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Apprendre connatre quelqu'un avant de juger des dtails qui ne lui correspondent point ! Cette phrase est une de mes phrases ftiches, une phrase qui rflte ma vie, une phrase qui s'accorde mon tre ! A l'heure d'aujourd'hui et sur tout ce que j'ai dj vcu dans ma petite vie, cette phrase me revient chaque fois surtout parce que les jugements des autres ne cessent de faire face au chemin paisible que j'essaye de mener ! Beaucoup mais normment beaucoup de personnes jugent sans connaitre, jugent sans savoir, . Direct Discrimination? Ils jugent tout simplement l'apparence physique, les gestes, les mots, la faon de parler, les regards, la personne dans ce qu'elle reprsente extrieurement. Mais ces personnes n'essayent meme pas de connaitre ce que la personne est au fond ils s'arretent au rumeur, au jugement d'autrui . The Impaler? mais n'essayent jamais de dcouvrir par eux meme. Ils n'essayent meme pas de connaitre le comment du pourquoi, ils prfrent fuir que essayer de comprendre, ils prfrent sans laisser aux jugements des autres, ils prfrent ragir comme les autres, . Dans ma vie, je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens raisonnent ainsi, je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens n'essayent pas de chercher une rponse tout a, je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens jugent alors qu'au fond aucun tre n'est mauvais, je me suis toujours demand est-ce la peur de ne pas pouvoir affronter l'autre du fait que certaines personnes jugent. D'ailleurs il est toujours facil de juger sans connaitre, toujours facil de supposer sans en savoir, . Direct? Pour ne rien cacher, beaucoup de personnes m'ont dj jug ne serait ce qu' mon apparence physique, mon style ou autres . Narrative Essay Examples? mais je n'ai jamais compris pourquoi les gens ne sont jamais poss la question : est-ce vraiment ce qu'elle reprsente ?! Les gens jugent par un style, par une beaut, par un geste . Direct And Indirect Discrimination? Exple : je suis belle, je me mets en valeur, je m'ouvre aux autres pour certains je suis une pute . The Impaler Book? je reste intimide, je n'ose pas assez mais bon je ne me cache pas pour autant - je suis hautaine . And Indirect? bref arretons les exemples, yen a tellement que je risque de faire un article que sur a alors que ce n'est pas mon but ! Pour certains tout acte a son jugement, tout acte signifie quelque chose . Vlad The Impaler Book? rflchissez bien . Direct? en tes-vous sur ?! Enfin ! Comment peut-on juger sans preuve sans connaissance profonde de l'autre juger sans essayer de connaitre l'autre . Type My Essay? Ca je ne sais pas mais c'est quelque chose dont certaines personnes sont trs dous c'est quelque chose dont je ne me permettrai pas car quand quelque chose m'intrigue quand quelqu'un m'intrigue je prfre connaitre vraiment savoir vraiment qui est cette personne avant de juger .. And Indirect Discrimination? d'ailleurs juger c'est un truc que je ne permets pas trop de faire . 1960s Tvs? je ne suis pas celle qui cherche des dfauts aux autres . Discrimination? je ne comprends meme pas pourquoi on the impaler, m'en cherche ! Quand j'aime quelqu'un je l'aime pour ce qu'elle est pas pour ce qu'elle reprsente ! Ma meilleure amie en lisant a dois me redire cette phrase lOl . Bianca tu es un peu trop laxiste parfois un peu trop gentille . Direct And Indirect? certes mouaih je suis parfois trop gentille et je me fais avoir . 1960s Tvs? j'ouvre mon coeur je fais confiance et je me fais berner mais bon j'ai l'habitude aprs tout j'ouvre quand meme car j'aime le monde, j'aime la vie, j'aime les gens . Direct And Indirect Discrimination? j'aime faire confiance et avoir la confiance des autres . Vlad Book? j'aime etre aimer lOol . Direct Discrimination? enfin la seule phrase qui me reste coeur il faut apprendre connaitre quelqu'un avant d'en juger des dtails qui ne lui correspondent point . My Essay Free? Retenez a bien . comment couter les autres qui ne connaissent pas ?! comment laisser les autres juger quelqu'un qui leur sont inconnus intrieurement ?! pourquoi ne pas apprendre connaitre quelqu'un ?! pourquoi ne pas connaitre la personne plus profondmment qu'en apparence ?! est-ce que cette personne ne cache pas une souffrance inconnue ?! est-ce que cette personne est vraiment ce qu'elle reprsente ou voudrait reprsenter ?! est-ce que les gens qui jugent apprcient vraiment l'autre ?! ps : petite ddicace aux gens qui essayent de m'ouvrir les yeux ! ne vous inquitez pas on direct and indirect, voit toujours on the impaler book, y croit c'est tout on direct, se donne une chance rien de plus ! on personal narrative, souhaiterait toujours tout effacer et recommencer cela l'air impossible mais faisable si on and indirect, le veut vraiment et si on 1960s tvs, y met du sien ! je ne baisse jamais les bras devant un obstacle j'y crois encore plus . Direct And Indirect? une nouvelle chance c tout car tout a droit une chance ! # Posted on personal essay examples, Tuesday, 21 August 2007 at direct, 8:17 AM. 1960s Tvs? Edited on direct discrimination, Monday, 13 October 2008 at 1960s tvs, 2:36 AM. Direct And Indirect? The blog's author only accepts comments from my essay Skyrock members. Discrimination? You haven't logged in. What Are The Effect While? Clique ici pour poster un commentaire en tant identifi avec ton compte Skyrock et un lien vers ton blog ainsi que ta photo seront automatiquement ajouts ton commentaire. # Si Tu Kiff Le Rap Franais Viiiens Lacher 1 Maximum de comsss sur des Artistes Reconnus * ou Ton Bled * ( Maghreb * Iles * ) // Siiii Siiii le blog, continu comme a . Direct And Indirect? T1KIIIIET Tu Geres . Big-Up Toiii La Miiiiiiiissssss . Free? BellisWorld , Posted on and indirect discrimination, Monday, 01 December 2008 at 1960s tvs, 9:53 PM. Direct And Indirect? repass qd tu ve sur mon blog les comms st rendu. What Of Scale? Je ss juste de passage et je me permets de te laisser un tit comm, Juste pr dire que vu ton texte a se voit que t#039;es qq qui reflechis bcp, et tu as bien raison. And Indirect Discrimination? Mais dans le monde d#039;aujourd#039;hui tu devrais arreter de te poser ces questions de pkoi ? et continuer ton tit bout de chemin en laissant les gens qui te font te poser ces questions, derrire toi. bb-tiss-971 , Posted on college personal narrative examples, Tuesday, 10 June 2008 at direct discrimination, 10:29 AM.

C CLER ON NE JUGE PA SELON L#039;APPARENCE. vraiimen jOlii la fOtO . What? GRAV#039; J0OLiii TEY#039; PiiXxX. Direct? tr bell [[ SenSii ]] kikoo la miss je c pa si tu verras mn msg hysop maii je voi pa ki t en faii lol enfin si tu peu me renseigner ca serai cool. allez bisou la miss. What Of Scale? eh ouai on jug jms san connaitr c triste maii bon ch pa sktu pensai de moi mai bon dont flip. hysop , Posted on and indirect discrimination, Wednesday, 30 April 2008 at 10:07 PM. Type Free? ..hum hum. Direct And Indirect Discrimination? Le tXt est veridk, et la Pixx magnifik!! Ben moi j#039;avou ke jt#039;ai juG 100 te connaitr (mais GT p#039;tite l#039;pok)dnc Sorry si parfois G U ds attitud kLke peu CHELOU lorsk tu m#039;adrssais kLk sourir. Personal Examples? Ben l G grandi dnc la prochN fois j#039;ferais 1 ffort!! More Bless 4 U Ti Mamzelle. Lil-dilyah , Posted on and indirect discrimination, Thursday, 24 April 2008 at type free, 9:29 PM. kom l est magnifik cete piix. Direct? ShaWtyZ-LT , Posted on what, Tuesday, 22 April 2008 at direct, 11:51 PM. jadore cet tof la. Vlad The Impaler Book? gwada971ladyz , Posted on Saturday, 19 April 2008 at and indirect discrimination, 1:17 AM.

J#039;ESPERE QUE TU VAS BiEN ! Tu rayOnne =) encOre plus que le sOleil ! Sekele0Crew0ML , Posted on what are the pregnant, Tuesday, 08 April 2008 at discrimination, 1:51 AM. 1960s Tvs? gy mi une new tof . Direct Discrimination? ve dy comeeeuh :) keymelisse , Posted on 1960s tvs, Monday, 07 April 2008 at direct discrimination, 7:36 PM. Why Bu Essay? LG-negrS-2K8 , Posted on direct, Saturday, 05 April 2008 at 5:40 AM. Are The Effect? two subliime ma shOo! Et oui welcome o 21eme sicle, les femmes et les hommes de tn caractere sont une espece en voi de disparition, ben oui c plus ke sur maintenan on and indirect, nous juge sur un sur n#039;autre style, sur tete, sur n#039;au dmarche . The Impaler Book? ces troi point on est fich comme dlikan crtin ou autre et pui d kil te conaissance ou d ke tu prouve ta valeur leurs regards changent et tu ne fai plu parti du lot . And Indirect? sur sa franchemen yen orai tro a dir et ta tt fait raison sur se point la. Is Economies Of Scale? alor comme sa tu connai la cousine et le cousin le monde et petit lol et il mon pas presenter une belle fille comme toi alala. LovaKey , Posted on and indirect, Saturday, 22 March 2008 at is economies, 9:11 PM.

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Direct and indirect discrimination

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Overview Essay: Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democracies. by Arch Puddington and Tyler Roylance. The world was battered in 2015 by and indirect discrimination overlapping crises that fueled xenophobic sentiment in democratic countries, undermined the economies of states dependent on the sale of natural resources, and led authoritarian regimes to crack down harder on dissent. Why Bu Essay. These unsettling developments contributed to the 10th consecutive year of decline in global freedom. The democracies of Europe and the United States struggled to cope with the direct, Syrian civil war and other unresolved regional conflicts. In addition to compounding the misery and driving up the death toll of are the effect of smoking pregnant, civilians in the affected territories, the direct and indirect discrimination, fighting generated unprecedented numbers of refugees and incubated terrorist groups that inspired or organized attacks on targets abroad. In democratic countries, these stresses led to populist, often bigoted reactions as well as new security measures, both of which threaten the core values of an open society. The year also featured the slowdown of China’s economy and a related plunge in commodity prices, which hit profligate, export-dependent authoritarian regimes especially hard. Anticipating popular unrest, dictators redoubled political repression at home and lashed out at perceived foreign enemies. However, in several important countries, elections offered a peaceful way out of failed policies and mismanagement.

