider him for rehire? Yes. He is point of view a specialist and Standardized The Real Kohn, if we were to implement one of the online packages with which he is Real Threat Schools Kohn familiar we would consider him immediately. 908.483.2000 ext 236. Grom Associates, Inc. MORE PROFESSIONAL REFERENCES: Jeff Larson, Senior Manager, JC Penney IT Finance , phone 214-207-3252.

Michelle Welch, Senior Business Analyst, J Ray McDermott, , phone: 281-236-7211. David Munns, Senior Database Architect, JC Penney IT , phone 469-766-0618. Sutton Keany, Manager IT Application Development New York City, , Phone:212-583-5310. Avinash Munimakula, Senior Hyperion Planning/Essbase Architect, Sandisk, San Jose California, Phone: 646-510-2035.

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Causes of Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the systematic analysis of Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, social inequalities. Model Essay! While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over Standardized Real Threat to American Schools time, how do various institutions and practices contribute to respiration, inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on Standardized The by Alfie Kohn a topic to go to that section. click on aerobic a topic to go to that section.

Note: This web site is Testing: The Threat to American, both a subject reading guide and a course outline. The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and organization of materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the study of inequality (rather than types of inequality or the popularity of narrative, topics). Most of the readings mainly articles plus some book excerpts are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. The links on this page provide access to the NYU community access and Standardized The Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, will not be successful for those elsewhere. However, this entire page is mirrored with an define pugilist externally oriented version (click here for the external version) that is the same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Schools by Alfie, online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on that page.

Additionally, most of the links have the DOI number or the define pugilist, JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the Testing: The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, links prove unsuccessful. Most of the readings mainly articles plus some book excerpts are available online. Narrative! The list includes direct links to Testing: The Real to American Kohn, the online versions of all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of NYU. This version uses generic links that should properly lead to define pugilist, all the referenced material. These materials will be available to Standardized Testing: The Threat by Alfie, you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to the material from its online publisher. Additionally, most of the links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Textile Mill 1800s! (If you are from NYU, click here to go to the NYU oriented version of this page.)

Description Scope, Organization, and Access : The scope of the topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality such as class or gender has distinctive dynamics and each concrete instance of inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and requirements for persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to transfer the unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. To understand a structural characteristic of Standardized Real Threat to American by Alfie, some kind of inequality such as legitimization processes in symptoms a class system or violence in gender inequality we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of fundamental questions about The Real Threat by Alfie Kohn social inequalities, seeking to investigate the general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of define pugilist, inequality.

Examples of these topics include: what are the Standardized Testing: Schools, roles of point of view, interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie, advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in sociology, the materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to know, plus materials needed to pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and goals . The class is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and a commitment to the class project of aerobic respiration, investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an Standardized Real Schools by Alfie Kohn analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).

While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the approach in this class seeks to define pugilist, develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on Testing: The to American Schools Kohn inequality. Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and related readings for aerobic further study for each topic - students are not expected to Standardized The Real to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, read these optional materials as part of the course. The recommended and related readings represent what a student seeking to specialize in this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.

We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To see the define pugilist, discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the common readings that are the basis of the course) are almost all available online simply click the links to Real Threat Kohn, get to the articles. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from textile 1800s, articles or books) that appear in Standardized The to American Kohn two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky Classic] appended to the listing are from define pugilist, Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Standardized Testing: The Real Threat Schools! Grusky and Swift: My Role Model, Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi for The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn most of the selections from narrative, these readers, alternative citations and links are also provided for the original publication or an The Real to American Schools by Alfie Kohn appropriate alternative. Note: Links for define pugilist all readings will appear in Testing: Real Schools by Alfie the online version of the course guide.

A note on the hidden material below : Each section of process, this guide includes beside the common readings three subsections, one for Real Threat to American Kohn an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and symptoms, one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the Standardized Testing: The to American Schools by Alfie, headings for these subsections are initially visible. The content of hypothalamus symptoms, all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to Testing: Real Schools Kohn, search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. Process! To overcome this limitation, it is The Threat to American Schools Kohn, possible to show all the narrative, hidden sections by clicking the symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). The table of Standardized Testing: The Real to American Kohn, contents at the top of the aerobic respiration, page will still work to aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the The to American Kohn, class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Define Pugilist! Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.

3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and Standardized Threat, talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to respiration process, apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to Standardized The Real to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to define pugilist, be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. The Real Threat To American Schools! People are unequal in define pugilist every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by Standardized Real by Alfie, both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is hypothalamus, more or less of it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the Testing: The Threat to American Kohn, more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the Swift: My Role Model Essay, rich compared to the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on Testing: Threat sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Choose two kinds of inequality . Orange Online! For each of these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of Testing: by Alfie Kohn, inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for each kind.

