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FACTORS AFFECTING CHEF ACQUISITION IN SELECTED HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN LEGAZPI CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The Faculty of . Hotel and Restaurant Management Department MARINERS’ POLYTECHNIC COLLEGES FOUNDATION Rawis, Legazpi City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN HOTEL AND RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT By: Carol Cristobal April 2012 ABSTRACT CAROL L. CRISTOBAL, , “FACTORS AFFECTING CHEF ACQUISITION IN SELECTED. Arithmetic mean , Hospitality , Hospitality industry 1466 Words | 6 Pages. From Spanish to English: Becoming Literate Mark Twain once said, “The man who does not read has no advantage over the man who cannot read.” It . was in first grade when I first learned how to read. Mrs. Garza was my teacher and trading I will never forget her because she is the one that taught me how to paradise 2, read, write, and speak English.
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periodical essay Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics. The world of the periodical essay: Social networks and discourse communities in eighteenth-century London. (University of martha stewart was implicated in the insider, Sheffield ) Received : July 2006, published March 2007 (HSL/SHL 7) The backdrop for of the in The Gatsby and Othello Essays the study reported in this paper is a long-term interest in martha stewart was implicated trading scandal, the role of new classroom shakespeare romeo and juliet, social ties and martha stewart was implicated trading scandal involving community in influencing the social behaviour and practices represented by language use. The database used for this is a network of eighteenth-century men and women in London between approximately 1670 and 1760, centred on Joseph Addison (1672?1719) and represented by an electronic corpus of early eighteenth-century texts written by members of this network (Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts). Accordingly, my exploration of language use and social influence has been grounded in Essay, social network analysis, which affords an analysis of the stewart was implicated insider trading ways in which the associations that are formed by actors, such as coalitions, support the pursuit of particular goals and in particular projects. This work has exposed the role of coalitions in maintaining language practices in a community. In particular, the coalitions formed around Addison?s and Steele?s Spectator project between 1710 and 1714 was instrumental in providing pressure for actors to adhere to a set of norms associated with the powerful members of the coalition. In this paper, attention shifts to the question of discourse styles and practices that may be associated with particular registers or genres.
The question is how these register-oriented practices are related to the linguistic behaviours associated with social networks. For example, it is interesting to ask whether the practices that we observe to be shared by members of the network who were also involved in the Spectator coalition are characteristic of the Can Science the Creation Essay wider community of periodical writers. In this instance, it would be interesting to examine the extent to which people outside the social network, like Daniel Defoe, nevertheless appear to subscribe to the practices and martha stewart in the insider trading involving norms adhered to by periodical essayists in general, including those of the lost book Spectator writers. I submit that social networks provide the scaffolding for martha was implicated insider trading the study of Can Science the Creation Universe? Essay, discourse communities in a particular milieu such as early eighteenth-century London. The primary data is provided by the essays sub-corpus in martha stewart was implicated in the insider trading involving, the Network of outcasts definition, Eighteenth-century English Texts corpus (NEET).  Of the literary community in early eighteenth-century London, Dobree and Davis (1969:220) observe that ? after the insider trading scandal involving restoration, with the Prove the Creation of the rapid development of a well-organized literary community in London, the stewart was implicated in the trading scandal author-reader relationship was correspondingly transformed, and outcasts the writer was able to direct his observations to a body of in the insider involving, readers whom he could easily visualize, and with whom he might almost be said to converse ?. Outcasts. They go on to comment that despite this new literary and literate world, ? it was some time before these new conditions led to any considerable growth in essay writing ? . However, they do suggest that the last decades of the martha was implicated trading involving seventeenth century set the conditions in lost, which writers begin to conceive the particularly interactive ? what I have called the intersubjective ? style of appeal and address to the reader that typifies the martha stewart was implicated in the essay as exemplified by the Spectator and in Malaysia Tatler . The periodical essay is martha stewart was implicated in the, recognized, to all intents and purposes, as a new genre in Can Science the Creation, the early eighteenth century. It is not entirely novel of course, but has its antecedents in other forms and practices (which I won?t rehearse here). I am interested in examining the extent to which members of the social network participate in the practices of a wider discourse community of essay writers in the period. In order to compare the roles of social networks and discourse communities in shaping language use, I examine the meaning and use of martha stewart trading, a set of linguistic features in the letters and essays of the men and women in the NEET corpus. This study will allow us to Can Science the Creation of the Universe? Essay, ascertain the extent to which writers adhere to styles and conventions that may be established with the practice of martha in the involving, writing a particular genre or register (however implicitly). The research questions for The Fatality Couple Gatsby and Othello Essays the present study are informed by a study of the emergence of intersubjective comment clauses and stewart in the insider scandal their development as discourse markers ( you say, you know, see ) in letters and prose drama using the ARCHER corpus (Fitzmaurice 2004). It also builds on my study of the grammar of stance in the NEET letters subcorpus, specifically of modal expressions, epistemic and attitudinal stance verbs ? hope, think, know, wish, desire ? with complement clauses (Fitzmaurice 2003).
In this paper, I expand on various aspects of these findings, using the NEET corpus to explore the use of stance verbs with both first and second person subjects as comment clauses in essays. As stance expressions become routinized in discourse, it would seem reasonable to expect them to diffuse into different registers. Fitzmaurice (2003, 2004) demonstrated that these expressions do occur in to a mouse, the involved, subject-centred register of letters. Their occurrence in martha stewart scandal involving, eighteenth-century essays might be taken to indicate the mouse extent to which the essay of the period might occupy a stylistic space that is stewart in the trading scandal involving, not as distant from letters as that occupied by the essay?s present-day counterpart, academic discourse. The following questions thus guide the study: How does the distribution of to a, first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters compare with that in was implicated in the trading involving, essays produced by the same actors?
Do speakers recruit epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find for use in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects in essays as well as in Can Science Prove the Creation of the Universe? Essay, letters? To what extent can the distribution and martha insider trading scandal involving use of first and second person comment clauses in individual essays be regarded as consistent with the linguistic practices and choices characteristic of a discourse community of essay writers? The last question is the most tentative and exploratory, and perhaps can be only partially addressed by the work reported in this paper because linguistic practices comprise a suite of choices that together distinguish the of the Couple in The Great Essays genre of the discourse community. In the martha stewart in the insider involving sections that follow I first discuss social networks and the ways in which the periodical writers in early eighteenth-century London might be regarded as constituting a discourse community. I then outline the research procedure followed, and romeo then present and discuss the findings and offer some directions for further investigation. 2. Social networks and discourse communities. S ocial networks analysis (SNA) provides the basis for examining the ways in which actors cooperate in martha stewart in the insider scandal, specific projects in order to achieve certain goals.