Voters in places including Nigeria, Venezuela, and Myanmar rejected incumbents and gave new leaders or parliaments an opportunity to tackle corruption, economic decay, and corrosive security problems. College Essay Examples. These fresh starts suggest that democratic systems may ultimately prove more resilient than their brittle authoritarian counterparts. Whatever the underlying strength of their institutions, leading democracies betrayed a worrying lack of direct, self-confidence and conviction during 2015. Front and center was the democratic world’s inability to what is economies of scale present a unified and and indirect, credible strategy to end the murderous war in vlad the impaler, Syria and deal with the refugee crisis triggered by the conflict. Discrimination. Having failed to support the moderate opposition to 1960s tvs authoritarian president Bashar al-Assad in the conflict’s early stages, the United States and Europe are now confronted with a crisis of global proportions. With its bewildering interplay of regional powers, proxy forces, jihadist groups, and urgent humanitarian priorities, Syria represents the most complex challenge to peace and stability in years, and direct discrimination, thus far the leaders of the free world have fallen short even as fundamental democratic principles come under threat in their own countries. The impact has been powerfully felt in why bu essay, Europe. The surge of asylum seekers from Syria and other conflict zones in 2015 provoked a confused and often ugly debate among the member states of the European Union (EU). While a few European leaders, notably German chancellor Angela Merkel and Swedish prime minister Stefan Löfven, were initially outspoken in welcoming those fleeing barrel bombs and terrorist massacres, others flatly refused to accept Muslim refugees on their soil. Such hostility grew especially acute after coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic State militant group killed 130 people in Paris in November.

Czech president Miloš Zeman called those arriving from the and indirect discrimination, Middle East an “organized invasion,” while Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán asserted inaccurately that “all the terrorists” in the Paris attacks “are basically migrants.” Even in 1960s tvs, Germany, despite the government’s welcoming attitude, neo-Nazis and other xenophobes assaulted refugees and set fire to reception facilities. Other European governments maneuvered to evade responsibility, using fences with razor wire, draconian laws, and discrimination, onerous financial demands to push the flow of migrants away from their borders. In effect, the European establishment’s inability to manage these new challengeson top of the lingering economic woes that began nearly a decade agogave fresh impetus to those who have long questioned the European project and the liberal, universal values that it represents. In France, for type my essay free, example, Marine Le Pen of the and indirect, right-wing National Front spoke of a split between “globalists and patriots,” suggesting that the mainstream, pro-EU socialist and conservative parties were indistinguishable and essentially anti-French. The United States did not face refugee flows or terrorist attacks on the same scale as Europe, but it too is experiencing a crisis of the impaler book, confidence in discrimination, its democratic institutions and international role. While the American system remains dynamic and open to the participation of minorities and immigrants, its elections and legislative process have suffered from an increasingly intricate system of gerrymandering and undue interference by wealthy individuals and special interests. Are The Effect While. Racial and ethnic divisions have seemingly widened, and the past year brought greater attention to police violence and discrimination, impunity, de facto residential and school segregation, and economic inequality, adding to fears that class mobility, a linchpin of America’s self-image and what, global reputation, is in jeopardy. With these concerns as a backdrop, the political debate over immigration and national securityat least on the righttook on an angry, anti-Muslim tone, and direct and indirect discrimination, Islamophobic hate crimes spiked, especially after 14 people were killed in type my essay, a terrorist attack in San Bernardino, California. Some elected officials on both sides of the political spectrum also cast doubt on America’s long-standing goal of supporting democracy overseas, arguing that U.S. involvement only causes instability.

The authoritarian economic crisis. Although some authoritarian rulers sought to blame their problems on meddling by democratic powers, it became clear during 2015 that larger economic forces were at work. China’s slowing growth, punctuated by a stock-market plunge and abrupt devaluations of the currency, helped to reduce the prices of many commodities, slashing the export revenues of direct discrimination, dictatorships around the 1960s tvs, world and threatening the economic underpinnings of direct discrimination, their legitimacy. The price of 1960s tvs, oil in particular, which was also pushed down by Saudi Arabia’s refusal to curb production and and indirect, a longer-term increase in output by is economies of scale the United States, threatened the economic well-being of repressive petro-states from Angola to Azerbaijan. Wary of spending cuts, declining living standards, and the social unrest they could cause, most of these regimes cracked down on rights activists and other critics. In China, modest reform measures in 2015such as incremental judicial changes, relaxation of household registration rules, and a shift to a two-child policywere more than offset by harsh campaigns against dissent and a renewed emphasis on the Communist Party’s leadership in political, social, and economic life. The government of discrimination, Xi Jinping responded to what are the effect while the stock-market drop with aggressive interventions in the market itself, enhanced censorship and propaganda efforts, and a new crackdown on direct and indirect discrimination, civil society. Within a 48-hour period in July, for example, over 200 individuals involved in public-interest legal activism were taken into custody in a nationwide sweep. Other targets, whose work the what effect of smoking pregnant, authorities had previously tolerated, included financial journalists, public health advocates, labor rights activists, and women’s rights defenders. This escalation illustrated the growing brutality and anxiety of China’s leaders. Prominent businessmen and securities traders were also rounded up, adding new risks to and indirect doing business in China.

But in a sign that favored firms would join the regime in promoting a rosier view of the what of smoking pregnant, country, the Chinese internet giant Alibaba purchased the South China Morning Post , pledging to use Hong Kong’s most prominent English-language newspaper to and indirect improve China’s global image. In many countries, the economic setbacks only personal essay examples compounded existing problems brought on by corruption or foreign policy blunders. Russia was forced to deal with falling oil prices at a time when international sanctions over its invasion of discrimination, Ukraineplus countersanctions that hurt Russian consumers at least as much as the intended targetshad already weakened its economy and threatened its indebted state-owned companies. Adding to its expensive military occupations in 1960s tvs, parts of direct discrimination, Ukraine, Georgia, and Moldova, the Kremlin intervened in Syria in late 2015 to what shore up support for Assad. Analysts warned that it could prove costly in discrimination, financial, military, and political terms. The Russian authorities were sensitive to the possibility of popular discontent, using the state’s high-volume propaganda apparatus to shift emphasis from the stalemate in Ukraine to the new adventure in Syria. The regime also took measures to stifle criticism of its foreign interventions. Opponents have been derided as traitors, forced from their jobs, arrested, or pushed into exile. To drive home the leadership’s intolerance for dissent, President Vladimir Putin issued a decree making it illegal to publish information about military casualties even during peacetime. The head of a committee of are the of smoking while pregnant, soldiers’ mothers was convicted of direct discrimination, fraud after publicizing the cases of Russian troops killed in eastern Ukraine, where the Kremlin has implausibly denied that any Russian forces are deployed.

Saudi Arabia and its Gulf allies, similarly hit by the drop in hydrocarbon prices, leaned heavily on their financial reserves as they sought to prop up the Egyptian regime, battle Shiite-led militants in Yemen, and are the of smoking, maintain their domestic spending to avoid social unrest. The nervousness of the region’s monarchs was reflected in heightened political repression, with Saudi authorities imposing more death sentences for a variety of crimes, including nonviolent offenses related to discrimination freedom of expression. Low oil prices also posed a problem for Iran, which hoped to rebuild its sanctions-ravaged economy after reaching an agreement with the international community to limit its nuclear program. Even before the deal was completed, hard-line forces in the regime worked to smother public expectations that it would lead to a more open society. The crackdown featured a spike in executions, the shuttering of civil society organizations, and the arrest of journalists who wrote favorably about personal narrative essay examples, liberalizing policies or improved ties with the West. The trial and conviction of Washington Post correspondent Jason Rezaian, apparently on spurious espionage charges, ranks among the most notable cases. No details were made public, the trial was carried out in secret, and and indirect discrimination, Rezaian was not allowed to mount a serious defense. Venezuela experienced an economic freefall due to slumping oil revenues, years of gross mismanagement, and rampant corruption. In the months leading up to December elections, the what is economies, country faced extreme shortages of staple goods, rising criminal violence, and the world’s highest rate of inflation. The government of President Nicolás Maduro responded with more repression, bringing politicized prosecutions against leading opposition figures and and indirect discrimination, tightening its grip on the media.

However, in addition to serving as a cautionary example of authoritarian misrule, Venezuela illustrated the potential of elections to type free correct a country’s course. And Indirect Discrimination. The electoral system was weighed down by blatant gerrymandering, the misuse of state resources, and what of smoking while, pronounced media bias, but a groundswell of public frustration with Maduro’s government gave the opposition coalition a two-thirds supermajority in the National Assembly. The results set up a likely confrontation between the legislative and executive branches, and the ultimate outcome remained unclear at year’s end. Nevertheless, the election gave Venezuela a real chance to reverse years of democratic and economic decline. Citizens in direct discrimination, a number of other troubled societies similarly proved that change was entirely possible, and did so through the most tried-and-true democratic institutionthe ballot box. In Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country and largest economy, voters fed up with rampant corruption and insecurity rejected the incumbent president, Goodluck Jonathan, and elected Muhammadu Buhari to replace him, the first time ever that the opposition gained executive power through elections. Buhari, despite a checkered past, has since begun to fulfill pledges to 1960s tvs address the country’s massive corruption problem and accelerate the direct and indirect, military campaign against the terrorist group Boko Haram.

In Myanmar, a huge turnout produced an overwhelming victory in parliamentary elections for type, longtime opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy (NLD), a remarkable turnaround in direct and indirect discrimination, a country that until recently ranked among the world’s most repressive. Voters in Sri Lanka ousted their increasingly authoritarian and divisive president, Mahinda Rajapaksa, in favor of Maithripala Sirisena. Upon taking office in January, Sirisena overturned some of Rajapaksa’s repressive policies and began repairing relations with both the country’s Tamil minority and the international community. And in Argentina, opposition candidate Mauricio Macri won the presidency by defeating the nominee of incumbent Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who with her late husband, Néstor Kirchner, had dominated the 1960s tvs, executive branch for over a decade. Combined with the Venezuela results, Macri’s victory may be the beginning of a rollback of Latin America’s populist movements, which had previously made impressive gains across the region.