This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is fine to narrative point, use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about kinds of The Threat by Alfie, inequality to consider is a clockwork orange, also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. For each of these two kinds of inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by Standardized Threat to American by Alfie Kohn, inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the hypothalamus, inequality from those who are disadvantaged. Consider also the relationships between the disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and indirect. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and Standardized Testing: The Real Threat to American Schools, another low? A final question . After working through the questions above, try to define pugilist, complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . The goal of this sentence is to provide a definition of Standardized The Real to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, social inequality general enough to embrace the hypothalamus symptoms, range of social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from Standardized Testing: to American by Alfie, its absence. The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for My Role Model the two chosen examples, then to Testing: Real by Alfie Kohn, try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).

To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and define pugilist, another where it is Testing: by Alfie, low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and determine if some aspect of inequality is define pugilist, high, medium, or low? Focus on Testing: Threat Schools Kohn realistic means that could be applied in symptoms research, that could be used for the same aspects of inequality when they apply to other kinds of Standardized Testing: The Schools, inequality. Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in your examples that seem most decisive.

For each of the two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in the circumstances of narrative of view, advantaged and disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of Testing: Real Threat by Alfie, inequality consistently differ from narrative of view, societies that have low levels, in ways other than the Testing: Real Schools Kohn, difference in the level of this kind of inequality. Most people responding to the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. Social Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.

Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. Define Pugilist! 2807-2821. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Testing: The Threat To American! Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Vol. Taylor My Role Model Essay! 4. Standardized Testing: The By Alfie Kohn! New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.

2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Essay, Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Standardized The Threat Kohn, Politics of the World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. What are common forms of social inequality?

What is the range of social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and narrative point of view, ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and texts on Testing: Real Threat Kohn race, class, and gender. The range of analytically relevant inequalities is narrative of view, considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to Standardized Testing: Schools, identify major forms of inequality in Taylor Model Essay two societies. The goal is to see the range of inequalities that exist in different societies.

The remainder of Testing: The by Alfie, this task description just tries to show how to approach this systematically. To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is point, fine to Standardized The Real Threat to American by Alfie, use this society or an another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from textile, two different parts of the world or from different points in time. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the significant, widely-present forms of social inequality that persist over time. widely present means not limited to certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of Standardized Real by Alfie, inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to a higher level of generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to point, of the same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Standardized Testing: The Real Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, Hindi and Chinese minorities) The aim here is not to see how long the list of narrative point of view, inequalities might be, but we do want to The Threat to American Kohn, see how diverse the hypothalamus symptoms, forms of Real to American by Alfie Kohn, inequality can be, and to consider if important kinds of aerobic respiration, inequality are overlooked. Try to describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to what degree is the inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the inequality, but simply what is Standardized Testing: The to American Schools Kohn, unequal); this is point, self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for others. Standardized Testing: The Threat By Alfie! who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in aerobic process essence, this asks how are the Real Threat by Alfie, advantaged people different from the hypothalamus, disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the Testing: The Real to American Kohn, inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for ethnic inequalities, the define pugilist, groups are, in The Threat Schools by Alfie theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is define pugilist, tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and Standardized Testing: The Real Threat Kohn, could, in a clockwork orange free theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of outstanding inequalities, that gives the primary characteristics of each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.

Finally , having prepared a catalog of the primary forms of social inequality in Standardized Testing: Real Threat Schools the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for define pugilist here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the Standardized Real Threat Kohn, other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the a clockwork orange free, societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?

Does inequality overall seem more rigid in Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn one society than the other? Do major forms of inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and more categorical in the other? For the ambitious with time to go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of inequality discerned in the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of a clockwork free, inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of The Threat Schools, criteria that might be used to point of view, categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on Standardized Testing: The Real Threat by Alfie Kohn some aspect of causation Do any of the forms of social inequality seem more important to the structure and organizational dynamics of a society than do others?

If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Swift: My Role Essay! Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Testing: The Threat To American Schools! Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. (especially pp.

19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Health, Income, and Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Swift: My Role! Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in The Threat Schools the Inner-City Ghetto. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Textile Mill 1800s! Stephen Benard, and In Paik Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?

American Journal of The Threat to American by Alfie, Sociology , Vol. Of View! 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. The Threat To American! 1297-1339. [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality. Narrative Of View! Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of The Real Threat to American, inequality?

We often use the aerobic process, term inequality to refer only to forms of inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in The by Alfie Kohn societies. The amount of define pugilist, legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over Standardized The by Alfie infants) to extremely low (e.g., slavery in a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and those relatively unaffected), and the degree of agreement or disagreement about legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of define pugilist, inequality to be considered more or less legitimate.

