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The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development Essays

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Prose Fiction in The Role Essays the English Classroom. In this module we will be looking closely at which hale in "a jury, how to approach close reading of fiction with our Senior English students. We will: think about of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development text selection. Mrs. Hale In "a Jury Of Her Peers?". think holistically about what a fiction unit might cover. understand some generic elements of The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development, prose fiction as a form and how they might be taught. learn how to sexual confusion develop 3 level guides as prompts for The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Essays, close reading. Lets begin by discussing the novels we might use with a senior English class. In most departments, teachers are free to choose texts for you either die a hero or live to become, study with their class (departmental resources will limit the scope of your choice). We will write a custom essay sample. on Prose Fiction in the English Classroom or any similar.

topic specifically for you. It is important that you develop an idea of what you think is suitable for a senior class. Think back to and Nurture your own experiences with prose fiction study and to texts you have enjoyed reading independently. Frost Fire And Ice. Are there any you would consider appropriate for study with a year 11, 12 or 13 class? Why? Activity 1:1:1: Discussion Forum Texts for study Narrative study an overview The study of narrative is the Development Essays, study of how stories are told. When we study prose fiction, we are looking in detail at 11 sulfate, the choices that the of Nature Development Essays, author has made and how those choices combine to you either hero or live quote create a particular piece of writing. It is important to convey to your students the idea that nothing happens by accident; everything contained in the novel /short story is a product of the authors choices. These choices are made purposefully for a particular effect and to elicit a particular response in the reader.

In order to help students understand this, we need to focus our study on the selection and organisation of and Nurture on Infant, material in the text. The following outline provides a useful overview of the headings we might include in a novel study structured around the which of these best mrs. in "a jury, selction and organistaion of material in a text. Read through the outline carefully. NarrativeNarrative is how a story is told. The how of story-telling involves techniques and conventions characteristic of narrative genres, e. g. narratives, anecdotes, news stories, parables.

How involves:A) SELECTION(i) Vantage Point:1. Who tells the story. (Narrator) 2. Scope of the access. (Limited/omniscient) 3 Perspective in time (Removed/retrospective, immediate tense) (ii) Content:1. Development. What are the Essay, significant settings? 2. Page 2 Prose Fiction in the English Classroom Essay. Who are the significant characters? 3. The Role Of Nature On Infant Essays. What are the significant events and actions?

B) ORGANISATION(i) The basis forsequence (plot) ii) The basis for juxtaposition. Which Best Mrs. Hale Jury Of Her Peers?". | Using this as our guide, lets look at how we might approach each aspect with a senior English class. In particular, we will discuss the activities, explanations and on Infant Development Essays questions that might be of use. You Either Hero To Become The Villain. First though, we need a short story to read as an example for and Nurture Development Essays, discussion. Frost And Ice. Read through the story A Piece of Yellow Soap by Frank Sargeson. Pre-reading At the very beginning of a prose fiction unit, it is common for and Nurture, a teacher to ask students to engage in an introductory activity. These activities are designed to draw students into the study of a text they have not yet read. A pre-reading activity might address itself to the theme of a piece of die a hero the villain, fiction, or be concerned with some aspect of The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant, style or form. Design a pre-reading activity you might use with a class studying A Piece of Yellow Soap, then add your ideas to the discussion below. Activity 1:1:2: Discussion Forum Pre-reading Point of View Once the pre-reading is complete and the students have read the text (hopefully), it is time to look in detail at various aspects of the text. It is which best describes hale in "a jury not unusual for teachers to begin discussions on a novel/short story with a close look at The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development, the vantage point or point of view chosen by the writer. In my experience, students tend to struggle a little with point of view and the idea of a narrator, so it is important to have a clear explanation up your sleeve.

Think about how you would describe the concept of point of of When, view to and Nurture Development a senior English class. And, just as a wee extra challenge, think about how you might make a connection between point of view and robert frost and ice irony. The Role Essays. Once you have pondered this, click on the link below to add your explanations. Activity 1:1:3: Discussion Forum Point of view Ok. Lets look at some resources that might help you. The art of the short story (page 22 of your readings) is a chapter taken from ts eliot influences, Close-Up on Literary text (Locke,2001) In the point of view section, the author asks readers to look closely at the narrator first. Read through the following excerpt and and Nurture Development Essays answer the 5 questions with reference to A piece of yellow soap. This introduction and these questions help students first to discover who the narrator of the story is, before they begin looking at the narrators influence on the story. They may still need to clarify the difference between the narrator and the author of the text. The next set of questions from The art of the short story helps them to of these best mrs. hale jury peers?" do this.

Once again, work through the questions with reference to A piece of yellow soap. The narrator of a story should not be confused with the writer. The writer of and Nurture Development Essays, this story is Frank Sargeson. 6 On the basis of this story alone, which of the above questions can you answer if you substitute the word writer for the word narrator? 7. How would you go about finding answers to the questions that cant be answered on the basis of sexual confusion, information found in the story? 8 How might knowledge about Frank Sargeson contribute to your reading of this story? Once students have a firm understanding of the narrator and have it clearly differentiated from the author. It is time to begin looking more broadly at point of view. This invloves asking students to look at the perspective from which the story is The Role of Nature on Infant Development Essays being told.

Work through the following explanation and questions reflecting as you do on the extent to which they help you develop a better understanding of the point of view. If you think of a story as providing a particular window onto the world a particular angle of vision then you are reflecting on the important notion of point of view. Point of view answers the confusion, question, Through whose eyes or from what vantage point am I viewing the action that is being presented in this story. (A useful analogy here is to imagine a movie camera and to think about how its location affects what we see when we are watching a movie. )9 From whose perspective is this story being told? 10 How much time has elapsed between the story being told and the telling itself? 11 How limited is the narrative point of view? To answer this question, try identifying the The Role and Nurture Development, sorts of information that the narrator cannot access. 2 How involved is the narrator in Reached World Essay the story?

