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book report done you One of the often-recurring requests on the newsgroup rec.arts.books.tolkien is from students requesting a synopsis of scoping, J.R.R. Poem To Kill A Mockingbird. Tolkien's epic work The Lord of the Rings. The work is extremely long, and because of project, this many students simply can't find the time to give the the essay work a thorough reading before giving a written report on it. In the interests of cutting down the number of project scoping, requests for this material, I have written a short synopsis of the three volumes which make up the Lord of the poem about a mockingbird Rings as well as an accompanying synopsis for Tolkien's posthumous book The Silmarillion. As an project, added supplement, I have also listed some possible topics for term-papers and book reports for those who don't feel a desire to come up with their own. Of course, I feel compelled to Jackson's of the, point out that a much better understanding of scoping, Tolkien's work can be achieved by a knights tale trailer reading the actual books; it's well worth the project scoping effort. Essay Rosemary Jackson's Fantastic. If you simply don't like to read, however, I'm sure the following synopsis and suggestions will help you make the grades you obviously deserve. Readers will be interested to know that this synopsis has been endorsed by the prestigious London Sunday Times . At least, they thought it was accurate enough for them. Vol. I - THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING: The story starts with the twentieth birthday-party for Frodo Baggins, a Hobbit who lives with his brother Sam in a mythical land called the Shire.
Frodo owns a magic Ring which makes him invisible when he wears it, a gift from his cousin Bilbo who stole it from the hoard of a Dragon years ago. One day the old wizard Gandalf comes to the Shire, and he tells Frodo of an evil being named Sauron who wants to capture the Ring for project scoping himself. In ages long past Sauron stole the Ring from the Rosemary Fantastic Elves, to protect him from the Powers of Good; but the Ring was stolen from him by project scoping a creature named Gollum,and then stolen from Gollum by the Dragons, and then from the Dragons by Bilbo, who finally gives it freely to Frodo. Sauron has been searching for poem a mockingbird the Ring for years, Gandalf tells Frodo, and now he has sent his ally, the evil Witch-king, to the Shire to look for it. Frodo and Sam consult with their loyal friends Merry and Pipsqueak, and when the evil Witch-king appears with his nine servants the clever hobbits trick them into going into a mushroom-patch, disorienting the witches just long enough to escape the Shire. But the scoping tone of the book rapidly becomes more serious as the Witch-king and his evil servants pursue the hobbits through the forest. Frodo discovers that the witches have destroyed the village of Bree, and the essay, the Witch-king uses a magic spell to burn down the home of their old friend Tom Bombadil. Frodo, horrified, wants to go back and fight the evil witches, but at a hill called Weathertop he meets a noble man named Aragorn who convinces him to go to the city of project scoping, Rivendell. In Rivendell you will be safe from their magic, Aragorn tells him, for Elrond is a sensible man, and poem about to kill, does not believe in it.
With that Aragorn leads them rapidly to scoping, Rivendell, with the witches in hot pursuit. As they ford the last river between them and Rivendell the Witch-king casts a spell on the river-water, causing it to rise up and try to drown them; only Frodo's quick thinking can save them, and importance of planning, he uses the power of the Ring to make all the water evaporate into fog. The fog is so thick that the Witch-king and his servants become hopelessly lost, and our heroes make it to the safety of Rivendell. At Rivendell, Elrond holds a Council where the fate of the Ring is discussed. The only way to keep Sauron from recovering the Ring, they decide, is to throw it into the volcano of Mount Doom where it will be destroyed. During the Council Gandalf arrives late, saying that he had been held prisoner in the tower of Orthanc, the Wizards' Tower. Curiously, he refuses to project scoping, describe how he escaped. But it is more important than ever that we destroy the Ring, Gandalf says, for now the other Wizards know of it, and seek it as well. He tells of how the dark wizard Saruman, once an hills citation, ally of the project forces of Good, has turned to trailer, evil and now controls Orthanc with an iron hand, and how the other Wizards are roaming the countryside seeking the Ring for themselves. They all agree to set out to destroy the Ring at once. Gandalf and Aragorn agree to go with the four Hobbits, as does Glorfindel, a descendant of the ancient ruler Ar-Pharazon, and Boromir, from the Royal House of Gondor; also joining them are an Elf and a Dwarf who don't really do much in the story but are there for comic relief.
Together Gandalf and scoping, his nine companions - the importance Fellowship of the Ring, as they call themselves - set out for the dark land of Mordor. On the way, their path is repeatedly beset by evil forces. First they are attacked by evil Orcs in the woods; next they are driven into the dark forest of Lothlorien, where they are imprisoned by scoping the beautiful but evil Queen Beruthiel. They make their escape when Beruthiel's good sister, Galadriel, frees them from their prison-cell and floats them down the river in barrels. After that they think it best to leave the woods and head to Moria, the secret city under the mountains; here, however, they face a terrifying setback when they are found by the evil wizard Radagast. Gandalf sacrifices his life to destroy Radagast the Balrog, and the others escape the mountains while the battle rages. Lennon Activism. At the end of the book, however, the Fellowship is destroyed from within; Glorfindel, lusting for power, tries to kill Frodo for the Ring. Aragorn stops Glorfindel by shooting him through the throat with a black arrow; Glorfindel dies, but not until he maliciously sets fire to the grasslands. In the resulting smoke and confusion the Fellowship of the Ring is hopelessly scattered. Well, everybody ends up running around Middle-earth in project, different directions. Aragorn and that Dwarf and tale, Elf whose names I can't remember go to this place with lots of horses, but inexplicably they have no racetrack.
Boromir heads South to Gondor alone, bearing a parchment he has taken from Glorfindel describing the Royal House of Gondor; he speaks to no one as he leaves, consumed with some new private worry. Merry and Pipsqueak get kidnapped by forty-foot-high walking trees, but as the story goes on they convince the trees that it's best to be kind to strangers; the lesson is well-learned, and project, when Aragorn and the others arrive the trees welcome them with open limbs. Just as this reunion is taking place Gandalf reappears, having ultimately defeated the evil Radagast; he reveals that there were actually two of him all along, and the other one is Essay about of the still trapped at Orthanc, now under the control of the wizard Saruman, Gandalf's half-brother. Project Scoping. Everybody goes to Orthanc and frees Gandalf's twin, but the first Gandalf dies fighting Saruman at the top of Zirak-Ziogi, the great mountain of Japan. At the poem to kill a mockingbird end they all ride to the defense of Gondor, Mordor's most hated enemy. Meanwhile Frodo and Sam are captured by the evil Gollum, but they are rescued by Faramir, Boromir's cousin, who has escaped the people of project, Gondor. Faramir reveals that he had to leave Gondor because Boromir and his brother Denethor have ordered that he be killed; Faramir is the true heir to the kingdom, but Boromir and Denethor wish to go on john, ruling Gondor themselves. Frodo agrees to give him the Ring to help him regain the kingship; but Gollum manages to escape with it, and takes it into Mordor in hopes of receiving a reward. Frodo and Sam race after him, while Faramir holds back the Orc-army which is sent by Sauron to waylay them.
Frodo, however, gets bitten by a tarantula which Gollum has summoned with the Ring, and Sam stands near his master at the end of the book, thinking him dead and the Ring irretrivably lost. Everyone except Frodo and Sam arrives at the kingdom of Gondor, and though the people of scoping, Gondor are amazed and frightened at first by the huge army of walking trees that accompany them, everyone smiles and accepts them when Gandalf and Aragorn reveal themselves. The brothers Denethor and Boromir, however, see that Aragorn brings knowledge from the North which will give their kingship over to Faramir, the the essay true King, and so they secretly conspire against him. And so later on, when the forces of Mordor arrive to attack Gondor, they successfully plot to have Aragorn positioned so he must face the project Witch-King in single combat. The battle is too much for the essay Aragorn, and project scoping, just as he is about to die he is saved by Eowyn, a woman of Rohan who loves him, and Merry, who slays the Witch-king in single combat by using ancient hobbit-magic and so reveals himself to be the hills like white citation lost Thain of the Shire. Even as the forces of Mordor retreat, they are swept into the Sea by great ships brought by Faramir, the true Prince of project, Dol Amroth, from the hidden city of Osgiliath further up the Great River. Meanwhile Sam chases the tarantula back to the lair of Ungoliant, the Queen of Spiders, and hills like white elephants, after a tense argument about the nature of good and evil she finally reveals to Sam the project cure for the spider's-venom which holds Frodo in thrall. Sam thanks Ungoliant for her mercy and wisdom and revives Frodo, and they set off into like elephants Mordor to find Gollum.
Oft help will come from the weak when the scoping Wise are foolish, Gandalf once said, and sure enough all the spiders of hills like, Mordor are willing to help Frodo and Sam in their quest. Their course leads them to Mount Doom, where just as they arrive they find Gollum claiming the Ring for himself. Project Scoping. The Dark Lord Sauron then becomes aware of them, and leaves the Dark Tower to poem about, come forth and destroy them; but just them Frodo and Sam rush Gollum and force him backwards into the Cracks of Doom. The Ring is destroyed, and without it Sauron is destroyed by scoping the sunlight. Frodo and poem about to kill a mockingbird, Sam leave the Mountain just in project, time to see the the essay great armies of Aragorn and Faramir coming across the scoping plains of Mordor to greet them. Boromir and Denethor are driven away from Gondor forever, but mercifully spared by King Faramir, and Aragorn is revealed to be the long-lost King of Arnor, the North-Kingdom of old.
Yet you may still rule the Shire, he says to Merry the tale Thain, for project with Mordor fallen, there may be kingships enough for all. The heroism of Frodo and Sam is sung in Gondor and Arnor for long ages, and even Pipsqueak finds honor in his new role as Faramir's bootblack. There's room for advancement in this job, he tells the other hobbits knowingly, his eyes on Faramir's crown. Faramir smiles at Pipsqueak's jest and tells him he will always be welcome wherever he goes. (Indeed, the Appendices note that Pipsqueak's journeys take him far and wide in later years, and he becomes the best-known hobbit of them all.) The other hobbits eventually return to the Shire, only to find it corrupted and in chaos because of an onslaught of evil Men; they eventually find the evil brothers, Denethor and Boromir, trying to set themselves up as dictators of the Shire. Frodo and Merry fight the evil brothers hand-to-hand and slay them at the very door of Bag-end. Merry takes up the Thainship, and at the end they all go West to the shores of the Sea, there to bid Gandalf farewell as he sails back across the Sea and into Heaven, for he was an Elven-king all along who was trying to improve the lennon activism relations between Elves and Men long-sundered, and now he had found his reward. Scoping. Well, this book is really complicated, but I'll try to hit the high points real quickly. Maybe someday, when I have more time, I can improve on this. God created the angels, and the angels created the world. But the Elves created the Silmarils, the Great Jewels, and fought over the essay them for generations until Melkor, one of the greatest angels, took them away for safekeeping.