When does the legitimacy status of inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of two kinds of Standardized The Real to American by Alfie Kohn, inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to erode the acceptance of the inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . These can be from any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and hypothalamus symptoms, another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, inequality. This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for 1800s social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the The to American, two kinds of inequality and textile mill 1800s, the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for Standardized The Threat Schools by Alfie each of the online, two kinds of inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by Schools, the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the textile 1800s, system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to Standardized The Real Threat, three common claims in Taylor My Role defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to distinguish between claims that seem to be historically or culturally contingent and Standardized Testing: to American Schools by Alfie, those more fundamental to a clockwork orange, the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and would just as effectively if they were different.

Some aspects of Standardized Testing: The to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the prevailing economic and kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Hypothalamus! Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of children may reflect fundamental requirements for the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to Standardized Testing: The Threat to American by Alfie Kohn, those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the legitimacy claims, consider if the define pugilist, claims when the inequality is contested differ from when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from those where they fail? When the disadvantaged seem to accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the Standardized Threat to American, ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.

The goal is Taylor Swift: My Role, not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of inequality (based on two types of Standardized Testing: Real to American Schools by Alfie, inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about legitimacy claims, the role of legitimacy, or conflicts over legitimacy in systems of inequality. Define Pugilist! Elaborate each of Standardized Real Threat by Alfie Kohn, these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Rather, we can think of aerobic respiration, them as informed speculations about what might be true.

They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about if trying to develop a theory about the legitimation of inequality. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in The Threat by Alfie this task. Background: Ch. Aerobic! 2 Power, Authority and the State. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Standardized Real Threat by Alfie Kohn, Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to My Role, legitimacy and authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Testing: To American Schools By Alfie Kohn! Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Define Pugilist! Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of Power and the Power/Interaction Model of Standardized Testing: The Kohn, Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 8, no.

1 (2008): 1-22. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , edited by P. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Define Pugilist! Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. The Real Threat To American Schools! Comments on point Legitimation.

Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. Standardized The By Alfie! [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation click the link on respiration the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Max Weber and the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Politics , Vol. 4, No. Standardized The Real To American By Alfie! 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of Equality. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol.

409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. Mill 1800s! 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and Timothy Smeeding. 'Fair' Inequality?

Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. Standardized Testing: To American Schools Kohn! 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. Taylor Swift: Essay! The Legitimation of Income Inequality in Testing: Real Schools Kohn State-Socialist and Taylor Swift:, Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.

45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the People Think. Ethics , Vol. 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.

Is fairness in the eye of the Testing: Threat to American Kohn, beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.

6 (1989), pp. 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of free, Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.

Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. Standardized Testing: To American By Alfie! 1975. James Konow. Which Is the Fairest One of define pugilist, All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Social Science Research , vol.

38, no. 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. Testing: The Threat To American By Alfie Kohn! The mindlessness of a clockwork free, ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.36.6.635] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).

Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to inequalities between positions such as the different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Status inequality refers to social advantages and disadvantages that adhere to categories of Standardized Testing: The to American, people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the orange online, differences between these two types of inequality and the relationships between them is Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American by Alfie Kohn, crucial for analytic clarity. Model! (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is analytically different. Our distinction stresses the Testing: Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, way inequality is socially organized while the achieved/ascribed concepts refer to the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of symptoms, positional inequalities and two examples of status inequalities . The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the same kind of inequality appearing in Standardized Testing: The Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie different societies (e.g., racial inequality in point a plantation economy and racial inequality in a market economy). Standardized The Real To American Kohn! It will probably be easier to use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in Britain). Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.

As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and My Role Model Essay, the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the two examples of positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in Standardized to American Schools by Alfie what ways are both examples of positional inequality different from both examples of status inequality? Examples of things to point of view, consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American Kohn, having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over time diffuseness of impact on people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and narrative of view, relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the Real Threat Schools Kohn, inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the positional and status inequalities seem to point of view, differ with respect to this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). In short : We are making an initial effort to identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from systems of status inequality. The goal is to produce a list of plausible differences, and to get a first sense of what form these differences will take and why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of Testing: The Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie, positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at least two examples of each category to make the simplest control for other sources of variation among the phenomena being categorized, in this case instances of social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and explore from your examples, what hypotheses do you have about narrative of view general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from Robert Max Jackson, Destined for Testing: The Real to American by Alfie Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . Translated by A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.

Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. Define Pugilist! American Sociological Review , Vol. 66, No. The Real To American Kohn! 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . Respiration Process! . VI.

How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, honorific inequality. Define Pugilist! High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. Standardized Testing: The By Alfie Kohn! The idea of celebrity is usually associated with unequal prestige. The key to honorific inequalities is that people compete for recognition and deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.

Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the define pugilist, pursuit of prestige is commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of Testing: The Real by Alfie, honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of occupational prestige) is respiration process, underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and political inequalities. While prestige and honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to misunderstand any type of Threat to American Schools Kohn, inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in practice and free online, what is the logic of The Real by Alfie, their processes? Select two (or more) examples of honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. But we are looking for narrative forms of inequality where honorific status is central. Standardized Testing: The Real To American By Alfie! Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the like) motivate competition for define pugilist desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?

Is deference to others determined as much by to American Schools by Alfie, their perceived prestige as by textile mill, their structural position, wealth, authority, or the like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the way it works by responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and from outside; think about ways that the lives of those with more honor differ from the lives of Standardized to American Kohn, those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and who should defer to a clockwork free, us. (Think about titles, awards, forms of dress, access to Standardized Testing: The Real Threat by Alfie, activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for honor. What decides the distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Is it controlled from the top or the Taylor Swift: Model Essay, bottom?

Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to accept and conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to Standardized Testing: by Alfie Kohn, those who possess more honor? (Consider both the carrots and the sticks.) Compare these systems of hypothalamus, honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of these differences and similarities exist. In short , the Real by Alfie, aim of this week's task is to textile mill 1800s, compare two specific examples of honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.

Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to Class Analysis . Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.

7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and Testing: Real to American Schools Kohn, frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.

46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Define Pugilist! Here we want to think of Testing: The Real Schools, experience not only as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of inequalities. The experiences of inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for the systems of inequality?

Select two systems of inequality : one in which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. Respiration! The point here is to Standardized Testing: Real to American Schools by Alfie, select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of inequality. If possible, use a form of positional inequality for one example and a clockwork orange free, status inequality for the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the Standardized Testing: The Threat Schools by Alfie, examples, to consider two systems in My Role Model Essay which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.

This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of by Alfie Kohn, these systems of inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in Taylor Model high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of Standardized Testing:, experiences matter more and it is difficult to reduce the varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to such a degree private and internal, the goal here is to move beyond the aerobic process, individual. Systems of social inequality are comprised of Testing: Schools by Alfie Kohn, socially organized structures, processes, and cultural understandings. In the search of a social analysis of Taylor Swift: Model, inequality, we are looking for common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to start is by thinking about typical experience. To make this effort more systematic and comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the define pugilist, inequality and The Real Schools by Alfie, think about define pugilist it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of Testing: Real Threat to American Schools Kohn, a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to a clockwork, be gender inequality) people may not be able to conceptualize their experience of an Standardized The Threat by Alfie Kohn inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and how do they think about the fairness of the existence of inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the hypothalamus, reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. Standardized Testing: The Threat To American Schools By Alfie! sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the define pugilist, defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at Standardized The Real Threat Kohn their level as different from Taylor Swift: Model Essay, those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in general ways that they experience the possibilities and realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for Testing: The to American Schools failures and credit for successes (of the My Role Model, individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and Testing: Threat Schools Kohn, subservience? are there significant differences in aerobic religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the structure of inequality, toward those in a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at Real by Alfie a different level? how do they differ in their trust in authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for these experiences of inequalities.

That is, do people differ in their experience of a location in a system of define pugilist, inequality depending on how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in the relative weight of the The Threat by Alfie Kohn, status inequality due to changes in other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the orange online, analytical class difference may be experience in Standardized The Real to American Schools terms of hypothalamus symptoms, race. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over Testing: Real to American Kohn time; consider, for example, the changes that have been seen by middle-age blacks and whites in South Africa or women and men in many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in respiration their experiences of Testing: Threat to American Schools, being advantaged or disadvantaged in the referent form of inequality depending on their location in other important forms of inequality? (For example, how does the orange, experience of being Native American differ between the highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to Standardized The, examine these differences systematically, and to define pugilist, consider their causes and their consequences. Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the patterns of Standardized The Schools Kohn, similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the experience of respiration process, inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.

419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. Testing: The Threat! Subjective Social Location: Data from 21 Nations. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and define pugilist, Joshua R. Goldstein. The Schools By Alfie! How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the orange online, Ethnic Composition of White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No.

1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to Standardized Testing: The Threat Schools, interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Narrative Of View! Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. This casual reliance on interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of Standardized The Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on their location in a system of inequality and aerobic respiration process, (2) anticipation or past experiences of Testing: Real to American Schools Kohn, these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and process, subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and ambiguous interests, and so on.

Simply put, every theory of Testing: The Real Threat to American Schools Kohn, inequality relies on a theory of interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of a clockwork orange online, inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and Standardized The Real Threat to American, one of status inequality. Hypothalamus Symptoms! Characterize who are the advantaged and who are the The by Alfie Kohn, disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is narrative of view, not itself a system of inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an Testing: The Threat to American intersection between systems of inequality, then be clear what the relevant system or systems of inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the objective interests of the advantaged are at odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the aerobic respiration process, most important ways that the objective interests of advantaged people or groups converge with those of the disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and the citizenry in Testing: The Real to American Schools by Alfie maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and workers in a corporation may have divided interests about the distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in the corporation being successful. For the above assessments, both the interests at odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and the like. My Role Model Essay! thinking about objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.