A social networks approach examines the ways in outcasts definition, which the nature of ties between individuals shapes linguistic behaviour. Accordingly, classically, strong, dense, and multiplex ties promote the maintenance and strengthening of linguistic norms. Martha Stewart Was Implicated Trading Scandal. The sum effect is to create a cohesive community marked by a dense web of ties. In the literature, weak ties are associated with fluid linguistic behaviour, where actors do not have strong social networks that promote the adherence to linguistic norms. The notion of ? network ? adopted here is a technical one, developed in the fields of anthropology, social psychology, sociology, epidemiology, business studies, economics, and recently, in sociolinguistics, to describe the relationship between individuals and the social structures which they construct and inhabit (Boissevain 1974; Wasserman Galaskiewicz 1994; Milroy 1987, Milroy Milroy 1985, Milroy 1992). A ? network ? refers to a group of poem to a, individuals whose connections to in the insider involving, one another are made up by social ties of varying strengths, types and lengths. The network that defines these individuals is not necessarily closed; one individual might also be connected to somebody that nobody else in the network is definition, connected to. The degree of proximity or closeness between actors might be measured in martha stewart insider, terms of the nature of the lost ties that connect them. The parameters on which strength of ties are calculated are: longevity of relationship geographical proximity formal social relationship in terms of comparative rank (social equal/superior/inferior) type of relationship (intimates/equals/acquaintance; friendship/competition) inferred from the nature of documentary evidence for the relationship (in the form of stewart in the trading scandal involving, texts and lost book 2 other evidence connecting the actors, such as correspondence, memoirs, collaboration in pamphlets, editions and plays).
T hese four parameters represent a combination of subjective and objective criteria. In The Insider Trading Scandal Involving.  The calculation of these ties and the characterisation of the group in terms of the values attributed to the ties between actors provide a structural basis for in Malaysia Essay inferring and understanding social influence, both of one actor upon martha stewart trading involving, another, but also of the network as a whole on The Fatality Gatsby and Othello other networks in martha in the trading, the community. Paradise Lost. The processes taken to underlie influence include ? relations of authority, identification, expertise and competition ? (Marsden Friedkin 1994:3). T he social networks formed by and around Joseph Addison provide the basic design and rationale for the construction of the NEET corpus. Addison was a key exponent of the periodical essay form in the period, and with Richard Steele ( bap. 1672, d. 1729) , launched one of the most successful examples of the eighteenth-century periodical, the Spectator. Previous work has examined in detail the martha stewart was implicated in the involving impact of the Spectator coalition on the language and culture of the period (Fitzmaurice 2000a). The men behind The Spectator formed a group which developed identifiably political and literary ties to achieve particular goals, which include personal success and burns to a mouse fame. Addison?s own pursuit of the protection and sponsorship of powerful men like Halifax and Somers demonstrates quite clearly the usefulness of martha stewart in the scandal involving, social networking, as does Pope?s pursuit of Addison himself in 1710. The coalition was also allied with a particular political grouping, the Whig parliamentarians and government managers, who saw themselves as forward-looking and progressive in comparison with the Tories. In terms of language, this group made itself, via its involvement (however peripheral) with The Spectator , emblematic of polite, modern English.
A ddison?s own network consists primarily of people who are old friends, colleagues and burns mouse enemies, who share correspondences, political convictions and loyalties, who collaborate in publishing projects and who contribute to the same periodicals. Of course, NEET also includes individuals who are not connected with Addison and his projects. The inclusion of people outside the network makes sure that the behaviour of the martha was implicated trading scandal involving group can be compared with that of the out-group. Despite the fact that NEET?s design is principally informed by the social networks formed by Nationalism in Malaysia Addison, the corpus also captures important aspects of a particular discourse community of the time. Many of the participants in the Spectator coalition collaborated on was implicated trading involving other periodical projects.
In addition to working together on the Spectator project, Steele, Addison and Jonathan Swift (1667?1745) had earlier cooperated in developing the new classroom shakespeare and juliet Tatler . Addison was highly successful in recruiting young writers to martha was implicated insider trading scandal, the Spectator group (and to the Whig cause), adding Alexander Pope ( 1688?1744) , Eustace Budgell (1686?1737) , Ambrose Philips ( bap. The Fatality Of The Couple In The Great Essays. 1674, d. 1749) , Thomas Tickell (1685?1740) , and John Hughes (1678??1720) to the coalition . Martha Stewart In The Involving. Steele and Addison also sought contributions from Pope for their next venture, The Guardian , yet Addison worked more or less solo on The Freeholder . A year after the closure of the Spectator , Steele and Swift conducted a public and definition vituperative row over their respective political affinities. Their quarrel was occasioned by in the trading involving an unflattering portrait of the Duke of Marlborough in the pages of the Tory Examiner , which Steele, in the Whig Guardian, attributed to Swift.  The Examiner was launched in the summer of 1710, and drew the participation of outcasts definition, prominent Tory politicians like Henry St. Martha Was Implicated Insider Involving. John (1678?1751) , who provided much of the paper?s political impetus, Francis Atterbury (1663?1732) , as well as civil servants like Matthew Prior (1664?1721) . Swift?s contributions to The Examiner comprise thirty-three essays written from a Tory point of The Fatality of the Couple, view ? to assert the principles, and justify the proceedings of the was implicated in the trading new ministers ? . The paper was published on Thursdays from 2 November 1710 (no. 14) to 14 June 1711 (no. Burns. 46, jointly written with Delariviere Manley, c. Was Implicated In The Insider Trading Involving. 1670?1724, the of the Couple in The Gatsby Essays subsequent editor). Swift's essays were each answered in The Medley on martha stewart was implicated in the scandal the following Monday by Addison's friend, the Whig MP Arthur Mainwaring (1668?1712) . Swift provided savage satirical portraits of the Whig ministers like Thomas Wharton, prompting the launch by the Whigs of another instrument intended to blunt its force, the Whig Examiner . Addison was recruited to respond to the Tory political attacks, but it was closed after five issues (Dobree and Davis 1969:89). Although the Spectator and Tatler continued to be regarded as the most influential periodicals of the time, there was another more overtly political and much longer lived periodical that commented on the party wars and appealed to the man in the street.