But Melkor's brother Morgoth stole the Silmarils, and the Elves swore they would fight the angels forever until they got the Silmarils back. Project. The story is an allegory for greed, and also a tale JRRT told to demonstrate that you can never hope to fight God. In the end a brave Man named Beren steals the Silmarils from Morgoth, and when the Elves try to poem about to kill a mockingbird, kill him to project, get them back (this is where the estrangement of tale trailer, Elves and Men occurs, which is to haunt JRRT's other works), he gives them to his son Earendil to take across the project scoping Sea and back to Heaven. And that's how peace is restored to Middle-earth. Possible Subjects for Lord of the Rings Term Papers.
1. Brothers in the Lord of the Rings. Many of the characters in Tolkien's work have brothers, or sometimes sisters, who demonstrate different aspects of their families' beliefs. You could write a paper contrasting the many family relationships, such as the way Frodo is helped by his brother Sam, the way Denethor and his brother Boromir conspire, and the way Feanor is assisted by his brother Feenamint. Contrast this to the sharp differences seen in other Tolkien families, such as Beruthiel and her sister Galadriel, Melkor and a knights trailer, his brother Morgoth, and scoping, Gandalf and hills white elephants citation, his half-brother Saruman. 2. True Royalty. One recurring theme of Lord of the Rings is the theme of project scoping, good royalty defeating tainted royalty. Just as Faramir defeats his evil cousins to reclaim the Throne of Gondor, Aragorn restores the Kingdom of Arnor with his marriage to Eowyn. The Essay. Even Merry reveals his heretofore-unknown lineage to the Thainship of the Shire by book's end. Remembering that Tolkien wrote this book even as Queen Elizabeth was taking the throne of England when King Edward VIII abdicated and married a commoner, write a paper showing the influence of project, Tolkien's aristocracy beliefs on his work. 3. Use of Fire in Lord of the Rings . Whenever the forces of the essay, evil try to strike a blow in Tolkien's work, they almost always use fire. Denethor tries to set fire to Faramir; Glorfindel sets fire to the grasslands; Radagast tries to project, set fire to Gandalf.
Even the dragon in The Hobbit tries to set fire to LakeTown; and hills like white elephants, Queen Beruthiel, while she never actually sets fire to anybody, is portrayed as an incessant chain-smoker, waving the fire about in her hand like a hot poker ( Fellowship of the Ring , towards chapter seven). You could write a pretty fair paper on the use of fire in Tolkien's works. Remember that Tolkien's family took him away from South Africa at project scoping the age of four when their house had just burned down. Maybe it left a lasting impression. Perhaps one day we'll have this all down to john, the point where someone can just download a book-report straight from the Web without ever having to read the project books at the essay all.
Obviously we're not quite there yet; but for those interested in that idea, I'm sure this web-page will be considered a great step forward.
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my valentine essay My Funny Valentine : The Disintegration of the Standard. We just blew the top off that place that night. It was a motherfucker the way everybody played, and project, I mean everybody. (Miles Davis) So Miles Davis declared to Quincy Troupe in his autobiography, referring to a concert which took place at activism New York's Philharmonic Hall on the night of February 12, 1964. It was a charity concert sponsored by the NAACP, organized to support voter registration in Mississippi and Louisiana. Produced by Teo Macero, part of the project scoping, concert was issued on the Columbia LP My Funny Valentine (now available as a 2-CD set, The Complete Concert 1964 , Columbia Legacy C2K 48821 or COL 471246). Davis, accompanied by the youthful Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, Tony Williams, and the tenor saxophonist George Coleman, gave birth to importance one of his best LPs and one of the high points in his interpretation of jazz standards. The aim of this essay is to scoping explore what makes My Funny Valentine such a brilliant and unique LP. I shall look carefully at how Davis and his quintet treat the musical forms, and how the musicians manage to create free and original forms while at Essay about Rosemary Jackson's Definition of the Fantastic the same time respecting the formal structures of the tunes.
Rather than discussing the pieces in the the order in project, which the they appear on the Columbia LP, I shall consider the them in Essay Rosemary Jackson's of the, two groups depending on the basic formal treatment they receive: Group 1: Dividing the structure into parts that do not correspond to the division into 8-measure sections (Stella by Starlight, My Funny Valentine, I Thought About You); Group 2: Enriching the structure by adding tags and turnarounds (All Blues, All of You). Group 1: Stella by Starlight, My Funny Valentine, I Thought About You I shall begin with the pieces belonging to the first group. They show a particular approach to the musical form. The basic structure of all of these standards is the song form: Stella by Starlight: A (8) - B (8) - C (8) - D (8) My Funny Valentine: A (8) - A' (8) - B (8) - A (12)
I Thought About You: A (8) - B (8) - A (8) - C (8) Musicians typically use some sort of sound signals when they want the rhythm section to change the accompaniment in order to create a new mood. Davis had used this particular technique of arrangement since the 1950s -- it allowed him to adopt a looser attitude towards the structure. During the project, Philharmonic Hall concert Davis uses two different kinds of sound signals: Type A: short diatonic phrases of crotchets or quavers played in half time for john lennon activism one or two beats; these are full of swing, and their dynamic tends to the forte.
Throughout the sound signal the rhythm section plays an accompaniment in 2 or 4 with a feeling of double-time. (See examples 1a, b, c, d, e.) (a) Stella by Starlight: Davis theme, D section, measure 1 (1:53) (b) Stella by project Starlight: Davis chorus I, B section, measure 8 (3:08) (c) Stella by poem about to kill Starlight: Davis chorus I, C section, measure 8 (3:58) (d) My Funny Valentine: Davis theme, A section, measure 9 (2:45) (e) I Thought About You: Davis theme, A' section, measure 3 (1:20) Type B: short chromatic ascending (and sometimes descending) phrases in irregular ternary groups. These signals are typically used to change a basic pulse into double-time. If the music is already in scoping, double time, they mark a transition into a section of 4 beats accompaniment supported by a strong walking bass. (See examples 2a, b, c, d.) (a) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, D section, measure 8 (4:28) (b) My Funny Valentine: Davis theme, A section, measure 7 (3:00) (c) My Funny Valentine: Davis chorus I, A' section, measure 7 (5:23) (d) I Thought About You: chorus I , C section, measure 8 (2:17) The musicians use other techniques as well. The striking prolonging of harmonic rhythm in about a mockingbird, the double-time sections, and scoping, the continuous change of accompaniment, divide the regular song-form structure into asymmetrical segments. This gives rise to the fragmentation of the song form, as we shall see. B. Dividing the standard into like elephants, sections of different meters and accompaniments. Table 1 shows the diversity of accompaniments of Davis' first chorus in Victor Young's Stella by Starlight (2:24-4:37 on the Columbia CD). The song form of four 8-measure sections is scoping completely ignored; Davis recomposes it in about Rosemary, eight different musical segments. The eight measures of the B section are subdivided into five different segments.
Latin-sounding rhythms make for an unusual accompaniment of scoping classic ballads -- they are frequently used as pedals and appear several times during the concert, e.g. in My Funny Valentine. Here on a bossa-nova rhythm played by Tony Williams we hear the strong bass pedal of the dominant in the first four measures of the Eb major bridge. The bass groove is the essay characteristic of the latin accompaniments (example 3a). Example 3. My Funny Valentine, bass groove. (a) Davis chorus I, B section, measures 1-4 (4:08) (b) Coleman chorus I, B section, measures 1-4 (6:24) (c) Davis chorus I, A section, measures 11-12 (5:16) In the same bridge we can hear another rhythm like that just described -- Carter introduces a new ostinato (example 3b). Williams and Carter play a typical bossa-nova pedal during Davis' first chorus (example 3c). In such cases, although the form is divided into project scoping, different sections, we don't hear the music as a succession of unconnected units; it appears from the Rosemary Definition of the Fantastic, first notes as a consistent sound continuum. The sudden contrast, within a project that respects the coherence of the project scoping, piece, is an the essay, exceptional means of providing unity to the standard. C. The interplay among the musicians.
The continual changing of the scoping, rhythms, accompaniment, dynamics, and moods, as well as the activism, sound signals just mentioned, show the great interplay of the musicians and their careful reciprocal listening. Davis always demanded was that his musicians be able to play spontaneously and project scoping, creatively following an open-ended project. Of his masterpiece Kind of trailer Blue he said: I didn't write out the music of Kind of project Blue , but brought in sketches for what everybody was supposed to play because I wanted a lot of about to kill a mockingbird spontaneity in the playing. The level of interplay is closely related to the freedom in structure. In this essay I want to project scoping pay special attention to places where the interaction among the musicians influences the form of the songs. Besides the sound signals already mentioned, consider the phrase played by Davis on the tonic chord in the last two measures of the Stella by Starlight theme (example 4). Example 4. Stella by Starlight, Davis' phrase and Williams accompaniment, Davis theme, D section, measure 8 (2:21). When he begins his phrase, Miles is accompanied by the light brushes of Tony Williams, who hits the cymbals 3 times allowing the rhythm section to play in 4; and we hear Carter's strong walking bass. Williams' first hit is made with a brush, the other two with the poem to kill, sticks, increasing the dynamic (forte) and dramatically changing the mood of the song.
The change from the brushes to project scoping the sticks takes only of planning a moment. Probably Williams' attention to sound details was enforced by some gestures by Davis. This is an example of a very unconventional way of treating the form which depends on the sensitivity of the project scoping, soloist and on the quick response of the rhythm section. Likewise, from the fifth measure of the importance, B section of Stella by Starlight, Davis' solo has an energetic double-time rhythm. Project Scoping. During a relaxed trumpet phrase, which reinterprets the theme at the beginning of the C section, the pulse ballad returns. The mood suddenly becomes rarefied: Hancock plays dreamy arabesques while the drums elegantly fade. Two trumpet notes change the like white citation, mood of the song and consequently the form. D. The fragmentation of the standard in project scoping, different and unusual moods. The standards are divided into sections corresponding to lennon activism different moods. Project Scoping. In his biography of Davis, Ian Carr notes that by comparing the original versions of My Funny Valentine (October 1956) and Stella by Starlight (May 1958) with the live versions from 1964, we can see that the original versions are melancholic but the emotional range is fairly narrow.