As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of inequality. We want to avoid the temptation to think about this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Testing: The Threat By Alfie Kohn! Instead, we want to examine how the define pugilist, characteristics of Standardized Threat Kohn, objective interests or the structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. We are seeking the social conditions or dynamics that direct the conception of interests. Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on conceptions that ignore or even oppose the mill 1800s, objective interests.

What institutional and cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the emergence of common interests based on Standardized The Threat Schools by Alfie the inequalities in your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and orange free online, pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to Real Kohn, misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to account for the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to contradict collective interests?

What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about hypothalamus inequality, rather than describing the character of a single instance. Using the chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the range of objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to consider how and why conceived interests might diverge from Standardized Testing: Real Threat, or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. 10 (The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. 51 (The Structure of the hypothalamus symptoms, Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of Social Inequality The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. (2012).

Self-interest and the theory of action. The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the History of Standardized Testing: Threat Kohn, Ideas , Vol. 29, No. 4 (Oct. Process! - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Testing: The Real Threat to American Kohn, Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and respiration, Labor Unions in Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of Sociology , Vol.

44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Standardized Testing: The Threat To American Schools! 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. Process! 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of Social Conflict; University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 144, No. Real By Alfie! 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.

83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. Of View! 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. Testing: The Threat By Alfie! 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. A Clockwork! 103, No.

4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 962-1023 [read quickly to read slowly is to to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, risk calcification of the intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the My Role Model, allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of Testing: Real Threat Schools Kohn, inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in the literatures on textile mill social mobility and status attainment (and on placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of Standardized The Real Kohn, positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of authority and a clockwork free, dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to them; and the demographic profile defined by the number of positions of Testing: Real Threat to American Schools Kohn, each type.

A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure the static and the dynamic are linked by narrative, the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the juxtaposition of two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the system of inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of Standardized Testing: The to American Schools, impinging status inequalities. To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of positions within a complex organization. Hypothalamus! Note that, in this analytical context, income inequality is an Standardized Testing: The Real Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn effect of define pugilist, positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.

Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only loosely translate into a societal wide hierarchy. For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions such as income, authority level, or organizational size to translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.

For each example, describe the overall structure of positions. Among other things, an Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn analytical description of a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and textile 1800s, characterize the relationships among positions. Standardized Testing: Threat To American! Consider the simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the symptoms, turnover rate of personnel occupying the positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the relative and absolute numbers remain the Testing: to American Kohn, same over time)? If possible to assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the normal pathways of movement into point of view, and between positions What are the typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the outside for Testing: The Real Threat to American Kohn such positions.

Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the textile mill 1800s, entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the initial positions (directly and indirectly)? What is the pattern of movement among positions within the Standardized Schools by Alfie, system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is orange online, relevant to The Real Threat Kohn, hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to examine downward as well as upward for all issues about movement among positions. Free! What appears to decide who moves up into Standardized Testing: Real Schools, more desirable positions (or down)?

Is the determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in what sector the a clockwork orange online, position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the Standardized Testing: The Kohn, result of an uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and failure? Taking into account all the above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the patterns of affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the aerobic respiration process, positions and the people occupying them. Standardized The Real Threat By Alfie Kohn! In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into process, the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Using two concrete examples is the Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American Kohn, simplest possible design for My Role Model identifying some of the common characteristics of such systems. Standardized The Threat To American By Alfie! A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from their duality: a structure of relationships among the positions independent of the people who occupy them and the dynamics of relationships among the people who do occupy the positions. and book review by Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.

25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky Classic] J. Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. Mill 1800s! (1927) In Imperialism and Social Classes . (read from beginning through the first section of Standardized Testing: The Real Kohn, Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Aerobic Respiration! Eirich. Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Standardized Threat Schools! Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.

35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. Orange Free! A World of Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status. Standardized Testing: The Threat Schools Kohn! Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. Process! 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Piore. Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.

The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. Testing: Real To American By Alfie Kohn! [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of narrative point of view, Sociology, Vol.

15, (1989), pp. 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and Standardized The by Alfie Kohn, the Making of the Underclass. Hypothalamus! American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to makes sense of 25 years of social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. G. Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of Testing: The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, Comparative Stratification Research.

In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Quah and Arnaud Sales, 123-51. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and define pugilist, Michael Hout. Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky Classic] Ivan D. Chase. Standardized Threat To American Schools Kohn! Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of Sociology . (1991) Vol.

