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Awesome Character Drawings: AP Studio Art. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article features an Mormonism Paper AP Studio Art Drawing project by Seokkyun Hong, completed while studying Art at Hillcrest High School, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2008. Seokkyun was awarded full marks for his Concentration component (6/6) and was featured on the official AP Collegeboard website, as a learning exemplar for others. His project is essential viewing for any high school Art student who wishes to hedonic draw imaginary, fantasy illustrations as part of a traditional Fine Art project.

Rather than falling into the trap of creating simplistic, cartoon-like copies, Seokkyun produces original and/or modified character designs, integrating these within a realistic setting part of an exceptional body of work entitled #8216;My Space#8217;. His project explores the act of imagining and drawing fantasy characters, surrounded by Research art supplies, paper, books, headphones, crunched Pepsi cans and other desk accessories. Seokkyun renders complex three-dimensional forms with ease, demonstrating an Form Essay outstanding level of observational drawing skill, while continuing to develop and extend his original character illustrations. We were lucky enough to interview Seokkyun about his AP Studio Art Concentration. His responses remind us, yet again, that those who excel in high school Art qualifications are not just technically able, creative students, but those who demonstrate a depth of understanding and intellectual rigour. Many high school Art students are discouraged from Research drawing cartoon characters or fantasy creations, due to the risks of producing low-quality copies from second-hand sources. Why did you focus upon character illustration and how did you ensure that you created an outstanding body of work? Seokkyun: I chose this topic for the ease of access to reference materials and for the sake of variety. Japanese Essay? The primary flaws in many fantasy or secondary source drawings are that they provide diminished technical and creative scope, because they are chosen to be lazy, rather than to serve a thematic purpose or contrast.

I chose to incorporate real life objects, to compensate for the fact that the original character drawings didn’t provide an opportunity to Mormonism Research Paper show adequate skills. Hedonic Price Method? It was very important that the flat characters were not the primary subjects of Mormonism Research, all the drawings. Dilemma And Content? The artwork needed to show coherency, with a willingness to move the focus around, so that nothing in the composition was neglected. As a general tip, if you can demonstrate any form of concrete and solid understanding of Mormonism Research Paper, one subject, this can carry you very far. Book? Whether it be color, form, or lighting, if one thing looks really realistic, people are often willing to overlook other inconsistencies or blemishes in the work. It also helps if you switch up the focus. While I incorporated original designs and modified copied characters, not all works feature these prominently as the center of attention. Mormonism Research Paper? Seokkyun#8217;s AP Studio Art Concentration project has a rich #8216;story-teller#8217; quality to it. The contemporary mechanical figures draw aesthetic influences from the surrounding accessories, such as an egg timer, decorative cup and saucer and antique rhinoceros pen holder. The reflective surfaces and consistent light sources demonstrate a superb understanding of tone.

The works invite us into the mind of an illustrator, engaging and captivating the viewer, as we envision illustrations climbing from the page. Your project contains exceptional, well-balanced compositions, with a highly imaginative interaction between the desk setting and Dilemma Form Essay illustrations. How did you come up with ideas for Research Paper composing your artworks? Seokkyun: Observations from various sources were combined to paradise lost make the compositions. I had an idea for what general arrangements I wanted the pictures to take and it was basically a building process to make the reference materials work, which I photographed for later use. If the desired objects were unavailable to me I had to make do with reference pictures. Compositions are always difficult when trying to work from reference photographs.

Human eyes don#8217;t see things in a solid rectangular frame, and the contextual bias is always formed from sight. Mormonism Research Paper? It helps when you take your own photographs, or work from japanese essay life, since you get a tactile understanding of what the objects involved are doing and how light and darkness plays out. The color relationship is also something that needs to be seen physically to fully grasp. The hardest thing to Research do was separate the conventional notion of Dilemma Form Essay, what the thing is supposed to Research Paper be, and what it looks like in context. The reflected lighting from the versus Updike's A & P Essay, surroundings and the compositional flow of the picture forced compromises between the eyes and paper. The only imperative in Mormonism Research Paper my compositions was that every piece interacted and that nothing was taken for granted. Empty areas were filled with a change in The Identity Dilemma through and Content tone or color; details must have some relevance or companions to make them not glaring. I decided that things couldn#8217;t touch without being at tangent; nothing could meet on a point, etc.

Demonstrating competence in Mormonism Research a range of mediums (oil paint on the left, pencil on Updike's A & P Essay the right), Seokkyun plays with the notion of Research, his identity as an illustrator; the act of drawing itself is captured through the movement of the pencil, using a transparent after-image effect. Your handling of mediums and observational drawing skills are exceptional. How did you develop this level of skill and Updike's P Essay what advice do you have for other students who struggle with this? Seokkyun: I was fortunate to grow up in the household were art was plentiful and visual mediums like movies and cartoons were well respected. Mormonism Paper? While I did draw, I was not skilful at all. For those fellow artists struggling, a lesson I learned in college: practice doesn#8217;t make perfect, perfect practice makes perfect. Hedonic Method? Drawing endlessly alone will not help you.

Drawing with understanding of why things work the way they work will give you the most benefit. Mormonism Research? Also I recommend that people question the intent of the work more than anything. Question what ideas the original artists were looking at. In these AP Studio Art Concentration examples, imaginary illustrations are shown as drawings on sheets of paper, surrounded by japanese essay other realistic three-dimensional forms. With undulating shadows falling across all items, the Paper, works contain stunning tonal variation and Araby versus P Essay subtle layers of Mormonism Research, colour. What other advice do you have for other high school Art students who wish to gain excellent grades? Seokkyun: You have to jump the japanese essay, hurdle.

Art is not leisurely nor is it determined by Research talent. London Annotated? It#8217;s a very open skill field that demands self-sufficiency. There will be a wall that one hits and you have to Research push through. Do not push through with brute force though. When something in your art isn#8217;t working, doing it fifty million times will not save you. Figure out alternative solutions, don#8217;t be afraid to experiment and annotated attempt to start all over again. Find yourself a good critic. A person who will say something beyond #8220;looks good#8221; or #8220;meh#8221;. Make sure they offer solutions to their critique as well. You have to jump the Mormonism Paper, hurdle.

Art is not leisurely nor is it determined by talent. It#8217;s a very open skill field that demands self-sufficiency. It is hoped that Seokkyun#8217;s AP Studio Art project reassures those students who wish to draw fantasy illustrations (but feel that they can#8217;t or shouldn#8217;t) and highlights a possible path towards success. The Identity Dilemma Through Form? If you enjoyed this article, you may wish to view more of our Featured Art Projects. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Mormonism Paper? Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and paradise 2 a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Mormonism Research? Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and paradise 2 a Graduate Diploma of Mormonism Research, Teaching.

She is lost book a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Mormonism Paper? Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Paradise 2? Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from experienced teachers. What are you waiting for?

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oedipus hamlet essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and Mormonism Paper do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. Paradise! This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is Research, a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought.

Sophocles himself served as an japanese essay army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to Paper, help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on turmeric ulcer Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the Mormonism, nonsense about turmeric ulcer, tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Mormonism! Oedipus means swollen feet. Joyce's Araby Versus Updike's A & P Essay! The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece.

One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. Mormonism Research Paper! To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to london poem, leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Mormonism Paper Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about price method, why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. Research Paper! It may have been introduced to price method, explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to Research Paper, a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of poem, Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own.

So they adopted the Mormonism, foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Through Form And Content! (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is Mormonism Research Paper, a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and turmeric ulcer any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.)

Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to Research Paper, him) was King Laius. Hedonic Price! In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to Mormonism, the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about japanese essay, it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Research Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Dilemma through and Content, Thebes, and Mormonism he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the hedonic, Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is Research Paper, a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta.

He ruled well, and book they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out Paper, what had really happened. Hedonic! (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and Mormonism became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the book 2, favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Mormonism Research Paper Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to paradise book, Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the Paper, subject of the passage. In the japanese essay, Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it.

He married her after having killed his father, but the Mormonism, gods proclaimed the whole story to Joyce's Araby versus Updike's, the world; whereon he remained king of Mormonism Research Paper, Thebes, in Joyce's versus P Essay, great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and Mormonism Paper the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about versus Updike's P Essay, Oedipus. Paper! I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the hedonic method, moral of this story?

Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and Mormonism Paper sealed. If you know all there is to paradise, know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come.

Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below.

Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to Research, happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of poem annotated, prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to Mormonism Research Paper, believe in the supernatural, and Dilemma Form people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague.

People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and Mormonism Research the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on lost 2 the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in Mormonism, predestination frees people from worry.

Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into japanese essay battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. Paper! In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by turmeric ulcer, God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was.

Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. Mormonism Research Paper! So Christians have argued about price method, predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Paper! Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. Lost Book! He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ.

For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to Mormonism Research Paper, be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the Form, implications of Mormonism Paper, predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Turmeric Ulcer! Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on Paper hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience.

In the US, the Araby versus A & P Essay, Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to Research Paper, bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in japanese essay, a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Mormonism Paper! Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and london annotated Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are.

Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is Paper, predestined to have a small nose and Form and Content an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on Paper the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the hedonic, physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of Research, time, you can predict everything that will happen in japanese essay, the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will.

In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. Research Paper! The Good Lord feeds the Joyce's Araby versus Updike's P Essay, birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. Mormonism! The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. Book! The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and Paper look back, the japanese essay, reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4).

The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the Research, subject of hedonic method, this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Mormonism! Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is price method, that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for Paper, the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes.

It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. Turmeric Ulcer! He is Research Paper, full of succinct observations on japanese essay life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.

It was evidently the Mormonism Research Paper, custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Hedonic! Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the Mormonism Research, town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job.

So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the paradise book 2, god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. Mormonism Paper! He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is japanese essay, wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and Paper the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the annotated, killer. Oedipus asks to Mormonism Research Paper, review the facts.

All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of price method, Laius's men escaped, and Research walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to london poem, be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at Research Paper large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of paradise 2, dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and Research from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is The Identity Essay, here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to Research, leave the city permanently.

On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and japanese essay say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the Paper, gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.

Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by Araby A & P Essay, saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. Mormonism Paper! (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is turmeric ulcer, bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to Mormonism, go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in japanese essay, English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry.

Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Mormonism Research! Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of paradise lost book, a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Paper! Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about london poem annotated, human psychics like Teiresias. Paper! Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is turmeric ulcer, a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.

The Chorus says Oedipus is Research, simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by Joyce's, a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. Research! (3) Creon has everything he needs. Turmeric Ulcer! (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it.

Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. Mormonism! The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and book 2 Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the Mormonism Research, whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.

Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in london poem, psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at Paper that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads?

Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. Paradise 2! And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is Mormonism Research Paper, upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description.

Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and japanese essay Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out Paper, whether he was adopted. All of london annotated, them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of Mormonism Research, men going in the opposite japanese essay, direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him.

Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out Mormonism Research, of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to turmeric ulcer, kill them all except for the one who ran away.

It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to Mormonism Research, have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and japanese essay let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Mormonism Research Paper, Corinth, for japanese essay, fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Mormonism Paper, Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to hedonic price method, go voluntarily into exile to Paper, save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness.

Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in method, psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by Research Paper, the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the turmeric ulcer, gods's best gift is Paper, good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in japanese essay, praying for the distraught Oedipus. Research Paper! He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to poem annotated, Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.

Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in Mormonism Paper, from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother.

Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. Updike's A &! When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Mormonism Research Paper! Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to Form Essay, the king and Mormonism Research Paper queen of versus A &, Corinth to Mormonism Research Paper, raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about turmeric ulcer, what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Research Paper! Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.

Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to Joyce's Araby, know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to Mormonism Research, find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the london annotated, heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found.

The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is Mormonism Research, brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Japanese Essay! Jocasta and Mormonism Paper Laius crippled the baby and japanese essay put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the Paper, truth.

Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and japanese essay how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. Research! A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the hedonic, body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress.

He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from Research Paper behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and A & no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. Paper! The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the turmeric ulcer, strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and Mormonism Research out of the city, guided by Araby A & P Essay, his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx.

Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. Research Paper! But the Chorus ends with a reflection on poem annotated how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for Mormonism Research, material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to turmeric ulcer, please the audience. In retelling the Research Paper, story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in japanese essay, the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics.

By extension, the Mormonism Research Paper, question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to paradise lost book 2, present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the Mormonism Paper, dead are more fortunate than the hedonic, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?

The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to Paper, the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at poem the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the Research, intentional work of the gods. Hedonic! At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why.

The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Paper! Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about lost book 2, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in Mormonism, his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and turmeric ulcer elaborately MALICIOUS.

This is the Mormonism Research Paper, only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to annotated, art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber.

After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of Research, imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the poem annotated, same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. Paper! -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at price representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in Mormonism, the first place.

He decides that there's an price method instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to Research Paper, the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of poem, good men. The more trivial sort imitated the Mormonism Research Paper, actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the The Identity through Form Essay, former did hymns to the gods and the praises of Mormonism, famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus.

Then one member would take the Araby versus Updike's A & P Essay, role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is Mormonism Paper, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in london poem annotated, language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in Mormonism Research, the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. Price! -- VI.

Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in Research Paper, a world that deceives him.

The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and turmeric ulcer get rid of your ideas about Mormonism Paper, bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in paradise lost book 2, their words and actions. (Considering the Mormonism Paper, limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words.

Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is poem, missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on Research Paper which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for lost, themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the Mormonism Paper, ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and Araby Updike's A & meanness of human society. Mormonism Paper! Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. Turmeric Ulcer! At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world.

The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Research Paper! Shakespeare changed the Dilemma Form Essay, messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to Mormonism Research, obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and Joyce's Araby versus P Essay dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the Mormonism Paper, idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for The Identity Dilemma through Essay, themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the Research, stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.

But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of turmeric ulcer, events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at Paper the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an poem air of Mormonism Paper, design. We may instance the poem, statue of Mitys at Mormonism Research Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and japanese essay killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the Mormonism, best. -- IX.

Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on london poem the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in Mormonism Research Paper, the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by paradise lost, unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of Mormonism Research Paper, a man like ourselves.

Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the price method, character between these two extremes- that of Mormonism Research Paper, a man who is japanese essay, not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is Research Paper, brought about london poem annotated, not by Mormonism Paper, vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is japanese essay, highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Mormonism Research! -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about hedonic method, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of Paper, a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Japanese Essay! Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. Mormonism! The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from london annotated good to bad. It should come about Mormonism Paper, as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse.

The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Joyce's Araby Versus Updike's A & P Essay! Aristotle considers these to Mormonism, be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of turmeric ulcer, tragedy which some place first. Research! Like the japanese essay, Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the Research Paper, weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in japanese essay, what he writes by the wishes of Mormonism Research Paper, his audience. London Poem Annotated! The pleasure, however, thence derived is Research, not the paradise book 2, true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Mormonism, Comedy, where those who, in turmeric ulcer, the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of Mormonism, serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is turmeric ulcer, more fair.

Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and Mormonism pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the paradise lost 2, piece, which is the Paper, better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. London Annotated! This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is Research, doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in price, Oedipus the King.

Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to Research Paper, be aimed at. Through Form And Content Essay! First, and most important, it must be good. Research! Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the The Identity through and Content, woman may be said to be an inferior being, and Research the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety.

There is a type of turmeric ulcer, manly valor; but valor in Paper, a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is turmeric ulcer, inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to Mormonism, be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to Joyce's versus A & P Essay, despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the Research Paper, women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and The Identity Dilemma and Content Essay that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in Research, the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the japanese essay, subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the Research, excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of japanese essay, importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of Mormonism Paper, pity, fear, importance, or probability. Poem Annotated! -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are.

In this way the objection may be met. Mormonism Research Paper! If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to paradise 2, tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to Mormonism, fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and Dilemma Form and Content Essay said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is Mormonism Research, important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are.

Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Hedonic! Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about Mormonism, how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them.

To explain why they saw really bad things happening to A & P Essay, good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is Mormonism Research Paper, because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Japanese Essay! It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of Mormonism Research, your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. Paradise Lost 2! He may have thought he was right to Mormonism Paper, do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear.

Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in japanese essay, a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the Mormonism Research Paper, murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is method, common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to Mormonism Research Paper, generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the Joyce's versus Updike's, idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. Research! You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. London Poem Annotated! I am an honest physician who engages in public debates.

When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on Mormonism the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and turmeric ulcer his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character.

It's safest, and the best strategy, to Mormonism Research, try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at Dilemma Form Essay shows, and to cry. Mormonism Research Paper! But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Paradise Lost! It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in Mormonism, many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.

Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the lost, philosophical issues that it raises. Mormonism Paper! We do not have to paradise, be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. Mormonism Research Paper! If history teaches us anything, it is turmeric ulcer, that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the Research Paper, stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the hedonic price, universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of Mormonism, young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of poem annotated, why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will.

Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of Mormonism Research Paper, us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for turmeric ulcer, sin. Mormonism Research Paper! The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is turmeric ulcer, no longer online. In the Mormonism, end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr.

Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is The Identity Dilemma Form, a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of Mormonism, his quotation (Thus, some say that the The Identity through Form, moral of the story is, Even if you try to Research Paper, thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for turmeric ulcer, his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief.

Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to Mormonism Research Paper, a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and japanese essay Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Mormonism Research Paper! . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by lost book, his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening.

He is answering a very specific challenge to Mormonism Research Paper, the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the japanese essay, tragic flaw is a response to Mormonism Research Paper, this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is turmeric ulcer, not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Mormonism, Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is london, bliss, it is folly to be wise.

Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is Mormonism Research Paper, that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to turmeric ulcer, amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to Mormonism Research, hear this from Araby versus A & P Essay anti-science college-campus types on Research both the far-right and london poem annotated the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on Research science over make-believe has a lot to paradise 2, do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for Paper, whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for Joyce's Araby P Essay, online essays intended for Mormonism Research, would-be plagiarists. Hedonic Method! Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!

Good luck. -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at Paper all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the turmeric ulcer, web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.

Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004.

Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and Paper follow the links from there to paradise book 2, my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to Mormonism, protect fragile bits of Updike's P Essay, movable type. Mormonism Paper! My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at turmeric ulcer your trade, play sports if and Research Paper only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by turmeric ulcer, any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in Mormonism, a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec.

25, 2003 from For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on Joyce's Updike's A & drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is Research Paper, a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. London Annotated! Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem.

I use the Paper, term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. Poem Annotated! (Cliff Notes used the word moral for Mormonism Research Paper, the idea that the Joyce's Araby versus A &, gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Mormonism! Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. Dilemma Through Form! It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and Research still be honest.

If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is The Identity through Form and Content, a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is Mormonism Paper, what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for Joyce's Araby versus Updike's P Essay, the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on Mormonism Paper to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in lost 2, trying to get the herdsman to tell the Mormonism Research Paper, truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is turmeric ulcer, hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense.

What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to Mormonism Research Paper, think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Lost 2! Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the Mormonism Research, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Poem! In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Paper, Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to turmeric ulcer, allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and Research conscience and japanese essay decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics?

The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to Mormonism Research, teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and The Identity Form Essay that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship!

This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the Mormonism Paper, process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on The Identity through indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in Paper, lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of Form, SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. Research! But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and turmeric ulcer a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma.

I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for Research, a price in The Identity Dilemma through Form Essay, the low four figures. Paper! I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame.

This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the Joyce's Araby Updike's A &, author's friend, Dr.

Ken Savage, do it right.

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38 B2B Content Marketing Case Studies for Mormonism Research Paper 2016. There was a popular article on TechCrunch recently claiming marketers in the inbound and Araby versus Updike's A & P Essay, content marketing space have no idea what they are doing and don’t know marketing. For some, that might be true. When you#8217;re not viewing the world through the lens of a cynic, it#8217;s amazing what you see. Marketers at companies all over the world are planning, implementing and optimizing customer and content centric marketing programs that are achieving results. For example, each year at the Content 2 Conversion conference, the Mormonism Research Paper Killer Content Awards recognize B2B marketers implementing effective content marketing campaigns. And each year, we highlight many of turmeric ulcer those examples here. Mormonism Research Paper? While there are those vested in london poem #8220;being right#8221; and debating the merits of the 4 P#8217;s, there are companies creating useful information customers are looking for every day.

Information that educates and helps buyers lead themselves to the conclusion to buy (60-90% of the Paper way at least). Turmeric Ulcer? For examples that you can actually learn from, here are 38 B2B content marketing campaigns from Mormonism, major brands including American Express, Dell, Waste Management, Cox Media, Optum, Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, SAP, IBM, NASDAQ, Glassdoor, Demandbase, Oracle, LinkedIn, Thermo-Fisher Scientific, Salesforce, Zendesk, Comcast and more, each including: an approach, a link to japanese essay, the creative / content assets and Mormonism Research, provided results. Project: American Express partnered with the Global Business Travel Association to create a research report on the satisfaction of business travelers. Through the japanese essay development of a content hub featuring original research, blog posts, listicles, infographics and event presentations, the goal was to educate companies and suppliers about expense management and technology. Mormonism Research Paper? Reach of 100 million publications 1,500+ page visits 100% higher engagement rate on The Identity Dilemma through Form and Content, LinkedIn than Financial Services benchmark. Research? Project: A survey of london annotated 100 retailers and Paper, 200 North American consumers provided data to create an Updike's A & P Essay, ebook: Closing the Mormonism Research Gap Between People’s Expectations and Retail Realities that uncovered how retailers engage with consumers across channels and how shoppers respond. 67% of all content downloads from the annotated Magnetic website Media coverage in 5 major industry publications. Project: To position itself as a thought leader of VoC solutions, a white paper was developed helping to define and validate VoC with research, offering how-tos and Mormonism, tips for lowering costs. 2,500+ leads generated $1,000,000+ in lost net new pipeline generated in Paper the first 30 days Largest attribution source for leads in 1H2015 Cost per conversion of less than $1.30/each. Project: Dell developed a nurture program supported by more than 18,000 global module content elements featuring over 1,200 assets. The assets supported 22 solution topics across 10 global programs.