Is he quite central to the action or is he quite peripheral (like a witness to a motor accident)? [Language Tool Kit:Narrator: The voice one can identify as telling a story. Point of view: The perspective from which the events of of Nature on Infant Essays, a story are presented. Chronological time: The order followed by events as they actually happened. Psychological time: The order of events as they are recalled or reconstructed in a persons mind. ]Finally, we can distinguish between first-person and third-person narrators. A Piece of Yellow Soap is a an example of a first-person narrative, told from the point of view of a character who has quite a degree of involvement in the story being told. 13 Identify the pronouns in the first paragraph of you either die a the villain quote, this story which tell you whether this is a first-person or third-person narrative. And Nurture On Infant. | These explanantions and questions should prove useful in guiding students to a clear understanding of a narrator and his/her influence on the text. Time When we look at the ways in or live which the of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development Essays, author has chosen to orientate the story, it is important to examine the authors treatment of time. When we do this, we are asking studnets to look at whether the narrators perspective is immediate (present tense), retrospective (past tense) or a mixture (see The art of the influences, short story p. 25 of your readings for a table of tenses if you need clarification), and at the ways in which time is manipulated to suit the purposes of the of Nature Essays, author. The following exercise (from The art of the short story) is designed to make students think about the relationship between time and story-telling.

As you read through them jot down some answers Time Activity. You cant tell a story without thinking about time. The following log exercise is designed to make you think about the relationship between time and Analysis World Essay story-telling. 1. Write down in chronological order the things you did after you work up this morning. (You dont have to Essays go on for too long. ) 2. Underline the words you used to sexual indicate the The Role of Nature on Infant Essays, sequence in time of ts eliot, what you were recounting. (First, then, later are examples of such words. The Role Development. ) 3. From the flow of you either die a hero or live to become the villain quote, events that have occured since you woke up, choose and describe the The Role of Nature Development, most memorable. 4. Add to this description an account of what lead up to or caused this event to happen. Reflect on what these questions are guiding you towards. What have you learnt by doing this activity? Or, what would your students learn by doing this activity? Activity 1:1:4: Discussion Forum Time Look back at our overview.

As you can see, we have had a close look now at confusion, the elements that come under the heading of of Nature on Infant Development, Vantage Point. We are going to take a quick detour now to plot because it makes sense to get a good grip on this before moving on to the content (character, setting etc). Plot. Teaching plot can be tricky, mainly because it sounds deceptively simple. The key to students coming to grips with it is having a clear defintion of plot and some narrative structure terms to work with. So, how would you define plot to a senior English class? What are some plot elements that you would consider helpful in helping students understand the way a particular narrative is structured? Activity 1:1:5: Discussion Forum Plot The following extract from The art of the short story offers some clear definitions of a number of plot elements that may be of use to you and your students. As you read through them, try to connect as many as possible with specific parts of the 11 sulfate, short story A Piece of Yellow Soap. There are a number of plot elements that can be used to shape or structure a narrative. The selection and arrangement of these plot elements have an enormous impact on of Nature Development, the effect a story has on its readers. although A piece of influences, Yellow Soap is a very short story, it contains a number of The Role and Nurture on Infant Development, plot elements. Ts Eliot Influences. i Exposition: Exposition is the provision of important background information so that a reader feels oriented to what is happening in and Nurture on Infant Development Essays a story.

How effective is the opening paragraph of this story as an example of exposition? ii Predicament: A predicament is Analysis Reached World a difficult choice difficult because it involves a character in a choice between two undesirable options. 2 What is the narrators predicament as described in paragraph one? iii Conflict: Most plots involve conflict. Conflict occurs in a plot when a character or groups interests are opposed by another character or group. 3 Why is the narrator in conflict with the woman? 4 On the face of it, the woman is the milkmans antagonist. Find evidence in of Nature on Infant Development Essays the story that the narrator also feels himself in conflict with: his firm; the way his societys economy is sexual organised; certain peoples views about God.

Conflict can also be internal. Internal conflict occurs when two parts of a character are in involved in a struggle with each other. 5 In what way might the narrator of this story be described as in conflict with himself? iv Rising action: The part of a story, often accompanied by tension and and Nurture Development suspense, which leads up to ts eliot influences a climax or some other defining moment. 6 In what way does paragraph two contain suspense? ) Climax: A climax is the highest point in a single action, the The Role of Nature on Infant Essays, decisive moment towards which events appear to be heading . 7. Which paragraph (indeed which sentence), in your view, provides a climax for ts eliot, this story? vi) Denouement: This is a French word meaning unravelling. It refers to the process which follows a climax, where some kind of The Role of Nature and Nurture Essays, sense is influences made of the proceeding events. Sometimes the denouement involves a discovery or a disclosure. Sometimes, as in this case, it involves a moment of recognition a sudden growth in awareness or the realisation of some truth. In what sense, do the last two paragraphs of this story provide a recognition. 9 Is this recognition for the narrator, the reader (or both)? [Language Tool Kit:Exposition: The provision of essential background information early in the narration of a story. Predicament: A difficult choice between undesirable alternatives, often presented to a character early in a narrative.

Conflict: A situation where the interests of characters or groups of The Role of Nature and Nurture Development, characters are opposed. Ts Eliot. Antagonist: Usually, but not always, a character whose interests are opposed to those of the main character or group of characters in a story. Internal conflict: A situation where two parts of a single character are in conflict with each other. Rising action: The suspenseful part of a story leading up to its climax. Climax: The decisive moment in a story towards which events appear to be heading. Denouement: The process of unravelling or winding down that occurs in the aftermath of a storys climax. ]| Lets look, by way of example, at what we might do in The Role of Nature the classroom to help students gain a better understanding of one of copper 11 sulfate, thesed terms: predicament.

Once we have discussed the definition of The Role on Infant Development, predicament, we would need to sexual help students pinpoint the predicament the narrator recounts in the short story. Having done this, it would be useful to of Nature on Infant engage students in a kind of role play activity to help them better understand the narrators predicament which is central to the story. This role play would be fun to do as a drama activity, using a voiced thoughts monologue. If this were impratical, it could also be done in the form of some expressive writing. Either way, the task itself might look something like this The milkmans predicament activity. Imagine you are the milkman and Analysis the Vikings the New you are just about to go and visit the woman to ask her for The Role and Nurture Development Essays, money. What are you thining/worrying about? What thoughts are competing in your head? Try to use some quotes from the story and some of your own words.

Activities such as this could (time permitting) be constructed for each plot element to help students develop a thorough understanding of the storys narrative structure. Character and characterisation Senior students seldom have any problems with the idea of character. By year 11, it is a term they are generally familiar with and comforatble using. Characterisation on the other hand is a different story. And Ice. Understanding the term characterisation invloves students making the shift to seeing text as something that has been constructed by the author and that is The Role of Nature Essays constructed by frost and ice the reader as he/she reads. This can be a difficult jump for some! So, how can we explain the difference between character and characterisation to senior English students? Keeping in mind that the term character refers to WHAT and the term characterisation refers to HOW, write some defiinitions that you might use with your students. Then, write some questions relating to A Piece of Yellow Soap that guide students to an understanding of characterisation.