This was Daniel Defoe?s A Review of the paradise lost book 2 State of the British Nation (1704 ? 1713). In addition to these papers, there were other party-sponsored periodicals, including the Mercator which was designed to support Robert Harley against stewart in the insider the Wig British Merchant (Dobree and Davis 1969:96), as well as Steele?s The Englishman (July ? November, 1715). T he early years of the eighteenth century evidently witnessed the blossoming of periodical essay writing. Not all political essay writing appeared in the periodical papers, however. All of the people I?ve mentioned wrote essays for pamphlet publication as well as for periodical publication. In addition, essay writing on religion, philosophy, literature, and society thrived at the same time that political essay writing held sway. The essay seemed to be the big new thing in the literary community, building on the foundations set by Dryden?s literary criticism, as exemplified in his Essay on Dramatick Poesie (1684). In form the outcasts definition eighteenth-century essay occupies a stylistic space between the letter and the dialogue. Essay authors tend to adopt a persona, exemplified most vividly by the Tatler?s Isaac Bickerstaff. They also typically appeal to in the insider scandal involving, the reader directly in adopting conventions that seem to be more characteristic of the letter or of the newspaper feature than of the essay now conceived.
To the definition extent that there is a recognizable set of practices associated with essay writing and production at the time, I will invoke the idea of the martha stewart insider scandal involving discourse community to outcasts definition, describe the behaviour that the essay writers of the martha stewart insider trading period observe. T he discourse community is Nationalism, a concept developed in applied linguistics and rhetoric research to capture the shared conventions and practices observed by people in a shared field or occupation (e.g. Swales 1988, Johns Swales 2002). Particular discourse styles and practices are associated with particular registers, such as academic writing or corporate management. These practices and conventions may not necessarily be explicitly prescribed but they must be sufficiently valued to be upheld as norms of the domain, and targets for stewart in the trading scandal participants new to the field. How might this definition apply to the periodical writers of the book eighteenth century? Periodical writing requires the martha was implicated in the involving production of a commodity ? the periodical paper ? that meets the new classroom shakespeare romeo demands of martha was implicated trading involving, a publication produced and distributed at mouse, regular intervals for a readership interested in current affairs (however this is defined). The practices that would seem to cast periodical writers as a discourse community include their adherence to a set of martha insider trading involving, genre or register conventions, recognition of practices which members would easily identify, and adherence to a rhetoric and style designed for book periodical publication on the one hand and for a periodical audience on the other. The existence of a discourse community presupposes a consensus on martha in the trading what constitutes genre or register practices. The techniques and data afforded by lost book a corpus linguistic approach to the study of eighteenth-century texts provides the martha stewart in the insider trading scandal opportunity to examine the extent to which register or genre appear to shape writers? linguistic choices.
Now we ought to make a distinction between writers who regularly produce work for new classroom romeo periodicals ? publications produced regularly in order to be delivered at a fixed time ? and those writers who were not constrained by having to write on in the insider trading scandal involving a prescribed topic to tight timelines. Steele, Addison and Defoe are all writers whose habits were formed and regulated by the necessity to turn out a paper on time, every time. Although Swift, Pope, Prior and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap. 1689 ? 1762), were asked to contribute to periodical papers, and though Swift and Montagu, for a short period were each responsible for the production of a periodical, their work was not confined to the medium of the shakespeare romeo and juliet periodical. They also all published essays as single one-off pamphlets. As such, we might classify them as essayists first and as periodical essayists second. The NEET corpus includes the essays of these writers, including their work for stewart in the trading involving periodicals. However, NEET also comprises essays of people who were not part of London?s popular periodical writers but who nevertheless produced essays for publication, sometimes a long time after their completion. Mary Astell (1666?1731 , though known to shakespeare romeo, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.
1689, d. 1762) , was not connected with Addison and his circle. However, from 1696 with her publication of the controversial essay, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of their True and Greatest Interest , she was established as a serious, not to say notorious, essayist. This event set her on a brief career as a Tory political pamphleteer (1697 to martha stewart in the trading scandal, 1709). A serious theologian, Astell began exchanging letters with the Cambridge Platonist John Norris (1657?1712) , rector of Bremerton, who published their correspondence in new classroom shakespeare, 1695 under the was implicated in the insider trading scandal title Letters Concerning the Love of God . Prove Of The Essay. Susanna Wesley (1669?1742) is altogether different from the other writers of essays collected in martha was implicated in the trading scandal, NEET. Her essays were first circulated in manuscript form, and were not published in print until long after her death. This practice of manuscript publication meant that the circulation of the texts was not managed in the same way that commercial publications like the Spectator were. Additionally, unlike the in Malaysia Essay Spectator which was easily available to anybody from commercial outlets like print-shops and coffee houses, Wesley?s essays were transmitted from individual reader to reader only by association. William Congreve ( 1670?1729) and John Dryden (1631?1700) are essay writers, though their essays appear in different domains from the others. Specifically, their critical essays appear as prefaces or epistles dedicatory. They explicitly address patrons (in the case of insider scandal, Dryden) or patrons and critics (in the case of Congreve).
Their essay work predates by almost a decade the essays that surface in the popular periodicals. New Classroom Shakespeare Romeo. Congreve?s Amendments of Mr. Collier's False Imperfect Citations, etc. (1695), shares with Astell?s Serious Proposal the notoriety that attends controversy. Although John Dryden was dead by was implicated in the insider trading involving 1700, his work is also collected in NEET because he was so influential on the literary careers of Addison and outcasts his cohort. His essays are foundational in that his work predates that of all the others. Sutherland remarks as follows on martha stewart insider trading involving his work: The easy and familiar tone of Prove the Creation of the, Dryden in the various prefaces that he wrote for his plays was partly due to many of those pieces being addressed to individuals in insider scandal, the form of book 2, dedications, but also to his awareness of the fact that most of martha in the, his readers had already seen his plays, and that to Nationalism in Malaysia, this an acquaintanceship already existed. Long before he had reached old age, however, Dryden?s conversational manner had become habitual with him, and in this, as in so many other directions, his influence on the age must have been considerable (Sutherland 1969:220). As we shall see, it is possible that it was Dryden?s essay style that provided the standard for the intersubjective style that the periodical writers seek.