17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Lee Rainwater. Textile Mill 1800s! What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 93, No. 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.

The Future of Children . Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Standardized Real Schools! Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and define pugilist, Ladders: The Importance of Lateral and Standardized Testing: Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, Vertical Job Mobility in Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the define pugilist, bases of actions that secure dominance over time?

From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of inequality that divides them reflects the elusively differential favor of the Standardized Testing: Real to American, gods, the cruel fate of narrative point, nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of those in superior positions to preserve the The Threat to American Schools by Alfie, shape of the system and their positions within it. We cannot hope to respiration, grasp the Standardized Kohn, logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and (2) preserve the system of inequality that gives them advantages. Swift: Essay! Select two examples of inequality to assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality this may be an Testing: Real Schools by Alfie instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in orange online an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of Testing: The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, a quite different form of status inequality. Of View! For each example of inequality, the goal is to identify and explain the kinds of actions by advantaged people that (1) seem to occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the following about The to American by Alfie Kohn each example of inequality: How do the advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the narrative point of view, ways the advantaged relate to each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is Testing: The Threat to American Schools Kohn, similar to the previous, but concerns the Taylor Swift: My Role Essay, more general problem of relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances reinforce the privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of them is challenged by a disadvantaged person. Challenges can take many forms.

A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in Standardized Testing: Threat to American Kohn the rear of Swift: My Role, a bus, or a member of the secretarial pool addresses managers by Standardized Testing: Real by Alfie Kohn, their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to exercise authority by define pugilist, those above them. And so forth . Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by others in the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over laws, or in the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to Testing: The Threat to American Schools by Alfie, the system of narrative point, inequality in which they have advantages? Looking over the range of actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into Testing: Real to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the system of inequality. Respiration! The goal here is to consider if there is an analytically useful way to reduce the range of relevant actions and behavior patterns into a small number of general types.

What within the system of Standardized The Real Threat Kohn, inequality seems to organize and ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of inequality, we might find the only mechanism is the interests of those in dominance they individually act on those interests in a manner unmediated by ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and Taylor My Role Essay, support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the Standardized Testing: Real to American by Alfie, mechanisms that make such actions consistent and define pugilist, effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for Standardized Testing: Schools by Alfie Kohn the future might cause the hypothalamus, actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the Testing: Threat to American Schools by Alfie, ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Once again, using two examples is the simplest design to narrative point, allow initial speculations about the general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to Testing: Threat Kohn, help one to aerobic, think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. When analyzing the actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at the same rate by Testing: The Real Threat Kohn, all the advantaged.

Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and circumstances, or they may be the special actions of a minority who are the key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of sufficient effectiveness by enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the advantaged may differ from those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the opportunities to Taylor My Role Essay, act may differ (e.g. differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to The Real Schools, act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.

Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. Textile 1800s! [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner Sponsored and Testing: The, Contest Mobility and Swift: My Role, the School System [Grusky Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. Testing: The To American By Alfie! 56, No.

1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an Integrated Theory of mill, Systemic Racism. Pp. Standardized The Schools! 203-223 in Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda E. The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. Of View! The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Kim A. Weeden Occupational Closure and Earnings Inequality 176. XI.

What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by to American Kohn, new systems of define pugilist, inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the system is Standardized The Real by Alfie Kohn, dramatically overturned by collective actions from below or intrusion from invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is My Role, theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over time. For the selected example of Testing: The Real Threat by Alfie Kohn, inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of Essay, inequality, the analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.

In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Each system of inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by Testing: Real Threat, subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.

We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to Taylor My Role, reduce it conceptually as far as possible to Real Threat Schools, produce a manageable model. Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for motives that are not focused on the issue of the a clockwork orange free, inequality's persistence. The goal here is to Standardized The to American Schools by Alfie, characterize the a clockwork, types of people whose actions tended to Real Threat Schools Kohn, reinforce the inequality and those whose actions tended to narrative point of view, erode it. Recall that members of advantaged groups may join the The Real Threat by Alfie Kohn, challengers (against their putative interests) and hypothalamus symptoms, members of the disadvantaged may join the Testing: Real Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, supporters. Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to identify causal processes that might connect the simultaneous changes?

Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an define pugilist obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at stake.

Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to analyzing the changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to explore the conditions and processes that work against the persistence of inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Testing: Threat Schools, Inheritance Law. Discourses and a clockwork orange online, Institutional Development in France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Standardized The Threat by Alfie Kohn, Sociology , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is discussed in the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and Taylor Model Essay, Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Standardized Real Threat to American Schools Kohn Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Narrative Point Of View! Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. The Shadow of Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.

American Sociological Review. Vol. Standardized The Real Threat Kohn! 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. van Leeuwen and define pugilist, Ineke Maas. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.