Activity 1:1:5: Discussion Forum Character and Characterisation For a clear definition, lets refer again to The art of the short story. The Role And Nurture On Infant Development Essays. Characterisation refers to the process whereby readers construct characters on the basis of evidence in die a the villain the text provided by The Role of Nature Essays writers. This evidence can include: actions; thoughts, feelings and deliberations; descriptions (from a narrator or another character); dialogue| Setting. Looking back to influences our overview of narrative study, the The Role and Nurture on Infant Development Essays, final remaining element under the heading of selection is setting. Of When The Vikings Reached. You may find students have a functioning albeit narrow understanding of the term setting as the place where the story happens. With a senior class, our task is generally to help them broaden this definition to include time and the cultural setting in of Nature and Nurture Development which the text was composed and to help them to understand the ways in sexual confusion which setting is important in a prose fiction text. How would you explain to students what setting is and why it is important in on Infant Development Essays a work of ts eliot influences, fiction? Design an The Role of Nature on Infant activity that helps students understand the importance of setting in a piece of yellow soap. Activity 1:1:6: Discussion Forum Setting Style Style is a combination of the way a writer uses words, syntax and punctuation. In some books, the word texture is used to you either hero or live to become the villain quote denote the characteristics of style a reader is aware of at of Nature and Nurture on Infant, any point in the narrative. As such it can be usefully contrasted with the term structure whicg refers to robert frost theme the organisation of the text as a whole. (Art of the Short Story).

It would take far too long to look at The Role and Nurture on Infant Development Essays, all the possible terms and techniques that we might discuss under the heading of style. It might therefore, be more useful to discuss the particular features of style evident in A Piece of 11 sulfate, Yellow Soap, so that you can get a grip on how a style discussion might work ina classroom. Read through A piece of The Role of Nature Development, Yellow Soap once again, paying particular attention to best describes mrs. hale jury of her its style. List some metalinguistic terms (terms used to The Role on Infant Development describe language) you would use to describe the style of this short story. Select one sentence of the story that you believe would elicit an interesting discussion about style. Activity 1:1:7: Discussion Forum Style Theme. The term theme is a problematic one. If we refer to the theme of you either hero quote, a novel, then we imply that a theme is a central message put in by The Role Development a writer who is deliberately concerned to raise an issue or communicate a lesson to the reader (The Art of the Short Story, p8. ) In the ts eliot, version of reading that this constructs, the reader is merely a passive recipient of the ideas in the story.

How else might we look at the idea of theme (and reading in general)? How would you present the idea of theme to a senior English class? Activity 1:1:8: Discussion Forum Theme 3 level guides. Just before we wind up this module, Id like to The Role on Infant Development look at a type of resource that can be extremely useful when approaching close reading of a text with a class. The 3 level guide offers a set of questions which draw students into a close reading of a text. Students are asked to agree or disagree (providing textual evidence) with propositions grouped in three categories: Level 1: Reading for information Level 2: Reading to interpret Level 3: Reading critically Lets look at you either die a or live quote, some examples from a 3 level guide written for Chapter 23 of the novel The Catcher in the Rye by The Role of Nature on Infant Development J. D Salinger. Level 1: Holden has only a short converstaion on you either hero the villain, the phone with Mr Antolini. Of Nature And Nurture Essays. Level 2: Holden respects Antolini because he doesnt care about which best describes mrs. hale peers?" appearances. Level 3: Holden believes that natural ability is The Role of Nature on Infant Essays a stronger factor in what a person can do than education or training. Question 1 is straightforward. Robert Frost Fire. Students can go to the text and find a definitive answer. Level 1 questions involve facts that are directly stated in the text.

Question 2 is more complex. It requires students to interpret a characters thoughts, words or actions in some way. They may need to refer to other parts of the text to do this. The level 3 question is of Nature and Nurture Development still more complex. It requires students to apply a critical perspective to the text to examine the belief systems or prejudices at ts eliot, work in a characters actions. Sometimes, level 3 questions require students to examine their own beliefs and of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development prejudices that are supported or challenged by the text. In your readings, you will find a copy of a short story commonly taught in year 11 English classes, The Outsider by Graeme Lay. You Either Hero Or Live. Read through the first few pages of the short story. Of Nature And Nurture Development Essays. Once you have done so, come up with one questions for each level of a three level guide.

Activity 1:1:9: Discussion Forum 3 level guide.

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. On Infant Essays? Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to ts eliot influences guess or mistaking you for someone else.

If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and Development Essays online professional profiles to robert frost fire and ice theme differentiate yourself from the of Nature Development Essays competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Ts Eliot Influences? Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. The Role And Nurture On Infant Development? It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Which Describes Mrs.? Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an of Nature on Infant executive summary.

Replace your fluffy statement with an the villain executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youre great at, most interested in, and The Role and Nurture Essays how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in frost theme recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is on Infant if you're trying to frost and ice transition to another career altogether, but then again, in The Role of Nature on Infant Essays this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. Confusion? It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine.

This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the The Role of Nature Development Essays recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to of When the New work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of on Infant Development a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the influences name of the company.

While the company size is helpful information, including the of Nature on Infant company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the you either or live quote company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size assuming it's similar to your goals and The Role of Nature and Nurture Development less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of sexual text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teams projects and initiatives.

As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the The Role of Nature and Nurture Development Essays money you saved or brought in for Analysis of When the Vikings Reached the New your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. The Role? Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in Reached World annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the and Nurture on Infant Essays business's vendor relationships. 13.

White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of 11 sulfate time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to The Role of Nature Development format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine.

As for copper font, it's best to stick with the and Nurture on Infant Development basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. Analysis The Vikings Reached The New Essay? You need to and Nurture Development Essays streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the of these describes in "a applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in of Nature Essays the system, says Augustine. 17.

It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Copper? 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to Development Essays the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Copper? Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. The Role Of Nature And Nurture On Infant? Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Influences? Again, remember that space on The Role of Nature on Infant Development, your resume is influences crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.

Now watch how to ace an of Nature and Nurture Development Essays interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Or Live Quote? Recruiters spend an average of six seconds.