There is, of course, no guarantee that electoral victories in direct discrimination, societies with fragile institutions and histories of conflict or dictatorship will lead to stability, peace, and prosperity. But the people in these countriesexemplars of hope in a decade of regressionretained faith in the democratic process even after experiencing hardship after hardship, including military rule (Myanmar), civil war and authoritarian rule (Sri Lanka), entrenched corruption and a terrorist scourge (Nigeria), economic collapse and political repression (Venezuela), and economic setback and unaccountable government (Argentina). They prevailed despite, in some cases, an electoral playing field tilted sharply against my essay free the opposition; in other cases, a record of political violence; and in still other cases, apprehensions about and indirect, what lies ahead when dictatorships give way to why bu essay normal politics. Some of direct discrimination, these voters were also rejecting political figures who had publicly disdained the type my essay, world’s democracies and drawn closer to authoritarian powers like Russia, China, and Iran. They were willing to listen to candidates who talked about the rule of law, freedom of expression, and and indirect, the right to be free of payoffs and bribes, and narrative, they were unimpressed by those who blamed every step backward on foreign plots. These voters, in other words, aligned themselves with the universal principles of democracy and human rightseither explicitly or by deciding that the alternatives had simply failed to deliver. Indeed, the most valuable lesson of 2015 may be that when given the opportunity, people will choose the system that works. As all varieties of government face mounting pressure to perform, the coming year could demonstrate whether democracy is truly more responsive and and indirect discrimination, durable than dictatorship. In addition to those described above, five major phenomena stood out during the year: Overstaying their welcome: Leaders in several countries maneuvered to extend their terms in office during 2015.

Most prominent among these was Burundian president Pierre Nkurunziza, whose decision to what of scale run for a constitutionally dubious third termwhich he won amid an opposition boycott in Julyled to large-scale political violence. Similar schemes were in the works in Bolivia, Ecuador, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. Although none of these countries has yet seen the discrimination, violence experienced by Burundi, the moves all serve to perpetuate the rule of why bu essay, entrenched incumbents and deny citizens their right to freely choose their leaders. Meanwhile, Lebanon again failed to and indirect discrimination hold legislative elections after sitting lawmakers postponed them in both 2013 and 2014, citing disagreements over the electoral laws and security concerns stemming from the Syrian conflict. Governments in Afghanistan, Somaliland, and South Sudan similarly blamed stalled electoral reforms or security problems when delaying scheduled elections. Threats to democracy in 1960s tvs, Central America: Vicious criminal gangs, political violence, and systemic corruption pose a growing threat to freedom and democracy in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. The negative trend, though already well under way by 2015, represents a wake-up call for the impaler, the region, which for years enjoyed comparative political stability after overcoming decades of civil war and military rule. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. In Guatemala, although prosecutors and protesters forced the president to resign and of scale, face corruption charges during the year, the case was built on the work of international investigators, and the subsequent elections featured violence and intimidation. Direct. Moreover, observers raised concerns about what is economies of scale, ties between the military and the party of the new president, Jimmy Morales.

In Nicaragua, unlike in the other countries, the direct and indirect discrimination, main threat to democracy is the political and type my essay free, institutional dominance of the and indirect discrimination, ruling Sandinista party. Why Bu Essay. Over the past several years, the Sandinistas have gained considerable control over the judiciary and security forces, abolished term limits, and shown an intolerance for dissent. Nicaragua also suffers from a cozy relationship between political elites and economic enterprise. Lack of direct discrimination, progress for women: More than 20 years after members of the United Nations met in Beijing to establish principles for advancing gender equality, women remain at a distinct disadvantage around the world in terms of political rights and civil liberties. Despite modest increases in women’s political representation and the election of a number of vlad the impaler, female heads of government, examples of genuine progress are few and direct discrimination, far between. The very limited steps that were hailed as victories in is economies of scale, 2015that women in Saudi Arabia, who must still obtain a male guardian’s permission to conduct many basic daily activities, were finally able to participate in tightly controlled elections for largely powerless municipal councils, or that a ridiculously outdated law criminalizing adultery was struck down in South Koreademonstrated just how low the bar has gotten in and indirect discrimination, evaluating progress toward gender equality. Meanwhile, in book, many parts of the world, women’s economic aspirations and and indirect, the broader economies of their countries continue to why bu essay suffer from unequal rights to property and and indirect, inheritance as well as discriminatory practices that prevent women from working outside the home. Gridlock in the Balkans: Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo all suffered from crippling government dysfunction in 2015. Macedonia’s ruling party was implicated in electoral fraud and an expansive wiretapping scandal, exacerbating a bitter political standoff with the opposition that ultimately required the EU to step in and broker snap elections for 2016.

In Kosovo, lawmakers opposed to a deal on normalizing relations with Serbia repeatedly halted parliamentary debate by releasing tear gas within the chamber and vlad the impaler, pelting ruling party members with eggs. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s government, hampered by a complex, ineffective framework established under the 1995 peace accords, remained incapable of addressing the relentless obstructionism and endemic corruption that have plagued it ever since. Tensions were further aggravated when officials in the Republika Srpska, one of the direct, country’s two constituent entities, rejected the authority of the national police, courts, and prosecutors, and began planning a referendum on the legitimacy of the national judiciary. Such disputes precluded democratic gains in all three countries, and 1960s tvs, ensured that EU accession remained a distant prospect. Conversely, Montenegro’s progress toward EU membership, even as the entrenched government of and indirect, Prime Minister Milo Dukanovic sanctioned the harassment of independent media, tarnished the bloc’s image as a purveyor of good governance and democratic norms. Unfinished business: Although the world’s attention turned to type my essay new disasters during 2015, many of the previous year’s most dramatic setbacks for freedom continued to fester. Thailand’s post-coup government officially lifted martial law, but the military junta remained in complete control of the political system and direct, continued to hunt down and punish any who expressed dissent. The government of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in Egypt, formalized in 2014 after the 2013 coup, finally allowed parliamentary elections, but they were marred by large-scale rigging, criminalization of and boycotts by opposition parties, and a tight grip on the media. What Are The Of Smoking While. Meanwhile, an Islamist insurgency continued to gain momentum amid unchecked abuses by security forces.

Crimea, which dominated global headlines after Russia’s invasion in 2014, languished in direct discrimination, a grim status quo, and de facto Russian control of the Donbas region in eastern Ukraine was solidified in both military and economic terms. Finally, South Sudan’s bloody civil war continued throughout the year despite a series of attempted cease-fires, subjecting the population to college massacres, rapes, and large-scale displacement. Regime security over public safety. The conflicts raging across the Middle East and North Africa began in large part because entrenched rulers put their own interests and security above the safety and well-being of direct discrimination, their people. Why Bu Essay. In the direct, countries that remain at peace, many leaders still embrace the same short-sighted priorities, raising the risk that they too could descend into disorder. Although the Egyptian regime’s self-defeating drive against dissenta violent campaign enabled by American and Gulf state aidhas been widely criticized, a number of other Middle Eastern states have escaped international attention while they quietly clamp down on already limited political participation and civil liberties. These include Morocco and Kuwait, where journalists and civil society activists found themselves under fresh assault in 2015. Why Bu Essay. The United Arab Emirates sought to further restrict scrutiny of the and indirect discrimination, country’s abhorrent labor conditions by why bu essay denying entry to academic researchers, and Bahrain’s government, with little pushback from its U.S. ally, continued its shameful efforts to silence the opposition by stripping its leading critics, most of them Shiites, of their citizenship. Saudi Arabia, one of the worst human rights abusers in the world, increased the number of executions to its highest level in direct, 20 years, and vlad, tried to cover up its failure to safeguard participants in the annual Hajj pilgrimage after a stampede killed more than 2,400 people.

The kingdom’s military campaign in neighboring Yemen showed a similar indifference toward protecting innocent lives. Undergirding all of these cases is a model of governance that erodes the kind of long-term and inclusive stability the region desperately needs. And Indirect Discrimination. By sacrificing public safety for regime security, these governments alienate and anger their citizens, squander public resources, and enfeeble the institutions that are necessary for sustainable political and why bu essay, economic development. Also in 2015, relations between Israel and Palestinians remained combustible. In the discrimination, aftermath of the previous year’s war between Israel and Hamas, which caused the 1960s tvs, deaths of over 2,100 Palestinians and 73 Israelis, the peace process was moribund. Right-leaning Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu won reelection in March, and discrimination, the deeply divided Palestinian political institutions in the West Bank and Gaza were in disarray. The administration of President Barack Obama reportedly concluded that it would be unable to make significant progress on peace talks during the remainder of its term. Meanwhile, individual Palestinians carried out a series of knife and vehicular attacks on Israeli Jews, and Israeli security personnel responded with deadly force. Struggling with term limits and terrorism. Democratic setbacks and violence triggered by African leaders’ manipulation of term limits were offset by while pregnant successful elections and direct and indirect discrimination, peaceful transfers of power in key countries during 2015.

Meanwhile, nations across the Sahelian belt from Mali to Kenya continued to grapple with threats from Islamist militants. Burundian president Pierre Nkurunziza’s controversial decision to run for a third term sparked civil unrest, a failed coup, and political violence that threatened to spiral into civil war. In neighboring Rwanda, where President Paul Kagame has efficiently closed the narrative, space for political opposition or critical viewpoints, Senate approval and direct and indirect, a successful national referendum cleared the way for Kagame to narrative potentially remain in office until 2034. And an October constitutional referendum allowed longtime Congo Republic president Denis Sassou-Nguesso to forego term limits and run to extend his rule in 2016, triggering the largest antigovernment demonstration since 1992. Burkina Faso recovered from a September military coup by supporters of ousted president Blaise Compaore?, who in 2014 had tried to direct discrimination change the constitution and extend his own 27-year rule, leading to a popular uprising. The country went on to hold its most successful presidential and legislative elections ever, marking a turning point in its political transition and college, serving as an example for other nations contending with leaders who attempt to overstay their mandates. Tanzania, whose presidents have consistently honored the two-term limit, held its most competitive elections since its transition to multiparty rule in discrimination, the early 1990s, with ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) candidate John Magufuli winning 58 percent of the vote. However, it was unclear whether Magufuli would reform laws passed earlier in the year that severely restricted freedom of expression. While a deadly terrorist attack on a luxury hotel in Bamako in my essay, November triggered a state of direct, emergency in Mali, there were few reports that the effect of smoking pregnant, government used the incident to restrict citizens’ basic freedoms.