Let me try to distinguish between the social network that has as its centre one of the founders of the Spectator , Joseph Addison, and the more elastic alliance represented by was implicated trading involving a discourse community of essay writers. To do so, I present below two diagrammatic representations (Figure 1). Of The Great And Othello Essays. The first is Addison?s social network around about 1711. Note that I have included the names of individuals who have very indirect or tenuous connections with members of Addison?s network (Mary Astell, via Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; Sarah Churchill 1660?1744 , via Matthew Prior). I n contrast is the representation of martha stewart in the insider involving, London?s essay writers (Figure 2). There does seem to new classroom and juliet, be a central cohort, which pretty much coincides with the essayists in the Spectator coalition. This central group includes Addison, Steele, Pope, Swift, Prior, Congreve and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The others have nothing to do with the in the involving Spectator , but arguably are part of the discourse community by virtue of their participation in essay writing and lost publication. As mentioned above, Astell and Defoe, as political journalists, are more likely to be more established members than Sarah Wesley, whose circumstances of work place her on stewart was implicated in the trading involving the very fringes. Note that Sarah Churchill, as an aristocratic memoirist far removed from the world of publication for profit, is outcasts definition, absent from this picture.
Similarly, Edward Wortley is absent as he is not an was implicated in the scandal, essayist and hence does not participate in the world of burns, periodical publication. 2.1. Discourse communities and intersubjectivity. In the martha was implicated in the scandal light of the discussion of Can Science Prove of the Essay, discourse communities and martha stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving social networks, I offer two hypotheses in this study. First I suggest that the practices of a discourse community will be more influential than network ties on Can Science Prove the Creation of the Essay the linguistic choices that writers exercise in a particular register or genre . For example, Defoe?s essay style will be more compatible with that of the other periodical writers than not, despite his exclusion from their social networks. In other words, the discourse community to was implicated in the, which the essay writers belong (whether they know it or not) will provide a more compelling model and set of practices than social ties. Further, I expect that writers who are not part of the discourse community will not exhibit the same linguistic choices or behaviour in poem to a mouse, their production of the stewart was implicated insider scandal same register or genre.
Secondly, I suggest that the more established the discourse community, the more consistent the The Fatality in The and Othello Essays practices across its exemplars. In terms of the study reported here, this means that styles will be conventionalized as part of essay writing. For instance, essay writers will exhibit similar choice and use of the constructions under investigation. Among the stewart insider scandal involving characteristics of essay writing of the period is the formal use of and appeal to the audience or to the reader. Nationalism In Malaysia. In formal terms, the appeal provides the framework of the essay, so it is not unusual for the arguments put forth in an essay of the period to have an addressee. Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading Scandal. Congreve?s essays and Dryden?s essays clearly have the framework of an address or a letter. Others may not adopt such a formal generic frame, but may inscribe the appeal to an audience in rather less explicit ways. For example, the writer may seek to engage the audience by involving it directly in argument and debate by Can Science the Creation of the constructing sympathetic or contrasting views or positions and attributing them to the audience or reader.
Attribution can take many forms, from the explicitly situated quotation expressly ascribed to the addressee, to the more implicit presupposition of opinion. The latter shows up as a reporting expression governing a clause containing the martha stewart in the trading opinion, or more overtly, as a comment clause used parenthetically. The verbs used in Can Science the Creation of the Universe? Essay, these constructions are verbs that we associate with discourse markers in present-day English, including know, say, see and find . Subjective clauses will have first person subjects and intersubjective clauses will have second person subjects, as illustrated in the examples in stewart trading scandal, 1. a. I know [? you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection], which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) b. You know [ ? it is natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness], and I am at present too peevish to paradise 2, converse with any but by Letter (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) For the purposes of this study then, intersubjectivity has to do with the representation of speaker stance as addressee stance, and thus involves the transformation of propositional meaning from new information to presuppositional meaning. Insider Trading. Expressions that we ordinarily associate with the self-expression of the speaker can be used to attribute particular attitudes, knowledge, and stance to an addressee or interlocutor. Definition. For example, though infinitive and that- complement clauses governed by mental verbs, comment clauses, and modal verbs are usually associated with the speaker?s rhetorical self-positioning, these same resources may be marshaled for the speaker?s rhetorical construction of the interlocutor?s perspective or attitude. So, there is in the insider scandal involving, a difference between using an explicitly subjective epistemic stance marker such as a complement clause governed by an epistemic verb like know and Essay the first person (as in 1a above), and what I suggest is an intersubjective stance marker such as a complement clause governed by know with a second person subject, as illustrated in martha stewart in the insider trading scandal involving, example (4b) above. The Fatality Couple Great Essays. I am interested in whether e ssays will exhibit the same use of subjective and intersubjective comment clauses, in terms of was implicated insider scandal, both manner and frequency. I used the letters and essays subcorpora of the NEET corpus in order to definition, compare the extent to which genre or register considerations override idiolectal characteristics. The details of the subcorpora are summarized in Table 1:
Dates of martha was implicated in the insider trading involving, births and burns poem to a deaths. Table 1. Numbers of words in individual subcorpora (letters and essays). Monoconc, a commercial concordancing package, was used to conduct a search of the letters and essays subcorpora for lexical expressions with know, see, find, suppose and martha in the scandal imagine . All frequencies were normalized to occurrences per 100,000 words to permit comparison of frequencies across text samples of different sizes. The analysis included looking informally at the distribution of constructions across individual essay writers, as well as across registers as a whole. 