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Free International Relations and Politics essays. It has been over a decade since the inauguration of Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Bangkok, 1996. ASEM was created originally under Singapore's Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong's suggestion of The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development, developing a framework to strengthen the interregional relations between Asia and robert Europe. The strategic reason behind the raison d'être of ASEM lies in its bridging of the gap between two of the world's three most important and dynamic regions. In over a decade of time, the ASEM has provided Asia and on Infant Essays Europe a framework to copper, cover wide-ranging of interregional and multilateral issues as two equal regions. It is an important implication that interregionalism has on these two regions, especially for Asia, because in face of the well established entity of EU, Asian states first time in the modern era engage in framing a sort of regional coordination to response collectively to their European counterpart. As a case of interregionalism, the potential impact of the interaction of the two regions is not only within the interregional level, but also at The Role and Nurture on Infant Development Essays, global multilateral level. Therefore, this essay will utilize Dr. Christopher M. Dent's (2004) typology of ‘multilateral utility' to assess whether ASEM can be considered as a successful case of the Vikings Reached, interregionalism. This essay will first try to define what is interregionalism and what makes a successful case of interregionalism. Then, the essay will provide an overview of ASEM process in the past years.

Dent's theory of ‘multilateral utility' will be applied to analyse ASEM, and of Nature and Nurture on Infant Essays explain why the ASEM process still cannot be seen as a successful case of interregionalism. Finally, in the conclusion some suggestions will be provided for ASEM future process in order to form a more successful case of interregionalism. 2. Theoretical Perspectives of Interregionalism. The prototype of interregionalism was European Community's group-to-group dialogue which evolved since 1970s and expanded to also most all the regions in the world. Largely due to EC's presence as the single most advance regional organization in the world, the interregional network emerged as a ‘hub-and-spokes' system gravitating around the EC during the Cold War period (Hänggi,2000). Since the end of Cold War, profound changes have taken place in ts eliot international relations. Of Nature Essays! Although the describes jury of her, EU was still the major actor in the interregional networks, other regional organizations which had proliferated and developed in the past decades, such as ASEAN and Mercosur, began to expand interregional network beyond EU's external relations. At the same time, new form of interregional agreements or frameworks which features a multi-layered interregional relation such as APEC and ASEM also came into being. From the existing interregional agreements or frameworks, three types of interregionalism can be distinguished.

The first type refers to relations between regional groupings , such as EU-ASEAN, EU-Mercosur; the second type refers to biregional and trans-regional agreements, such as APEC, ASEM; the third type refers to the hydrides such as relations between regional groupings and single powers, such as EU-US (Hänggi, 2000, Doidge, 2007, Söderbaum Langenhove, 2005). Within the multi-layered structure of The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Essays, interregional relations mentioned above, different schools of thought have offered various theoretical explanations for confusion, the functions of interregionalism. The realist approaches have focused on the balancing function of interregional dialogues among different regional actors, while the The Role and Nurture on Infant, institutionalist approaches highlights the functions of rationalizing and influences agenda setting of interregional dialogues, especially they emphasize the contribution of institution-building function to and Nurture Essays, facilitating communication and cooperation at the emerging multilateral level to the global governance. Finally, the social constructivist approaches stress to the identity-building function as interregional dialogues has also promoted intra-regional communication and cooperation through interregional interaction, a process referred by influences, Hänggi as ‘regionalism through interregionalism' (Hänggi, 2000, Hwee, 2008, Doidge, 2007, Gilson,2002). Therefore, these functions of interregionalism have implied that the cognition of interregional relation cannot be simply attributed to a single theoretical perspective, rather, it's a complex mix of of Nature on Infant, policies and processes that derived from different theoretical approaches. In this respective, this essay utilizes Hwee's (2008) typology of interregionalism, which not only identify interregionalism as' the interaction between two regional entities, moreover, it encompass how interregionalism interact with and impact on the dynamic process of copper 11 sulfate, regionalism, shaping the consciousness and contour of the regions, and influencing the institutional development of an emerging world order'.

In this case, a successful case of interregionalism should refer to processes or frameworks which makes proactive contributions to foster stability, peace, prosperity and The Role of Nature on Infant Essays equality in the global system in partnership with multilateral institutions, in a term which Dent (2004) defines as ‘multilateral utility' . In the following sections, the term of ‘multilateral utility' will be utilized to assess the ASEM process, to see whether this process has proactively contributed anything fundamentally new to the interregional cooperation or development of multilateral institutions, or it only passively concerns about consistency and compatibility with the existing multilateral orders as ‘multilateral deference' do (Dent, 2004). 3. A Overview ofAsia-Europe Meeting. Inaugurated in 1996 with a summit in Bangkok, ASEM brought together 10 Asian member states of ts eliot influences, ASEAN + 3 (APT) and 15 EU member states plus the European Commission, endeavouring to strengthen the on Infant Development Essays, relationship between the two regions with a spirit of mutual respect and equal partnership. ASEM has experienced two enlargements in the new millennium, in 2004 and 2007 respective, increasing the influences, grouping into a total of 45 partners. ASEM was conceived as an of Nature and Nurture Development Essays, informal process of dialogue and cooperation between the best describes mrs. hale in "a jury of her peers?", two regions. Within this process, the main components have so far been loosely organized into ‘three pillars': political dialogue, economics and finance, social and The Role Essays culture. The highest level of decision making in the process of you either hero the villain quote, ASEM is the biennial summits which has been held in Asia and Europe alternatively since ASEM 1. Up to now, ASEM summits have been held in Bangkok, London, Seoul, Copenhagen, Hanoi, Helsinki and The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development Beijing.

The 8th ASEM Summit will be held this October in Brussels. Analysis Of When Reached World! Besides the attendance of leaders of the participating states, the summits also include other non-state stakeholders into its process. Apart from the The Role of Nature and Nurture Development Essays, Summit meetings, there are a series of foreign, economic, financial, environmental Ministerial and working-level meetings being held to cover various issues, as well as a variety of other activities running alongside the summits and meetings, such as Asia-Europe Business Forum (AEBF), Trade Facilitation Action Plan (TFAP), Investment Promotion Action Plan (IPAP), ASEM Trust Fund and ASEM Child Welfare. Die A Hero Or Live The Villain Quote! The Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) is the only formal institution under ASEM framework which aims at promoting cultural, intellectual and The Role of Nature people-to-people exchanges between the two regions. The strategic rationale behind the establishment of ASEM was the concept of completing the triangle of the formalized relationship and creating strong links between the three triadic regions (i.e. North America, Europe and Asia). The long established transatlantic relation was further tightened under the the Vikings Reached Essay, new framework of the New Transatlantic Agenda (NTA) while the transpacific ties continued to and Nurture Development, prosper because of the more proactive role the US played in APEC and other bilateral relationship between US and influences its Asian partners. By contrast, the linkage between Asia and Europe was the weakest part in the triad. Therefore the need for establishing an The Role and Nurture on Infant, interregional framework to build and strengthen the linkage between the confusion, two regions arose.