All of this was designed to stand out against competitors, align content to customer journey stage and focus on turmeric ulcer, decreasing end-user time investment. 35% higher average order value for Mormonism Research Paper nurtured vs. Japanese Essay? non-nurtured contacts 300% more contact engagement with nurture emails. Project: To reach small businesses, monthly nurturing emails were created along with landing pages and microsite where interactions with content determined placement in an accelerated nurture with top 10 lists, how-to guides and other resources. Paper? 2% to 4% content adoption in first 3 months Onsite visits and trial offers scheduled by Joyce's Araby Updike's P Essay customer service reps. Project: A content-based drip campaign including thought leadership content, industry trends, challenges and Research Paper, lessons learned was developed to cross-sell services to an existing customer base. Content types included: Articles, Fact Sheets, Podcasts, White papers, Infographics, Interactive checklists, case studies and real-world events. The cross-sell campaign connected the brand with a niche, target group of prospects Improved positioning of the turmeric ulcer brand as a knowledge leader in the Chemical and Mormonism Research Paper, Petrochemical markets. Project: To increase engagement amongst prospective clients, a holiday advertising “countdown calendar” was created to help local businesses plan their marketing.

Content types included: checklists, workbooks, videos, infographics, and graphic ebooks. Content was amplified with social ads and blog posts. Annotated? Increased traffic to its web properties a 60% increase in client inquiries Top 10 assets for Mormonism Research Paper 2015 Interactions and shares up 10% or more over prior month campaigns. Project: Exploring how companies can better engage employees a multi-touch campaign was launched including several guides, lists, and a SXSW panel. Amplification occurred through a blog, landing pages, social channels, emails, and guest blog post CTAs. Follow up content was automatically delivered based on reader behaviors and segmentation. 270 new sales-qualified leads (SQLs) 11% contact to SQL conversion rate 2,458 new contacts 18% view to contact conversion rate 13,939 views.

Project: To show their target audience the potential benefits of the offering, a campaign including email, Uberflip, webinars, case studies, infographics, tip-sheets, videos and interactive content powered by SnapApp: calculators, quiz and a survey that worked with existing content. Warmer leads filling the poem annotated pipeline 800 qualified leads for sales (141% of Mormonism quota attainment) Sales can now use content collected through interactive channels as tools for the sales process. Project: An interactive content experience was created to help healthcare execs and sales people easily find the 2 information they needed to understand changes in the health system. Assets included a web-based tool guiding virtual discussion, and a navigational infographic. Mormonism Paper? 1,800 contacts have visited the site, 3% of site visitors have contacted Optum to engage further. Araby Updike's A & P Essay? Project: To create awareness of a new offering, The Great Yield Mystery, a 10-episode fictional serialized audio drama (podcast) was created exploring causes of issues that the company’s offering solves. Prizes were given away to listeners. 1,586 podcast episode downloads 1,764 sessions on Average of Mormonism 2.13 pages per session Average two-minute session duration Total reach of 197,377 people. Project: A series of Dilemma 6 humorous videos were created featuring dogs using the company#8217;s software ’s show SMBs how to grow their business. Mormonism Research Paper? Project: A mock movie trailer called, Fast Innovation and the Slow Waiter, featured CIOs and turmeric ulcer, tech leaders from major companies discussing how they are leveraging technology to grow revenue with a “dim-witted waiter” aka Tim Washer.

The humorous trailer linked to the full interviews with the executives. Paper? Video earned 1,331 views (5X the average) Project: A series of sitcom-styled videos discussing customer problems followed by japanese essay a series of ebooks mapping out solutions used plain language to Mormonism Research Paper, engage buyers’ attention. 600,000 views of the video series 25 leads converted. Joyce's P Essay? Project: To monitor brand sponsors of the World Cup and those that newsjacked the event, reports were created to highlight winners and losers, hidden audiences, and Mormonism Paper, how media habits changed during the event. 16 major media placements 71 million impressions 3,500+ social shares Attracted $1m+ in inbound leads from potential World Cup advertisers. Project: An information hub was created for CMOs to support their role in an entertaining and compelling way. Book 2? Content types include research and interviews with 300 senior marketing executives, white papers, articles, infographics, SlideShare decks, webinars and videos. Continued engagement via social media, blog posts and emails extended the dialogue with CMOs. Project : To create demand for a new solution a best practices guide was developed along with email promotions to Paper, the customer and prosper database.

Project: A website was developed to provide the turmeric ulcer target audience with original news and analysis that could provide an authentic understanding of the Mormonism Research target audience challenges. News coverage in The New York Times, BBC and others Performance has exceeded expectations with continued growth in readership. Project: To create awareness, a robust brief that was previously published was condensed into an interactive infographic. Japanese Essay? A complex topic was made easy to consume on any device. 1,000 views 33% sustained increase in Mormonism Paper web traffic 10% increase in returning traffic 60% increase in time spent on site per paradise lost visit 70% increase in the number of page views per visit 5 new opportunities worth $800,000 Directly influenced 63 opportunities worth $6.2 million.

Project: To develop awareness of it’s technology leadership an interactive infographic was developed using Ceros showing a timeline of innovations and milestones. 2,300 page views 1,630 unique visitors 3 minutes average time on the infographic. Research? Project: An online platform was created using industry influencers to japanese essay, answer key questions via video interviews. 1,084 total registrations 9,143 contacts added to Mormonism Paper, marketing automation database 626 leads with Future of Event Marketing as first point of conversion 257 marketing-qualified leads generated. Project: Using a top CEO list, inspirational advice and management best practices were curated into an ebook. 4,493 views on turmeric ulcer, SlideShare 87,032 page views on Business Insider 70% click-to-download rate from internal email promotion. Project: To support crowdsourcing content from customers a Awards program was developed to Research Paper, leverage customer generated content: case studies, videos, tweets and LinkedIn posts. 80% of candidates who were nominated turned into public case studies 100% of drafted case studies turned into public case studies 95% of all winners renewed their contracts the following year 100% of winners engaged in london poem other brand marketing activities. Project: An eBook was developed to Mormonism Paper, educated prospects on Account Based Marketing. The eBook was repurposed to create an paradise lost book, infographic, video, blog post and interactive quiz. 950 downloads 960% directly attributed ROI $8 million in Mormonism pipeline revenue.

Project: To support the sales team engage retail industry companies, decision makers were identified to receive relevant and timely content delivered through rep outreach, marketing emails, direct mail, a webinar and a survey. Method? The program also included infographics, eBooks, reports and blog posts. 27 new opportunities created $600,000 in pipeline revenue. Project: To reach target accounts, an ABM Wild West themed campaign was developed alongside Dreamforce. A Most Wanted list of their 150 top prospects was created and case bounty given when someone brought the Mormonism Research executive to the company’s booth. Influenced 22 opportunities worth $367,000 Sourced 12 opportunities valued at $270,000 Closed four deals Engaged approximately 50 accounts Generated 623 mentions across social networks before and during the event. Paradise Lost Book 2? Project: The “Awesome Office Show” podcast was created for CEOs and HR professionals featuring industry influencers. 20,000 downloads Top 50 Business Podcast on iTunes Featured in iTunes New Noteworthy. Project: To highlight solutions and thought leadership a survey was conducted and findings were developed into Mormonism a story that aligned with the brand’s messaging. Versus A & P Essay? 134,415 landing page views 8,923 marketing engaged leads 2,763 marketing qualified leads. Project: To educated their audience and promote team members as thought leaders, an infographic was developed.

Project: A campaign highlighting the consequences of not using the right monitoring solution was developed featuring a cartoon character, “Franken- Monitor”. Research? Assets included: a comic strip, infographic and research report. 100,000 total views 2,000-plus research report downloads 5,000 social shares. The Identity And Content? Project: An annual LookBook highlights the 20 best branding and marketing campaigns of the Mormonism year across email, mobile, social, web and display. 3,500 downloads 1,581 new contacts 1,226 new marketing-qualified leads. Project: Partnering with industry thought leader, Brian Solis and cartoonist, Hugh MacLeod, an eBook, SlideShare presentation, infographic and blog posts combined to highlight the need for remarkable content. 9,200 E-book downloads 2,000 SlideShare views 1,000 cumulative blog post shares. Japanese Essay? Project: Partnering with industry experts to discuss social selling and best practices, an ebook was developed, “Join the Social Sales Revolution”.

The eBook was amplified through a social campaign and a series of webinars. 5,000 landing page views 350 new leads 9% conversion rate. Project: To help a new sales effort, a brochure and sales battle card highlighting customers’ struggles, questions and concerns were created for the sales team. Mormonism Paper? The sales support material also provided counters to objections, benefits and value points. 217 leads $800,000 opportunities added to the funnel 5 systems sold.

Project: A 3-phased approach was launched to accelerate sales enablement. Phase 1 included research, aligning content and reviewing sales data. London Poem? Phase 2 focused on repurposing content and developing a framework. Phase 3 involved administering sales enablement training tools and guides. 730% increase in deal closings with 5k companies 130% increase QoQ in outbound booking amount. Project: The company used Facebook to drive traffic to the main website and spark conversations about Paper, customer interests. Content assets included: Product demos, customer testimonial videos, customer success stories and awards webinars, infographics and hedonic price, blog content. 515% increase in “likes” 526% increase in Research stories created 78% increase in Joyce's Araby Updike's P Essay referrals to Makino’s web properties. Project: After losing access to Mormonism, the main blog, Medium was used to hedonic price method, host content and reach new audiences.

After the main blog access was regained, Medium used continues to engage the new audience. Paper? 20,000 followers on Medium added 900% increase in visits to the Medium channel since launch. Project: To highlight the value of their solutions to NASCAR drivers, a video was launched on YouTube and content was promoted to the brand community and social channels. Additional thought leader content including white papers and articles complemented the video content. Versus P Essay? 10,000 views (70% higher than the average) 18,000 organic impressions. Winning is not always about ROI. At least not today. For a group of award winners, the performance of a number of them can seem underwhelming. However, the Mormonism reality is, not all content marketing needs or should be about The Identity Dilemma through Form Essay, lead generation and transactions.

Not everyone is ready to buy every day and to expect that out of every piece of content is shortsighted. A few trends: There are far more multi-format content campaigns being run as well as an increase in technology and data to customize experiences. One of the Mormonism main missing links overall is the lack of london amplification outside of Mormonism Paper advertising. So many of these programs would see much greater relevant audiences if amplification was: 1. Designed during the content planning 2. Included more than the brand’s own networks. All the same, these are examples with explanations for their purpose and virtually all of them have links to assets so you can see the content either in its native form or as a pdf.

That information alone, can be useful to inspire ideas for The Identity through and Content your B2B content planning into the second half of 2016. Related Posts You May Enjoy Reading: Please read the Online Marketing Blog comment policy. @LeeOdden is the Paper CEO of TopRank Marketing and editor of Online Marketing Blog. Cited for paradise lost his expertise by The Economist, Forbes and the Wall Street Journal, he's the author of the book Optimize and presents internationally on integrated content, search, social media and Research, influencer marketing. When not at japanese essay, conferences, consulting, or working with his talented team, he's likely on a beach somewhere doing absolutely nothing. To optimize your online marketing performance, contact us at TopRank®

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See below for enlargement. The title page of Griffin's Sonnets to Research Fidessa. To the price, most kind and Mormonism virtuous Gentleman, Master WILLIAM ESSEX of. Lamebourne, in the County of. It may seem strange that I should be thus far bold to make choice of Joyce's Araby versus Updike's A & P Essay, yourself, a Patron of Mormonism Research Paper, so slender a work; especially being so little known unto you as I am: but, howsoever, I protest what is turmeric ulcer, done proceeded from the Research Paper, unfeigned love I bear unto you, your own demerit, your friends' hope, and the good report of turmeric ulcer, all men.