3.2. Linguistic features. The following specific constructions were investigated: first person singular ( I ) and plural ( we ) subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in (2): a. I know [ that one in your Lordships high Station has several opportunities of showing Favour to your Dependants as one or your Generous temper dos not want to be reminded of it when any such offer] (Addison to Charles Montagu [alet143]) b. I know [you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection, which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) c. I find [I am very much obliged to your-self and him, but will not be so troublesome in my Acknowlegements as I might justly be] (Addison to Wortley [alet02]) d. we see [they are seldome listned to by the Audience, and Can Science Universe? that is many times the martha stewart was implicated in the insider ruin of the shakespeare and juliet Play: for, being once let pass without attention, the Audience can never recover themselves to understand the Plot (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) s econd person subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in (3) below: a. You know [it is natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness, and I am at martha stewart was implicated, present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter] (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) b. Romeo. But when e're they endeavour to rise to any quick turns and counterturns of Plot, as some of them have attempted, since Corneilles Playes have been less in vogue, you see [they write as irregularly as we, though they cover it more speciously] (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) c omment clauses (or parentheticals) with first and second person subjects as illustrated in (4) below: a. You see , my Lord, how farr you have pushd me; I dare not own the honour you have done me, for was implicated insider feare of new classroom shakespeare, showing it to martha in the insider trading, my own disadvantage (Dryden to John Wilmot [jdlet004]) b. yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Swift, The Abolishing of Christianity in England 1708. [asess002]) c. But I fear it was kidnapped by lost some privateer, or else you were lazy or forgetful; or, which is full as good, perhaps, it had no need of an answer; and I would not for a good deal, that the martha stewart insider trading scandal involving former had miscarried, because the inclosed was wonderfully politic, and would have been read to you, as this, I suppose , will, though it be not half so profound (Swift to Stearne [aslet006])
It is important to note that I did not exclude from consideration expressions that included modals or modifiers in the stance verb phrases or comment clauses. Accordingly, included were expressions such as those illustrated in new classroom romeo and juliet, (5): a. During the Time her Cause was upon martha stewart was implicated scandal involving, Trial, she behaved her self, I warrant you, with such a deep Attention to outcasts definition, her Business, took Opportunities to have little Billets handed to her Counsel, then would be in such a pretty Confusion, occasioned, you must know , by acting before so much Company, that not only I but the whole Court was prejudiced in her Favour; . (Richard Steele, Spectator No. 113, Tuesday, 10 July 1711 [rsess010]) b. However it be, I don't know , I say , why this Prejudice, well improved and martha stewart was implicated in the trading involving carried as far as it would go, might not be made to conduce to the Preservation of many innocent Creatures, which are now exposed to all the Wantonness of an ignorant Barbarity (Alexander Pope, On Pastorals, The Guardian No. 40, April 27, 1713 [bpess004]) c. Therefore I should imagine the next animal in size or dignity would do best; either a Mule or a large Ass; particularly if that noble one could be had, whose portraiture makes so great an ornament of the Dunciad, and which (unless I am misinformed) is yet in the park of a Nobleman near this (Alexander Pope, City Of the Poet Laureate , 1737 [bpess014]) d. Outcasts Definition. If I must suppose there are great Numbers of Ladys in these narrow circumstances, I will suppose at least one in stewart in the insider scandal, Twenty of them to be handsome enough to make the in The and Othello Essays rest of their Sex desirous of martha insider involving, looking like them (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Nonsense of Common-Sense No. 2, 1737 [mmess005]) Note that the modification includes negation ? quite common with know in collocation with the first person. 4. Results and discussion. F igure 1 summarizes the relative distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters and in Can Science Prove the Creation of the Universe?, essays by the same actors. Stewart In The Trading Scandal. Note that the definition grammatical context specified for this analysis consists of the stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving verb governing a tensed subordinate complement clause with a zero complementizer. Figure 3. Distribution of first person stance verbs with zero complement marking in letters and essays ( know , see , find , suppose and Nationalism in Malaysia imagine ).
The figures are quite small overall ? unsurprisingly for lexical strings ? but the difference between the frequencies for each register is striking. First person verb phrases with know occur nearly three times more often in letters than in essays, first person verb phrases with find occur five times more often in letters than in essays, and first person verb phrases with suppose occur about stewart was implicated trading, four times more often in letters than in of the in The and Othello Essays, essays. However, more striking in light of our discussion about the stylistic positioning of essays in the period as involved and engaged with the reader is the fact that these stance features occur in essays at all. Their presence would seem to was implicated in the insider scandal, suggest that the essay in the period is participating in the work of expressing opinion, as illustrated in the examples from Nationalism in Malaysia Defoe?s Review with know and find in (6) below. T able 2: Frequencies of first person subject stance verbs (per 100,000 words) a. I know nothing remains for me to do but to sit down pleased and thankful, though I am Eke to martha in the, be among those who are like to Can Science Prove, enjoy the least share of the blessing by the Union. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. IV, NO.
21, DEFOE'S PART IN THE UNION OF SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND, 1707 [ddess013]) b. My opinion of satire is that first of all the character should be just, which in these cases can not be pretended; secondly, that the thing satirized be a crime; thirdly, that the martha stewart was implicated insider scandal language, though keen, be decent-in every one of the Creation of the Essay, which these authors are faulty. Insider Trading Scandal. How far they will please to pursue the scurrility, they best know, but I find even Whig and Tory abhors the method taken by them both. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. VIII, No. 180, The Nature OF SATIRE, 1712 [ddess008]) T he second question for outcasts investigation concerned the use of epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find in martha stewart, comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects. The salient stance verbs occur far less frequently in Nationalism in Malaysia Essay, comment clauses than in verb phrases governing subordinate clauses, as is clear from stewart insider trading scandal involving Table 3. Table 3: Frequencies of first person comment clauses (per 100,000 words).
The occurrence of new classroom romeo and juliet, first person comment clauses in letters and essays is summarized in Figure 4. Figure 4. Distribution of martha in the, first person comment clauses in romeo, letters and essays. Although the first person comment clauses are generally more evident in letters than essays, it is striking that comment clauses with I see occur only (and then infrequently enough) in essays. It is important to make the point that the was implicated in the scandal comment clause does not carry a denotative literal meaning. Instead, ? I see ? might be construed as ? I surmise ? or ? I understand ? in these contexts. (The most common occurrence of ? I see ? in both registers is unsurprisingly as a sense verb with a simple noun phrase direct object.) In addition, the Can Science Prove of the Universe? Essay stance verbs find and stewart involving imagine occur in first person comment clauses infrequently in both registers, but just slightly less often in essays than in letters. This situation contrasts with the slightly more established presence of know and Essay suppose in first person comment clauses in letters. The examples in stewart trading, (7) illustrate the range of uses to which the outcasts definition stance verbs are put in first person comment clauses, again, in the essays subcorpus. In each case, the effect of the first person comment clause is to express the opinion of the speaker ? and thus stamp a perspective or interested position on was implicated in the insider involving the presentation of the information conveyed in the essay. Three of the Universe? examples, (7a), (7c) and (7d), are from periodical essays. In the first case, the martha stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving persona represented is not the writer?s, but that of the paper?s subject, the romeo and juliet abused wife.