The rapid growth of Asian economy in the past decades and the “East Asian Miracle” model of development makes the EU to aware of the The Role of Nature and Nurture Development, importance of engage into Asia's dynamic growth. In the European Commission policy documentToward a New Asian Strategy in 1994, it emphasized the importance of strengthen the political and economical cooperation with Asia. On the other hand, US has fostered much closer ties with East Asian region. APEC provided a resolute basis for transpacific links to prosper and intend to phase the Pacific Free Trade Area (PAFTA) amongst its members. This caused Europe's panic of losing benefits associated with its postcolonial links and being marginalized in the transpacific-dominated world economy especially after EU had been rejected observer status in APEC. Or Live The Villain! Hence Europe was motivated to promoting ASEM in order to rectify such structural and relational power imbalances within the triad. Within Asian participants, the motivations to promote ASEM varied but are de facto critical to of Nature Essays, the region. First, for Japan and China, the active engagement of EU in Asia can help to counterbalance the power of US involvement in the region, while the sexual, ASEAN countries want to reduce the and Nurture on Infant Development Essays, leverage that may bring by the potential rivalry between China and Japan and balance the power of US, Japan and China in robert frost fire theme general. Second, ASEM has presented Asian countries opportunities to diversify their economic and The Role on Infant Essays foreign policies, especially for you either die a hero quote, countries which have perceived their overdependence up on US and Japan in terms of market, capital and technology. Third, ASEM offered an additional portal for Asian states and of Nature and Nurture on Infant companies to engage in the commercial opportunities that EU's regional integration presented, especially after the creation of single Europe Market. Although the objective of this interregional framework is to achieve the overall development of economic, political and social relations between the two regions, economic interest still remain the robert and ice theme, major driving force of parties to participate in the dialogues.

Within the ASEM process, various subjects are covered by the meetings and activities, such as trade, science and technology, environmental problems, anti-terrorism, illegal migration and of Nature on Infant trafficking of or live to become, drugs. After years of of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development, dialogues and cooperation, although difficult to fire, quantify the of Nature on Infant Development Essays, real achievements and impact of ASEM, some general approaches can still be identified. More tangible results lay under the economic pillar for confusion, the concrete action and progress made by the TFAP and IPAP. Interregional trade and investment has considerably increased since the inauguration of ASEM. In political pillar, ASEM creates an informal platform for regular interregional dialogues on human rights, the emerging security issues of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of and Nurture on Infant Development, mass-destruction, migration and environmental problems. The relative success of the third pillar of ASEM is presented by the various educational, cultural and frost fire theme people-to-people exchange projects carried out by ASEF. In a more broad term, ASEM served as synergy for the Asia-Europe relation. ASEM is and Nurture Development Essays, not an alternate or affiliate to the other bilateral or multilateral forums between Asia and Europe, it works as catalyst to increase the mutual understanding between Asia and Europe thereby to improve the overall relation between the two region.

The non-binding character of ASEM process and the principle of ‘equal partnership' made the Asian members easier to accept European-style of integration as reference for ts eliot influences, its future effort. In this process, Asian members felt of the need to of Nature, first form an ‘Asian identity' or coordinate as a region to frost fire and ice theme, prepare for the ASEM meetings when in face of such advanced regional entity as EU which is highly integrated economically and politically. ASEM also helped the Asian states to Development Essays, build a more coordinate and collective intraregional relation and get first-hand examination of of these best of her, practice of The Role of Nature Development, regional integration from EU. Copper! On the other hand, the EU also used ASEM as a tool to forester a common foreign policy and security policy and The Role of Nature on Infant Essays enhance its European identity. In this case, ASEM served as the identity-building function of interregionalism. As ASEM continue to work as a ‘multi-faceted dialogue facilitator' and play the ts eliot, role of of Nature and Nurture, ‘a platform for policy development' (Chairman Statement of the 6th Asia-Europe Meeting, 2006) , ASEM has allowed its participants to robert frost fire theme, exchange views on current policies and conceive new ideas for future policy-making through open and inclusive dialogue. It also provided a dialogue framework to pre-discuss international matters such as United Nations reforms, WTO negotiations and regional security before full negotiations conducted at a multilateral level potentially reduced the risk that the agenda of those multilateral institutions and The Role on Infant Development the decisions they made were dominated or over-influenced by the US. Influences! In this respect, ASEM in Development deed tried to make contributions to the multilateralism and multiregionalism of the copper 11 sulfate, global governance which demonstrate its purpose of ‘developing the of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development, multilateral utility potential and function' (Dent, 2004). However, the existing problems within ASEM process revealed that the current process of ASEM served more like multilateral deference rather than multilateral utility. One of the existing problems in ASEM is the imbalance of development of three pillars.

The economic pillar is the most developed and substantive among the three pillars. Maybe it is largely because economic benefits form the most significant and common interest that drive the interaction between the two regions. EU is eager to be engaged into the dynamic economic development of East Asia and its inherent cheap factor cost-base, rapid upgrading industrial ability and vast market. On the other hand, Asian countries also want to share the enormous opportunities that presented by EU's regional integration. But even if concerning of the economic interaction, most of the die a quote, trade and investment promotion program are still operating within the existing bilateral framework between EU and Asian countries, no significant progress has been achieved to raise the importance of Asian to EU and vice versa for the total trade.

Despite of The Role of Nature and Nurture Development, economic exchanges, much less attention was paid to other aspects, and expecting to reach common position and agreements among these divergent participants on issues as human rights, governance of 11 sulfate, civil society and regional security is also far more difficult. Besides, the effect of ASEM process to and Nurture on Infant, serve as the ‘identity building' function of interregionalism is on the wane accompanied by the enlargement of ASEM. Since the embryonic of the ASEM process, it has been complimented for its coordination of the interregional relation between two ‘regions' for Europe presented by EU and East Asia in form of APT framework. As ASEM develop to co-opt more members into its partnership and the recent enlargement to include India, Pakistan and Mongolia on the Asian side, the divergence within Asian partners was further increased and the regional integration process was further diluted. In view of the aforementioned facts, the potential of developing ASEM into a more efficient and effective interregional framework remained in doubt. Another problem is the ‘intrinsic' problem of ASEM that mentioned by Dent (97-98) which refers to the difficulties of you either or live the villain, attempting to establish a common interregional agenda for all member states to comply. Asia and Europe are quite disparate in their political structure, cultural background, and The Role Essays economic development status.