By contrast, in importance of planning, the later versions the emotional range is very wide. Consider George Coleman's solo in Stella by Starlight. Here the typical lyrical-romantic mood of the song is only one of several emotional dimensions of the interpretation. Table 2 shows how the sequence of moods influences the articulation of the structure. The song's symmetrical eight-measure sections are divided into musical segments of different lengths. Moods alternate throughout those musical segments. Unusual moods are used in project scoping, the interpretation of a standard ballad, for instance the dissonant polyrhythmic pedal between the C and poem a mockingbird, D sections of the piece (we have already treated the unusual latin pedals appearing sporadically in the concert).
E. The role of Tony Williams. The drumming of Tony Williams also contributes to project scoping the loosening of the to kill a mockingbird, form. One of his many special talents emerges as a very original one: a brilliant use of pauses and scoping, spaces in Jackson's of the Fantastic, the sections during which he stops playing or accompanying. He is project scoping not bound to the essay the 32-bar structure when he enters or leaves the song. Project. This technique further fragments the song form into parts of different lengths. Table 3 shows the points of standstill of Williams' drumming in relation to the structure of Stella by Starlight (the gray horizontal bars indicate when Williams is playing). Table 3. Stella by Starlight: The presence of Tony Williams. Likewise, table 4 shows how, in My Funny Valentine, Williams leaves the stage at the seventh measure of the importance of planning, bridge of Coleman's chorus. He deliberately enters and leaves the scene at a different point of the scoping, song each time.
In fact, the long pause in My Funny Valentine allows the tearing saxophone solo to fade into loneliness and a quiet dialogue between bass and piano, returning us to lennon the melancholic notes of Richard Rodgers' theme. Table 4. My Funny Valentine: The presence of scoping Tony Williams. It's hard not to sound paradoxical, but the several points of stillness of the drums are among the most clever and effective accompaniments ever used by a drummer in a standard. F. Poem About. The irregular extension of the project scoping, improvisation. The soloists (Davis, Coleman, Hancock) move independently within the standard -- they don't necessarily follow the 32-bar chorus scheme. The extension of the a knights trailer, improvisations depends only on the musicians' taste. Scoping. Table 5 shows the independence of the extension of the improvisations from the about Rosemary Definition Fantastic, song's basic structure. Miles' re-exposition of the theme from the fifth measure of the B section (11:24) is remarkable.
This unconventional aesthetic choice further contributes to the disintegration of the song and its reassembly in a new form. Table 5 shows how the standard 32-bar structure finally comes out. It is important to project scoping consider the musical form not as a mechanical calculation of the essay measures; otherwise we will misunderstand one of the interesting aspects of the project, Philharmonic Hall concert. The form is evidently only a scheme on which the musicians build a musical continuum that isn't limited to tale the structure of a single 32-bar chorus. The convention of the 32-bar standard is completely overthrown by the Davis quintet. Project. They pay attention to a new overarching form that takes into account the evolution of the piece from the beginning until the final notes. What is important is white elephants citation not the project, unity of each individual chorus but that all the improvisations contribute to a coherent musical whole. The mood of Davis' improvisations is like worked out by project scoping the other musicians -- especially by Coleman, who connects his solos to the last notes of the the essay, Davis' last phrase. Project. The coherence of the new overarching form is highlighted by the internal contrasts and the segmentation of the structure. Table 5: Stella by about to kill Starlight, extension of the improvisations in the structure. In the second half of this essay I shall examine the scoping, other two pieces of the importance of planning, concert, All Blues and All of You, in which the structural innovations involve the use of tags and turnarounds.
All Blues (base structure: blues form, 12 measures). Tags are added between the theme exposition and at project scoping the ends of every improvisation, and they can be considered a kind of interpolation within the 12-bar blues chorus. The tags are composed of the essay elements of the introduction, almost the same one used on the original version on the 1959 LP Kind of scoping Blue . The introduction consists of a 6/8 rhythm played by Tony Williams, a bass riff, a light piano ostinato, and a saxophone obbligato. This tonic pedal allows the widening of the song's general structure. Nevertheless, the formal devlopment isn't as varied as in the cases we looked at in the first part of the essay. In the case of All Blues, the 12-bar chorus represents the model for the formal construction: all of the citation, improvisations end after an integral number of choruses; and the 12-measure structure of the piece isn't subdivided further. The standard blues form is not completely superseded, as we might have expected. All of You (base structure: A (8) - B (8) - A' (8) - C (8)).
Because of its extraordinary way of scoping treating the form of Cole Porter's composition, this tune deserves particular attention. This performance uses both procedures of structural manipulation discussed above. Points (A)-(F) discussed in the context of Group 1 are relevant, and poem about a mockingbird, as with All Blues, the base structure of the piece is scoping elaborated with turnarounds (Group 2). I won't offer detailed analyses of the points discussed for Group 1; but I'll make several quick observations apropos of (A)-(F) above: sound signals of hills white elephants both types A and project, B, which didn't appear in All Blues, are used throughout All of You; the subdivision of the standard into sections of different meters and accompaniment sections is very complex; as a result, the interplay among the musicians reaches a level rarely heard before; the standard moves through several unusual and john lennon activism, expressive moods, and the quintet combines dramatic and dissonant sections -- often including complex polyrhythms (as in the beginning of Hancock's solo, 10:06-10:39) and relaxed moments (as when from Davis' trumpet come the refined notes of Porter's theme); Williams shows his surest command of pauses and project, space in this piece; the improvisations are irregularly extended throughout, particularly by the use of like elephants turnarounds. Consider a few examples: Davis' theme begins on a dominant pedal of Bb 11 measures long, which begins on the second measure of the A section (in the first measure we hear only the trumpet). The pedal is unusual not only in its irregular length of 11 measures but also because it is project scoping composed of a two-measure ostinato -- which means that the last repetition is cut off. Tale. This arrangement is project scoping not spontaneous but carefully prepared -- we hear the same pedal in the A section of Davis' first chorus (1:21).
Example 5 shows Carter's bass line during the pedal in relation to the obbligato of piano and drums. Example 5. All of You, bass pedal. Another arrangement appears in the last four measures of the poem a mockingbird, B section, in which the project, rhythm section plays obbligati between two Coleman choruses. Hills Like. I've transcribed the two obbligati in the examples 6a and 6b. Example 6: All of You. (a) obbligato 1. Coleman chorus II, B section, measure 5-8 (5:46); Hancock chorus I, B section, measures 5-8 (8:31) (b) obbligato 2: Coleman chorus II, B section, measures 5-8 (6:07); Hancock chorus II, B section, measures 5-8 (9:26) Finally, we can hear an impressive chromatic movement of the bass during Davis' first chorus in the first four measures of the A section (0:54). It reappears in the A section at 8:10, after Hancock's turnaround. These devices allow the quintet to scoping move freely through a standard that has a fairly rigid song form.
A revolutionary structure. Consider an especially novel device in the quintet's interpretation of All of You: in the last two measures of the C section, a harmonic substitution for tale the tonic chord allows a turnaround of four chords in the last four measures of the base structure. Table 7. All of You, (a) tonic chord; (b) turnaround, II-V-I substitution. Typically, the improvisation ends in the turnaround after the second chorus, but in Davis' last improvisation he enters the turnaround after only one chorus. How do the musicians know when a soloist gets to scoping the turnaround when the number of measures isn't fixed? The soloists use the sound signal device already discussed to let the others know when they are leaving the turnaround and the essay, the end of scoping their improvisation. All of them play a signal phrase at the end of their improvisations. This phrase is a free paraphrase of the last measure of the poem to kill, melody of the theme -- what remains of the latter is only the scoping, rhythmic design and the resolution of the a knights, VII to the tonic (I):
Example 7: All of You. (a) signal phrase; (b) original melody. This appeal to the melody is made in almost the same way by Davis, Coleman, and Hancock. Scoping. The soloists (and Carter and Williams) take Davis' signal phrase as a reference and use it without significant variations. Table 8. All of You, relation between chorus and turnarounds. The signal phrase. Davis used the signal phrase as a mean to indicate the end of the improvisation in a turnaround as early as the mid-1950s. For example, in If I Were a Bell, the opening piece of the 1956 Prestige album Relaxin' with the Miles Davis Quintet , this technique is used to enter and exit from a turnaround, the the essay, tag of the last chorus. If we compare the original version of All of You (from the 1956 Columbia LP 'Round About Midnight ), we hear the same signal phrase as in the 1964 Philharmonic Hall concert. In the original version, the phrase marks the end of an improvisation based on scoping, a turnaround of undetermined length.
This comparison suggests two conclusions. About Jackson's Of The Fantastic. First, that what seems to be a spontaneous sound signal improvised at scoping the moment of the concert is really the result of a long development of a technique of arrangement born almost ten years earlier. Davis used this phrase for a long time and in different group settings. Second, this device allows for orderly formal articulation that complements rather than constrains the free creativity Davis sought in his group playing. Lennon. In fact, two different factors coexist in Davis' interpretation of All of scoping You: great care for the formal aspect strictly conceived, and yet, at the same time, widespread use of procedures allowing a free and extemporaneous treatment of the form (e.g. in the turnarounds ad lib within the 32-bar chorus structure).
The signal phrase as it appears in the 1956 version was a device to mark off a limited number of turnarounds that widened and adorned the last chorus, and was used by the soloist as a short tag to conclude his improvisation. It was less important within the interpretation of the standard in comparison than the previous choruses. In the 1964 version, however, the turnarounds have a completely different role to play. For consider: the extension of the turnarounds covers 60% of the about to kill, whole execution; as a result they are very important in the architecture of scoping All of You (table 9); the ingenuity of the soloists is made evident in john lennon, the turnarounds: Davis showcases his improvisation by including 28 turnarounds, and Hancock's solo shows a generous use of the sequences; at the end of the song Davis plays the scoping, theme on the harmonic progression of the Essay about Jackson's of the, turnaround and not on the harmonic progression of the 32-bar chorus! Turnaround as a form. To follow up this study we would have to compare the scoping, function of the turnaround in this version of All of You with Miles' use of it in the 1950s. By 1964, it is no longer a device to decorate a musical form -- it has become the musical form itself.
The 32-measure structure of the song form becomes only a frame that contains the turnaround harmonic progression. The disintegration of the standard is complete. Of Planning. We are at project scoping the end of the journey during which we saw simple popular songs becoming examples of sublime musical art. Of the original pieces, after the disintegration and recomposition, only the magic atmosphere still remains, extraordinary sensations for careful listeners. If you have any suggestions, question, or comments, please send e-mail to me at this address. This essay was published (in Italian) in the jazz journal Musica Jazz : Volume 53, no. 8/9 (August-September 1997), pp. 52-55; Volume 53, no. 10 (October 1997), pp.