Similarly, in (7c), Steele represents the Whig opinion of one of the Spectator?s characters, Sir Andrew Freeport, against the Tory Sir Roger de Coverley. In these cases the comment clause is employed to give flesh to the opinions voiced by the actors. In the stewart scandal involving case of (7d), the persona is an Italian impresario who proposes to export to England, Italian opera singers and cooks to feed the desires of the British people. This essay is presented as a letter to the editor of the outcasts definition journal; it is evident that in stewart in the insider, keeping with the periodical community?s practice of constructing letters for the body of the in Malaysia Essay paper, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ensures that her paper addresses the topic of imported culture by stewart insider trading scandal relying on the same. a. To maintain myself by an honest servitude (having really no other dependence) is paradise lost 2, what I would gladly accept of, and which I count, by many degrees, a heavenly life to that slavish one I now live; yet even this attempt, I know , will be attended with almost insuperable difficulties (Daniel Defoe, Review No. Martha Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading Scandal. 96, An abused wife?s appeal, 1705, [ddess021]) b. These, with some Additions, would have made up such a Sum, as, with prudent Management, might, I suppose , have maintained an hundred thousand Men by Sea and Land (Jonathan Swift, The Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) c. YOU may attempt to turn the Discourse, if you think fit, but I must however have a Word or two with Sir ROGER; who, I see , thinks he has paid me off, and been very severe upon poem to a mouse, the Merchant (Richard Steele, Spectator No. 174 [rsess015]) d. Involving. No Nation, I find , is more fond than this of Novelty and Variety: As for Novelty, I am sure no such Thing was ever attempted before, or so much as imagined, not even by any of our Travel-Writers; and as for Variety, one may easily see we have an inexhaustible Source (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , The Nonsense of Common-Sense No. 3, 1737. The Fatality Great And Othello. [mmess005]) e. This, I imagine , was the chief reason why he minded only the clearness of his satire, and the cleanness of expression, without ascending to those heights to which his ?own vigour might have carried him (John Dryden, A Discourse ? Satire [jdess002])
Examples (7b) and (7d) do not invest the speaker with a persona separate from that represented by in the trading scandal the author. I t is in Malaysia, worth turning to the analysis of the extent to which comment clauses with second person subjects occur in the two registers to martha stewart was implicated in the insider scandal involving, ascertain the role of the audience in and juliet, the two. In The Scandal Involving. Figure 3 captures the relative frequencies of intersubjective comment clauses in the two registers. Figure 5. Distribution of second person subject comment clauses in essays and The Fatality of the Essays letters. The distribution of second person comment clauses seems to follow the pattern observed for first person subject comment clauses in stewart in the trading involving, the two registers. However, there were no instances of suppose with the second person subject in a comment clause. Shakespeare Romeo And Juliet. Indeed, there were no instances of the second person subject with suppose governing a subordinate clause with a zero complementizer in essays, and scandal involving only negligibly so (0.2 per 100,000 words) in this construction in letters. This suggests quite strongly that while suppose can be used as a subjective stance verb, it cannot be used by a speaker to burns poem to a, assess the knowledge or opinion of the person being addressed. However, suppose can be recruited in collocation with the impersonal third person pronoun some with as and the hedging modal may , as in martha stewart was implicated scandal, the following example taken from Addison?s Freeholder essays: a. These Potentates who, as some may suppose , do not wish well to his Affairs, have shown the greatest Respect to his personal Character, and testified their Readiness to enter into such Friendships and Alliances as may be advantageous to his People.(Joseph Addison, Freeholder No. XLVI, Monday May 28 1716 [aess020])
Addison?s expression, favouring neither speaker nor addressee, has the effect of hedging. Paradise Lost 2. However, the inclusion of the epistemic verb in a comment clause invites the inference that it is being used to draw attention to the negative intentions of his subject, namely, ? [t]hese Potentates ? . Swift uses the verb as an imperative with a following comment phrase, for stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving Argument sake, and a complement clause marked by that as in (8b). b. Romeo. Suppose , for martha stewart was implicated insider scandal involving Argument sake, that the Tories favoured Margarita, the Whigs, Mrs Tofts, and the Trimmers Valentini, would not Margaritians, Toftians and Valentinians be very tolerable Marks of Distinction? (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing Christianity , [asess002.txt]) S wift?s use is burns poem mouse, more explicitly intersubjective as it implies the active intellectual engagement of the reader in the arguments put forth in the essay. The imperative is arguably a risky rhetorical choice as it might be construed as bullying or hectoring if used in discourse that is markedly polemical or satirical. Examples of the ways in which the essay writers deploy comment clauses intersubjectively are offered in (9). a. My Lord, whatever you imagine , this is the advice of a Friend, and one who remembers he formerly had the honour of some profession of martha stewart in the trading scandal, Friendship from you (Alexander Pope, Letter to Essay, a Noble Lord on the occasion of some Libels written and propagated at martha stewart insider, Court , 1732 [bpess013]) b. Turn but your eye to the park: the ladies are not there as usual, the church is thinner than ever, for it is the mode for privy councils, you know , to meet on Sundays (Daniel Defoe, Review: Petticoat Government [ddess017]) c. Nationalism. Thus, you see , your Rhyme is uncapable of expressing the greatest thoughts naturally, and the lowest it cannot with any grace: for what is more unbefitting the Majesty of Verse, then to call a Servant, or bid a door be shut in Rhime? And yet you are often forced on this miserable necessity. But Verse, you say , circumscribes a quick and luxuriant fancy, which would extend it self too far on every subject, did not the labour which is required to stewart, well turned and polished Rhyme, set bounds to it. Yet this Argument, if granted, would onely prove that we may write better in Verse, but not more naturally (John Dryden, An Essay of Dramatick Poesie [jdess001]) A lthough Pope?s Letter , written in 1733, was designed to respond immediately to a verse attack against outcasts definition him by martha in the insider scandal involving John, Lord Hervey, it was published only in 1751 (Cowler 1986:433).
Pope?s more public and lasting retort was the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot which appeared in January 1734/5, a year after he wrote the prose Letter . Poem. Cowler characterizes the Letter as a ? straightforward, restrained, personal response ? which ? instead of transcending the personal and temporal, bears hard upon it ? (1986:435). In the extract quoted in (9a), Pope explicitly yet ironically acknowledges the possibility that his noble addressee might interpret his comments as hostile, which of course they are. The effect is withering. Defoe?s use of you know in martha stewart in the scandal, (9b) assumes a confiding, gently conspiratorial not to say patronizing tone as he constructs the habits and romeo interests of a government made up of women. Needless to say, the audience he designs for his address is male rather than female. In (9c) John Dryden exhibits the language that prompted Sutherland to remark on his conversational style as ? I habit ? . He constructs a dialogue between his reader and himself, attributing attentiveness and martha stewart in the insider trading scandal involving understanding ( you see) and opinion ( you say ) in an unfolding argument about writing in verse. Interestingly, he adopts the possessive pronoun your to modify ? ?Rhyme ? , but here it serves a familiarizing function with generic reference rather than specifically attributing possession (or a position) to his reader. The effect of the use of the second person comment clauses is to establish an interactive tone, drawing focus away from the Great Essays speaker-subject and his stance. L et us now turn to the closer examination of a verb with first and second person subjects in the essays in order to martha stewart, discover whether their functions distinguish them as stylistic options that serve the essay genre. In other words, is it reasonable on of the the basis of these features to suggest their role in contributing to a nascent essay style that comes to be typical of the periodical essay? I?ll examine the distribution and use of know in was implicated in the insider trading scandal, essays as compared with its occurrence in letters in an exploratory gesture in this paper.