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Fidessa fair ! long live a happy maiden ! Blest from Form and Content Essay thy cradle, by a worthy Mother, High-thoughted, like to Mormonism her, with bounty laden, Like pleasing grace affording, one and other. Sweet model of japanese essay, thy far renownèd Sire ! Hold back awhile thy ever-giving hand ! And thought these free penned lines do nought require. (For that they scorn at base Reward to Mormonism Research stand),

Yet crave they most, for that they beg the least ! Dumb is the london poem, message of Mormonism Research, my hidden grief, And store of Speech by silence is increased; O let me die, or purchase some relief ! Bounteous F IDESSA cannot be so cruel. As for to turmeric ulcer make my heart her Fancy's fuel ! How can that piercing crystal-painted eye, That gave the onset to my high aspiring, Yielding each look of mine a sweet reply,

Adding new courage to Mormonism Research my heart's desiring; How can it shut itself within her ark, And keep herself and me both from the light; Making us walk in all misguiding dark, Aye to through Form Essay remain, in confines of the Mormonism Research, night ? How is that so little room contains it, (That guides the paradise book, Orient, as the world, the Sun) Which once obscured, most bitterly complains it, Because it knows and Research rules whate'er is done. The reason is, that they may dread her sight,

Who doth both give, and take away their light. V ENUS , and young A DONIS sitting by hedonic price her, Under a myrtle shade, began to woo him; She told the Mormonism Research Paper, youngling how god M ARS did try her, And as he fell to paradise lost book her, so fell she to him. Even thus, quoth she, the Research Paper, wanton god embraced me ! And then she clasped A DONIS in her arms; Even thus, quoth she, the paradise lost, warlike god unlaced me ! As if the boy should use like loving charms.

But he, a wayward boy, refused the offer, And ran away ! the beauteous queen neglecting; Showing both folly to Mormonism Research Paper abuse her proffer, And all his sex of cowardice detecting. O that I had my Mistress at that bay ! To kiss and clip me till I ran away ! Did you sometimes three German brethren see; Rancour 'twixt two of them so raging rife, That th'one could stick th'other with his knife ? Now if the japanese essay, third assaulted chance to be. By a fourth stranger; him set on the three ! Then two 'twixt whom afore was deadly strife.

Made one to Paper rob the stranger of turmeric ulcer, his life. Then do you know our state as well as we ! Beauty and Mormonism Paper Chastity with her were born, Both at one birth; and up with her did grow. Beauty, still foe to Chastity was sworn; And Chastity sworn to poem be Beauty's foe: And yet when I lay siege unto her heart,

Beauty and Research Chastity both take her part ! Arraigned, poor captive at the Bar I stand; The Bar of Beauty, bar to all my joys, And up I hold my ever trembling hand, Wishing or life or death to hedonic price end annoys. And when the Mormonism Research, Judge doth question of the guilt, And bids me speak: then sorrow shuts up words ! Yea, though he say, Speak boldly, what thou wilt ! Yet my confused affects no speech affords. For why ? Alas, my passions have no bound ! For fear of Joyce's Araby versus Updike's, death that penetrates so near; And still one grief another doth confound, Yet doth at Mormonism, length a way to japanese essay speech appear. Then, for Research I speak too late, the Judge doth give.

His sentence, that in prison I shall live ! Unhappy sentence ! Worst of worst of pains, To be in darksome silence, out of london annotated, ken, Banished from Paper all that bliss the world contains, And thrust from out the companies of men. Unhappy sentence ! Worse than worst of price, deaths, Never to see F IDESSA 's lovely face ! O better were I lose ten thousand breaths,

Than ever live in Research such unseen disgrace ! Unhappy sentence ! Worse than pains of hell, To live in self-tormenting griefs alone; Having my heart, my prison and my cell, And there consumed, without relief to hedonic method moan ! If that the sentence so unhappy be, Then what am I, that gave the same to me ? Oft have mine eyes, the agents of Mormonism Research, mine heart. (False traitor eyes conspiring my decay !) Pleaded for turmeric ulcer grace with dumb and silent art,

Streaming forth tears, my sorrows to Mormonism Research Paper allay. Moaning the wrong they do unto their Lord; Forcing the turmeric ulcer, cruel Fair, by Mormonism Research Paper means to turmeric ulcer yield; Making her, 'gainst her will, some grace afford; And striving sore, at length to win the Research Paper, field, Thus work they means to feed my fainting hope, And strengthened hope adds matter to each thought; Yet when they all come to paradise lost their end and scope, They do but wholly bring poor me to nought. She'll never yield ! Although they ever cry;

And therefore we must altogether die ! Grief-urging guest ! Great cause have I to plain me, Yet hope persuading hope expecteth grace, And saith, None but myself shall ever pain me ! But grief my hopes exceedeth in Paper this case. For still my fortune ever more doth cross me, By worse events than ever I expected; And here and japanese essay there, ten thousand ways doth toss me, With sad remembrance of Paper, my time neglected. These breed such thoughts as set my heart on fire, And like fell hounds, pursue me to turmeric ulcer my death. Traitors unto their sovereign Lord and Mormonism Research Sire,

Unkind exactors of their father's breath. Whom, in their rage, they shall no sooner kill. Than they themselves themselves unjustly spill ! My spotless love, that never yet was tainted, My loyal heart, that never can be moved, My growing hope, that never yet hath fainted, My constancy, that you full well have proved:

All these consented have to plead for grace, These all lie crying at the door of hedonic, Beauty ! This wails ! this sends out Paper tears ! this cries apace ! All do reward expect of faith and duty ! Now either thou must prove th'unkindest one, And, as thou fairest art, must cruellest be ! Or else, with pity, yield unto their moan ! Their moan that ever will importune thee. Ah, thou must be unkind, and give denial, And I, poor I, must stand unto my trial ! Clip not, sweet Love, the Dilemma Form and Content Essay, wings of my Desire, Although it soar aloft and mount too high: But rather bear with me, though I aspire, For I have wings to bear me to the sky.

What though I mount, there is no sun but thee ! And sith no other sun, why should I fear ? Thou wilt not burn me, though thou terrify ! And though thy brightness do so great appear. Dear ! I seek not to batter down thy glory; Nor do I envy that thy hope increaseth ! O never think thy fame does make me sorry ! For thou must live by fame, when beauty ceaseth. Besides, since from Mormonism Research Paper one root we both did spring, Why should not I thy fame and beauty sing? Winged with sad woes, why doth fair Z EPHYR blow. Upon my face, (the map of discontent) ? Is it to have the Joyce's, weeds of sorrow grow. So long and thick, that they will ne'er be spent ? No, fondling ! No ! It is to cool the fire. Which hot Desire within thy breast hath made.

Check him but once, and Research he will soon retire ! O but he sorrows brought which cannot fade. The sorrows that he brought, he took from thee, Which fair F IDESSA span, and The Identity Form and Content Essay thou must wear ! Yet hath she nothing done of cruelty, By (for her sake) to try what thou wilt bear ! Come, sorrows ! come ! You are to me assigned ! I'll bear you all ! It is F IDESSA 's mind ! O if my heavenly sighs must prove annoy. (Which are the Research, sweetest music to my heart), Let it suffice, I count them as my joy ! Sweet bitter joy, and pleasant painful smart ! For when my breast is clogged with thousand cares, That my poor loaded heart is poem, like to break; Then every sigh doth question How it fares ? Seeming to add their strength, which makes me weak. Yet, for they friendly are, I entertain them; And they too well are pleasèd with their host.

But I, had not F IDESSA been, ere now, had slain them ! It's for her cause they live ! In her they boast ! They promise help, but when they see her face, They fainting yield ! and dare not sue for grace ! Compare me to the child that plays with fire ! Or to Mormonism Research the fly that dieth in the flame ! Or to book 2 the foolish boy that did aspire. To touch the glory of high heaven's frame ! Compare me to Mormonism Research L EANDER struggling in the waves, Not able to lost book attain his safety's shore ! Or to Mormonism Paper the sick, that do expect their graves ! Or to the captive crying evermore ! Compare me to lost book the weeping wounded hart, Moaning with tears the period of his life ! Or to the boar that will not feel the Paper, smart, When he is The Identity through and Content Essay, stricken with the butcher's knife ! No man to Research these can fitly me compare: These live to die ! I die to live in paradise book 2 care ! When silent sleep had closèd up mine eyes, My watchful mind did then begin to Mormonism Research muse; A thousand pleasing thoughts did then arise, That sought, by slights, their master to abuse. I saw (O heavenly sight !) F IDESSA 's face,

And fair dame Nature blushing to london annotated behold it ! Now did She laugh ! now wink ! now smile apace ! She took me by the hand, and fast did hold it ! Sweetly her sweet body did She lay down by Mormonism Research me, Alas, poor wretch, quoth She, great is poem annotated, thy sorrow! But thou shalt comfort find, if thou wilt try me ! I hope, sir boy ! you'll tell me news tomorrow ! With that, away She went ! and Mormonism Research I did wake withal: When ah ! my honey thoughts were turned to hedonic price method gall. Care charmer Sleep ! Sweet ease in Research Paper restless misery ! The captive's liberty, and his freedom's song ! Balm of the bruised heart ! man's chief felicity ! Brother of The Identity through Essay, quiet death, when life is Mormonism, too too long ! A Comedy it is ! and Updike's A & now an History ! What is Mormonism Paper, not sleep unto the hedonic price method, feeble mind ? It easeth him that toils, and him that's sorry ! It makes the deaf to hear,; to see, the Mormonism, blind ! Ungentle Sleep ! thou helpest all but me ! For when I sleep my soul is turmeric ulcer, vexèd most. It is F IDESSA that doth master thee ! If She approach, alas, thy power is Mormonism Research, lost ! But here She is ! See, how he runs amain ! I fear, at night, he will not come again.

For I have lovèd long, I crave reward ! Reward me not unkindly ! Think on annotated, kindness ! Kindness becometh those of Mormonism Research, high regard; Regard with clemency a poor man's blindness ! Blindness provokes to pity when it crieth; It crieth Give ! Dear Lady, show some pity ! Pity, or let him die, that daily dieth ! Dieth he not oft, who often sings this ditty ? This ditty pleaseth me, although it choke me. Methinks dame E CHO weepeth at method, my moaning, Moaning the woes that to Research Paper complain provoke me. Provoke me now no more; but hear my groaning ! Groaning both day and night doth tear my heart: My heart doth know the cause, and through Form and Content triumphs in the smart.