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Ritalin Essay Research Paper RitalinThe parents of. Ritalin Essay, Research Paper. The parents of six year old James Patrick Smith receive a phone call. from the project scoping school guidance counselor informing them of their child’s recent. hyperactive behavior. About Jackson's Of The Fantastic? After a short conference, the guidance counselor suggests. to the parents a solution for young James’ problem; as a result, the family. visits their family doctor and the doctor diagnoses James with Attention Deficit.
Disorder (ADD) during a one hour appointment. To remedy the disorder, the doctor. prescribes the project “savior drug” for ADD patients; children are almost always fed. the drug Ritalin, a prescription medicine that packs a strong euphoric punch. (Machan 151). The preceding hypothetical situation commonly occurs in john activism, the. United States at a growing rate which may be too fast for the nation to project scoping contain. The over-prescription of the drug Ritalin to the essay correct ADD produces many negative.
side effects upon patients and society. In the vast market of scoping, prescription drugs, Ritalin, one of the most. highly used drugs, also carries with it some of the greatest medical drawbacks. ADD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stands tall as America’s. number one psychiatric disorder (Hancock 52). Estimates suggest that more than.
two million children live with the disorder; in addition, according to Dr. Daniel Safer of Johns Hopkins University, over 1.3 million regularly consume. Ritalin for poem a mockingbird, treatment of ADD (Hancock 52). Ritalin appears to be a popular. choice for doctors, but the daily effects of the drug, which family physicians. do not see, creates questions as to how well the project scoping drug actually works.
Scientifically know as methylphenidate, Ritalin stimulates the central nervous. system with similarities to importance of planning amphetamines in the nature and extent of its. effects; furthermore, it supposedly activates the project scoping brain stem arousal system and. the cerebral cortex (Bailey 3). The key factor remains that doctors and. researchers are not sure of about Rosemary Definition of the, what precisely occurs when Ritalin invades the human. body. Hancock notes that no definite long-term studies exist to assure parents. that Ritalin does not cause more or less havoc in their child, nor does any. disease accompany prolonged usage (52).
Testing results released by the Federal. Drug Administration (FDA) in February 1996, show a study of mice in which a rare. form of liver cancer arose as a result of Ritalin; however, the FDA still. regards Ritalin as “safe and effective” (Hancock 56). Project? Offering almost as many. side effects as the number of people who take the drug, Ritalin alters many. different aspects of the body. Just a few symptoms cited by Bailey include: nervousness, insomnia, loss of the essay, appetite, dizziness, heart palpitations, headaches, extreme weight loss, skin rashes, possible psychotic episodes, and. severe withdrawals (3).
Most physicians would not admit to being blind about. the true consequences of Ritalin, and most families never receive the project scoping needed. information to make an john educated decision about Ritalin whether or not to take. To be a potent drug with many numerous physical effects, Ritalin is not. respected by doctors who spend only a short amount of time with patients before. prescribing the “wonder drug” as treatment. Findings of a recent survey by project, the. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, report that almost half of the. pediatricians surveyed said they send ADD/ADHD children home within a hour.
(Hancock 52). Time appears to be on the side of the doctors which leaves. patients and their families holding a possible “time bomb” of a mockingbird, Ritalin. With. assembly line-like characteristics, physicians turn patients in one door and out. the other without conversing with teachers, reviewing a child’s educational. level, nor doing psychological evaluations (Hancock 52). After children use all.
the Ritalin given with one prescription, new prescriptions are required for. additional doses (Bailey 5). Doctors as well as pharmacies benefit monetarily. from the constant appointments to the doctor and the many prescriptions. respectively, for a drug that may be doing more harm than good. No X-ray, blood. scan, or CT scan determines who does or does not need Ritalin (Hancock 52). Hancock states that prescribing Ritalin has become more of an art form rather. than a scientific method (52).
Physicians hand out Ritalin without proper. research and examination of each individual. Using Ritalin creates psychological changes in addition to the medical. effects which become evident. Throughout life every person loses concentration. or does not pay attention to project scoping the present situation; however, if ADD was based. upon the individual occurrences that all humans experience, then the entire. world would be diagnosed with ADD and consuming Ritalin.
Citing the main. criticism of hills like elephants citation, Ritalin, Hancock states the drug is simply a quick fix for children. living in an impatient world (52). Project? “It takes more time for parents and teachers. to sit down and talk to kids; it takes less time to a knights tale trailer get a child a pill,” states. Dr. Sharon Collins, a pediatrician in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where reportedly eight. percent of the children are on Ritalin (Hancock 52).
Parents many times. initiate the pursuit to obtain Ritalin with hopes that the “miracle drug” can. work to help their child achieve more. Leutwyler writes of anecdotes about. parents seek to find an ADD/ADHD diagnosis for their child so that he or she may. possibly study more intently, focus on tests, and get better overall grades (14). Children obtain false senses of security which leads many to project scoping put trust in a.
capsule or a pill and Essay Rosemary of the, disregard individual responsibilities to work without the. aid of a drug. Stating a similar fact, Machan explains that children must learn. to be held responsible for their behavior and every physical condition cannot be. corrected by project, a drug (151). Russel A Barkley of the University of a knights tale trailer, Massachusetts. Medical Center states that “we are giving kids medication rather than dealing.
with their problems” (14). Psychological dependence upon a medication is project scoping an. addiction to something that is almost always not necessary especially when. Ritalin with its unknown effects is the essay used a tool by project, impatient parents. Ritalin creeps into society as a drug with a big name and about to kill, reputation for.
being widely used; in addition, the project scoping illegal side effect of abuse comes along. into the picture. Classified as a Schedule II controlled substance, Ritalin. comes under strict regulations and quotas from the federal government dictating. the amount of the drug that can be manufactured (Bailey 2). Abusing the drug. usually takes place by citation, snorting or injecting Ritalin into the body which.
stimulates cocaine-like effects along with an project scoping armful of unwanted symptoms that. invade normal biological processes (Bailey 4). Intravenous use of Ritalin as. Bailey explains, exposes the to kill a mockingbird body to many dust particles and even smaller. bacteria which can attach to the needle, flow straight into the blood, and. contaminate the circulatory system (4). Snorting Ritalin, which is more common, harms the scoping body just as much as does intravenous abuse. Trailer? Ritalin tablets contain.
hydrochloride salt which produces dilute hydrochloric acid when it comes in. contact with moisture; once inside the nasal passages, the acid burns the tender. nasal tissues which controls the olfactory sense in the body (Bailey 5). The. price that some people pay to damage their bodies expresses the project scoping lack of common. sense which abusers have.
In the illicit street drug market, tablets usually. cost between three to fifteen dollars for a tablet that is no larger than a tic. found in hills white citation, the woods in scoping, size (Bailey 2). As ADD diagnosis increases, doctors’ demand for poem, Ritalin increases to distribute to scoping the patient; however, due to. government restrictions on manufacturing quotas, the amount of the drug. available is limited and of planning, abuse of the drug hinders the number of pills on the. legal market (Bailey 2). Project? Hancock alerts that one of the most common places of. illegal sell of Ritalin lies on the school yards of tale trailer, America; enterprising.
children see the opportunity to project make some money and neglect their parents’ waste. of money every time a prescription is written (56). Even government regulations. cannot control Ritalin with policemen on every playground in the United States. Society reaps a harvest of malignant effects by the abuse of Ritalin and most. people see nothing wrong. God has given the knowledge to researchers and developers of. pharmaceuticals to design drugs in order that people benefit from the use. If.
doctors abuse the privilege to john diagnose afflictions and project, distribute medicines, then society will become corrupt with drugs and illegal drug sells. Physicians. must respect the privilege and give drugs to those who are medically in poem to kill, need of. it and not just as a pacifier. Ritalin can be a help if the proper research and. study determines what the drug actually effects and who requires the drug for. healthier living and better focus on life.Hopkins 3. The parents of six year old James Patrick Smith receive a phone call. from the scoping school guidance counselor informing them of their child’s recent. hyperactive behavior.
After a short conference, the guidance counselor suggests. to the of planning parents a solution for young James’ problem; as a result, the project scoping family. visits their family doctor and the doctor diagnoses James with Attention Deficit. Disorder (ADD) during a one hour appointment. To remedy the the essay disorder, the doctor. prescribes the scoping “savior drug” for ADD patients; children are almost always fed. the drug Ritalin, a prescription medicine that packs a strong euphoric punch. (Machan 151). The preceding hypothetical situation commonly occurs in john, the.
United States at a growing rate which may be too fast for project, the nation to contain. The over-prescription of the drug Ritalin to correct ADD produces many negative. side effects upon patients and society. In the vast market of prescription drugs, Ritalin, one of the a knights trailer most. highly used drugs, also carries with it some of the greatest medical drawbacks. ADD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stands tall as America’s. number one psychiatric disorder (Hancock 52). Estimates suggest that more than.
two million children live with the disorder; in addition, according to Dr. Daniel Safer of Johns Hopkins University, over scoping, 1.3 million regularly consume. Ritalin for treatment of ADD (Hancock 52). Ritalin appears to activism be a popular. choice for doctors, but the daily effects of the drug, which family physicians. do not see, creates questions as to how well the drug actually works. Scientifically know as methylphenidate, Ritalin stimulates the central nervous. system with similarities to amphetamines in the nature and extent of its.
effects; furthermore, it supposedly activates the brain stem arousal system and. the cerebral cortex (Bailey 3). The key factor remains that doctors and. researchers are not sure of project scoping, what precisely occurs when Ritalin invades the poem about to kill a mockingbird human. body. Hancock notes that no definite long-term studies exist to project scoping assure parents. that Ritalin does not cause more or less havoc in their child, nor does any. disease accompany prolonged usage (52).
Testing results released by the Federal. Drug Administration (FDA) in February 1996, show a study of mice in which a rare. form of liver cancer arose as a result of Ritalin; however, the FDA still. regards Ritalin as “safe and effective” (Hancock 56). Importance? Offering almost as many. side effects as the number of people who take the project drug, Ritalin alters many.
different aspects of the body. Just a few symptoms cited by Bailey include: nervousness, insomnia, loss of appetite, dizziness, heart palpitations, headaches, extreme weight loss, skin rashes, possible psychotic episodes, and. severe withdrawals (3). Most physicians would not admit to john activism being blind about.
the true consequences of Ritalin, and most families never receive the needed. information to make an educated decision about project Ritalin whether or not to take. To be a potent drug with many numerous physical effects, Ritalin is not. respected by about Jackson's of the Fantastic, doctors who spend only a short amount of time with patients before. prescribing the “wonder drug” as treatment. Findings of a recent survey by project, the. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, report that almost half of the. pediatricians surveyed said they send ADD/ADHD children home within a hour.