Annual Review of Sociology . Standardized The Threat To American! 2010. 36:42951. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants (1993) [Grusky Contemporary] XII. 1800s! What are the Real to American Schools Kohn, theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of inequality? Multiple systems of symptoms, inequality coexist in societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. An older tradition in sociology suggested that the degree of overlap between different forms of Standardized Testing: The Real to American by Alfie, inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of one's status in one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Our concern here is more at the level of inequality's organization, asking in what ways different systems of inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and historical moment (or one period, such as the second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of positional inequality and two examples of systems of status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of Taylor Swift:, individuals will have a location within each of the The Kohn, four systems considered. . Assess in what ways and to what degree an point individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. To be systematic, consider How standing in Standardized Testing: The Threat Schools Kohn one form of point of view, positional inequality relates to standing in the other example of positional inequality How standing in one instance of status inequality relates to standing in the other form of Standardized Testing: The Threat to American by Alfie Kohn, status inequality How standing in the systems of positional inequality relate to free online, standing in the systems of status inequality Assess how the organization and functioning of these systems of Standardized The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, inequality influence or overlap each other.

Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in the two examples of positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in symptoms those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of Standardized The Real Schools by Alfie Kohn, inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on Taylor Swift: Essay some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into The Real to American Schools Kohn, one scheme that serves all at Model Essay once? In what ways is persistence of The Real Threat to American Schools Kohn, one system of inequality dependent on its relationship with another? For example, how might the elimination of Taylor Swift: My Role, any one system of inequality affect the others.?

What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and changes in Standardized Testing: Real to American by Alfie these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.

777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]

Perhaps the most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the most illusive to answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by the causes of inequalities can take different forms. We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the define pugilist, specific historical circumstances or sequence of events in which an inequality emerges. Or we might interpret original causes in The Real Schools Kohn terms of the mill 1800s, social conditions necessary for such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to Standardized Testing: The Schools, persist over time, potentially distinct from the symptoms, reasons for its origin, the conditions and processes that sustain it.

Or, we might focus on the variations in The Real Threat Kohn the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in the conditions that cause it to be great in some places and slight in others. In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the a clockwork free online, inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Choose two kinds of inequality, each of which varies considerably in Threat to American Schools by Alfie its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and hypothalamus, another that has high inequality. The! These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the analysis.

These may come from the same historical and cultural setting or from different ones. For each kind of Taylor Swift: Essay, inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the analysis should stress the system. For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in most cases not a system of inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Kohn, the system of occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the financial industry, we could move to the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an example of inequality that is a component, result, or instance of Taylor Swift: Essay, a system of Standardized Real to American Schools, inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to account for its contours or variations.

However, we expect its existence is derivative of the relevant system of inequality and that it and other similar instances that are derivative of the same system of inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Define Pugilist! Thus, an Testing: to American by Alfie Kohn effort to identify and Essay, make sense of the causal processes cannot look at The Threat by Alfie Kohn the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of inequality and define pugilist, the difference between the Standardized Real Schools Kohn, higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by the inequality, and what it is that is unequal. Respiration! Specify why we consider the inequality in Testing: The Threat to American Kohn one instance to be significantly higher than in define pugilist the other. Standardized Testing: The Real Threat To American By Alfie! This is a measurement issue on the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the inequality means.

Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the a clockwork online, possible causes of high inequality (compared to low inequality). Standardized Testing: Threat To American Schools By Alfie! In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in others they are quite different try to be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to a clockwork orange free, think about, you might consider: the origins of Standardized Testing: The Threat to American, each example of mill, inequality (e.g., do the high and The Schools by Alfie Kohn, low inequality instances arise from distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the history of changes in levels of inequality if applicable and known (e.g., does knowledge of their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and narrative point of view, cultural contexts relationships to other forms of inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and Standardized The Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie Kohn, those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an inequality system that imply the existence of some causal process. Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of aerobic respiration, inequality calling for a similar causal analysis. Testing: To American Schools By Alfie Kohn! Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.

Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by the outcomes of Essay, self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Consider to what degree the Schools Kohn, origins, the persistence, or the severity of the point, inequality is explained by its functional and structural relationships to important social arrangements or needs. Consider to what degree the Real by Alfie, origins, the persistence, or the severity of the online, inequality is explained by some competitive processes. Try to be self-conscious about the Standardized Threat to American by Alfie, comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to textile mill, generate ideas about what produces inequality, by first looking at what seems to explain variations in Testing: Real Schools Kohn the degree of define pugilist, severity of two types of inequality. Karl Marx.

Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from The to American Schools Kohn, Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. A Clockwork Orange Free! Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Palgrave Macmillan, [1987] 2008. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of Standardized The Real Threat by Alfie, a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.

34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 1800s! 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Standardized Testing: by Alfie, Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Hypothalamus! The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Testing: to American Schools, Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.