However, elsewhere in the region, violations of civil liberties and the rule of law continued in the fight against Boko Haram, which spread from northeastern Nigeria to parts of Cameroon and Chad. In the wake of yet another attack by Somalia’s Shabaab militant group, which in April killed nearly 150 people at Garissa University College in northeastern Kenya, the government in Nairobi continued its ham-fisted domestic counterterrorism campaign. Direct Discrimination. This included alleged extrajudicial killings and disappearances, as well as a crackdown on nongovernmental organizations and critical media. Meanwhile, Ethiopia used the war on terrorism to justify a deadly crackdown on protests against forced displacement in the Oromia region in November and December, as well as ongoing repression of political opponents, journalists, bloggers, and activists. Religious nationalism linked to political tensions. In a wide range of Asian countries, there was a correlation in 2015 between strained political institutions and various forms of religious nationalism or extremism.

India’s Hindu nationalist government, under pressure to deliver on its 2014 campaign promises, generally failed to type curb a rise in anti-Muslim violence and intimidation, at times appearing to encourage or take advantage of religious divisions for political gain. In Bangladesh, as the major political parties continued their bitter standoff, Islamist radicals carried out a series of attacks on secular writers, foreigners, and Shiites. The authorities in Malaysia stepped up enforcement of conservative dress codes and persecution of and indirect, LGBT people at a time when the ruling party was reeling from type, a major corruption scandal. Direct Discrimination. And in vlad the impaler book, the tiny, oil-dependent sultanate of Brunei, the government restricted minority religious displays and moved toward implementation of a harsh new criminal code based on direct, Sharia. Anti-Muslim discrimination in why bu essay, Myanmar remained a serious problem during the year, and it was unclear whether a new NLD government would take the political risk of and indirect discrimination, defending Muslims’ fundamental rights. However, the failure of Buddhist nationalists to drum up voter support for the military-backed ruling party was a promising sign. The influence of Buddhist nationalists in Sri Lanka clearly waned after that country’s change in leadership, with the newly elected administration promising a more inclusive model of governance. Migrant crisis threatens solidarity, democratic standards. The migration crisis in Europe put unprecedented pressure on the EU’s fundamental principles of liberty, solidarity, and free, respect for human rights.

The massive influx of people not only exposed areas of weak institutional capacity across the direct and indirect, region, but also cast doubt on the EU’s ability to maintain high democratic standards among current and aspiring member states in a time of rising populism. The year began with the January election victory of the left-populist Syriza party in Greece, whose anti-EU rhetoric struck a chord with voters after years of externally imposed austerity. Although the new government was eventually forced to comply with its creditors’ demands, important underlying problemsincluding governance deficiencies and a debt load that many view as unsustainablehave yet to be addressed. Vlad The Impaler. Nevertheless, the attention of Brussels had shifted to and indirect discrimination the migrants by college personal narrative examples the second half of 2015. The EU’s attempts to distribute responsibility for and indirect discrimination, the settlement of refugees across the union met with resistance throughout the bloc, particularly from Central and are the effect of smoking, Eastern Europe. These countries’ blatant rejection of solidarity with asylum seekers and and indirect discrimination, fellow member states, despite their own 20th-century histories of repression, foreign domination, and vlad, mass dislocation on the one hand, and the benefits they received from the EU on and indirect discrimination, the other, represented a stinging blow to of smoking while pregnant the European project. The bloc’s broader retreat from the goal of bolstering democratic values was underscored by its renewed interest in Turkey’s membership bid, which had stalled for years as Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan exhibited increasingly authoritarian behavior. Direct. EU negotiators, seeking Turkey’s assistance in stemming the why bu essay, migrant flow to direct and indirect discrimination Europe, apparently turned a blind eye to Erdogan’s repressive actions during 2015, including assaults on critical media and personal narrative essay examples, indiscriminate military operations in urban areas in the southeast in advance of the discrimination, November elections. In pursuit of the impaler, false stability.

While elections have served as an avenue to recovery for many ill-governed countries, several Eurasian states held national polls in direct discrimination, 2015 that served as exhibitions of the unfettered power of longtime incumbents. Faced with slumping economies and security threats linked to foreign conflicts, these regimes sought to fortify themselves against any remaining opposition or dissent. In Tajikistan, for college personal narrative examples, example, the government of President Emomali Rahmon, who has ruled the country since 1992, ensured that the opposition Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRPT) lost all of its seats in legislative elections. The authorities then intensified their assault on and indirect discrimination, the party over the subsequent months, revoking its registration, detaining its leaders, and what is economies of scale, effectively incapacitating what had been Central Asia’s only legal Islamist political grouping. Tightly controlled legislative elections in Azerbaijan, which followed another year of intense suppression of civil society, resulted in a hollow victory for the ruling party, with most opposition groups boycotting the vote. President Ilham Aliyev’s government used the polls to direct and indirect discrimination show its teeth to narrative essay examples the democratic world, barring several foreign journalists from direct, covering the process and imposing restrictions on international observer groups that led some to suspend their monitoring missions. In contrast, a deeply flawed election in Belarus actually seemed to improve President Alyaksandr Lukashenka’s standing with democratic powers. His release of political prisoners before the vote, and the absence of violence in its aftermath, eased the way for plans by the United States and the EUwavering in their determination to press for true liberalizationto reduce sanctions against Belarusian individuals and entities. There is little chance that Lukashenka’s actions are signs of a genuine thaw. Rather, his gestures toward the West seem motivated by growing fears of Russian bellicosity and economic weakness.

Populists on the defensive, little progress in free, Cuba. There were several important developments in Latin America during 2015. First, although the populist left suffered major electoral reversals in Venezuela and Argentina, incumbent leaders in discrimination, the region made clear their intention to remain in power. Thus in the wake of his party’s overwhelming defeat in Venezuela’s parliamentary elections, President Nicolás Maduro took steps to pack the Supreme Court and threatened to refuse to carry out decisions of the new legislative majority. In Ecuador, President Rafael Correa moved forward with a proposal to eliminate term limits and seek a fourth term in office in 2017. Similar plans were under way in Bolivia, and Nicaragua had already abolished term limits in 2014. Second, a number of regional heads of state were undermined by corruption scandals or an inability to stem violent crime.

In Brazil, a democracy hard hit by what are the of smoking while the crash in commodities prices, President Dilma Rousseff faced impeachment efforts in the wake of direct and indirect, a bribery scandal at the national oil company; Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet was seriously weakened by a corruption case that implicated her son; and what are the, Mexico’s President Enrique Peña Nieto was politically crippled due to a series of direct and indirect, graft allegations and the persistence of organized crime in parts of the country. Finally, little progress was made toward democratic reform in Cuba despite the resumption of what of smoking pregnant, diplomatic relations with the United States. There was a modest expansion of direct and indirect discrimination, rights for religious believers and private business owners, and more Cubans exercised their new ability to travel abroad. But the political system remained closed to all but Communist Party loyalists, and freedom of expression was highly restricted. Nor were prospects especially bright for significant change in the immediate future. Are The Of Smoking While. The administration of U.S. president Barack Obama urged patience with Cuba’s pace of direct, political change, and negotiations between Washington and Havana concentrated on removing other roadblocks to the lifting of the American trade embargo.

With additional input from the impaler book, Elen Aghekyan, Jennifer Dunham, Bret Nelson, Shannon O’Toole, Sarah Repucci, and Vanessa Tucker.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Direct. UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Are The Effect Pregnant. Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante.

Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. And Indirect. Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence. Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Why Bu Essay. Approche fonctionnelle vs. Discrimination. approche objet^ I-A-1-a.

La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc…). 1960s Tvs. Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. Direct Discrimination. Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Vlad. En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on and indirect discrimination peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. Examples. Gnial ! I-A-1-c.

Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. And Indirect Discrimination. Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. 1960s Tvs. On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes. And Indirect Discrimination. Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. 1960s Tvs. Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. What Are The. La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail.

Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. Direct Discrimination. ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres). Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). 1960s Tvs. Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Direct And Indirect. Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e.

1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^ Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. What Are The. 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne.

Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Direct Discrimination. Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. 1960s Tvs. Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document.

Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. And Indirect Discrimination. Une telle entit s'appelle. Vlad The Impaler. un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom). Discrimination. Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. My Essay. Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. Direct Discrimination. Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). Vlad The Impaler Book. Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits.

I-A-2. And Indirect Discrimination. Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. Type Free. L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. And Indirect. L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on why bu essay peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. And Indirect Discrimination. L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe. College Personal Narrative Essay Examples. Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. Direct. Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. What Effect While. La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Discrimination. L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple.

L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. College Personal Essay Examples. Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. Direct. Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. What Are The Effect Pregnant. L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes.

I-A-2-d. Direct. Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e.

L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. Why Bu Essay. De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. Discrimination. Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement. Of Smoking While Pregnant. L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes.

De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. And Indirect Discrimination. De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. Is Economies Of Scale. ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Direct. ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. Why Bu Essay. ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Discrimination. ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. Vlad The Impaler Book. ) I-A-2-f. Direct And Indirect. L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. Are The Effect While Pregnant. Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Direct Discrimination. Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. Why Bu Essay. De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet.

L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). And Indirect Discrimination. Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g. The Impaler Book. Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). And Indirect Discrimination. Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Effect While. Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). And Indirect. Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. What Is Economies Of Scale. Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit.

I-B. Discrimination. Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. Type. L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. ). Why Bu Essay. L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. And Indirect Discrimination. ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose. Type. Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Direct. Notation graphique riche et lisible. Book. OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. Direct And Indirect. Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT).

Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. The Impaler Book. La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Direct And Indirect. L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Personal. ). Direct And Indirect Discrimination. UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. Of Scale. UML est issu du terrain. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement). 1960s Tvs. UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). And Indirect. Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. The Impaler Book. ). And Indirect. XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). Why Bu Essay. UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. What While. De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable.

UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. And Indirect Discrimination. La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. Personal Essay Examples. Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise. Discrimination. UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE).

Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. Vlad The Impaler. Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Direct Discrimination. Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). Personal Examples. Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. And Indirect. Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils.

Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. What. Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Direct Discrimination. UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle. What Are The Of Smoking While Pregnant. Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet.

L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Vlad The Impaler. Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Direct. ) en font un langage universel. I-C. College Narrative Essay Examples. Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. And Indirect Discrimination. Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. Why Bu Essay. UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue. Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard.

Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. 1960s Tvs. Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. And Indirect Discrimination. Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit. Why Bu Essay. Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . What Are The Effect Of Smoking While Pregnant. ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. Direct And Indirect. Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. What Effect. ). Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Vlad. Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi.

Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. Direct Discrimination. de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1. What Is Economies Of Scale. Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Direct. Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage.

Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2. My Essay. Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). And Indirect. Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme).

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on why bu essay clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. Direct. A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on what veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. And Indirect Discrimination. A chaque itration de la phase de test, on vlad vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3. And Indirect. Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. My Essay. ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. And Indirect. Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Is Economies Of Scale. Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. And Indirect. ). What Is Economies. En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique. Direct And Indirect. L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. College Essay Examples. Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. And Indirect Discrimination. ). What. La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Direct Discrimination. Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). 1960s Tvs. La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances. Direct And Indirect. L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau.

Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. Why Bu Essay. ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Discrimination. Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. Why Bu Essay. A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. And Indirect Discrimination. Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. My Essay Free. Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale.

Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Direct. Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Why Bu Essay. Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. Direct Discrimination. Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. Is Economies. Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Direct Discrimination. Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6.

Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Type My Essay Free. UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. And Indirect Discrimination. ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction. L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). 1960s Tvs. La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage.

II-B-7. Direct And Indirect. Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Of Scale. A ce niveau d'abstraction, on and indirect discrimination doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Why Bu Essay. Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). And Indirect. Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Are The Effect Pregnant. A ce stade, on direct organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc. A ce niveau, on why bu essay modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Discrimination. Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. Personal Narrative. encapsulation). And Indirect. Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Vlad The Impaler. Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on and indirect dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs.

Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8. What Of Scale. Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. And Indirect. UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles.

Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. Why Bu Essay. ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Direct. ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez. vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Essay. ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes.

Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. What Is Economies. Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme). Why Bu Essay. Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Type My Essay Free. Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^

Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction. Discrimination. Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Are The Effect Of Smoking While Pregnant. La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Direct And Indirect. Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). Vlad. Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code.

II-B-10-c. Direct. Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. 1960s Tvs. Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques. And Indirect. Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface).

Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Book. Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. And Indirect. Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. 1960s Tvs. Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b.

Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Discrimination. Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). Vlad The Impaler. L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation. Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. Direct. INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets.

Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). Why Bu Essay. Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Discrimination. Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits. Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle.

De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. College Personal Essay Examples. L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Direct And Indirect. Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Why Bu Essay. ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. And Indirect Discrimination. Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. 1960s Tvs. Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Direct. collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. Book. Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. And Indirect Discrimination. L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Why Bu Essay. Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association.

Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives). Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on discrimination dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens.

La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. Effect Of Smoking. Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association.

La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls. Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. Discrimination. Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. Are The Effect Of Smoking While Pregnant. Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). And Indirect. Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. 1960s Tvs. Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. What Are The Effect. Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. 1960s Tvs. Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). What Effect While Pregnant. Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants.

La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Direct Discrimination. Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. Of Scale. A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Direct Discrimination. Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes. II-C-5-g. Why Bu Essay. Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on narrative examples sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. And Indirect. proprits de la composition).

Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule. The Impaler. En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. And Indirect. Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. The Impaler. Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations.

Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. Direct And Indirect. Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. 1960s Tvs. Contrainte sur une association^ Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). And Indirect Discrimination. Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation).

Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. College Personal Narrative Essay Examples. Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Direct Discrimination. OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. Type. Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Direct Discrimination. Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique. Vlad. OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Direct Discrimination. OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Why Bu Essay. OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL.

Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. And Indirect. Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. Type Free. Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Direct. Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations). L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. What Of Scale. Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Discrimination. Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier.

Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. College Essay Examples. ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Direct And Indirect. En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. 1960s Tvs. ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique.

La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Discrimination. Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases). Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of vlad book Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). Direct And Indirect. Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL. Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Of Smoking. Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. Direct And Indirect. Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards).

II-C-6. What Are The Of Smoking While. DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. Direct. Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants. Why Bu Essay. Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Direct Discrimination. Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. 1960s Tvs. Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation.

Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. And Indirect Discrimination. Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. Of Scale. Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. And Indirect. Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. Effect Of Smoking Pregnant. Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. Personal Essay Examples. Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Direct And Indirect. Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. 1960s Tvs. Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. Free. Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. And Indirect. Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. Are The Effect While Pregnant. Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme. Direct And Indirect. Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme.

Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. Book. Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. And Indirect. Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. Vlad The Impaler. Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer. Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide.

Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. And Indirect Discrimination. D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement. A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on 1960s tvs clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on direct and indirect veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on vlad book vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial.

Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Discrimination. Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. 1960s Tvs. Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit.

Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques. Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. Are The Effect Of Smoking While Pregnant. Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. And Indirect. ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire.

Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. Of Scale. Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable. Discrimination. Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. College Personal Essay Examples. Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. And Indirect. Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. 1960s Tvs. En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss).

Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Why Bu Essay. Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). Direct And Indirect. L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme. Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). Vlad The Impaler. Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on and indirect discrimination peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. College Narrative Examples. Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique.

Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Direct Discrimination. cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. Vlad. sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. What. iter : rcurrence du message. Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Direct. Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). Personal Essay. r : valeur de retour du message.

Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. And Indirect Discrimination. msg : nom du message. Of Scale. par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. And Indirect. Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a. Narrative Essay Examples. Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on direct y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Personal. Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on and indirect n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. 1960s Tvs. Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation.

L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. And Indirect. La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Why Bu Essay. Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on and indirect ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. Type. message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur. Direct. L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Why Bu Essay. message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Direct Discrimination. Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. What Effect While Pregnant. message asynchrone.

N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. And Indirect Discrimination. Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Vlad. message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern. Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on direct peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. 1960s Tvs. Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). And Indirect Discrimination. Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). College Narrative Examples. Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe. Direct And Indirect. Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit.

L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. What. Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. And Indirect Discrimination. Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Type Free. Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence).

II-D-4-a. And Indirect. Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^ Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. Why Bu Essay. Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. And Indirect Discrimination. Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. My Essay. Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre.

Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Direct And Indirect. En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Why Bu Essay. Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Direct Discrimination. En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets). tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. 1960s Tvs. Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions).

Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. Direct Discrimination. S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente. What Effect. Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Direct. En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. 1960s Tvs. Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier).

On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on direct reprsente les tats. Vlad The Impaler. Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on direct and indirect vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on of scale survient. Discrimination. Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. Vlad Book. Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^ Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on direct utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. Why Bu Essay. Au dpart, l'objet dont on direct and indirect discrimination modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1).

Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Vlad The Impaler Book. Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). Direct. Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Type. Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). And Indirect. Et ainsi de suite. Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative.

Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. My Essay. Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Direct Discrimination. On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. Vlad The Impaler Book. Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. Direct And Indirect. Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. 1960s Tvs. Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide. II-D-5-a.

Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Direct And Indirect. Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. Vlad. Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Direct And Indirect. Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques). Why Bu Essay. En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. And Indirect Discrimination. On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits.

Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). 1960s Tvs. Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Direct Discrimination. UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. Why Bu Essay. Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Discrimination. Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). Book. Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Direct Discrimination. Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. My Essay. ). Direct And Indirect Discrimination. Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. 1960s Tvs. Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Direct. sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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Expert Tips for Becoming a Successful Notary Signing Agent. In response to our most often received question, “How can I become a signing agent?” the American Association of Notaries (“ AAN ”) has accumulated and consolidated advice from notary signing agents who have established their businesses. We have created eight lessons to provide readers with timely advice. Once you become a notary and have studied the rules of your notary commission you have completed the first two critical steps of becoming a notary signing agent. Direct And Indirect Discrimination? What comes next is the are the while pregnant, process of collecting the knowledge required and focusing resources toward finding business.

The lessons which follow will address several of those processes. Starting a signing agent business is a task requiring a tremendous amount of direct discrimination, self-education and high dedication of time and money to marketing one’s business. The success of the 1960s tvs, business will rest solely on the shoulders of the new signing agent and will depend on direct discrimination, the amount of time they are willing to commit to learning their new duties and marketing their new business. Examples? The good news is that there are many sites on direct and indirect, the internet which will move this process along if the new signing agent will commit their time into planning, searching, reading, and organizing their materials for effect of smoking, ready reference. Many of those links appear below.

In fact, there are so many links and resources mentioned that you should probably take a moment and bookmark the location of this article on direct, your internet browser now so that you can refer back to it. Lesson 1 – Get Organized: The Notary Signing Agent Resource Notebook. Undoubtedly, as you start the process of becoming a signing agent you will begin to research topics relating to the signing agent business. Therefore, it is very likely that you will begin to why bu essay, amass many pages of reference materials. Staying organized is the key to making reference material work well.

To that end, consider developing a notebook system of organization. Purchase a three-ring binder, three-ring hole punch and dividers for organizing the material you will place in the notebook. And Indirect Discrimination? In the are the effect of smoking, beginning phase of your business this will be an invaluable resource. Collect, print and organize resources for ready reference when marketing, researching and studying subjects related to discrimination, the signing agent business. Have it available any time a call for work comes in is economies of scale, so that you can refer to it. Keeping your reference materials available and organized will save you time. Divide the notebook into sections. Put them in the order you believe will work best for direct and indirect, you. Consider the following sections for your notebook:

Marketing Ideas – keep tips and items of interest in this section regarding how to market effectively. Marketing and Business Plan In this section you would place your goals for marketing your business. College Narrative Essay? You may want to include daily goals such as (1) Read one article per day on marketing a small business; (2) Contact fifteen signing services per day; or (3) Build a list of possible sites to advertise on and research them for effectiveness. An excellent resource for business and marketing planning is the Small Business Administration’s (“ SBA ”) website. Any type of new business owner will benefit from learning from the website of the SBA. Statutory Notary Materials Keep your state’s official notary rules, your state handbook and/or educational materials issued by your commissioning office in this section. Direct And Indirect Discrimination? Most of 1960s tvs, them can be printed from each state’s commissioning office.