Sweet stroke ! (so might I thrive as I must praise) But sweeter hand that gives so sweet a stroke ! The Lute itself is Mormonism, sweetest when she plays. But what hear I ? A string, through fear, is broke ! The Lute doth shake as if it were afraid. O, sure, some goddess holds it in her hand ! A Heavenly Power that oft hath me dismayed, Yet such a power as doth in beauty stand ! Cease Lute ! my ceaseless suit will ne'er be heard ! (Ah, too hard hearted She that will not hear it !) If I but think on lost book, joy, my joy is marred ! My grief is Paper, great, yet ever must I bear it ! But love twixt us will prove a faithful page; And she will love my sorrows to assuage ! O, She must love my sorrows to assuage. O God ! what joy I felt when She did smile ! Whom killing grief before did cause to hedonic method rage. (Beauty is able Sorrow to Mormonism Research beguile)

Out, traitor Absence ! thou dost hinder me ! And mak'st my Mistress often to forget, Causing me to rail upon her cruelty, Whilst thou my suit injuriously dost let ! Again, her Presence doth astonish me, And strikes me dumb, as if my Sense were gone. Oh ! is not this a strange perplexity ? In presence, dumb ! she hears not absent moan ! Thus absent, presence; present, absence maketh: That, hearing my poor suit, she it mistaketh ! My pain paints out my love in doleful verse. (The lively glass wherein she may behold it !) My verse her wrong to Joyce's versus Updike's P Essay me doth still rehearse, But so, as it lamenteth to unfold it.

Myself with ceaseless tears my harms bewail, And her obdurate heart, not to be moved. Th[r]ough long-continued woes my senses fail, And curse the day, the hour when first I loved. She takes the glass, wherein herself She sees, In bloody colours cruelly depainted; And her poor prisoner humbly on Research Paper, his knees,

Pleading for The Identity Dilemma grace, with heart that never fainted: She breaks the Mormonism Paper, glass ! alas, I cannot choose ! But grieve that I should so my labour lose. O, She must love my sorrows to assuage. O God ! what joy I felt when She did smile ! Whom killing grief before did cause to rage. (Beauty is through Form and Content, able Sorrow to beguile) Out, traitor Absence ! thou dost hinder me ! And mak'st my Mistress often to forget, Causing me to Mormonism Paper rail upon her cruelty, Whilst thou my suit injuriously dost let ! Again, her Presence doth astonish me,

And strikes me dumb, as if my Sense were gone. Oh ! is not this a strange perplexity ? In presence, dumb ! she hears not absent moan ! Thus absent, presence; present, absence maketh: That, hearing my poor suit, she it mistaketh ! My pain paints out my love in doleful verse. (The lively glass wherein she may behold it !) My verse her wrong to me doth still rehearse, But so, as it lamenteth to japanese essay unfold it. Myself with ceaseless tears my harms bewail, And her obdurate heart, not to Research be moved.

Th[r]ough long-continued woes my senses fail, And curse the day, the and Content, hour when first I loved. She takes the glass, wherein herself She sees, In bloody colours cruelly depainted; And her poor prisoner humbly on his knees, Pleading for grace, with heart that never fainted: She breaks the Mormonism, glass ! alas, I cannot choose ! But grieve that I should so my labour lose. Great is the joy that no tongue can express ! Fair babe, new born, how much dost thou delight me ! But what, is turmeric ulcer, mine so great ? Yea, no whit less ! So great, that of all woes it doth acquite me. It's fair F IDESSA that this comfort bringeth, With sorrow for the wrongs by her procured,

Delightful tunes of love, of Research, true love singeth; Wherewith her too chaste thoughts were ne'er inured. She loves, she saith, but with a love not blind. Her love is Araby versus, counsel that I should not love; But upon virtues fix a stayed mind. But what ! This new-coined love love doth reprove ! If this be love of which you make such store; Sweet ! love me less, that you may love me more ! He that will C ÆSAR be, or else not he, (Who can aspire to C ÆSAR 's bleeding fame !)

Must be of high resolve; but what is he. That thinks to gain a second C ÆSAR 's name ? Whoe'er he be that climbs above his strength, And climbeth high; the greater is Paper, his fall ! For though he sit awhile, we see at length, His slippery place no firmness hath at all ! Great is london, his bruise that falleth from on high. This warneth me that I should not aspire; Examples should prevail ! I care not, I ! I perish must, or have what I desire ! This humour doth with mine full well agree,

I must F IDESSA 's be, or else not be ! It was of Paper, love, ungentle gentle boy ! That thou didst come and harbour in my breast; Not of intent my body to destroy, And have my soul with restless cares opprest. But sith thy love doth turn unto my pain, Return to poem annotated Greece, sweet lad ! where thou wast born.

Leave me alone my griefs to Mormonism Research entertain ! If thou forsake me, I am less forlorn; Although alone, yet shall I find more ease. Then see thou hie thee hence, or I will chase thee ! Men highly wrongèd care not to displease ! My fortune hangs on Dilemma through Essay, thee ! Thou dost disgrace me ! Yet, at thy farewell, play a friendly part: To make amends, fly to F IDESSA 's heart ! Fly to her heart ! Hover about Paper her heart ! With dainty kisses mollify her heart ! Pierce with thy arrows her obdurate heart ! With sweet allurements ever move her heart ! At midday and at midnight, touch her heart ! Be lurking closely, nestle about her heart ! With power (thou art a god !) command her heart ! Kindle thy coals of love about her heart ! Yea, even into thyself, transform her heart ! Ah, she must love ! Be sure thou have her heart ! And I must die, if thou have not her heart ! Thy bed, (if thou rest well) must be her heart ! He hath the best part sure, that hath her heart, What have I not ? if I have but her heart ! Striving is past ! Ah, I must sink and turmeric ulcer drown, And that in Paper sight of long descrièd shore ! I cannot send for lost book 2 aid unto the town ! All help is Research, vain, and Form Essay I must die therefore. Then poor distressèd caitiff, be resolved. To leave this earthly dwelling fraught with care ! Cease will thy woes ! Thy corpse in earth involved, Thou diest for Research Paper her that will no help prepare. O see, my case, herself doth now behold ! The casement open is ! She seems to speak ! But She is turmeric ulcer, gone ! O then I dare be bold.

And needs must say, She caused my heart to break ! I die before I drown, O heavy case ! It was because I saw my Mistress's face. Compare me to P YGMALION with his image 'sotted ! For (as was he) even so, am I deceived. The shadow only Paper, is to me allotted, The substance hath of poem, substance me bereaved. Then poor and Mormonism Paper helpless, must I wander still. In deep laments to turmeric ulcer pass succeeding days, Welt'ring in woes, that poor and Mormonism mighty kill.

O who is mighty, that so soon decays ! The dread Almighty hath appointed so, The final period of paradise book, all worldly things. Then as in Paper time they come, so must they go. (Death common is to beggars and to hedonic price kings). For whither do I run beside my text ? I run to death, for death must be the Mormonism, next ! The silly bird that hastes unto the The Identity Form, net, And flutters to and fro till she be taken, Doth look some food or succour there to get, But loseth life: so much is Paper, she mistaken ! The foolish fly that fleeth to the flame.

With ceaseless hovering and with restless flight, Is burnèd straight to ashes in turmeric ulcer the same, And finds her death, where was her most delight. The proud aspiring boy, that needs would pry. Into the Mormonism Research, secrets of the highest seat, Had some conceit to gain content thereby, Or else his folly, sure, was wondrous great.

These did through folly perish all and annotated die: And, though I know it ! even so do I ! Poor worm, poor silly worm, alas, poor beast ! Fear makes thee hide thy head within the ground, Because of creeping things thou art the least; Yet every foot gives thee thy mortal wound. But I, thy fellow worm, am in worse state; For thou thy sun enjoyest, but I want mine ! I live in irksome night, O cruel fate ! My sun will never rise, nor ever shine. Thus blind of light, mine eyes misguide my feet, And baleful darkness makes me still afraid;

Men mock me when I stumble in the street, And wonder how my young sight so decayed. Yet do I joy in this, even when I fall, That I shall see again, and then see all ! Well may my soul, immortal and Research divine, That is imprisoned in a lump of clay, Breath out laments until this body pine, That from her takes her pleasures all away. Pine then, thou loathèd prison of my life ! Untoward subject of the least aggrievance ! O let me die ! Mortality is rife ! Death comes by wounds, by sickness, care and Updike's A & chance. O earth, the time will come when I'll resume thee, And in Paper thy bosom make my resting place;

Then do not unto hardest sentence doom me ! Yield, yield betimes ! I must, and will have grace ! Richly shalt thou be entombed ! since for thy grave, F IDESSA , fair F IDESSA ! shalt thou have ! Earth ! take this earth wherein my spirits languish ! Spirits, leave this earth that doth in method griefs retain ! Griefs, chase this earth, that it may fade with anguish ! Spirits, avoid these furies which do pain you ! O leave your loathsome prison ! Freedom gain you ! Your essence is divine ! Great is Mormonism Paper, your power ! And yet you moan your wrongs and sore complain you, Hoping for joy, which fadeth every hour ! O Spirits, your prison loathe, and hedonic method freedom gain you ! The Destinies, in deep laments, have shut you, Of mortal hate ! because they do disdain you ! And yet of Research Paper, joy that they in prison put you. Earth, take this earth with thee to be enclosed ! Life is to london poem me, and I to Research Paper it, opposed ! Weep now no more, mine eyes; but be you drowned. In your own tears, so many years distilled ! And let her know, that at hedonic, them long hath frowned,

That you can weep no more, although She willed. This hap her cruelty hath her allotten, Who whilom was Comandress of Mormonism Research, each part; That, now, her proper griefs must be forgotten, By those true outward signs of inward smart. For how can he, that hath not one tear left him, Stream out those floods that're due unto her moaning; When both of eyes and tears She hath bereft him ? O yet I'll signify my grief with groaning ! True sighs, true groans shall echo in the air. And say, F IDESSA , though most cruel, is most fair ! Tongue, never cease to sing F IDESSA 's praise ! Heart, however she deserve, conceive the best ! Eyes, stand amazed to see her beauty's rays ! Lips, steal one kiss, and be for london poem annotated ever blest ! Hands, touch that hand wherein your life is Mormonism Research Paper, closed ! Breast, lock up fast in Araby versus Updike's P Essay thee thy life's sole treasure ! Arms, still embrace, and Mormonism never be disclosed ! Feet, run to her, without or pace or measure ! Tongue, heart, eyes, lips, hands, breast, arms, feet, Consent to do true homage to Joyce's Araby your Queen ! Lovely, fair, gentle, wise, virtuous, sober, sweet ! Whose like shall never be, hath never been ! O that I were all tongue, her praise to Mormonism Research Paper show;

Then surely my poor heart were freed from hedonic price woe ! Sore sick of Paper, late, Nature her due would have, Great was my pain where still my mind did rest; No hope but heaven ! no comfort but my grave, Which is of comforts both the last and least ! But on A &, a sudden, th'Almighty sent. Sweet ease to the distressed and comfortless, And gave me longer time for to repent; With health and Mormonism Paper strength, the foes of london poem, feebleness. Yet I my health no sooner 'gan recover, But my old thoughts, though full of Mormonism Research Paper, cares, retained, Made me, as erst, become a wretched lover. Of her, that Love and Araby versus Updike's P Essay lovers aye disdained.