(Hancock 52). Time appears to be on the essay the side of the scoping doctors which leaves. patients and their families holding a possible “time bomb” of Ritalin. With. assembly line-like characteristics, physicians turn patients in one door and poem, out. the other without conversing with teachers, reviewing a child’s educational. level, nor doing psychological evaluations (Hancock 52). Scoping? After children use all. the Ritalin given with one prescription, new prescriptions are required for.
additional doses (Bailey 5). Doctors as well as pharmacies benefit monetarily. from the constant appointments to the doctor and the many prescriptions. respectively, for a drug that may be doing more harm than good. No X-ray, blood. scan, or CT scan determines who does or does not need Ritalin (Hancock 52). Hancock states that prescribing Ritalin has become more of an art form rather. than a scientific method (52). Physicians hand out Ritalin without proper. research and examination of each individual. Using Ritalin creates psychological changes in addition to the medical.
effects which become evident. Throughout life every person loses concentration. or does not pay attention to the present situation; however, if ADD was based. upon the hills citation individual occurrences that all humans experience, then the entire. world would be diagnosed with ADD and project scoping, consuming Ritalin.
Citing the the essay main. criticism of Ritalin, Hancock states the drug is simply a quick fix for children. living in project scoping, an impatient world (52). “It takes more time for parents and the essay, teachers. to sit down and talk to kids; it takes less time to get a child a pill,” states. Dr. Sharon Collins, a pediatrician in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where reportedly eight. percent of the project scoping children are on Ritalin (Hancock 52). Parents many times. initiate the lennon pursuit to obtain Ritalin with hopes that the “miracle drug” can. work to help their child achieve more. Leutwyler writes of anecdotes about.
parents seek to find an scoping ADD/ADHD diagnosis for their child so that he or she may. possibly study more intently, focus on tests, and get better overall grades (14). Children obtain false senses of security which leads many to john lennon put trust in project scoping, a. capsule or a pill and disregard individual responsibilities to work without the. aid of a drug. Stating a similar fact, Machan explains that children must learn.
to be held responsible for their behavior and poem about a mockingbird, every physical condition cannot be. corrected by a drug (151). Russel A Barkley of the University of Massachusetts. Medical Center states that “we are giving kids medication rather than dealing. with their problems” (14). Psychological dependence upon a medication is an. addiction to something that is almost always not necessary especially when.
Ritalin with its unknown effects is used a tool by impatient parents. Ritalin creeps into society as a drug with a big name and scoping, reputation for. being widely used; in addition, the john illegal side effect of abuse comes along. into the scoping picture. Classified as a Schedule II controlled substance, Ritalin. comes under strict regulations and quotas from the federal government dictating. the amount of the drug that can be manufactured (Bailey 2). Abusing the white elephants citation drug. usually takes place by snorting or injecting Ritalin into project, the body which. stimulates cocaine-like effects along with an armful of about to kill a mockingbird, unwanted symptoms that. invade normal biological processes (Bailey 4).
Intravenous use of Ritalin as. Bailey explains, exposes the body to many dust particles and even smaller. bacteria which can attach to the needle, flow straight into the blood, and. contaminate the circulatory system (4). Snorting Ritalin, which is more common, harms the body just as much as does intravenous abuse. Ritalin tablets contain. hydrochloride salt which produces dilute hydrochloric acid when it comes in.
contact with moisture; once inside the nasal passages, the acid burns the tender. nasal tissues which controls the olfactory sense in the body (Bailey 5). The. price that some people pay to damage their bodies expresses the lack of common. sense which abusers have. In the illicit street drug market, tablets usually.
cost between three to project fifteen dollars for a tablet that is no larger than a tic. found in the woods in size (Bailey 2). As ADD diagnosis increases, doctors’ demand for Ritalin increases to distribute to the patient; however, due to. government restrictions on manufacturing quotas, the white elephants amount of the drug.
available is limited and abuse of the drug hinders the number of pills on the. legal market (Bailey 2). Project? Hancock alerts that one of the most common places of. illegal sell of Ritalin lies on the school yards of America; enterprising. children see the opportunity to make some money and neglect their parents’ waste. of money every time a prescription is Rosemary Definition of the Fantastic written (56). Even government regulations. cannot control Ritalin with policemen on every playground in project scoping, the United States. Society reaps a harvest of malignant effects by the abuse of Ritalin and most.
people see nothing wrong. God has given the the essay knowledge to project researchers and developers of. pharmaceuticals to design drugs in order that people benefit from the use. The Essay? If. doctors abuse the privilege to diagnose afflictions and distribute medicines, then society will become corrupt with drugs and illegal drug sells. Scoping? Physicians. must respect the privilege and give drugs to those who are medically in need of. it and a knights tale trailer, not just as a pacifier. Ritalin can be a help if the proper research and.
study determines what the drug actually effects and scoping, who requires the drug for. healthier living and better focus on life. [ ] - .
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4 Things Recruiters Wished You Knew About Your Resume. By Robin Reshwan, Contributor | Sept. 11, 2017, at 11:54 a.m. Project. Even if you are in activism, a field not seen as high-tech, every profession requires digital fluency with certain tools. Project Scoping. (andresr/Getty Images) A dreaded task people face when job seeking is the essay putting together their resume. Some people just cut and paste their job descriptions into a document.
Others list all their duties, their impact and make sure it is laid out meticulously. Still others write a (slightly fictional) masterpiece that embellishes all of their best traits. No matter where you fall on project that spectrum – the function most often overlooked is how a resume is used in the screening process. Here are some insider tips from someone who has managed hundreds of recruiters and advised on thousands of hires for Essay of the Fantastic, a wide range of professional positions. Hiring managers and project, recruiters look first to see if you are currently doing the role for which you are applying.
It may not be fair (and it may not even be the best way to make an ideal long-term match), but that is reality. The overwhelming majority of managers try to hire someone who is already in lennon activism, a similar position, likes the role, is performing well, but has a strategic reason to move to project scoping, another company. Candidates in a role right under the target role on the promotion ladder are a good second choice. No matter how well-written, a resume will not get you an hills citation interview if you are not a close match to the position requirements. Functional resumes are a red flag. Project. Remember that current, relevant experience is hills like white elephants king. This means most recruiters will look to see what you are doing now - which is best handled by a reverse chronological resume.
Start with your current role and work backward. A functional resume, which focuses on relevant skills you have, is often used when there have been breaks in project scoping, employment or those skills are not being currently (or recently) used. When presented a functional resume, a recruiter or manager often assumes the skills they are requiring are not part of your current role (or else you would have used a standard resume). The format raises a red flag. Importance Of Planning. This does not mean you are not qualified, but it requires further consideration. If you are currently doing a role that aligns with a target position, your safest route is to write a reverse chronological resume. Experience has a shelf life. Thanks to project scoping, technology, the world of work has never progressed at such a rapid pace. Even if you are in poem, a field not seen as high-tech, every profession requires digital fluency with productivity tools involving databases, online communication, email, collaboration and project management. Hiring managers target candidates who have used desired skills and tools in the past five to project, seven years.
If your skills aren't current, seek out hills white online courses or other opportunities to keep up to date. While recent, on-the-job experience is project often ideal, online education, certifications, involvement in professional associations and transferable volunteer work go a long way to displaying commitment, drive and citation, aptitude. The job of a resume is to project, get you an interview, not hired. Recruiters scan through resumes and the essay, make judgments in a matter of seconds as to who will be contacted for an initial screening. In addition to those candidates lacking relevant experience, resumes with typos, poor grammar or writing, lack of details and unprofessional layout get weeded out quickly. While you cannot change your experience, you do have control over the content and project scoping, the format of your resume. Customization and editing are key. Make sure you understand the targeted role well enough to address how your background qualifies you for the position. Clear away extra details that distract from the skills and experience that matter.
Also, do your best to avoid cliches and other phrasing that can come across as inflated (or overkill). Recruiters and hills like elephants, managers vet hundreds of project scoping, candidates, and are often jaded. Using phrases like, transformational sales manager and passionate customer service associate are likely to get a dubious groan – not a resounding, Let's bring him in immediately! You may, indeed, be those things. But the recruiter is after quantifiable results in tenured roles with well-respected companies.
The extra fluff, if not backed up by your work experience or reputation, does nothing to get you to the next round. The job searching process is a tricky one – especially if you do not have a perfectly matched background. It is trailer important to make sure your resume is well-written, flawless and scoping, customized to the audience. Rosemary Jackson's Of The. It is the brochure of your qualifications you present in an effort to project, get an interview. Like all good marketing pieces, it also requires a more comprehensive strategy to to kill, make sure it gets read by the right people. Actively networking, looking for internal company referrals, building a positive reputation for scoping, your work and leveraging LinkedIn and other social channels are a must for modern job seeking. You need a resume that is the hills elephants, best possible representation of you as well as a comprehensive, proactive search strategy to get the best results. Avoid These Words on Your Resume and Get More Interviews. Make your resume easy to read so recruiters and scoping, hiring managers can focus on what matters most. How to Crush Fears and Get On With Your Job Search. Control your fears, determine your strengths and get organized in about to kill, order to push on with your job search.
How to Write a Great Cover Letter. If you#39;re like most job seekers, you#39;re probably doing it wrong. Project. 5 Questions About Resume Writing Job Seekers Often Ask. Learn the advice most commonly provided by hills elephants citation professional resume writers. How to Write a Knockout Career Summary. Utilize the resume real estate between your contact information and work experience wisely. 3 Simple Steps to scoping, Customize Your Resume Fast.
Quick fixes to help tailor your resume to the job you want. Resume Tips for Experienced Professionals. Of Planning. How to explain some of the more complex work histories. What to Do With Your Job Search After Hearing 'We'll Get Back to You' Taking the scoping, right steps to be persistent while remaining professional. 5 Tips for a Winning Cover Letter. How to hills, secure that initial interview. How to Write a Top-Notch Executive Resume. Sharpen your tools for the next step in your career.
Our expert contributors give their best advice on project answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and lennon, more. Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and project, Peter Gudmundsson.
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Introduction to project scoping Musical Theatre Essay. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and plot of a stage play with a musical component; the extent of this musical collaboration has changed over the years, from operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays. From its humble beginnings to its current status as Broadway spectacle, the art form has carried a great influence in the world of performance. White Elephants Citation! In this essay, a detailed history of musical theatre, from its infancy to now, will be explored. Musical theatre has had a long, storied history; the style dates all the way back to ancient Greek theatre, back in the 5th century BCE. In that time, Greek comedies and tragedies almost always had a musical component; songs and dance were common to the plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, who acted as composers and choreographers to their own works. Project! In Rome in the 3rd century BCE, Plautus wrote comedies that also had orchestrations and choreographed dances to about a mockingbird their songs. Roman theatre also innovated the process of dancing, creating crude tap shoes called sabilla , which were chips of metal attached to the shoes of project performers to make their steps easier to hear and notice in a knights tale, the large theatres they played in. The Middle Ages saw theatre take a much more mobile, nomadic route to performance; with traveling minstrels moving from town to town and village to village, performing songs and small routines.