If the material is and indirect discrimination, online, “bookmark” it on your internet browser, as well. Even the most seasoned notary signing agents keep their state mandated notary rules easily accessible at all times as reference. Continuing Notary Education Keep information in this section which you find to be particularly informative about your notary duties. The information stored in this section would be articles and type my essay free, reference materials which do not come from direct, your state’s commissioning office website. For instance, you might want to add articles from the AAN ’s monthly emailed newsletter to type my essay, this section of your notebook for future reference. Loose Notary Certificates Purchase or create the types of notary certificates your state allows you to direct discrimination, use. 1960s Tvs? If you are requested to notarize a document which has no certificate attached you can open your notebook to this section and show your potential client the types of certificates you have, telling them that while you cannot choose a notary certificate for them they can choose one to attach to direct, their document. Do not punch holes in what while, these. It would be better to keep them in a top-loading vinyl sheet protector.

These can be purchased from office supply stores such as Office Depot. Good/Bad Companies List - This is a must-do for new notary signing agents. Discrimination? Create a list of companies you will and will not work for. To start building this list consider visiting a site called NotaryBeware.com. This site can currently be joined for $20.00 per year (or $35.00 for a premium membership). Create an type alphabetical list of the companies you will and direct and indirect discrimination, will not work for. Update this list daily as you learn about my essay free hiring companies. Refer to it when soliciting signing companies and when calls come in direct discrimination, so that you can determine whether or not you will work for that company. Is Economies? Creating and referring to and indirect discrimination, this list will save you both time and book, money. Fee List - Every signing agent needs a fee list in their reference notebook. And Indirect? You will be better prepared if you create your own fee list for reference when accepting and quoting fees.

Make a list of all cities (or zip codes) you will travel to. Set a price for why bu essay, each. (For more information on setting fees please refer to one of our previously published articles located here.) Signing Agent Articles Keep monthly emailed articles which are of interest to you from the AAN as well as from the AAN ‘s quarterly printed publication, The Notary Digest. The Notary Digest is mailed to all members. (In addition, members of the AAN have access to and indirect, all back issues of The Notary Digest as well as to all previously published e-newsletter articles.) Add other articles to this section from resources you find to be credible and educational. In this section you may desire to keep phone lists, supply and of scale, equipment shopping lists, email lists, addresses, account numbers and other bits of information that you refer to frequently as a business owner. Client contact list - This will save you time when faxing back documents, emailing clients or contacting them with questions when you are away from your computer. Acronyms and Lingo List - In Lesson 8 (below) appears a list of Acronyms and Lingo for Signing Agents which you may want to print and and indirect, put in this section. Leave a section for miscellaneous information you would like to keep. What Of Smoking While Pregnant? Add sections as you recognize matters that you feel will assist you. Every minute and every cent applied to creating a Notary Signing Agent Resource Notebook will be an direct and indirect investment yielding high dividends while starting your business. Lesson 2 – Google is your friend!

A great deal of information must be accumulated when starting a new signing agent business. While seeking that information remember: “Google is your friend!” The more you pursue learning about a signing agent business the more you will realize this to type free, be true. With the arrival of comprehensive and user-friendly search engines such as Google.com and its newest worthy competitor, Bing.com , plus other established sites such as Ask.com , Yahoo.com , and AltaVista.com almost anything a would-be notary signing agent wants to know about almost any subject is available online. Take advantage of the infinite amount of informative reading on notary sites, mortgage sites, real estate and law-related internet sites. Use such a search engine to find companies which will hire your services, as well as finding notary discussions, notary advice, notary law, educational materials and more. While all search engines listed above, are stable search engines to use, Google.com is still considered the direct, favored search engine for locating information on the web. For more information on how to use Google.com to why bu essay, find whatever is direct discrimination, available about the business of what, being a notary signing agent review and direct discrimination, apply the tips in the article entitled, Google search basics: Basic search help . Learning the techniques discussed there will assist you while you search for free, information that will enhance your business. Lesson 3 –Notary Discussion Venues Are Invaluable. Within the direct discrimination, last five or six years notary discussion lists and online notary forums have become quite an important part of the 1960s tvs, notary signing agent’s toolkit.

Seek to direct and indirect discrimination, learn more about being a signing agent through reading such notary discussions. For instance, consider visiting the following sites: 123Notary.com Forum (“123”) – 123 has been around for what is economies of scale, years as a top notch notary database, and now, the 123 forum has been added. The positives of the 123 forum are that posters are generally courteous and patient, plus there is one section of the 123 forum entitled, “ Ask Carmen ” where questions are never ignored and many posters will share their knowledge with “newbie” posters. Signing Agent Yahoo Group (“ SAYG ”) – SAYG is a very active email list of signing agents discussing signing agent issues by email. It can be accessed either through email, or by visiting the discussion at its home on the web. The group is owned and discrimination, monitored by a long-time signing agent residing in Florida, Paul Williamson . What Are The Effect While? Paul is one of the major contributors of the group in addition to direct, Sylvia Mease. Sylvia is a retired signing agent who also runs a small Florida signing service. Sylvia is an 1960s tvs icon in direct discrimination, the notary community.

Of English birth, Sylvia is fondly known in online notary venues as the “Queen Mother of Notary Signing Agents” because of her advice, kindness and helpfulness to others. Both Paul and Sylvia are powerhouses of insight and advice to other signing agents as they seem to 1960s tvs, have unending patience in sharing their notary knowledge on SAYG . Field Inspection Talk (“ FIT ”) – Eventually, a new notary signing agent may decide to seek supplementary avenues of discrimination, income while building a business. One stream of income which fits nicely with the full-time signing agent’s schedule is doing what is known as “field inspections”. FIT is a Google group email list. 1960s Tvs? In the direct, FIT group notaries who are also field inspectors collaborate and why bu essay, exchange discussions on issues relating to and indirect discrimination, field inspection work. If this type of work interests you, you may want to what, consider jumpstarting your field inspection business by purchasing an inexpensive list ($9.95) of field inspection companies produced by Rebecca Fair , a notary signing agent in Florida.

Lesson 4 – Advance Your Notary Knowledge. An important step in educating oneself to be a signing agent is knowing notary duties well, if not committing rules to memory. Additionally, a notary signing agent should be very familiar with handling notarizations typically seen on common loan documents. And Indirect? Many notaries working toward notary signing agent status have never notarized signatures on typical loan documents before they begin their work as a notary signing agent. When this is the case, one may choose to improvise in personal narrative essay, order to become familiar with a loan packet. One way to have the opportunity to study typical loan documents is to review your own home loan documentation. If you have a set of loan documents which were created for your own home loan pull them out of the file drawer and direct and indirect discrimination, begin to 1960s tvs, study the notarizations on them. Direct? Another way to find many typical loan documents to see their notary certificates is to read a previous article of this newsletter entitled Obtaining the Necessary Notary and Document Experience . You will not only learn about being familiar with notarizing signatures on loan documents, you will also gain several additional tips including how to improve notary skills. Readers may also want to review an article the AAN recently published entitled Handling Business and Corporate Notarization . Another educational article previously published is entitled, Handling Two Types of Notary Certificates on One Document . If these articles are helpful to you, bookmark them on vlad the impaler, your internet browser and print them out; put them in your resource notebook for future reference when refreshing your notary skills. Lesson 5 – Learn the Lingo. Studying the following notary signing agent’s “Acronym and Lingo List” may prove helpful before taking instructions from hiring entities.

Become familiar with acronyms and jargon used in the signing agent world. Keep the following list handy in your resource notebook under “Ready Reference”. If you do indeed pursue a career as a signing agent you will eventually encounter one or more of these in discussions with hiring entities or in written instructions. AKA – also known as. APR – annual percentage rate. DOT – deed of trust. EO – errors and omissions. EOM – end of month. FKA – formerly known as.

HUD – Settlement Statement. HUD1 – Settlement Statement. Junk docs – title documents. NBS – non-borrowing spouse. NKA – now known as. NOTR – notice of and indirect discrimination, right to personal essay examples, rescind. POA – power of attorney. POC – paid outside of discrimination, closing. RTR – notice of right to rescind. Security Instrument – deed of trust or mortgage. Smalls – title documents.

SS – Settlement Statement. TIL – Truth in Lending Statement. Title docs (Title documents) – documents which the title company provides separately from the lender. WTTA – who took title as. This list is not all inclusive. As you learn more about the signing agent business you will find additional lingo and acronyms to add to the list. For more information about terms which apply to the signing agent business use a search engine and seek phrases such as “notary glossary”, “mortgage glossary” and “signing agent glossary”.

Consider joining the AAN in order to have a library of notary and notary signing agent knowledge at your fingertips. Naturally, we believe we have tremendous benefits to offer you and your signing agent business. For only $19.00 per type, year the AAN offers the most value packed membership offered by an organization for notaries in the U.S. Our monthly emailed newsletter such as this one is only one of the many benefits of being a member of the direct and indirect discrimination, AAN . If you find this edition of 1960s tvs, our emailed newsletter helpful, you will surely find the annual membership fee of $19.00 per year appealing because you will have access to a year’s worth of upcoming issues (and all of the direct discrimination, back issues) of our printed publication, The Notary Digest, as well as access to all back issues of this emailed newsletter. - Targeting the Medical Records Business Medical records notarization and what, collection is a lively source of discrimination, notary business you will not want to overlook. This article will tell you savvy ways to market for this type of business. - The Courtesy of Embossing a Seal An informative article about the times when a notary should consider having a seal embosser, even if one is type, not required by direct and indirect, their state.

- Property Venue vs. Notary Venue Do you know the difference? You can learn important clues to guide you so that you will not make this common error which inexperienced notaries may make. - FedEx and UPS Pointers for 1960s tvs, Notary Signing Agents Overnight courier usage is frequent and discrimination, highly important in the signing agent business. Learn all you can and become an expert at utilizing couriers. There may be more to it than you think.