Then was my pain, with ease of pain increased, And I ne'er sick until my sickness ceased. He that would fain F IDESSA 's image see, My face, of Mormonism Paper, force, may be his looking glass ! There is versus Updike's P Essay, she portrayed, and her cruelty ! Which as a wonder through the world must pass. But were I dead, she would not be betrayed. It's I, that 'gainst my will, shall make it known ! Her cruelty by Mormonism me must be bewrayed. Or I must hide my head, and live alone. I'll pluck my silver hairs from out my head, And wash away the Form Essay, wrinkles of Mormonism Research Paper, my face ! Closely immured I'll live, as I were dead, Before She suffer but the least disgrace ! How can I hide that is Araby A &, already known ? I have been seen, and have no face but one ! Fie, Pleasure ! fie ! Thou cloy'st me with delight;

Sweet thoughts, you kill me, if you lower stray ! O many be the toys of one short night ! Tush, fancies never can Desire allay ! Happy, unhappy thoughts ! I think, and have not. Pleasure, O pleasing pain ! Shows nought avail me ! Mine own conceit doth glad me, more I crave not ! Yet wanting substance, woe doth still assail me. Babies do children please ! and Paper shadows, fools ! Ever to want our wish, our courage cools ! The ladder broken, 'tis in price method vain to Mormonism climb. But I must wish, and crave, and seek, and climb; It's hard, if I obtain not grace in time ! I have not spent the Araby versus Updike's A &, April of my time,

The Swelt of Youth in Mormonism Research plotting in the air ! But do, at Araby versus Updike's P Essay, first adventure, seek to Paper climb, Whilst flowers of blooming years are green and turmeric ulcer fair. I am no leaving of all-withering Age; I have not suffered many winter lours; I feel no storm, unless my Love do rage, And then, in grief, I spend both days and hours. This yet doth comfort that my flower lasted. Until it did approach my sun too near: And then, alas, untimely was it blasted, So soon as once thy beauty did appear ! But after all, my comfort rests in Mormonism Research this, That, for paradise lost book 2 thy sake, my Youth decayèd is.

O let my heart, my body, and Mormonism my tongue. Bleed forth the lively streams of faith unfeigned ! Worship my saint, the gods and versus A & saints among ! Praise and extol her fair that me hath pained ! O let the smoke of my suppressed Desire. Break out at length, and to Mormonism Research the clouds aspire, Urging the Form Essay, heavens t'afford me rest ! But let my body naturally descend. Into the bowels of Paper, our common mother ! And to Form and Content the very centre let it wend, When it no lower can, her griefs to Mormonism Research Paper smother ! And yet when I so low do buried lie, Then shall my love ascend unto the sky ! Fair is my love, that feeds among the japanese essay, lilies, The lilies growing in Paper that pleasant garden, Where Cupid's Mount, that well beloved hill is, And where that little god himself is turmeric ulcer, Warden. See where my love sits in the beds of spices ! Beset all round with camphor, myrrh, and roses,

And interlaced with curious devices. Which her from Mormonism Paper all the versus Updike's P Essay, world apart incloses. There doth she tune her Lute for her delight ! And with sweet music makes the ground to move; Whilst I, poor I, do sit in Paper heavy plight, Wailing alone my unrespected love. Not daring rush into so rare a place, That gives to her, and she to it, a grace.

Was never eye did see my Mistress's face, Was never ear did hear F IDESSA 's tongue, Was never mind that once did mind her grace, That ever thought the Dilemma through Essay, travail to Research Paper be long ! When her I see, no creature I behold. So plainly say, these Advocates of Love, That now do fear, and now to speak are bold; Trembling apace, when they resolve to Joyce's Araby Updike's A & prove, These strange effects do show a hidden power,

A majesty, all base attempts reproving; That glads or daunts as she doth laugh or lower; Surely some goddess harbours in their moving ! Who thus my Muse from base attempts hath raised, Whom thus my Muse beyond compare hath praised. My Lady's hair is threads of beaten gold; Her front the purest crystal eye hath seen; Her eyes the brightest stars the heavens hold; Her cheeks, red roses, such as seld have been.

Her pretty lips, of red vermilion dye; Her hand of ivory, the purest white; Her blush, A URORA , or the Mormonism Research Paper, morning sky; Her breast displays two silver fountains bright. The spheres, her voice; her grace, the Graces three; Her body is the london annotated, saint that I adore; Her smiles and Mormonism favours sweet as honey be. But ah, the paradise lost, worst and Mormonism Research Paper last is japanese essay, yet behind: For of Research Paper, a griffon she doth bear the london, mind ! Injurious Fates ! to Research rob me of my bliss, And dispossess my heart of london poem annotated, all his hope:

You ought, with just revenge, to punish miss, For unto you the hearts of Research, men are ope. Injurious Fates ! that hardened have her heart, Yet make her face to turmeric ulcer send out pleasing smiles: And both are done but to increase my smart, And entertain my love with falsèd wiles. Yet being, when She smiles, surprised with joy, I fain would languish in so sweet a pain ! Beseeching death my body to destroy;

Lest, on the sudden, She should frown again. When men do wish for Paper death, Fates have no force: But they, when men would live, have no remorse. The prison I am in is thy fair face ! Wherein my liberty enchainèd lies; My thoughts, the turmeric ulcer, bolts that hold me in the place; My food, the Mormonism Research, pleasing looks of method, thy fair eyes ! Deep is the prison where I lie enclosed, Strong are the Mormonism Research, bolts that in this cell contain me;

Sharp is the food necessity imposed, When hunger makes me feed on book, that which pains me. Yet do I love, embrace, and Research Paper follow fast, That holds, that keeps, that discontents me most: And list not break, unlock, or seek to turmeric ulcer waste. The place, the bolts, the Research Paper, food (though I be lost !). Better in 2 prison ever to remain,

Than, being out, to suffer greater pain. When never-speaking silence proves a wonder; When ever-flying flame at Research Paper, home remaineth; When all-concealing night keeps darkness under; When men-devouring wrong true glory gaineth; When soul-tormenting grief agrees with joy; When L UCIFER foreruns the turmeric ulcer, baleful night;

When V ENUS doth forsake her little boy; When her untoward boy obtaineth sight; When S YSIPHUS doth cease to roll his stone; When O THES shaketh off his heavy chain; When Beauty, Queen of Pleasure is alone; When Love and Virtue quiet peace disdain;

When these shall be, and I not be, Then will F IDESSA pity me. Tell me of love, Sweet L OVE , who is Paper, thy sire ? Or if thou mortal or immortal be ? Some say Thou art begotten by Desire ! Nourished with Hope ! and fed with Fantasy ! Engendered by a heavenly Goddess's eye, Lurking most sweetly in an angel's face. Others that Beauty thee doth deify ! (O sovereign Beauty, full of power and grace !) But I must be absurd all this denying, Because the fairest Fair alive ne'er knew thee.

Now, C UPID ! comes thy godhead to the trying ! 'Twas she alone (such is her power !) that slew mw ! She shall be L OVE , and thou a foolish boy ! Whose virtue proves thy power is but a toy. No choice of Joyce's versus Updike's P Essay, change can ever change my mind ! Choiceless my choice, the Mormonism Research Paper, choicest choice alive. Wonder of women, were she not unkind, The pitiless of pity to deprive. Yet She, the kindest creature of her kind, Accuseth me of self ingratitude: And well She may ! Sith by paradise lost book 2 good proof I find. Myself had died, had She not helpful stood. For when my sickness had the upper hand, And death began to show his awful face, She took great pains, my pains for to Mormonism withstand,

And eased my heart, that was in london poem annotated heavy case. But cruel now, she scorneth what it craveth, Unkind in Paper kindness, murdering while she saveth ! Mine eye bewrays the secret of Joyce's versus Updike's A &, my heart, My heart unfolds his grief before her face; Her face (bewitching pleasure of my smart !) Deigns not one look of mercy and Research Paper of grace. My guilty eye of murder and of treason, (Friendly conspirator of my decay, Dumb eloquence, the The Identity Dilemma, lover's strongest reason !)

Doth weep itself for anger quite away, And chooseth rather not to be, than be. Disloyal, by too well discharging duty. And being out, joys it no more can see. The sugared charms of all deceiving Beauty.

But, (for the other greedily doth eye it), I pray you, tell me, What do I get by it ? So soon as peeping L UCIFER , A URORA 's star, The sky with golden periwigs doth spangle; So soon as P H#140;BUS gives us light from far, So soon as fowler doth the bird entangle; Soon as the watchful bird, Clock of the Morn ! Gives intimation of the Day's appearing;

Soon as the jolly hunter winds his horn, His speech and voice with custom's echo clearing; Soon as the hungry lion seeks his prey. In solitary range of Research Paper, pathless mountains; Soon as the london annotated, passenger sets on Mormonism Research, his way, So soon as beasts resort unto the fountains; So soon mine eyes their office are discharging,

And I, my griefs, with greater griefs enlarging ! I see, I hear, I feel, I know, I rue. My fate, my fame, my pain, my loss, my fall; Mishap, reproach, disdain, a crown, her hue; Cruel, still flying, false, fair, funeral, To cross, to shame, bewitch, deceive, and kill. My first proceedings in london poem their flowing bloom. My worthless pen fast chainèd to my will,

My erring life through an Paper, uncertain doom, My thoughts that yet in lowliness do mount, My heart the turmeric ulcer, subject of Research, her tyranny: What now remains, but her severe account. Of murder's crying guilt (foul butchery !)

She was unhappy in her cradle breath, That given was to Araby A & be another's death. Murder ! O murder ! I can cry no longer. Murder ! O murder ! Is there none to aid me ? Life feeble is in force, death is Research Paper, much stronger. Then let me die that shame may not upbraid me, Nothing is japanese essay, left me now, but shame or death ! I fear She feareth not foul murder's guilt ! Nor do I fear to Mormonism lose a servile breath. I know my blood was given to be spilt, What is this life, but maze of countless strays ? The enemy of turmeric ulcer, true felicity ! Fitly compared to dreams ! to flowers ! to plays ! O life ! no life to me, but misery ! Of shame or death (if thou must one ?), Make choice of death ! and both are gone. My cruel fortunes, clouded with a frown,

Lurk in the bosom of eternal night; My climbing thoughts are basely haulèd down ! My best devices prove but after-sight. Poor outcast of the world's exilèd room, I live in Mormonism Research Paper wilderness of deep lament: No hope reserved me but a hopeless tomb, When fruitless life and fruitful woes are spent.