Small troupes of performers would do the same, offering slapstick-filled, delightful plays they would offer to those who would watch them. The 12th and 13th centuries saw the musical theatre advent of religious dramas, like The Play of Daniel and The Play of Herod ; these dramatic works would have church chants interspersed within them, offering that musical component. This would evolve into the mystery play, which told a story of the Bible in a musical manner. The mobility of scoping performing troupes would also be made more efficient through the advent of pageant wagons. These were mobile stages the troupe would bring with them to provide added production value to to kill their plays; they would settle down, perform their show, and pack up. These shows often consisted of poetic forms, prose dialogue, and musical numbers. In the project scoping Renaissance, musical theatre took a giant leap forward with the about to kill development of commedia dell’arte, a type of musical theatre where well-known stories were improvised by actors using the art of clown to create broad humor throughout.
Music became a large part of Jacobean and Elizabethan plays; lutes, organs, pipes and more would play during these performances in order to enhance a scene. Often, if a play was a tragedy or a heavier historical, it would be interrupted with short plays filled with music to add levity. This is where the jig was created; jiggs were broad, farcical afterpieces that followed these heavier works. In the scoping Tudor period, court masques were created, where the first inklings of modern musical theatre were created. In these masques, elaborate set designs were combined with elegant and detailed costuming, as well as performances that combined singing, dancing and acting to music. The purpose of these masques were often to flatter a royal patron or nobility that was in the audience at the time. The masques were popular types of theatre created by a knights, playwrights such as Ben Jonson and project William Shakespeare. Soon, just the musical components of masques would be made into operas altogether; acting as sung plays that would be the first templates of musical theatre. The famous French playwright Moliere created farces that would have musical components to tale them (song and dance numbers interspersed within the work). These developments led to project the creation of English opera; some of the more famous playwrights were Thomas Shadwell, John Blow, Henry Purcell, and more.
By 1685, however, English opera started to lose its luster. In the 1700s, musical theatre in England developed into tale, two distinct varieties: ballad operas and comic operas. The Beggar’s Opera by scoping, John Gay is the quintessential example of the trailer ballad opera; it offered new lyrics spoofing the popular songs of the time, the olde English equivalent of a jukebox musical. Comic opera, on the other hand, carried a romantic plot set to original music; The Bohemian Girl by Michael Balfe is a fine example of a comic opera. Scoping! In the meantime, lighter, more fleeting forms of opera were being created, like Comedie en vaudeville and opera comique, which led to the notions of burlesque, melodramas, vaudevilla, and the notion of the music hall. Since many London theatres only got a license as a music hall, plays had to have music in them; therefore, musical theatre became a more popular part of theatrical life in England, and this led to the popularization of melodramas and burlettas.
In Colonial America, the first real presence of theatre to the essay be found did not happen until 1752, when a theatre was formed in Williamsburg, Virginia by William Hallam, which performed classic English plays. Soon after, however, they moved to The Beggar’s Opera and other ballad operas and farces in New York. This theatrical presence slowly morphed into what would become Broadway in the 1920s and 1930s. These early plays were the first to be widely recorded and scoping toured, with hundreds of performances in a single run for many musical plays. The further evolution of hills white citation musical theatre came with the scoping development of the operette, which was created in 1850 by the French composer Herve. These were light musical comedies that would often provide broad satire and wit to the stage, combined with bright melodies and high energy. These would be the model for all musical theatre that would come after it. After Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II would develop the style further, it would become popularized in the works of Gilbert and Sullivan, Irving Berlin and Rodgers and Hammerstein.
The music hall and musical burlesques would comprise the majority of musical theatre in 19th century England. The Black Crook proved to be the very first play that would fit the modern conception of the musical – this combined dance and original music which would supplement the straightforward story being told. In 1866, this play premiered in New York and the essay became a staggering success. Other musical comedies came out project, around this year, and Rosemary Jackson's of the Fantastic the late 19th century saw comedic musical theatre that spoke to project scoping the common man, adding legitimacy to the theatrical proceedings. The stories were no longer broad, royal farce; they were meant to be more legitimate, with complex plotting and significant characters. By landing more reputable singers like Vivienne Segal, Fay Templeton and more, they offered significant credentials to those who put on these plays. Once the modern musical was developed, there were other changes to theatrical procedure that allowed for longer runs. Tale Trailer! With street lights and electricity, it was safer to come out at night; therefore, night shows became the norm, adding a larger number of performances for each show. With the money that came from the project scoping added revenue these extra shows afforded them, production value of Broadway and West End shows increased substantially. Gilbert and Sullivan began producing large comic opera shows that would become extremely popular around this time; shows like HMS Pinafore and The Mikado , as well as The Pirates of Rosemary Jackson's of the Penzance , were family friendly and project very accessible, leading to worldwide success.
Due to their unparalleled success, the standards for Essay about Definition of the theatrical popularity changed dramatically. Gilbert and Sullivan also pioneered several conventions of the modern musical as well; in their shows, the dialogue and project scoping the lyrics were combined to importance make the story more understandable and sensible, even with the integration of scoping music into the performance. P.G. Wodehouse, Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Andrew Lloyd Weber and more would take this particular style of comic opera and develop it further. The Savoy operas in the 1880s began to about enjoy considerable success in America as well.
Unlike the tawdry sensibilities of previous musicals, these shows were thought to be family friendly and respectable, something that was harder to look down upon. Before these developments, musical theatre was often thought to be for perverts, a much seedier audience; now, theatre was for project scoping everyone, especially musical theatre. Broadway saw its fair share of musicals in the 1890s as well; attempting to ape Gilbert and poem about to kill a mockingbird Sullivan, many copycat productions took place, like El Capitan by John Philip Sousa. Ragtime became more popular as a freeform style of theatre, a different, more fast-paced and modern variety of vaudeville. Scoping! Musical comedies continued throughout the early 20th century, through Tin Pan Alley-composed songs. In Broadway, the runs were shorter than in the West End (never reaching thousands of performances like some Gilbert and Sullivan shows), but often would have longer tours with the original cast. In the john activism “Gay Nineties” (the subjectively wonderful 1890s in England, as they were known), musicals were becoming more popular on the London Stage. George Edwardes took over the Gaiety Theatre, seeking to change it from the bawdy burlesque show that it was and providing a straightforward, light musical alternative to the heavy, absurdist and project scoping politically charged Savoy operas that were the flavor at hills white elephants citation, the time. He decided to scoping try doing family friendly, breezy, lighthearted comic romances, combined with style and importance spectacle.
While there were burlesque elements to them, there were also comic opera traditions sprinkled throughout, and the replacement of low-class burlesque dancers with respectable dancers and singers. These types of scoping plays were such a success, they would determine the next thirty years of musical theatre in London. Many of these plays, like The Shop Girl and A Runaway Girl , followed the tropes of romances where the importance poor maiden falls in love with royalty, and faces many obstacles before finally winning him. Project! These set the tone for musical comedies that would sweep across the face of musical theatre in both England and poem about a mockingbird America, as many other theatres would copy these shows with increasing complexity, including Sidney Jones’ The Geisha and San Toy . During this time, the operetta had been essentially removed from the English stage due to the prevalence of Edwardian musical comedies, but it made a comeback in the early 20th century with the project operetta The Merry Widow, which premiered in john activism, 1907 in project scoping, London and Broadway. This success led to a knights trailer the direct competition of musicals and operettas for the next few years, with new and project old operettas being brought out on the essay the stages of both American and scoping England.
New operettas that premiered at this time included the works of Victor Herbert ( Babes in Toyland, The Red Mill, The Fortune Teller ), and modern musical plays that were a bit more intimate. In an poem about to kill a mockingbird, attempt to cash in on the still-popular Gilbert and Sullivan-style musical, P.G. Widehouse, Jerome Kern and Guy Bolton all came out with “Princess Theatre shows,” which offered light entertainment while remaining continuous with its songs and scoping plot, offering a complete, detailed and of planning complex story throughout. Unlike the scoping broader comedies of the time, and which had come before, situational comedies had a much greater influence, and poem a mockingbird the characters were more realistic. The songs were actually used to develop the characters or move the plot along; this was a breakthrough in scoping, the plotting and about to kill development of musical theatre. With the advent of the Princess Theatre musicals, these lighter shows proved they could integrate song and story just as well as Gilbert and Sullivan could. The theatre experienced a boom in business with the start of World War I; given the project devastation of the the essay battlefield and the front, audiences flocked to the stages in order to project scoping get some escapism. Irene , a play by Harry Tiernet and Joseph McCarthy, premiered in 1919 to widespread popularity, holding the Broadway record for longest run (670 performances) for poem to kill a long time. While those were impressive by American standards, they held nothing to the British capacity for holding a musical run; Chu Chow Chow ran for over two thousands performances.
Revues started to become popular, as they incorporated light, multi-act performances that offered variety. As the 20th century chugged along, American musical theatre began to take dominance in both popularity and quality. Project Scoping! The Theatrical Syndicate, led by Charles Frohman, spearheaded the development of importance of planning shows like the project scoping Princess Theatre shows and many other Tin Pan Alley-inspired musicals. Jazz and ragtime became a much more popular component of modern musicals at the time, and the Gershwin brothers, as well as Irving Berlin and poem to kill a mockingbird others, started to get shows produced. This shift in American musical theatre’s popularity was due to the changes in project, society that were happening at john lennon activism, the time; the increase in project scoping, vernacular and naturalism that was desired by audiences of the modern era led to a slow death of the broad, the theatrical and the operatic. The Essay! Shows and musicals were more direct with their plot, their characters and their intentions, and tradition gave way to innovation. The Roaring Twenties saw the project scoping advent of the motion picture, and its rise in popularity; this proved to be a challenge for theatres. Even though they were silent at first, and poem a mockingbird so could not offer the scoping audio component of Essay about Definition Fantastic theatre, the scoping creation of talking films like The Jazz Singer meant that it offered a real threat to live theatre. Musicals in that era started to bring in bigger stars and greater spectacle, offering loudness and music hall sensibilities in lieu of complex plotting and character development.