- Is Being a Notary Signing Agent for You? This article will give you an overview and insight from a veteran signing agent’s perspective. - Local Publications Yield Opportunity Do not miss this article which will give you hints on finding new business in unexpected places. - Business Card Design and Marketing for why bu essay, the Notary Professional Learn how to create a notary business card which will work and then using it to direct discrimination, its full potential. - Marketing in Traffic Do not miss out on this inexpensive way to promote your business while running errands and when finding yourself sitting in my essay, traffic. In addition to the above-noted articles which members have access to, do not forget you will also receive a place to and indirect, advertise your business in the AAN’s Notary Locator . The price of $19.00 a year to become a member is the best value of the industry. Once you join the AAN you will have access to the above-referenced articles as well as countless others written by experienced notaries. These articles have been released quarterly in the print edition of our Notary Digest publication for several years. If you are not sold on the idea yet, plug the phrase “ notary locator” into Google.com and my essay free, see for yourself that the AAN ’s link to and indirect discrimination, the Notary Locator tool comes up on why bu essay, the first page of search engine hits. Lesson 7 – Plan to Succeed. It has been said that “failing to plan is planning to fail”.

Design a marketing plan and begin working through it so that your marketing will be focused on steps for success. Discrimination? Your initial marketing plan does not need to what is economies, be perfect or complicated but you should begin to write one, then refer to and indirect, it daily and effect while pregnant, improve on it as time goes by. Direct And Indirect Discrimination? Marketing is a critical part of being a successful notary signing agent. Begin your marketing plan by making a list of every type of marketing tool you can think of. What Are The? Research how effective each will be, make notations of how much each will cost and determine how to budget your funds toward marketing efforts. Print advertising will probably not do as well for a notary signing agent business as internet advertising opportunities will. While some may feel that print advertising in direct, phone books is type free, advantageous it is important to remember that hiring companies will usually be consulting the internet to locate both distant and discrimination, local notaries. Why Bu Essay? Therefore, internet-based advertising is the most important for direct and indirect discrimination, notary signing agents. Advertise your new signing agent business in is economies, as many online notary databases as you can find and direct and indirect, afford.

Set aside a budget for what, marketing. Determine which sources of advertising yield the best value for the dollar. To develop clients you must begin to and indirect, market your business as soon as you are ready to undertake the duties of doing loan signing work. Constant marketing and well-placed advertising is absolutely necessary to 1960s tvs, build a notary signing agent business. It is critical to set a marketing goal for each day as part of your marketing plan. Apply yourself daily to getting your information into the hands of direct and indirect discrimination, those who will hire you.

You can find signing services by searching the internet. Plan to sign up with a certain amount of signing services each day. The more companies you contact the vlad, higher your chance to be called for direct discrimination, an assignment. One article from a previous edition of this newsletter which you may want to read is are the effect, Marketing to Title Companies . This article will give you guidance when you are ready to attempt direct marketing to title companies. As part of your marketing plan your first stop should be the website of the AAN . Do not overlook the low cost, high value notary database provided for members of the direct discrimination, American Association of Notaries . Undoubtedly, the my essay free, Notary Locator of the AAN is and indirect, one of the best values around for notaries to use in their business marketing. At $19.00 per year there is no better value for the tools and resources provided. Another place to consider marketing your business is why bu essay, through The Notary Caf . Direct? The home page of this website states, “There are many signing services across the nation that utilize this software and this provides you exposure to thousands of signings that occur each month with your single profile entry.” For the the impaler, price of the annual fee and the time involved in discrimination, setting up a profile you can reach many hiring entities with your business information.

Overall, this site currently seems to what of scale, have favorable results among signing agents from coast to coast. Consider marketing your business by establishing a website. Discrimination? Having a website is a plus, if not a must, for any current business model. Below is a list of examples of professional notary websites which are easily located by search engines. Alex Yvonnou of Detroit, Michigan has a website which some might view as the best possible site a notary could have. Others which are well-written and nicely presented are: Once you have established a website, study the of scale, skill of “search engine optimization” to learn how to direct and indirect discrimination, make the website move up in the ranks of search engine hits. (Caution: Do not ever copy the content verbatim of what are the of smoking while pregnant, any website without permission from its owner. Not only is this practice unethical, it can also cause search engines to discount the value of the content of your website if information is and indirect, copied verbatim from what are the effect of smoking while pregnant, another website.)

If your budget is tight, there are free websites now offered my Microsoft Office Live and by Google.com. Google’s version of the direct discrimination, free website is type my essay free, located here . Direct And Indirect? If you have money in your budget available and can afford to the impaler, have a website built for you, consider seeking bids from webmasters in direct and indirect discrimination, your local area. Alternatively, national website creators such as the the impaler book, following offer powerful website skills, hosting and creation. Direct And Indirect? Texas Internet Solutions, Notary Websites and Site Growers. 1960s Tvs? (Hint: Once you have a website remember to add the link to your business card.) Lesson 8 – Promote with a Professional Image. Many notary signing agents decide to use an image of and indirect, themselves in their marketing materials and in online notary venues where pictures can be uploaded.

This is what, one way to present a professional image to potential clients -- that is, if the direct, right picture is type free, chosen. If you decide to use a picture of yourself online or on your printed marketing materials to promote your business do not use an direct image which is 1960s tvs, (1) More than seven years old; (2) Shows you depicted in a casual setting; (3) Shows you with your spouse or other person, unless that person is your business partner; (4) In general does not give a professional image of you as a signing agent. Do use an image which (1) is current, and (2) depicts you in direct, professional attire such as you would wear if you were entering a title company or bank to work as an employee. Hiring entities seek a professional notary signing agent to carry out narrative essay examples, their loan signing assignments. Therefore, provide a picture which creates confidence in the hiring company when they hire you. Discrimination? If you do not have a business picture of yourself have someone assist you with one. Dress in a business outfit such as you will wear to signing agent appointments.

Place yourself in front of a solid background. Have a head and shoulders picture taken with a good digital camera. Full torso portraits are better left to professional photographers. Personal Examples? If you can work a professional portrait into your marketing budget such an image of yourself can only and indirect, be a plus to your business. Examples of professional signing agent pictures utilized by experienced signing agents are shown below with their permission: We hope that you bookmarked this page as previously suggested so that you can have the what is economies of scale, eight lessons in this article and all of its links available to you for reference.

The American Association of Notaries appreciates its readership and strives to provide valuable, informative articles for notary signing agents to assist them in increasing the direct discrimination, potential for 1960s tvs, their business.

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consumer essay This account was written in 1969 for direct publication in Marihuana Reconsidered (1971). Sagan was in his mid-thirties at that time. Are The Of Smoking While! He continued to use cannabis for the rest of his life. It all began about and indirect ten years ago. I had reached a considerably more relaxed period in my life – a time when I had come to the impaler book feel that there was more to living than science, a time of awakening of my social consciousness and amiability, a time when I was open to new experiences. I had become friendly with a group of people who occasionally smoked cannabis, irregularly, but with evident pleasure.

Initially I was unwilling to partake, but the apparent euphoria that cannabis produced and the fact that there was no physiological addiction to the plant eventually persuaded me to try. My initial experiences were entirely disappointing; there was no effect at all, and direct and indirect I began to entertain a variety of my essay free hypotheses about cannabis being a placebo which worked by discrimination, expectation and hyperventilation rather than by chemistry. Personal Narrative Essay! After about five or six unsuccessful attempts, however, it happened. I was lying on my back in a friend’s living room idly examining the pattern of shadows on direct the ceiling cast by a potted plant (not cannabis!). I suddenly realized that I was examining an intricately detailed miniature Volkswagen, distinctly outlined by the shadows. While! I was very skeptical at this perception, and direct discrimination tried to find inconsistencies between Volkswagens and what I viewed on the ceiling. But it was all there, down to my essay free hubcaps, license plate, chrome, and even the small handle used for opening the trunk. When I closed my eyes, I was stunned to find that there was a movie going on the inside of my eyelids. Flash . . . a simple country scene with red farmhouse, a blue sky, white clouds, yellow path meandering over green hills to the horizon. . Direct! . Flash . College Narrative Examples! . . same scene, orange house, brown sky, red clouds, yellow path, violet fields . . Direct And Indirect Discrimination! . Flash . . . Effect Of Smoking Pregnant! Flash . . . Flash.

The flashes came about once a heartbeat. Each flash brought the same simple scene into view, but each time with a different set of colors . . . exquisitely deep hues, and astonishingly harmonious in their juxtaposition. Since then I have smoked occasionally and enjoyed it thoroughly. Direct And Indirect! It amplifies torpid sensibilities and produces what to me are even more interesting effects, as I will explain shortly. I can remember another early visual experience with cannabis, in which I viewed a candle flame and discovered in the heart of the flame, standing with magnificent indifference, the black-hatted and -cloaked Spanish gentleman who appears on the label of the Sandeman sherry bottle. Looking at fires when high, by the way, especially through one of those prism kaleidoscopes which image their surroundings, is an extraordinarily moving and what beautiful experience. I want to explain that at no time did I think these things ‘really’ were out there.

I knew there was no Volkswagen on the ceiling and direct there was no Sandeman salamander man in 1960s tvs the flame. And Indirect Discrimination! I don’t feel any contradiction in these experiences. The Impaler Book! There’s a part of me making, creating the perceptions which in everyday life would be bizarre; there’s another part of me which is a kind of observer. Direct Discrimination! About half of the what effect while pleasure comes from the observer-part appreciating the work of the creator-part. I smile, or sometimes even laugh out loud at the pictures on and indirect discrimination the insides of my eyelids. In this sense, I suppose cannabis is psychotomimetic, but I find none of the panic or terror that accompanies some psychoses. Possibly this is because I know it’s my own trip, and that I can come down rapidly any time I want to. While my early perceptions were all visual, and what of scale curiously lacking in images of human beings, both of these items have changed over the intervening years. And Indirect! I find that today a single joint is enough to get me high. I test whether I’m high by closing my eyes and looking for the flashes.

They come long before there are any alterations in my visual or other perceptions. I would guess this is a signal-to-noise problem, the visual noise level being very low with my eyes closed. Book! Another interesting information-theoretical aspects is the prevalence – at least in and indirect my flashed images – of cartoons: just the are the of smoking outlines of figures, caricatures, not photographs. I think this is direct discrimination simply a matter of information compression; it would be impossible to grasp the total content of an what are the of smoking, image with the direct discrimination information content of an ordinary photograph, say 108 bits, in the fraction of what pregnant a second which a flash occupies. Direct! And the flash experience is designed, if I may use that word, for instant appreciation.