Shall P H#140;BUS hinder little stars to price shine, Or loft cedar, mushrooms leave to grow ? Sure, mighty men at little ones repine, The rich is to Mormonism Paper the poor a common foe. F IDESSA , seeing how the world doth go, Joineth with Fortune in my overthrow. When I the hooks of pleasure first devoured, Which, undigested, threaten now to choke me, Fortune on me her golden traces showered: O then Delight did to london annotated delight provoke me ! Delight, false instrument of my decay ! Delight, the nothing that doth all things move,

Made me first wander from the perfect way, And fast entangled me in Mormonism Research Paper the snares of love. Then my unhappy happiness at first began, Happy in paradise book 2 that I loved the fairest Fair; Unhappily despised, a hapless man:

Thus joy did triumph ! Triumph did despair ! My conquest is, which shall the Paper, conquest gain ? F IDESSA , author both of joy and pain ! Work ! work apace, you blessed Sisters three ! In restless twining of japanese essay, my fatal thread. O let your nimble hands at Research, once agree, To weave it out, and cut it off with speed ! Then shall my vexèd and tormented ghost. Have quiet passage to japanese essay the Elysian rest ! And sweetly over Mormonism Paper, Death and turmeric ulcer Fortune boast, In everlasting triumphs with the blest ! But, ah, (too well I know !) you have conspired. A lingering death for him that loatheth life;

As if with woes he never could be tired. For this, you hide your all-dividing knife. One comfort yet the heavens have assigned me: That I must die, and leave my griefs behind me. It is some comfort to the wrongèd man. The wronger of injustice to upbraid.

Justly myself herein I comfort can, And justly call her An ungrateful maid ! Thus am I pleased to Mormonism Research Paper rid myself of Joyce's Araby, crime, And stop the mouth of all-reporting fame; Counting my greatest cross the loss of Research Paper, time, And all my private grief her public shame. Ah, (but to speak the truth) hence are my cares, And in turmeric ulcer this comfort all discomfort resteth;

My harms I cause (her scandal ) unawares, Thus love procures the Research, thing that love detesteth. For he that views the glasses of Joyce's Araby Updike's A &, my smart. Must needs report She hath a flinty heart ! I was a King of sweet Content at least; But now from out my Kingdom banished ! I was chief guest at fair Dame Pleasure's feast; But now I am for Mormonism want of Dilemma Form and Content, succour famished ! I was a saint, and heaven was my rest; But now cast down into the lowest hell ! Vile caitiffs may not live among the Mormonism Paper, blest ! Nor blessed men amongst cursed caitiffs dwell ! Thus am I made an japanese essay, exile, of a King. Thus choice of meats, to Research want of food is lost book 2, changed. Thus heaven's loss doth hellish torments bring. Self crosses made me from myself estranged. Yet am I still the Mormonism Paper, same, but made another ! Then not the Updike's, same ! Alas, I am no other ! If great A POLLO offered as a dower.

His burning throne to Research Beauty's excellence; If J OVE himself came in a golden shower, Down to the earth, to fetch fair I O thence; If V ENUS in the curlèd locks was tied. Of proud A DONIS , not of gentle kind; If T ELLUS for japanese essay a shepherd's favour died, (The favour cruel Love to her assigned); If Heaven's wingèd herald H ERMES had. His heart enchanted with a country maid; If poor P YGMALION was for Research Paper beauty mad; If gods and men have all for beauty strayed: I am not then ashamed to be included.

'Mongst those that love, and be with love deluded. O, No, I dare not ! O, I may not speak ! Yes, yes, I dare ! I can ! I must ! I will ! Then heart, pour forth thy plaints, and do not break ! Let never Fancy manly courage kill ! Intreat her mildly ! (words have pleasing charms, Of force to move the poem, most obdurate heart) To take relenting pity of Paper, my harms, And with unfeigned tears to wail my smart ! Is She a stock, a block, a stone, a flint ? Hath She, nor ears to hedonic price hear, nor eyes to see ? If so, my cries, my prayers, my tears shall stint ! Lord ! how can lovers so bewitchèd be ! I took her to Mormonism Research Paper be Beauty's Queen alone; But now, I see she is a senseless stone ! Is trust betrayed ? Doth Kindness grow unkind ? Can Beauty, both at once, give life and paradise lost book 2 kill ? Shall fortune alter the most constant mind ? Will Reason yield unto rebelling will ? Doth Fancy purchase praise, and Virtue, shame ? May show of goodness lurk in treachery ? Hath truth unto herself procurèd blame ? Must sacred Muses suffer misery ? Are women woe to men, traps for Research Paper their falls ? Differ their words, their deeds; their looks, their lives ? Have lovers ever been their tennis balls ? Be husbands fearful of the chastest wives ? All men do these affirm; and so must I ! Unless F IDESSA give to paradise me the lie. Three playfellows (such Three were never seen. In V ENUS 's Court !) upon a summer's day,

Met altogether on Paper, a pleasant green, Intending at turmeric ulcer, some pretty game to play. They D IAN , C UPID , and F IDESSA were. Their wager, Beauty, bow, and Cruelty; The conqueress the stakes away did bear, Whose fortune then was it to win all three ? F IDESSA ! which doth these, as weapons use, To make the Mormonism, greatest heart her will obey: And yet the japanese essay, most obedient to refuse. As having power, poor lovers to betray. With these, She wounds, She heals, gives life and Mormonism death; More power hath none, that lives by mortal breath ! O Beauty ! Siren ! kept with C IRCE 's rod ! The fairest* good in seem, but foulest ill ! The sweetest plague ordained for man by G OD ! The pleasing subject of turmeric ulcer, presumptuous will ! Th'alluring object of Mormonism Paper, unstayèd eyes ! Friended of Araby Updike's P Essay, all, but unto all a foe ! The dearest thing that any creature buys ! And vainest too (it serves but for a shoe) ! In seem, a heaven; and yet from Research Paper bliss exiling ! Paying, for turmeric ulcer truest service, nought but pain ! Young men's undoing ! Young and old beguiling ! Man's greatest loss, though thought his greatest gain ! True, that all this, with pain enough I prove;

And yet most true, I will F IDESSA love ! *Lee gives 'faintest'. But see OED seem n. Do I, unto a cruel tiger play; That preys on me, as wolf unto the lambs ? (Who fear the danger, both of night and day, And run for succour to their tender dams) Yet will I pray (though She be ever cruel !) On bended knee, and with submissive heart ! She is the Paper, fire, and I must be the fuel. She must inflict, and price I endure the Paper, smart. She must, She shall be mistress of through Essay, her will; And I, poor I, obedient to Mormonism the same,

As fit to lost suffer death, as She to kill; As ready to be blamed, as She to blame. And for Mormonism Paper I am the subject of her ire, All men shall know thereby my love entire. O let me sigh, weep, wail, and cry no more; Or let me sigh, weep, wail, cry more and more ! Yea let me sigh, weep, wail, cry evermore; For She doth pity my complaints no more. Than cruel pagan or the savage Moor:

But still doth add unto my torments more; Which grievous are to me by so much more. As She inflicts them, and Dilemma Form and Content Essay doth wish them more. O let thy mercy, Merciless ! be never more ! So shall sweet death to me be welcome more. Than is to Mormonism hungry beasts the Joyce's, grassy moor, As She, that to affliction adds yet more, Becomes more cruel by still adding more ! Weary am I to speak of Research, this word more; Yet never weary She, to plague me more ! F IDESSA 's worth in paradise lost book time begetteth praise,

Time, praise; Praise, fame; Fame, wonderment. Wonder, fame, praise, time, her worth do raise. To highest pitch of dread astonishment. Yet Time, in Mormonism Research time, her hardened heart bewrayeth: And Praise itself her cruelty dispraiseth. So that through Praise, alas, her praise decayeth:

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Guide to the Carl Menger Papers, 1857-1985. Carl Menger was an economic theorist and professor. Chiefly notebooks, notes, teaching materials, correspondence, biographical and personal material, and printed material (7500 items, 10 lin. ft; dated 1857-1985), relating to Research Paper, Menger's academic career, 1867-1920. The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on economic and theoretical topics, and on his first major work, Grundsatze der Volkswirthschaftslehre.. Includes extensive material about money, the gold standard, and capital theory. Other topics include economic principles, jurisprudence, credit, property, philosophy, the nature of japanese essay, science, methodology, interest, research on political economy, and the classification of knowledge. Family papers relate to Anton and Max Menger.

Letters to Menger are primarily from colleagues of the Austrian school of economists, especially Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk, Johannes Conrad, Eugen von Philippovich, Emil Sax, and Friedrich Wieser, concerning professional matters. Other correspondents include Friedrich A. von Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Oskar Morganstern, Richard Schuller, Joseph Alois Schumpeter, and Knut Wicksell. The addition (02-220) (150 items, 0.40 linear ft.; dated 1855-1921 and n.d.) comprises letters, notes, postcards, and calling cards from Menger's brothers Anton and Max Menger as well as from distinguished Austrian, German, and other writers, artists, philosophers, jurists, historians, and politicians. Correspondents include Arthur Schnitzler, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Theodor Gomperz, Friedrich Jodl, Karl Kraus, and Otto Weininger. Materials in this accession are unprocessed. The Carl Menger Papers span the years 1857 to 1985. Although the collection includes material from Menger's early professional life as well as some items from his brothers, Anton and Max, and his son, Karl, it is primarily composed of manuscripts and correspondence, 1867-1920, relating to his mature academic career. The contents are extremely dense and complex; they are also essential to an understanding of the mind of Carl Menger.

Not only do the papers reflect Menger's mind, but they also document his own methods of work. He was a copious note-taker and Mormonism Research Paper, read voraciously. He kept bound notebooks with reflections and excerpts from his current reading, especially in the early years when he was constructing the Grundsatze. Joyce's A &! Later he made notes and revisions on loose sheets, having some of them copied into a clear hand, and on those sheets, too, he made revisions. Menger also wrote directly in the printed text. For example, his papers include two copies of the Research Paper, Grundsatze (a third similar copy is in the Hitotsubashi University Library with the rest of Menger's library) with blank pages interleaved with pages of text. In each of london, these successively Menger made extensive notes and changes. Although it is Research frequently impossible to date his manuscripts precisely, one can get a sense of the london, development of his thought from this sort of progression with the help in some cases of holographic evidence. The collection has been organized into Mormonism Research, series which reflect both Menger's style of hedonic price, work and his major areas of research.

The series include: research notebooks; manuscripts and notes on economic principles, money, and methodology; teaching materials; correspondence; biographical and personal materials; related family materials; miscellany; and printed matter. Menger's work on political economy and on the nature of Mormonism Research Paper, his subject and its appropriate research method typify changes in the intellectual frontier in japanese essay, fin-de-siecle Vienna, and Europe as a whole. Some of Menger's most explicit thoughts on these subjects are evident in his lecture notes. Although he taught for over thirty years, the collection contains only a small amount of material from this aspect of his career. What one discerns from the lecture notes, however, is Mormonism a personal sense of the teacher, and his high degree of moral commitment to his work. Menger clearly thought it important to articulate his thoughts on the distinction between political economy and jurisprudence--since that was the faculty in which he taught--and the hedonic price, method and aims of the discipline. The bulk of the collection consists of Menger's notes and revisions on Mormonism, economic and theoretical topics. The series on general economic principles contains material relating to his first major work, the Grundsatze der Volkswirthschaftslehre, which he published in turmeric ulcer, 1871. Despite the lack of a full-length coherent manuscript for Research this book, his background work can be discerned from a set of extensive notebooks he kept. These contain extracts of works Menger read, as well as his reactions and reflections. The range of works shows familiarity with classical authors, particularly Aristotle and Plato, through to poem annotated, his own contemporaries.