Despite the fact that there was not a whole lot tying these glorified revues together, they proved extremely popular and light entertainment. Lennon! Theatre writers began to transition into popular music, as most of the music people were listening to at the time was what they heard in these reviews and scoping vaudeville shows. Production values increased substantially during this time, making the musical more expensive to produce than ever. The concept of standards became popular in the 1920s; the lighthearted shows were never that memorable ( Sally, Oh, Kay! ), but their songs would stick in the public’s mind. As a result, they would be covered by a variety of popular music artists, like Cole Porter, Marilyn Miller, Fred Astaire. Operettas also came back into the limelight for a time, and Noel Coward and other composers started to enjoy newfound popularity. Show Boat in 1927 proved to about be one of the most complex mixes of score and book that there had been to date; even the Princess Theatre musicals lacked this level of sophistication. Project! There existed dramatic themes that were told with every component of the show, from the movement to the setting.
This integration of production value with narrative complexity that rivaled anything that had come before. While this was popular, events like the Great Depression led to people going back to hills white elephants citation lighter entertainment. When the Great Depression hit, it left people with little money to entertain themselves with; this mean substantially reduced ticket sales. It was also cheaper to go to the ‘talkies’ than see a show, making it even more challenging for theatres to find an scoping, audience. Vaudeville was eliminated by musical films, as they agreed to be filmed for one-off shows that effectively killed future live performances of their work. There were still Show Boat -like shows that were great hits for those who could afford the ticket price; Of Thee I Sing was the first musical that was given the Pulitzer Prize. Importance! Anything Goes cemented singers like Ethel Merman, who would become the queen of musical theatre due to her loud, booming voice. Project! The first Broadway show to star a black person (Ethel Waters), was 1933’s As Thousands Cheer . Porgy and Bess proved to be a very popular musical, created by john, George Gershwin and released in 1935. Modern musicals like Knickerbocker Holiday by Kurt Weill provided satire of FDR and detailed the history of New York City. With these more complex works, there were still lighter hits on Broadway, like I’d Rather Be Right and project The Dancing Years . Cole Porter came into popularity with Anything Goes and DuBarry Was a Lady . All of these contributions led to poem about to kill a mockingbird the overall success and survival of musical theatre, which was a miracle in a time when economic destitution was the worst this country has ever experienced. The evolution of project scoping musical theatre at this time allowed for a knights tale trailer fast-paced music, staging, choreography and more naturalistic dialogue, a far cry from the overt theatricality and melodrama of previous eras.
Musical theatre in the 1940s would hit a new zenith with Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical Oklahoma! Continuing the Show Boat tradition of having complex plotting and serious storytelling amongst musical numbers, the show offered dream ballets and integrated the music more cohesively into the story, rather than providing dance as an excuse for men to scoping see barely-dressed women. Poem To Kill! Agnes de Mille was the choreographer for this show, and it revolutionized the format of musical theatre by scoping, providing a decided lack of tawdriness and an earnest desire for storytelling that was not present at this level before. A Knights Tale! In the opening number, there were no showgirls, but instead the actual play began with “Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'”. This earnestness and quality of scoping production gave the john show rave reviews and unexpected popularity. It got the scoping Pulitzer Prize, and like elephants citation the musical achieved new narrative heights.
It turned into the first Broadway show to be considered a “blockbuster,” and was even adapted into film. Project Scoping! In the hills like elephants citation canon of musical theatre, it was the first extremely successful Broadway musical, and scoping it holds a beloved place as a milestone of theatrical history. The success of the play sent Rodgers and about Definition of the Hammerstein into incredible popularity, coming out with a string of further hits, like South Pacific, The King I and The Sound of Music. In all of their shows, dark themes were presented in a way heretofore unseen in musical theatre; Oklahoma’s villain was a murderer, and project Carousel tackled the theme of domestic abuse. Due to poem about to kill a mockingbird their vast creativity, everyone else wanted to emulate them, which meant a string of successive musicals in that vein; this led to the Golden Age of American musical theatre. The war itself was brought to project scoping the theatre, with many war-themed shows becoming popular; On the Town showcased a shore leave between soldiers and their women, bringing wartime uncertainty and pathos to the big stage. Poem About To Kill! Annie Get Your Gun, Finian’s Rainbow, Kiss Me, Kate and other such plays were modeled after the Oklahoma! trend of scoping having complex plots with integrated music within, enhancing the overall quality of the musical theatre canon. In the 1950s, shows like Guys and Dolls, Paint your Wagon, My Fair Lady and more continued the tradition of complex characters within musicals; records continued to be shattered, with My Fair Lady running a record 2,717 performances.
Each of these popular musicals would have film adaptations made of them as well, bringing in a newfound collaboration between Broadway and Hollywood. Importance Of Planning! Stars like Julie Andrews and Judy Garland dominated musicals at this time. Off-Broadway musicals also came to prominence, with shows like The Threepenny Opera and The Fantasticks proving that a show does not have to project scoping be part of the Broadway system to be critically and financially successful. Essay Rosemary Jackson's! The orchestras were smaller, and the scale was toned down, but they could still work. West Side Story adapted Romeo and scoping Juliet into a modern New York City setting, and brought home significant box office returns and myriad Tonys. This cemented Stephen Sondheim’s reputation as a master composer for musicals. The 1960s saw even greater popularity and experimentation on Essay of the Fantastic the part of musicals. More blockbusters, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Hello Dolly!, Funny Girl and Man of La Mancha would be created, and some of the scoping overt sexuality of the john burlesque would come back with the popularity of Cabaret . The rock musical would then usurp these musical styles by the end of the project 1960s.
Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman would significantly shape the pattern of musicals in this decade and the next, through the darker themes that he would explore in works like Sweeney Todd and a knights trailer A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum . Scoping! These plays were bloody, cynical, and like white elephants gritty, eschewing the sunny dispositions of earlier musicals to make plays about singing surprisingly dark and brooding. Into the Woods and Assassins explored these themes further, showcasing a sophistication in lyrics and music that belied the overall exclusiveness of project some of the hills elephants citation plays’ themes. Soldheim tried a number of new things during this time, including reverse-engineering shows and scoping breaking the fourth wall to trailer the audience, all things that made musical theatre challenging and intriguing again. With the start of the musical Hair , rock music would be incorporated into musicals. Also, the Vietnam War was brought up as a theme, something which would prove controversial and also indicative of scoping musical theatre’s propensity to the essay challenge societal attitudes at project scoping, the time. Racial tolerance was found in many Golden Age musicals, which were then resurfaced ( The King I, South Pacific , and more). Racial integration finally occurred in the end of the 1960s; homosexuality was first openly explored as a theme in Hair , and then moved onto other shows. In the 1970s, with the a mockingbird advent of the rock musical, The Rocky Horror Show, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell and more started to bring in this rapidly popular style of music to project scoping the theatrical realm, bringing with it an added edge that was never before seen onstage. Some of these plays, like the Who musical Tommy , tended to work more towards concepts of opera than they did musicals, with little spoken dialogue and most of the story and character conveyed through song.
African-Americans got their own musical representation onstage, portraying the black experience through The Wiz, Dreamgirls and more. As the Broadway canon expanded, more and more variation occurred, with musicals of every genre coming into the essay, prominence. A Chorus Line proved to be a giant among contemporary musicals; released in 1975, the play, which was about an audition for project a musical, broke narrative conventions in a fascinating way, also providing with it amazing music and spectacle, busting box office records and Jackson's of the Fantastic reaching incredible critical acclaim. Project Scoping! This led to more plays along that same style, such as Chicago, Pippin, Nine, Evita and more. These were risque, tawdry yet liberating pieces, bringing sensuality to the stage without it being classless or inaccessible. In the 1980s and 1990s, pop music began to invade musicals to a larger degree, and larger production values brought incredible spectacle to these productions, like falling chandeliers in The Phantom of the Opera . Novel and john lennon activism literary adaptations were beginning to be the scoping norm, and European influences were more and more prevalent. Andrew Lloyd Webber became an the essay, incredible mega-hit musical creator with Cats and Evita , The Phantom of the Opera and project scoping more. A greater emphasis on adaptations has been put forth as the 1990s rolled along; corporations began to get into the Broadway game, with the hills like elephants Disney Company allying with Broadway to adapt their musical films to the stage; Julie Taymor’s production of The Lion King stands out among that canon.
With the greater opportunities available for smaller playwrights to create small-scale musicals, musical theatre split into larger, spectacle-based musicals of Broadway, and the quirkier, smaller musicals of project scoping off-Broadway. Little Shop of Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical , and others provided smaller scale but interesting stories that eschewed overly elaborate set pieces for small sets of characters and developed storylines. Incredible innovations would come from shows such as these, and a new niche audience was created for hills like white elephants them. In order to scoping attract younger audiences, Rent was released on Broadway and the West End, a dramatic tale of New York bohemia, rock music, and AIDS. Tale! The incredible success of the musicals invigorated the theatre scene with a much younger demographic, leading to the advent of interesting, new and unusual shows. Urinetown and Avenue Q brought modern, crude but wacky humor to project scoping smaller stages, Spring Awakening and other shows doing the same. While Broadway continued to play it safe with their familiar shows, the rise of adaptations began to surface. Wicked , The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray and others indicate a modern, ongoing trend of taking an tale trailer, established property and making it into a musical.
The point of this is to offer something familiar, which audiences already know from established material and have a fondness for, and offer a musical component to project scoping it. The Essay! The jukebox musical, exemplified by Mamma Mia! and others, continues this trend of offering familiar songs framed around a new story.
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Free Media Essay: Mobile TV – Has its time come? Mobile TV: Has its time come? The first mobile television was a pocket sized device with a 2-inch Cathode Ray Tube screen called Microvision or MTV-1. The device retailed at a price of ?100 was sold to the public in January, 1977. The first mobile TV was developed over a period of project 10 years with a funding of ?1.6 million from the British government. Importance Of Planning? The debate about mobile TV has undergone tremendous changes since the days of MTV-1. The most important of these changes is the proliferation of project mobile phones.
Today, there are close to 5 billion mobile users in white the world (International Telecommunication Union, 2010). The proliferation of mobile phones has meant that mobile TV today is synonymous with TV on mobile phones. Mobile TV offers great potential to engage the project scoping audience in new forms of entertainment and interaction thanks to digital convergence. When the television operators are facing increasing competition from content delivered on elephants citation, the internet, mobile TV offers a new distribution channel for the operators. The advent of 3G networks and devices has addressed the issue of mobile TV technology to a large extent. Governments have realised the benefits of better telecommunication infrastructure and project scoping are investing great sums of money on improving the same. By the end of this year, 940 million people are expected to be using 3G services. Some countries like United States, Norway and importance Sweden are also offering services on 4G networks (International Telecommunication Union, 2010). More than 3 decades after the first mobile TV device was commercially sold, has the scoping time come finally come for mobile TV? The author wishes to explore the potential for mobile TV in the context of the information age. The author considers the the essay social, technological and economic aspects of mobile TV in doing so.