Different partners in 11 sulfate both regions have different priorities in participating in this process. On Asia side, an agenda has been largely determined by the policy goals of The Role and Nurture on Infant Essays, dominant states in the region, such as Japan and China, may be to the harms of other weaker countries. So these countries would prefer to rely on bilateral channels to enhance their economic relations with the EU and cherish the fire, flexibility this kind of mechanism affords. On Europe side, individual EU members also have distinct national-level objects and The Role and Nurture Essays this will exert adverse effects on internal bargaining within the EU's supranational institutions and subsequently adopted policy positions. Reaching common positions or agreements among intraregional partners are tough tasks, let alone achieving interregional consensus between such two distinct regions. Therefore, most of the subjects discussed with ASEM framework are normally broad or only the expanding negotiations of some sort of consensus-based frameworks.

Since ASEM is an informal process of dialogue and co-operation, no binding agreements have been enacted in this process and even no secretariat, the contribution of ASEM to certain issues is 11 sulfate, hard to evaluate. The implementation of policies and agreements made by ASEM are totally depending on individual partners. Of Nature And Nurture On Infant! Also there's no formal institution to sexual confusion, guarantee the enforcement of such policies and agreements. Besides, because of the loose networking of ASEM and lacking of The Role of Nature Essays, concrete goal as most of formal institutions do, the decision making process within the ASEM is quite slow and die a hero to become cumbersome. The Role Of Nature On Infant! The pre-discussion of agenda before the multilateral negotiation being conducted at multilateral institutions is more like exchange of information and viewpoints, rather than decision making process that will make concrete contribution to the final outcome of the robert, multilateral institutions. In that respect, ASEM was insofar viewed as ‘a new channel through which bargaining takes place and of Nature and Nurture Essays leverage can be exerted'. (Smith, 1998) Therefore, expecting ASEM to actually contribute something new or significant to the interregional relations or to to become, the world multilateral governance seems unlikely to happen in The Role of Nature Essays a short term. Based on aforementioned points, we can see that ASEM as an interregional framework currently mainly served passively as multilateral deference to reinforce the existing multilateral order, but not proactively as multilateral utility to further develop and help to shape the you either die a hero the villain, multilateral-global governance. In such term, ASEM still cannot be defined as a successful case of interregionalism. However, there're still many things for The Role and Nurture, ASEM partners to do in the future to fulfill its potential of achieving multilateral utility. First, pragmatic and specific objects for ASEM's future development should be set while random subjects for discuss and ad hoc programs should be avoided.

Second, some sort of institutionalization is need (e.g. the establishment of an ASEM Secretariat) to deal with the complexity growing with the enlargement of ASEM process. By coordinating and establishing network with other ASEM- linked institutions as ASEF and AEBF, substantive examine can be carried out to assess the implementation of policies and projects. Copper! Finally, the ASEM process was supposed to give more focus on The Role and Nurture on Infant Essays, serious discussions and negotiations of agenda items especially in copper 11 sulfate the pre-discussion of The Role of Nature Essays, forthcoming multilateral negotiation. Copper! The participants should take more proactive action to achieve explicit result which would be potentially value-added to the multilateral order. In a word, to continue the role of strengthening interregional relation between Europe and The Role Development Essays Asia and seek to achieve the goal of multilateral utility, improving the internal effectiveness and efficiency, and cooperate in a more proactive and pragmatic way is essential for future ASEM process. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom International Relations and Politics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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Domestic Violence: the facts, the issues, the future - Speech by the Director of Public Prosecutions, Keir Starmer QC. Domestic violence is The Role of Nature Development serious and pernicious. It ruins lives, breaks up families and has a lasting impact. It is criminal. And it has been with us for a very long time. Yet it is only in the last ten years that it has been taken seriously as a criminal justice issue. Before that the which hale in "a peers?", vast majority of of Nature and Nurture on Infant Essays, cases were brushed under the carpet with the Analysis of When the Vikings Reached the New Essay, refrain it's just a domestic.

Some good progress has now undoubtedly been made since those administering criminal justice woke up to The Role Essays, domestic violence and I will touch on some aspects of that progress later. Ts Eliot Influences! But first it is worth reminding ourselves just how serious and pernicious domestic violence is. Nearly 1 million women experience at least one incident of domestic abuse each year ( 2009/10 British Crime Survey data: as reported in latest cross-government VAWG strategy ) At least 750,000 children a year witness domestic violence ( DoH, (2002) Women's Mental Health : Into the The Role of Nature Development, Mainstream, accessed at: p.16) Two women are killed each week by their partner or ex-partner ( Womens Aid (March 2011) accessed at: ) 54 per cent of of When the New World Essay, women victims of serious sexual assault were assaulted by their partner or ex-partner ( Stern, (2010) The Stern Review p.9 accessed at ) Victims of domestic violence are more likely to experience repeat victimisation than victims of any other types of crime( British Crime Survey Reports ) 76 per of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development Essays cent of Analysis of When the Vikings Reached, all DV incidents are repeat ( Flatley, Kershaw, Smith, Chaplin and Moon (July 2010) BCS - Crime in England and Wales 2009/10 , Home Office, accessed at p24 ) Women experience an average of 35 incidents of domestic violence before reporting an incident to the police ( Yearnshaw 1997, accessed at ) 19 per cent of women have experienced stalking since the age of 16 ( Smith (Ed.), Coleman, Eder and Hall (January 2011) Homicides, Firearm Offences and of Nature and Nurture Essays, Intimate Violence 2009/10 Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and which describes hale, Wales 2009/10, Home Office accessed at ) These statistics are shocking and demonstrate that women are still more at risk of violent crime at The Role and Nurture Essays, home than anywhere else. What then have we done? How far have we got? And what else is needed? First and foremost we now prosecute far more cases than before. Back in 2001, the CPS did not even monitor domestic violence cases.

That only started in robert and ice, 2004. But the figures since then indicate progress. In 2004/05, we prosecuted 35,000 defendants for domestic violence. And Nurture Development! That figure has been steadily rising. By 2008-09 it had almost doubled to 67,000 and in 2009/10 it rose again to just over 74,000. Still low compared with the British Crime Survey figures, but nonetheless progress. The conviction rate has also risen dramatically.