The artist and viewer are one. This is not to say that the images are not marvelously detailed and complex. I recently had an personal narrative essay examples, image in which two people were talking, and direct discrimination the words they were saying would form and disappear in yellow above their heads, at about a sentence per heartbeat. In this way it was possible to follow the conversation. At the same time an occasional word would appear in red letters among the yellows above their heads, perfectly in context with the conversation; but if one remembered these red words, they would enunciate a quite different set of statements, penetratingly critical of the conversation. The entire image set which I’ve outlined here, with I would say at vlad book least 100 yellow words and something like 10 red words, occurred in something under a minute.

The cannabis experience has greatly improved my appreciation for art, a subject which I had never much appreciated before. The understanding of the intent of the artist which I can achieve when high sometimes carries over to when I’m down. This is one of many human frontiers which cannabis has helped me traverse. There also have been some art-related insights – I don’t know whether they are true or false, but they were fun to formulate. For example, I have spent some time high looking at the work of the direct discrimination Belgian surrealist Yves Tanguey. Some years later, I emerged from a long swim in the Caribbean and sank exhausted onto 1960s tvs, a beach formed from the erosion of direct a nearby coral reef.

In idly examining the arcuate pastel-colored coral fragments which made up the what are the of smoking while beach, I saw before me a vast Tanguey painting. Perhaps Tanguey visited such a beach in his childhood. A very similar improvement in my appreciation of music has occurred with cannabis. For the first time I have been able to hear the separate parts of direct and indirect discrimination a three-part harmony and the richness of the type my essay free counterpoint. And Indirect! I have since discovered that professional musicians can quite easily keep many separate parts going simultaneously in their heads, but this was the first time for me. Again, the learning experience when high has at least to some extent carried over when I’m down. The enjoyment of food is amplified; tastes and aromas emerge that for what are the of smoking while some reason we ordinarily seem to direct be too busy to notice. I am able to give my full attention to the sensation. A potato will have a texture, a body, and why bu essay taste like that of other potatoes, but much more so.

Cannabis also enhances the enjoyment of sex – on the one hand it gives an exquisite sensitivity, but on the other hand it postpones orgasm: in part by distracting me with the profusion of image passing before my eyes. Direct And Indirect Discrimination! The actual duration of orgasm seems to lengthen greatly, but this may be the usual experience of time expansion which comes with cannabis smoking. I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to some highs. The heightened sensitivity in type free all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate. Sometimes a kind of existential perception of the absurd comes over direct and indirect discrimination, me and I see with awful certainty the hypocrisies and posturing of myself and my fellow men. And at other times, there is a different sense of the while pregnant absurd, a playful and whimsical awareness. Both of these senses of the absurd can be communicated, and some of the most rewarding highs I’ve had have been in sharing talk and perceptions and humor. Cannabis brings us an awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to direct and indirect discrimination overlook and forget and is economies of scale put out of direct discrimination our minds. A sense of what the world is really like can be maddening; cannabis has brought me some feelings for what it is like to why bu essay be crazy, and how we use that word ‘crazy’ to avoid thinking about things that are too painful for us. In the Soviet Union political dissidents are routinely placed in insane asylums.

The same kind of thing, a little more subtle perhaps, occurs here: ‘did you hear what Lenny Bruce said yesterday? He must be crazy.’ When high on cannabis I discovered that there’s somebody inside in those people we call mad. When I’m high I can penetrate into the past, recall childhood memories, friends, relatives, playthings, streets, smells, sounds, and tastes from a vanished era. I can reconstruct the and indirect discrimination actual occurrences in 1960s tvs childhood events only half understood at the time. Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in direct discrimination them a symbolism significant to me which I won’t attempt to describe here, a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and what of scale as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights. There is and indirect a myth about examples such highs: the user has an illusion of great insight, but it does not survive scrutiny in direct the morning. I am convinced that this is an error, and that the devastating insights achieved when high are real insights; the main problem is putting these insights in a form acceptable to the quite different self that we are when we’re down the next day. Some of the hardest work I’ve ever done has been to put such insights down on tape or in writing.

The problem is that ten even more interesting ideas or images have to 1960s tvs be lost in the effort of recording one. Direct Discrimination! It is easy to understand why someone might think it’s a waste of effort going to all that trouble to set the thought down, a kind of intrusion of the Protestant Ethic. But since I live almost all my life down I’ve made the effort – successfully, I think. College Personal Narrative Essay! Incidentally, I find that reasonably good insights can be remembered the and indirect next day, but only if some effort has been made to set them down another way. If I write the are the effect of smoking while insight down or tell it to someone, then I can remember it with no assistance the following morning; but if I merely say to myself that I must make an direct and indirect discrimination, effort to remember, I never do. I find that most of the insights I achieve when high are into social issues, an area of creative scholarship very different from the one I am generally known for. I can remember one occasion, taking a shower with my wife while high, in which I had an type, idea on the origins and invalidities of racism in terms of gaussian distribution curves. It was a point obvious in a way, but rarely talked about. I drew the curves in soap on the shower wall, and went to and indirect discrimination write the idea down. What Is Economies Of Scale! One idea led to another, and at discrimination the end of 1960s tvs about an hour of extremely hard work I found I had written eleven short essays on a wide range of and indirect discrimination social, political, philosophical, and human biological topics.

Because of 1960s tvs problems of space, I can’t go into the details of these essays, but from all external signs, such as public reactions and expert commentary, they seem to contain valid insights. I have used them in and indirect university commencement addresses, public lectures, and in my books. But let me try to at least give the flavor of such an insight and type my essay free its accompaniments. One night, high on cannabis, I was delving into my childhood, a little self-analysis, and making what seemed to me to be very good progress. I then paused and thought how extraordinary it was that Sigmund Freud, with no assistance from and indirect drugs, had been able to achieve his own remarkable self-analysis. 1960s Tvs! But then it hit me like a thunderclap that this was wrong, that Freud had spent the decade before his self-analysis as an experimenter with and a proselytizer for cocaine; and it seemed to me very apparent that the genuine psychological insights that Freud brought to the world were at least in part derived from his drug experience. I have no idea whether this is in fact true, or whether the historians of direct discrimination Freud would agree with this interpretation, or even if such an idea has been published in the past, but it is an interesting hypothesis and one which passes first scrutiny in the impaler the world of the downs. I can remember the night that I suddenly realized what it was like to be crazy, or nights when my feelings and perceptions were of a religious nature.

I had a very accurate sense that these feelings and perceptions, written down casually, would not stand the usual critical scrutiny that is my stock in trade as a scientist. Direct! If I find in the morning a message from essay myself the night before informing me that there is a world around us which we barely sense, or that we can become one with the universe, or even that certain politicians are desperately frightened men, I may tend to disbelieve; but when I’m high I know about direct discrimination this disbelief. And so I have a tape in which I exhort myself to what effect while pregnant take such remarks seriously. I say ‘Listen closely, you sonofabitch of the discrimination morning! This stuff is real!’ I try to show that my mind is why bu essay working clearly; I recall the name of a high school acquaintance I have not thought of in thirty years; I describe the color, typography, and direct discrimination format of a book in another room and these memories do pass critical scrutiny in the morning. I am convinced that there are genuine and valid levels of perception available with cannabis (and probably with other drugs) which are, through the defects of our society and our educational system, unavailable to us without such drugs. Such a remark applies not only to college personal narrative essay examples self-awareness and to intellectual pursuits, but also to perceptions of real people, a vastly enhanced sensitivity to facial expression, intonations, and choice of direct words which sometimes yields a rapport so close it’s as if two people are reading each other’s minds.

Cannabis enables nonmusicians to know a little about what it is like to be a musician, and nonartists to grasp the joys of book art. But I am neither an artist nor a musician. What about my own scientific work? While I find a curious disinclination to and indirect think of my professional concerns when high – the attractive intellectual adventures always seem to be in every other area – I have made a conscious effort to think of a few particularly difficult current problems in my field when high. It works, at least to a degree. I find I can bring to bear, for example, a range of relevant experimental facts which appear to what is economies be mutually inconsistent. So far, so good. At least the recall works. Then in trying to conceive of a way of direct discrimination reconciling the disparate facts, I was able to come up with a very bizarre possibility, one that I’m sure I would never have thought of down. I’ve written a paper which mentions this idea in passing. I think it’s very unlikely to be true, but it has consequences which are experimentally testable, which is the hallmark of an acceptable theory.

I have mentioned that in the cannabis experience there is a part of the impaler your mind that remains a dispassionate observer, who is able to take you down in a hurry if need be. I have on a few occasions been forced to drive in heavy traffic when high. I’ve negotiated it with no difficult at all, though I did have some thoughts about the marvelous cherry-red color of traffic lights. I find that after the drive I’m not high at all. There are no flashes on the insides of direct and indirect my eyelids. If you’re high and your child is calling, you can respond about as capably as you usually do. I don’t advocate driving when high on cannabis, but I can tell you from type my essay personal experience that it certainly can be done. My high is always reflective, peaceable, intellectually exciting, and sociable, unlike most alcohol highs, and there is never a hangover. Through the years I find that slightly smaller amounts of cannabis suffice to produce the direct and indirect same degree of high, and in one movie theater recently I found I could get high just by inhaling the 1960s tvs cannabis smoke which permeated the theater. There is a very nice self-titering aspect to discrimination cannabis. Each puff is a very small dose; the time lag between inhaling a puff and sensing its effect is the impaler book small; and there is no desire for more after the high is there.

I think the direct and indirect ratio, R, of the time to sense the dose taken to book the time required to take an direct discrimination, excessive dose is an important quantity. R is very large for LSD (which I’ve never taken) and reasonably short for cannabis. Small values of R should be one measure of the why bu essay safety of psychedelic drugs. When cannabis is legalized, I hope to see this ratio as one of he parameters printed on the pack. I hope that time isn’t too distant; the illegality of cannabis is outrageous, an impediment to full utilization of a drug which helps produce the serenity and and indirect discrimination insight, sensitivity and fellowship so desperately needed in this increasingly mad and vlad dangerous world. This entry was posted on direct discrimination Monday, April 20th, 2009 at 9:02 am and why bu essay is filed under Essays, Read. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can skip to the end and leave a response. Pinging is currently not allowed.

101 Responses to “Mr. X by direct, Carl Sagan” For Bruce Gelman. February 22, 2016 at 5:16 pm. I would bet that a LOT of astrophysicists, and even more astrophysics students are stoners…