He showed special interest in writers on law, political economy, and theories of knowledge, such as Grotius, Malthus, J. S. Mill, Ricardo, J. B. Say, Roscher, Descartes, Francis Bacon, Locke, Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Mormonism Paper, Savigny. Many of the notebooks date from the late 1860s and thus, in the absence of more explicit information from london, Menger about his development, serve the function of Research, intellectual diaries. Early versions of the actual manuscript of the Grundsatze exist in fragmentary form, mostly heavily revised. A table of contents, dated 1870, provides a useful comparison for later revisions and schemas. The collection contains extensive materials on the subjects of money, the gold standard, and capital theory. The work on money, which is some of the best ordered in the collection, Menger produced as an article for the second edition of the Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften in 1990, with substantial revisions for the third edition in 1909. Yet even after the latter edition, Menger continued to make changes and notations. His work on monetary reform grew out of an appointment to an Austrian state commission on currency and the use of a single or double bullion standard.

Newsclippings of the reports have been maintained in through Form, the printed matter series. Although not direct concerns in the Grundsatze, capital and interest received much attention from Menger, particularly in his refutation of his colleague Eugen Bohm-Bawerk's work of 1885, Geschichte und Kritik der Kapitalzinstheorien. Holographic evidence suggests that after dealing with this subject extensively in the late 1880s, Menger did not return to it again until the second decade of the twentieth century, when he was no longer teaching. At that point he resumed his considerations of capital and interest but looked additionally at credit and property. The series in Research Paper, the collection which seems most opaque and less easily classified by subject deals with Menger's speculations and theories about the goals and methods of paradise book 2, research, specifically for political economy, and the classification of knowledge.

The appearance of the Untersuchungen uber die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere in 1883 provoked sharp criticism from Gustav Schmoller, representing the Mormonism Paper, younger German Historical School. Their dispute came to be known as the Methodenstreit. In the following year, Menger replied to Schmoller with his Irrtimer des Historismus in der Deutschen Nationalokonomie. London Annotated! After this, Menger published no further major works, although he continued to produce articles and book reviews for many years. His notes and manuscripts indicate that his research came to Research Paper, an end only with his death. Menger's professional contacts with respected colleagues such as Emil Sax, Eugen Philippovich, and Bohm-Bawerk demonstrate that although he refused to publish further, he did not work in isolation. The incoming correspondence shows a lively exchange of information about university teaching and politics, news of the profession, and current research. Letters also refer frequently to works of others in turmeric ulcer, the profession.

Few drafts of Menger's own letters exist in the collection. A large proportion of these seem to be addressed to Bohm-Bawerk. A majority of Paper, collections are stored off site and price, must be requested at Mormonism, least 2 full business days in advance for retrieval. Contact Rubenstein Library staff before visiting. Read More Collection is method open for Mormonism Paper research. Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection. All or portions of this collection may be housed off-site in 2, Duke University's Library Service Center.

The library may require up to 48 hours to retrieve these materials for research use. Please contact Research Services staff before visiting the David M. Rubenstein Rare Book Manuscript Library to use this collection. The copyright interests in the papers of Carl Menger are reserved to his heirs under the provisions of U.S. copyright law (Title 17, U.S.C.). [Identification of item], Carl Menger Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book Manuscript Library, Duke University. Contain excerpts from works on political economy, definitions of economic terms, philosophy, and the nature of science. Many entries are Menger's notes from readings, but approximately one-third are his own musings and reactions. Not all notebooks are dated, but they fall into two periods, one in the late 1860s, the second in the 1910s. Arranged chronologically. Copious revisions of the Mormonism, Grundsatze (unpublished during Menger's lifetime), arranged according to topic in roughly the same order as presented in Joyce's A & P Essay, the first edition of the Mormonism, Grundsatze; some notes from Karl Menger along with sections he chose to japanese essay, include in the posthumous second edition of the Grundsatze.

Other topics covered extensively in this series are capital and interest, particularly in Mormonism Research, relation to Bohm-Bawerk's theories, and turmeric ulcer, ownership and property. Contains revisions to Mormonism Research, Menger's article on money in the second and third editions of the hedonic, Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften. This section is arranged roughly in the order of the second edition article. Where possible folders have been labeled to indicate where the material would belong in Research, either or both editions. Some of these manuscripts were used by Menger's son Karl in the second edition of the Grundsatze. There are also several folders on monetary reform, especially from turmeric ulcer, Mengers's service on Mormonism, an Austrian government commission to reform the currency and The Identity Form, evaluate its relation to bullion standards. Includes lecture notes from several semesters and one folder of student papers on the term capital. Arranged chronologically. Notes and revisions for the Untersuchungen, material on the ensuing Methodenstreit, G. Schmoller, and Menger's subsequent refutation, Irrtimer; notes for the article on Research Paper, the Klassifikation der Wissenschaften and material refuting Wundt; many general notes and turmeric ulcer, partial manuscripts, apparently for a book on methodology and the aims of research which would have included material on the inductive vs. deductive method and Mormonism Research, the importance of theory in research.

Arranged topically. Contains letters to Carl Menger, predominantly from economist colleagues, especially E. Bohm-Bawerk, J. Hedonic Method! Conrad, E. Philippovich, E. Mormonism Paper! Sax, and F. Wieser, concerning professional matters. Menger's drafts are in the minority; most seem to be to E. Bohm-Bawerk. Several letters concern early professional matters, Menger's association with Rudolf, the crown prince of Austria, and paradise, his appointment at the University of Vienna. The series also includes letters to Karl Menger from economists such as F. Hayek. L. Mises, O. Research Paper! Morgenstern, R. Schuller, J. Schumpeter, K. Wicksell, and R. Zuckerkandl.

They date primarily from the 1920s and 1930s, with a few dating from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. Matters covered include Karl Menger's publication of the second edition of his father's Grundsatze and his later work on the Austrian School. Contains a biographical sketch by F. Hayek which appeared in volume one of the paradise lost book, Collected Works of Carl Menger (Series of Reprints of Scarce Tracts in Economic and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, 1934) and various lists for Research a curriculum vitae of Menger. A valuable but short (48 leaves) diary which Menger kept from turmeric ulcer, l875 to 1893/4 lists major events since his birth in 1840, but deals primarily with Menger's health, his appointments as a journalist, employment in the press section of the Austrian prime minister's office, his association with Crown Prince Rudolf, university politics, and academic research. Mormonism Research Paper! A folder contains notices of celebrations for Menger's seventieth and poem, seventy-fifth birthdays, and obituaries. There is one undated postcard/photograph of Menger and a friend fishing. Contains Railways and Mormonism Paper, Financial Institutions, possibly associated with one of the Mengers; a tribute to Anton Menger by K. Granduberg; various articles by Anton Menger; a diary, 1861-70, and obituaries of Max Menger; an The Identity Dilemma Form and Content article by Karl Menger. Includes notes; bibliographical references on topics other than economics or methodology; and partial catalog of Carl Menger's library arranged alphabetically. Includes books and Mormonism, articles by Menger, many with his annotations; some proofs of items in japanese essay, press; reviews of Paper, Menger's works; articles sent to him by other authors; clippings on turmeric ulcer, the Austrian university students' uprisings; and news clippings concerning articles by Menger and others. Carl Menger was born in 1840 in Neu Sandec, Galicia, of well-to-do titled parents.

His life followed a path typical for Mormonism someone in a family of similar social and intellectual standing. His work as journalist, tutor to the crown prince, and turmeric ulcer, professor marked his role as part of Mormonism Paper, a flowering European intellectual elite. After attending Gymnasium, he matriculated at the universities of Vienna and Prague, leaving school in 1863 for a position on the staff of the Lemberger Zeitung. He continued to hold a number of The Identity through Form, other reporting and editorial posts over the course of the next dozen years, ending with the Research Paper, Wiener Zeitung. The list of Menger's contributions to the press in later years attests to the ties he retained in this area. In the meantime, Menger received his doctorate in jurisprudence from the University of Cracow and began his work on political economy. By 1871 he had begun the process of publication and simultaneously applied for full instatement on the law faculty at the University of Vienna. In his diary, Menger noted it was not without some difficulty that he achieved this goal in July of 1872. For the next several years he taught finance and political economy to an increasing number of students, both in seminars and lectures, while also contributing to the Wiener Zeitung. In the fall of 1876, Menger was approached with a request to become tutor in political economy and statistics to the Crown Prince of Austria.

The ensuing association lasted until the japanese essay, death of the prince in 1889 and Mormonism Research, brought the talented young economist in contact with politically and socially influential people throughout Europe and England. He made two tours with Crown Prince Rudolf, one throughout Europe, and a second to the British Isles. Menger's contact with the prince lessened after their travels and after the prince had successfully completed his examinations, but from Menger's diary entries it is clear he continued to benefit from this royal association, particularly in the area of university appointments. With the exception of the short hiatus of a few semesters with the crown prince, Menger taught until 1903, when he retired early in order to devote himself entirely to research. Joyce's Versus Updike's! He spent the majority of his professional academic career in Vienna, a city acknowledged as one of the Mormonism Research Paper, premier cultural centers on the continent. His writings, like his background, are a window upon the mind and concerns of the late-nineteenth-century intellectual.

Far from having a focused and Joyce's Araby P Essay, narrow concern with a particular aspect of economics, Menger sought to define the discipline and science of (non-mathematical) economics and to place it within the broader context of intellectual inquiry. Mormonism Research Paper! Although the last several decades of Menger's life may be quickly described as involved in teaching and research, comprehending the quality and turmeric ulcer, quantity of his life's work presents a great challenge to contemporary researchers. Click to find related materials at Mormonism Research Paper, Duke University Libraries. The papers of Carl Menger (1840-1921), economic theorist and professor, were donated to Duke University in 1987 by his granddaughter, Eve L. Menger. Encoded by Alvin Pollock. The original order of this collection is completely lost. The Identity Dilemma Through! Karl Menger had possession of the papers immediately after his father's death in 1921.

He used much of the material now in the series on economic principles and some of the Paper, material from the series on money for the publication of a second edition of his father's best-known work, the Grundsatze der Volkswirthschaftslehre. Annotated! A number of years later Friedrich v. Hayek ordered a number of the folders containing notes and manuscripts. His numbers are visible on the outside upper left corner of a number of the Research Paper, hard-cover folders. From time to time he also made notes about the content of price method, a particular folder, but none of these notes is extensive. In the 1970s, Albert Zlabinger was permitted access to Mormonism, some of the turmeric ulcer, papers, primarily the material on money.

His careful work and notations allow for the reconstruction of the Mormonism, development of Menger's article on japanese essay, money for the Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, and Mormonism Paper, its subsequent revisions. Carl Menger did not date all, or even most, of his work, and because he made frequent emendations to his own notes and text, dating is hazardous at poem, best. For this reason, all loose manuscript material has been arranged topically. Almost all material belonging to a particular folder, however, has been kept together. Original folders have been retained. The only materials which lent themselves to something approximating original order are the Research, bound notebooks which Menger himself numbered. Correspondence has been arranged chronologically. The majority of the paper in this collection has an turmeric ulcer extremely high acid content, although it is not overly brittle.

Many sheets are crumpled badly, especially at Mormonism Paper, the edges, but little text has been lost. All newspaper clippings have been photocopied on acid-free paper.