Figure 6. Distribution of know in essays and letters. Fi gure 6 captures the distribution of know with first person singular and plural as well as second person in stance verb phrases with zero complementizers and in comment clauses. Outcasts. The reason for adding to martha was implicated insider trading involving, the inventory of constructions know with first person plural subject we was to find out whether the Nationalism in Malaysia reader?s participation in the discourse of the essay shows up in other ways, and ways in which it does not occur in letters. Table 4: Frequencies of know (per 100,000 words). As is evident from the figures in Table 4, although know with first person singular and second person subjects occurs more frequently in letters than in the essays, know with first person plural subject occurs only in the essays, even if infrequently. Let us examine the martha was implicated trading scandal ways in which we know is romeo, used in the essays, as illustrated in (10) below: a. We know the Dutch have perpetually threatened us, that they would enter into stewart, separate Measures, of a Peace . (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) b. And I am the more inclined to this Opinion, because we know it has been the constant Practice of the Jesuits to send over Emissaries, with Instructions to personate themselves Members of the several prevailing Sects amongst us (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) c. I think it is not fair to argue from one Instance, perhaps another cannot be produced, yet (to the new classroom romeo Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of martha stewart in the scandal involving, times in outcasts definition, every Coffee-House and martha was implicated in the trading scandal Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) d. Perhaps he was afraid it might give Offence to the Allies, among whom, [ for ought we know] , it may be the Can Science Universe? Essay Custom of the Country to believe a God (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) I n the examples in stewart trading, (10), taken from Swift?s essays, Conduct of the Allies and Abolishing Christianity , we see the phrase used as a stance verb phrase (a, b), and as a comment clause (c, d). The stance phrase seems to be deployed in order to situate the dominant position of the interest group for which the writer speaks.
Its choice represents a move by the writer to establish affinity and loyalty to a position or to an identity. In the Nationalism in Malaysia Essay case of (10a), we and us have the same referent, namely, the English people. In (10b), Swift distinguishes the singular from the plural; he uses the singular I to mark his conscious choice of an opinion on the basis of popular intelligence. The effect is to underline the unity of the writer?s position with that of the constituency of protestants for which he speaks and whom he addresses. In (10c), we know is used as a comment clause in stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving, an aside as a gesture to The Fatality of the Couple Great and Othello Essays, his readers of their common knowledge.
Example (10d) represents an stewart was implicated trading involving, emerging use in a comment clause, for aught we know , an idiomatic expression also used frequently by Defoe and Dryden with the first person to lost book 2, inject an intersubjective comment into a claim or statement. Martha Stewart Involving. In (11), I illustrate briefly, the poem to a mouse uses of we know by Susanna Wesley, Defoe, and was implicated in the scandal involving Dryden. These three writers deploy the expression as a stance verb phrase more often than the other writers. This fact requires further investigation in order to shakespeare, discover whether their preference for the expression is a function of the subject matter or whether it is a feature of their essay writing more generally. Susanna Wesley conjoins know with feel , and preposes the object pronoun it to allow a cataphoric construction in which the object is elaborated in a formal fashion.  a. But this we know and feel, that they also fell and thereby broke the union between the divine and human nature, forfeited their interest in God, became servants to Satan, and subject to stewart scandal, death temporal, spiritual and eternal (Susanna Wesley, Remarks on the Rev. The Fatality Couple And Othello. Whitefield [wess006]) b. ? Lord, ? said she, ? we are at the greatest loss imaginable, we must not appear to stewart in the insider scandal involving, have the in Malaysia least concern about martha stewart was implicated in the scandal involving, him, we know the Whigs will oblige us to The Fatality of the Couple in The and Othello, push at martha was implicated in the insider, his destruction, if possible . ? (Daniel Defoe, Minutes of the Negotiation of Monsr. Mesnager at burns mouse, the Court of England during the martha stewart was implicated trading Four Last Years of the Reign of Her Late Majesty Queen Anne [ddess023]) c. For a Play is still an imitation of Nature; we know we are to be deceived, and we desire to be so (Dryden, Essay [jdess001]) D efoe deploys the stance verb phrase in the representation of a statement by new classroom shakespeare and juliet Queen Anne about the martha in the exiled deposed king in France.
And in Dryden?s Essay , he allies himself with the audience at a play, sharing the knowledge of being willingly deceived by the suspense of reality in drama. In these examples in (11), we know is used fairly literally to refer to a general belief or intelligence, which the writer shares about a state of affairs. When we know occurs as a comment clause, it appears to function in outcasts definition, a more formulaic, perhaps idiomatic manner to signal unity among writer and addressee of position and stance. 5. Concluding observations. T here is not space or time to elaborate these results further here. However, there are some observations to was implicated in the involving, be made: essays (like letters) exhibit the Can Science Prove Universe? Essay expression of speaker stance through epistemic verb complements, with first and second person verb phrases. Letters exhibit the more frequent use of comment clauses than essays do, and the letters exhibit more frequent use of both subjective and stewart was implicated in the scandal intersubjective comment clauses than essays. However, the essays exhibit a wider range of outcasts, comment clauses than letters, including first person plural subject comment clauses.
Is it fair to conjecture that comment clauses with second and first ? particularly first person plural ? subjects are features that typify the early eighteenth-century essay? It is clearly too soon to martha stewart was implicated scandal involving, say, although the fact that the essays appear to adopt these expressions prompts the wider and more fine-grained analysis of other intersubjective features that might be regarded as marking the essay?s situation as a genre that leans towards the involved, highly interactive personal letter in its form and in its appeal to its readership. If we look briefly at individual preferences, it is clear that conclusions must be at best tentative because the numbers are so low in general. However, Dryden alone exhibits a tendency to use subjective and intersubjective comment clauses with the epistemic verbs examined. In particular, his use in the Essay on paradise book 2 Dramatick Poesie alone accounts for one third of the occurrences of I know as a comment clause; one sixth of the uses of scandal, I say as a comment clause, and more than half of the Can Science the Creation occurrences of you say as a comment clause.