The research essay is organized into the following sections: market for mobile TV, technologies for mobile TV, challenges for mobile TV, role of scoping information systems and opportunities for mobile TV. The final section includes discussion and conclusion. In order to understand the market for the mobile TV, the a knights trailer author first considers the usefulness and utility of mobile TV from the end users perspective. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) proposed by scoping, Davies (1989) is a well respected model for determining the acceptance and the usage of a technology. Jung et. al. (2009) have applied TAM to study the consumer adoption of tale trailer mobile TV.
The author wishes to use TAM on project, the same lines. Technology Acceptance Model proposes that ease of use and usefulness of a technology predict its usage. Two central concepts of TAM are Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use. Perceived usefulness is the degree to which a person believes that a particular information system would enhance his or her job performance. In this case, mobile TV is the information system and the user is seeking entertainment in the form of watching mobile TV. Perceived ease of use is the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort. The traditional broadcast media allows users only to a mockingbird be consumers and enables a one way communication: from broadcaster to the user.
On the other hand, social media, enabled by project scoping, Web 2.0, makes the experience more engaging by poem about to kill a mockingbird, allowing the user to participate in the production of new information and combine different streams of project entertainment and information together. In this respect, mobile TV can be very useful for the end user in many situations. Hills White Elephants? Mobile TV makes entertainment more interesting and engaging. Mobile TV serves as a personal entertainment device, offers closer interaction with TV and also caters to the needs of people who want on-the-go entertainment. More than 5 billion people have experience with using mobile phones and 1.4 billion households have TV (International Telecommunication Union, 2010). A large number of users are experienced in using both TVs and mobile phones and as a result, the ease of project scoping use of mobile TV can be considered to be similar to of planning that of mobile phones and TVs. Mobile TV has the potential to gain user acceptance and create a new market as can be seen from its usefulness and project ease of use. Mobile TV provides a new distribution channel for lennon activism, the broadcasters. With mobile TV, users can watch TV on the go.
This will increase the time spent watching the TV and might bring better advertising revenues to the broadcasters. Mobile TV enables the broadcasters to capture more data on the usage and user preference. This will not only enable broadcasters to project scoping charge users based on usage, but also enable them to customize programs to meet user needs. Hills Like White Citation? Mobile TV also provides a new revenue generation opportunity to the telephone service providers, who can provide digital TV as a value added service on their networks. Mobile TV has the project scoping potential to be a win-win opportunity for lennon activism, the users, broadcasters and telephone service providers.
In the next section, we will explore the project scoping technologies that make mobile TV possible and its challenges. The technologies associated with Mobile TV can be classified under 3 categories for analysis: Networks, Devices and, Content and Functionality. Networks : Mobile TV is one of the applications of about to kill a mockingbird 3G networks, which has a user base of 940 million people. Though both underdeveloped and developing countries are heavily investing in telecommunication infrastructure, it is still some time before 3G networks reach the scale and coverage of traditional TV networks. Networks supporting 3G are also not capable of providing high quality TV content to mobile devices. Devices : Mobile TV brings a number of challenges to mobile phones. The main challenges are: Memory, Power Consumption, User Interface and Processing Power. Memory: Mobile TV demands higher buffering requirements and as a result larger memory capacity.
Power Consumption: The power consumption of phones supporting mobile TV will be higher than that of other phones. The devices should support long lasting batteries. The devices should be light weight and dissipate heat correctly. User Interface: The screen should be much larger in phones supporting mobile TV. Processing Power: Phones supporting mobile TV must have better processing power. Scoping? As image and poem about to kill a mockingbird video processing applications are very process intensive. Content and scoping Functionality : It is important to Rosemary Definition of the consider the kind of content users want to scoping view on mobile TV and additional functionality that they demand. Studies have shown that typical mobile TV usage to be less than 10 minutes (Knoche McCarthy, 2005). Users have complained of loss of visual detail and legibility of text as main problems. These issues might spoil the movie watching experience. New experiments are being tried out to modify the traditional TV content to importance suit the mobile TV.
For example, episodes of scoping some TV programmes have been remade into mobisodes to suit viewing on mobile phones. The National Academy of Television Arts Sciences instituted a new Emmy awards category for such programmes, which are meant to importance be viewed on computers, mobile phones, PDAs and other portable media players (Carey Greenberg, 2006). Users treat mobile TV as a wireless multimedia device rather than as a TV (Sodergard, 2003). Project? As result, users might expect search, book marking, recording and editing functionalities to name a few. In 2005, South Korea became the first country in the world to offer TV on john activism, mobile phones (Paulson, 2006). Since then a number of broadcasters and project scoping operators have tried to offer mobile TV. The early forays into the mobile TV space were met with failure. In UK, British Telecom launched their mobile TV offering in September, 2006.
It however closed down in the first year of its operation. Mobiles Fernsehen Deutschland of Germany and the essay 3 of Italy also met with the same fate. The early forays failed due to a number of challenges and scoping some of these challenges are relevant even today for mobile TV. Some of these challenges have been highlighted above. Firstly, people want to watch TV on a big screen. Though the screen size of the importance of planning phones has increased over the years, it might not be enough. Secondly, consumers are happy watching low quality video when it is free ex: on YouTube. But, consumers want high quality video when they are paying for it. Even with 3G networks, the available capacity is not enough to project scoping deliver high quality video content.
TV content is transcoded and optimized before it is delivered to john lennon activism mobile phones. The process of transcoding and project scoping optimizing takes some time and as a result broadcasting live events poses a big challenge. Thirdly, there is currently less mobile TV content available with the broadcasters and hence, the telephone service providers are unwilling to form partnerships with them. Trailer? Without these partnerships it is not possible to attract more users to adapt mobile TV. Information System has a critical role to play if mobile TV has to project scoping become a reality. A well conceived information system can bring benefits to all the three parties: users, broadcasters and telephone service providers.
Users : Users will be able to analyze their TV usage and pay for individual shows instead of entire channels. This might result in significant cost savings to the user and at the same time force the broadcasters to produce good quality content and content that matches the user preferences Broadcasters : Information Systems will help the broadcasters to track the usage and learn about about Jackson's Definition Fantastic, user preferences. This will help broadcasters to scoping produce targeted and customized content. Broadcasters will also be able to push targeted advertised. Targeted advertising has the john activism potential to generate large revenues for the broadcasters. Broadcasters will also be able to provide better user experience by collaborating with telephone service providers and integrating their TV offerings with internet.
Telephone and Internet Service Providers : Telephone prices have come down drastically and service providers are looking at new revenue streams. Considering that a trillion hours of time is spent every year on project, watching television in the United States alone (Shirky, 2010), mobile TV offers an exciting revenue stream to the service providers. Information Systems will service providers to collect and monetize data, and also to about a mockingbird cross sell and up sell their products. Comcast allows free web content to mobile phone users in its Sprint network and up sells premium content. Many organizations like Nokia and Cisco (Cisco Systems, 2010) believe in the potential of mobile TV. News Corporation, one of the largest media houses in the world, has made available its popular music channel, Channel V, on project, mobile phones (News Corporation, 2009). The Chairman of importance News Corporation, Rupert Murdoch, has said that mobile TV is central to his company’s success in the age of digital journalism (Murdoch Says Mobile TV Is Key to Future, 2009).
A number of developments contribute to the mobile TV opportunity. They are: New business models are being experimented with. Comcast in the US allows subscribers to watch TV on project, 3 devices. It can also allow mobile devices. New media and communication devices being launched are erasing the boundaries between laptops and mobile phones. For example, Samsung’s tablet PC Galaxy combines phone-like communication features with TV/ laptop like screen. Importance Of Planning? Such devices are addressing many challenges that were highlighted above for project scoping, mobile phones. Expansion of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) networks is expected to deliver better quality video and audio. Content is being rethought for mobile phones.
Mobisodes discussed earlier, is of planning a good example. Project Scoping? The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has approved a new standard that allows high speed data transfers, compatibility with the a knights trailer worldwide web and international roaming for project scoping, the third-generation (3G) IMT-2000 mobile phone systems. This announcement is going to accelerate the john lennon development of new and faster devices and networks. Traditionally TV was as a family entertainment device intended to watch TV programs with family and interact with them. Mobile TV changes this idea and makes TV viewing an individual act. Individuals treat mobile TV as a wireless multimedia device rather than a TV (Sodergard, 2003). Therefore, if mobile TV has to be successful, it has to compete not only with traditional TV, but also with internet services offering video/ movie on demand. Scoping? Mobile TV currently faces a number of activism challenges in project reaching the masses. But, from the positive developments in terms of technologies, business models and collaborations explored in this essay, the author is cautiously optimistic that mobile TV will reach its expected potential in to kill a mockingbird the near future.
When TV was first introduced to the world in 1920s, it was a small screen device. In the following decades, many portable TV devices were conceptualized and some implemented. Given the development of new devices fostering digital convergence, the improving communication infrastructures and the user preferences, it looks like the small TV is set to make a comeback in the form of mobile TV. The improvements in the communication networks, technical innovations and new business models definitely point in the direction of project mobile TV. Has mobile TV’s time come? In the author’s considered opinion, it definitely looks so. Carey, J., Greenberg, L. (2006).
Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of project Information Technology. MIS Quarterly , 319-340. International Telecommunication Union. (2010, February 15). Press Release . Essay About Jackson's Definition Of The? Retrieved December 06, 2010, from International Telecommunication Union: http://www.itu.int/newsroom/press_releases/2010/06.html. International Telecommunication Union. (2010). THE WORLD IN 2010: ICT Facts and Figures. Project Scoping? Geneva: International Telecommunication Union. Jung, Y., Perez-Mira, B., Wiley-Pattona, S. (2009).
Consumer Adoption of Mobile TV: Examining Psychological Flow and Fantastic Media Content . Computers in Human Behavior , 123 – 129. Knoche, H. O., McCarthy, J. D. (2005). Good News for mobile TV. Wireless World , pp. Scoping? 1 – 8. Murdoch Says Mobile TV Is Key to Future . (2009, December 01).
Retrieved December 06, 2010, from Broadcasting and tale Cable: http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/391233-Murdoch_Says_Mobile_TV_Is_Key_to_Future.php. News Corporation. (2009, June 04). Project? CHANNEL [V] Goes Mobile in white elephants citation Hong Kong . Retrieved December 06, 2010, from News Corporation: http://www.newscorp.com/news/bunews_24.html#top. Paulson, L. Scoping? D. (2006). TV Comes to the Mobile Phone. IEEE Explore , 13 – 16. Shirky, C. (2010).
Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age. London: Allen Lane. Sodergard, C. Poem About A Mockingbird? (2003). Mobile Television – Technology and project scoping User Experience. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to the essay receive more just like it. Including student tips and project advice. Enter your email address below to receive helpful student articles and tips.
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