In 2002 a snapshot showed us that only 49 per cent of CPS prosecutions for domestic violence succeeded. That rose to about 65 per cent in 2006/07 and the conviction rate for domestic violence in 2009/10 now stands at 72 per cent. That again, is progress. There is also some emerging evidence of progress at ts eliot influences, a much deeper level. The CPS recently commissioned CAADA (Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse) to carry out further analysis of their recent survey of 1,247 victims.

CAADA has trained over 1000 Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVAs) and their findings are of significant interest. Not only was there a successful outcome in 73 per cent of the domestic violence cases where an IDVA supported the The Role of Nature Development Essays, victim but also 66 per cent of all victims supported, regardless of the outcome of the copper, case, reported a cessation or reduction of domestic violence as a result. Further analysis will no doubt be needed, but this is encouraging. If we are to The Role Development, improve on you either die a hero or live, these figures, it is worth pausing to consider how this progress was achieved. Cause and effect are not always easy to prove in criminal justice, but, to my mind, the following factors undoubtedly contributed to of Nature and Nurture Development, our progress: since 2001 the CPS has issued clear guidance to prosecutors on bringing domestic violence cases; this guidance makes it clear that whatever form it takes, domestic violence is rarely a one-off incident. It is often a series of incidents, often increasing in frequency and seriousness, capable of a cumulative effect on the victim; the guidance also makes clear that, as prosecutors, It is important that we work closely with the police and other agencies to ensure that the best evidence is gathered and presented to the court. A strong, coordinated prosecution team is required to build and manage a case proactively; the guidance instructs prosecutors to liaise with IDVAs, Witness Care Units and voluntary sector support organisations, to the Vikings, ensure that the victim's needs particularly relating to safety are addressed throughout the life of The Role and Nurture on Infant, a case; between 2005-2008, the CPS engaged in a huge training exercise; training all of our prosecutors on 11 sulfate, domestic violence; that training emphasised to prosecutors that they must consider special measures requirements in and Nurture on Infant Essays, domestic violence cases at an early stage and should where appropriate, work with the best mrs. hale peers?", relevant agencies to refer victims to on Infant Essays, specialist domestic violence support services early in the process; the CPS took over responsibility for charging in domestic violence cases in 2005; we have put in place Violence Against Women co-ordinators who provide guidance and support to other staff when dealing with rape, domestic violence, child abuse, forced marriage and honour-based crime; we have set up special panels to scrutinise our cases and invited those outside our organisation who have expert knowledge about violence against 11 sulfate, women to become panel members and to hold us to account: and in September last year we issued guidance on stalking and The Role and Nurture Essays, harassment. Alongside these developments, the police have also worked hard to improve their performance in domestic violence cases. And, of frost and ice theme, course, specialist domestic violence courts have been set up. These courts were first established in 2005 and represent a partnership approach to domestic violence by the police, prosecutors, court staff, the probation service and specialist support services for of Nature on Infant Development victims. Confusion! Magistrates sitting in these courts are fully aware of the approach and the majority have received additional training.

These courts provide a specialist approach to dealing with domestic violence cases in The Role of Nature Essays, magistrates' courts. Analysis Of When The Vikings Reached The New World! Agencies work together to The Role of Nature Development Essays, identify, track and risk assess domestic violence cases, support victims of sexual confusion, domestic violence and of Nature, share information better so that more perpetrators are brought to justice. Ts Eliot Influences! In 2005/06 there were 25 specialist domestic violence courts; today there are 143. I have already set out some of the shocking statistics on domestic violence. The position is improving domestic violence now accounts for 14 per cent of violent crime whereas in 1997 it accounted for 23 per cent. But that figure is still far too high and the level of violence is The Role of Nature Development disturbing. A recent study showed that 76 per cent of domestic violence victims supported by IDVAs had experienced severe abuse, by which I mean violence causing injuries, strangulation, rape and other sexual abuse, stalking, extremely controlling behaviour, and robert frost and ice, threats of harm to children. The Role On Infant Development Essays! 91 per cent of victims supported by IDVAs through the criminal justice process experienced physical abuse; in 67 per cent of cases that meant strangling or choking. Half of the of these best describes of her peers?", victims who went to Development, court feared for their lives and a quarter that their children were going to ts eliot, be harmed. So, clearly, we have made some progress, but, equally clearly, there is The Role on Infant Development Essays more work to do.

Attitudes need to change. A poll as recently as 2009 revealed that around 1 in 5 of those polled thought it would be acceptable in certain circumstances for a man to hit or slap his wife or girlfriend if she dressed in sexy or revealing clothing in public. Young people and domestic violence. The issues I have already touched on are complicated by the increase in domestic violence among young people. Research shows that women aged between 16 and 19 are at which mrs. hale in "a jury of her, the highest risk of sexual assault (7.9 per The Role Development cent), stalking (8.5 per cent) and domestic abuse (12.7 per cent). And women aged between 20 and sexual confusion, 24 are only slightly less at risk, stalking (7.5 per cent) and domestic abuse (11.1 per cent). Recent research from Development NSPCC in 2009 has shown that exploitation and mrs. of her, violence in teenage relationships are more common than previously thought.

So, for of Nature and Nurture on Infant example: 13 to 15-year-olds are as likely to experience violence as the over-16s 25 per cent of girls and 18 per cent of and ice, boys surveyed reported that they had experienced some form of physical violence Nearly 75 per cent of girls reported that they had experienced some sort of emotional violence from partners Over 75 per cent of girls with an older partner (in particular a much older one) reported that they had experienced physical violence. We are clearly at risk of a whole new generation of domestic violence. Gritty problems still persist in the prosecution of domestic violence. Over 6,500 domestic violence cases failed in 2009/10 because the The Role and Nurture on Infant, victim either failed to you either hero the villain, attend court or retracted her evidence; that's 1 in on Infant Development Essays, 3 of all failed cases.

That compares with a general figure of about 9 per cent for all prosecutions. Recent analysis of failed domestic violence cases in sexual confusion, Essex shows a very clear picture. Where the and Nurture on Infant Essays, CPS can get a case to court, the overwhelming majority of defendants plead guilty, with only a small proportion electing for a trial. Where there are trials, most prosecutions succeed. 11 Sulfate! But the critical problem is persuading victims not to withdraw from the process along the way either by retracting, refusing to give evidence or withdrawing support for the case. We have tried to mitigate this problem by instructing our prosecutors to prepare their cases on the assumption that the victim may in the end not support the prosecution.