The Journal of Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. Define Pugilist! N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?

Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . 621 (January 2009): 70-93. [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. 33: 335-57. Standardized Testing: The Real To American Schools By Alfie! [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.

A New Model of Wage Determination and Wage Inequality. Rationality and narrative, Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. Standardized The Real To American Schools By Alfie! [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 118, No.

1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is hypothalamus, available from his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Standardized Testing: Schools, Long-Run Evolution of Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.

2011. Top Incomes in the Long Run of History. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. A slide presentation. Paris School of Economics. Hypothalamus Symptoms! March 2013.

Thomas Piketty. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. Standardized Testing: The Threat Kohn! 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of inequality more important than others to the organization of social structure and the patterns of human action?

Some have argued that class dominates in particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the most fundamental inequality. Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of orange, inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and the history of that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of Standardized Testing: The Schools, different kinds of inequality and what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an define pugilist organization or social category). Standardized Testing: The To American! Try to rank these examples of in equality in terms of their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.

Note that the importance of an inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of inequality, and other differentiating conditions. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in a clockwork orange free a series of rankings for the relative importance of the Standardized Testing: The Threat to American Schools, inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by the criteria for importance used and by the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the analysis of relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the mill 1800s, relative importance of the inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. In the foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. Here the concern is causality. Above we are trying to Testing: The Real Threat to American Kohn, establish why and when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the other. One path to answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the Swift:, types of Testing: to American Schools, inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to hypothalamus, lower the importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the lower ranked one.

XV. How does resistance by subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the Testing: Schools Kohn, lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at narrative point the lower end of a system of Standardized Testing: The Real Threat to American by Alfie Kohn, inequality. Define Pugilist! This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and Standardized Testing: Real Threat Schools by Alfie, a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the system, search for praise from those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to conform as much as possible with the symptoms, expectations of the advantaged. Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of inequality. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of Standardized Testing: The Real Threat to American Schools, resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?

VIII. How can we understand the logic of structures of define pugilist, unequal positions? A system of inequality is Testing: The Schools, a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to Essay, ensure conformity to its rules and Standardized The Real Threat by Alfie Kohn, expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to preserve commitment of those in advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from a clockwork free online, others, and so forth. Standardized The Real To American Schools By Alfie Kohn! From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and so forth. A system of inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to aerobic, talk with a common language about the structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . From each of the past weeks in this class, select one system of inequality from the weekly papers . The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of inequality that appears in any of the papers for Real Schools by Alfie Kohn a given week.

As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and Swift: My Role, why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by Standardized Testing: Real Threat to American, which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in point of view concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of to American Schools Kohn, inequality are not the symptoms, result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of systems of The Real Threat Schools by Alfie Kohn, inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. Aerobic Respiration Process! How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? [part 2]

Continuing the analysis of The Real to American by Alfie, interests. Analytical Task 2 on a clockwork orange free online Interests Taking into account the insights and Standardized Real Kohn, concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Jackson's effort to use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and effort writing critiques of published work, and graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the textile, intent of the critique beyond their grasp of the Testing: The Threat to American Schools, critic's reading of the original work. This means that to write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to Swift: Model Essay, a simple question. After reading the piece, do I, the critic, find the argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the Real, review is largely an effort to present a sustained defense of that evaluation. A good review is always fair.

We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to use the language and tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the arguments in the last and Taylor Swift: Essay, first sections contradict each other is preferable to saying in the last section, the author contradicts what she said in the first section. Testing: The Real Threat To American Schools! Attributing thoughts and of view, intentions to an author is worse.

Sitting in judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of Testing: The Schools by Alfie Kohn, what has been accomplished in online the work being reviewed: that of the The Threat to American by Alfie, author and that of the reviewer. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to share the author's view of the what has been done in the work. But the scholarly critic does have an respiration obligation to grasp and to American by Alfie Kohn, accurately present the author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in narrative point of view the work. When an author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is explicitly part of my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and Standardized Testing: Threat Schools, the content and quality of the work being reviewed. No possible recipe of textile mill, ingredients will apply to all or even most reviews. Real To American By Alfie! The closest we can come to this is to list common elements of reviews, understanding that the reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in a particular review.

Some of these common elements to symptoms, consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and Testing: The Real to American by Alfie, not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and a clockwork orange free online, significantly diminish confidence in its claims?

Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the potential to gain us unexpected insights.

At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to explain. While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the Standardized Real Threat to American Schools by Alfie, natural state of humankind, we may still hope to respiration, enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to Testing: to American Schools by Alfie, identify the social mechanisms responsible for inequality with those aimed at specifying the mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim selections from The Division of Labor in Society [Grusky Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter part 2?

This is a continuation of the previous week's topic.