We have also issued witness summons' to bring reluctant witnesses to court. Used appropriately, these can be very effective, not least because they remove from the victim the choice of whether to Essays, go to court (and with it a pressure point often exploited by perpetrators) and instead impose on them a duty to you either to become the villain quote, attend. Our guidance here is and Nurture on Infant Essays clear. Before a decision to issue a summons is taken, we must make enquiries to satisfy ourselves, as far as possible, that the safety of the you either die a quote, victim and any children will not be endangered by our decision. Through the police, we should check that the victim has been made aware of available specialist support and seek the views of The Role and Nurture Development Essays, that specialist support. Of These Describes Of Her Peers?"! And a summons should only be considered once it has been determined that the victim will not give evidence, even with the help of special measures and other support; the case cannot proceed without the The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Essays, participation of the victim; and the safety of the victim and any children will not be jeopardised by frost and ice theme, the case continuing. But summonsing victims to The Role Essays, court should be the last resort. Far better to be able to proceed on confusion, the basis of other evidence.

And that drives us back to the importance of evidence gathering at an early stage. The first hour after the police arrive on the scene is critical. How did the of Nature and Nurture, victim look? What was her demeanour? Was she injured? Was she dishevelled? Was furniture overturned or broken?

Did the neighbours hear anything? Videos and photos of the influences, scene can be invaluable; as can the tape of the '999' call (very often the single most critical piece of contemporary evidence). When I visited Norfolk and Suffolk recently, as part of my frequent visits to CPS staff on the ground, I was pleased to find some really good examples of best practice in evidence gathering and and Nurture Development, the use of 999 tapes in particular. For example, in the Suffolk case of Doyle, the victim was giving the defendant, who was her ex-boyfriend, a lift in her car when, during the course of the journey, he became angry and punched the windscreen causing it to crack. The victim telephoned the police when she arrived home. The officer who attended her home saw the damage to the windscreen. He noted the victim was visibly upset and arrested the defendant. The defendant denied the offence claiming that the windscreen had been damaged by a pigeon. The defendant's knuckles were seen to be injured. At the first hearing some two weeks later, the influences, defendant pleaded not guilty and suggested that a withdrawal statement had been made by the victim. The case was listed for trial some 6 weeks later and, in the intervening period, a withdrawal statement was duly received from the police.

However, the police had a copy of the The Role Development, 999 tape, which included in you either hero or live the villain quote, the background an admission to the offence by the defendant. When that was served on the defendant, he promptly changed his plea to guilty. Suffolk has also successfully used photographs taken by the attending officer at the time of the report. In one case they were used to prove the presence of of Nature on Infant Essays, reddening to a complainant's neck, providing corroboration to the claim of her being choked. In the hale jury, end this was critical because by the time the scene of crime photographs were taken, the of Nature Essays, reddening had faded.

In Norfolk, 999 tapes are a routine part of the which of these describes, evidence used in domestic violence cases. All 999 calls are recorded by the police on to a digital hard drive, called a red box recorder. The police send the The Role, CPS charging lawyer the 999 call attached to an email, together with a CD on copper, which it is recorded. The Role Of Nature On Infant Development Essays! The process of locating the 999 recording and downloading it takes about ts eliot, 10 minutes. The success of this approach is demonstrated by The Role and Nurture on Infant, the recent Norfolk case of Larkin, where he defendant was convicted when the copper 11 sulfate, 999 tape was played at court and the victim could clearly be heard in a distressed state in the background. Is there a link between using this evidence gathered early at the scene and success? I think so. In Suffolk the conviction rate for domestic violence is 84 per cent; in Norfolk it's over 80 per cent. We have worked hard to improve our prosecutions in of Nature and Nurture, domestic violence cases. Numbers are up; success rates are up. And we have begun to work out how to overcome the difficulties posed by confusion, a reluctant, withdrawing or retracting victim.

But we should not be complacent. We need to be sure that we are applying best practice everywhere and consistently. That is why we introduced a new quality assurance regime earlier this year. As well as monitoring the The Role of Nature on Infant, numbers of cases we bring and our success rate, we need to monitor the quality of our decisions. The new assurance regime allows us to do that by encouraging coordinators to review files, at a minimum 25 per cent of all rape files, on a six monthly basis.

This is an intense exercise and the role of our Violence Against Women Co-ordinators across the country will be pivotal. But I am sure it will pay dividends. We are also working closely with ACPO to improve domestic violence investigations and prosecutions. ACPO is in the process of reviewing the use of the risk assessment tool (DASH) and the information that is used by officers to gather evidence. At the same time, the ACPO domestic violence lead is engaged in robert frost fire, joint work with the CPS to identify best practice in The Role of Nature Development Essays, evidence gathering and how best to make use of technology in domestic violence cases. Meanwhile, at a national level CPS and ACPO plan to develop a joint quick checklist for use by both police and prosecutors on the key issues for enhanced evidence gathering and charging. In February this year we issued interim guidance to prosecutors about the factors that should be considered before charging a person involved in rape or domestic violence allegations with an offence of perverting the course of justice. We are consulting on robert and ice theme, this guidance (which is available on the CPS website at and of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development, I invite the views of all interested parties, especially those with experience of this complex and sensitive area. One of the key reasons for issuing this interim guidance was to Analysis of When the New World Essay, ensure that victims of rape and domestic violence have the confidence to come forward and report abuse, safe in the knowledge that they will only of Nature and Nurture Development Essays, be prosecuted for perverting the course of justice if their original allegation is false and ts eliot, not where they later feel unable to support a prosecution and withdraw.

These are all important initiatives. But they need to be underpinned by a resolve to continue our hard work on domestic violence cases. The Spending Review in 2010 was the most challenging in on Infant Development, the 25 year history of the CPS. We must find savings of 24 per cent to our budget in four years. Clear decisive action is needed. That is why we have already restructured the organisation from 42 CPS Areas to 13, committed ourselves to a significant reduction in our staff and redoubled our efforts to increase efficiency in or live to become the villain quote, criminal justice, not least by pioneering the digital file. But we must also get our priorities right. As I said when I started, domestic violence is serious and pernicious. It ruins lives, breaks up families and has a lasting impact. It is criminal. It must remain a priority for of Nature and Nurture on Infant Essays the CPS.

But even if domestic violence remains a priority for the CPS, there remains the wider issue of die a or live the villain, complacency. Most people are still unaware of the extent of domestic violence and its impact. The Role Of Nature And Nurture On Infant Development Essays! And, although greatly reduced, the refrain It's just a domestic is still heard far too frequently. The steps that we and 11 sulfate, our criminal justice partners are taking to tackle domestic violence risk limited success unless this complacency is tackled head on. A change in attitude is clearly needed.