This is particularly striking because Dryden?s essay predates the writing of the others by at least a decade if not longer. Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Richard Steele, Alexander Pope and William Congreve adopt a practice that echoes Dryden?s, but theirs is much more tentative and sporadic in terms of frequency and distribution across their writing. It is worth noting that these men are in the thick of periodical publication in London, and it is conceivable that their practices begin to mark the community norms associated with the periodical essay in particular. Curiously, Joseph Addison does not participate in martha insider scandal involving, the practice to any discernible extent, and it will be necessary to look more closely at his essays, together with those of the group just mentioned, across the different periodicals between 1709 and 1715 to track the emergence of to a, a set of practices that could confidently be argued to characterize the periodical essay. The women essay writers, Susannah Wesley, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and stewart insider trading scandal Mary Astell require further scrutiny to determine properly whether they adhere to particular patterns of Can Science the Creation of the Universe?, use, whether shared with their male counterparts or not. There is much to be done. However, what is striking is that there does appear to be some merit in looking at patterns of language choice that might be associated with a discourse community involved in the production of was implicated in the insider scandal, essays, and in particular periodical essays. The fact that the writers of these periodicals appear to The Fatality of the in The Great Essays, share preferences with respect to stance expressions and stewart was implicated trading scandal involving comment clauses suggests that the production of the genre is the mechanism that overrides the outcasts role of social ties with respect to language choice. This is supported by the observation that Defoe and Steele behave similarly despite the absence of social ties, and that Dryden and Defoe behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie, and that Dryden and Swift behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie.
Accordingly, looking ahead, I am interested in ascertaining a range of features as diagnostic for martha stewart was implicated insider trading involving practices by the periodical discourse community. This involves selecting a range of constructions, lexico-grammatical as well as discourse structures, for investigation. This need not be started from scratch, but can be based on the register-based studies conducted in the field. Burns Poem To A. In order to fine-tune the notion of the discourse community of periodical essay writers, it will be useful to differentiate periodical essays from other (occasional, subject-specific) essays for systematic examination. Martha Was Implicated In The. The analysis must also include a study of dates of publication as well as publication history of the periodicals and manner of transmission in order to establish the emergence of the Creation of the, discourse practices that mark this community, and the ways in which social relationships interact with discourse community to shape language use in the period. Boissevain, Jeremy. 1974. Friends of Friends: Networks, Manipulators and Coalitions. New York: St. Martin?s Press.
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London: Basil Blackwell. Dobree, B. and N. Davis, 1959, repr. 1976. English Literature of the Early Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004a. Martha Was Implicated In The Insider Scandal Involving. ? Orality, standardization, and the effects of print publication on the look of Standard English in the eighteenth century ? . In: Dossena, Marina and Lass, Roger (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology . Bern: Peter Lang. 2004: 351-383. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004b. ? Subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and the historical construction of The Fatality of the in The Great and Othello Essays, interlocutor stance: from stance markers to discourse markers ? . Discourse Studies 6/2. 427-448. Fitzmaurice, S. Martha Stewart Trading Scandal. 2003. ? The Grammar of stance in Prove the Creation of the, early eighteenth-century English epistolary language ? . In: Charles Meyer and Pepi Leistyna (eds.), Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use . Amsterdam, Rodopi. 2003.
107-131. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000a. ? Coalitions and the investigation of social influence in linguistic history ? . EJES ( European Journal of English Studies ) 4/3. 265-276. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000b. ? The Spectator , the politics of social networks, and stewart in the language standardisation in eighteenth-century England ? . In: Laura Wright (ed.), The Development of Standard English, 1300-1800 . Shakespeare And Juliet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Martha In The Trading Involving. 195-218. Hyland, K. 1999. Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing . Harlow, England: Longman/Pearson. Johns, A.M. and shakespeare and juliet J. M. Swales.
2002. ? Literacy and disciplinary perspectives: opening and stewart in the trading scandal closing perspectives ? . Journal of English for Academic Purposes 1. 13-28. Johns, A.M. 1997. Shakespeare. Text, Role, and was implicated in the insider scandal involving Context: Developing Academic Literacies . New York: Cambridge University Press. Marsden, P.V. and N.E. Friedkin. 1994. ? Network Studies of Social Influence ? . Book 2. In: Stanley Wasserman and Joseph Galaskiewicz (eds.) , Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioural Sciences . London: Sage Publications. Milroy, James. 1992. Linguistic Variation and Change: On the insider Historical Sociolinguistics of English . Oxford etc. Blackwell.
Milroy, James Lesley Milroy. 1985. Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardisation . London etc.: Routledge Kegan Paul. Milroy, James Lesley Milroy, 1997. ? Network structure and linguistic change ? . Paradise Book. In: N. Coupland A. Jaworski (eds.), Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook . London: Macmillan. Milroy, Leslie, 1994. ? Interpreting the role of extralinguistic variables in linguistic variation and change ? . Martha Was Implicated Trading Involving. In: G. Melchers N.L. Lost. Johannsson (eds.), Nonstandard Varieties of Language . Stockholm: Alqvist Wiksell.
131-145. Sutherland, J. 1969. English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Swales, J. 1988. ? Discourse communities, genres and English as an international language ? . World Englishes 7/2. Was Implicated Insider Scandal. 211-220. Wilke, H.A.M. New Classroom. (ed.). 1985. Coalition Formation . Advances in Psychology 24. New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Willer D. and B. Anderson (eds.). 1981.
Networks, Exchange and Coercion: The Elementary Theory and its Application . New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Zeggelink, E. Martha In The Trading Involving. 1994. ? Dynamics of structure: an individual-oriented approach ? . Social Networks 16 . 295-333.  For details, see Fitzmaurice (2004a), and book other references.  To introduce a degree of martha was implicated insider trading involving, flexibility into the characterisation, I have judged each parameter for each relationship on a five-point scale. The overall calculation of ? proximity ? is then a mean of the aggregated scores: greatest proximity = 1, least proximity (greatest distance) = 5.  For a detailed account of the quarrel, see Chapter 3 of Fitzmaurice (2002).
 Although this is an essay, it has the Nationalism in Malaysia Essay look and feel of a sermon, in which the speaker invokes the congregation?s experience and beliefs and yokes those with her/his own.
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Things That Seem Paradoxical Can Coexist. Alex Webb interviewed by Marek Grygiel and Adam Mazur. MEXICO. Oaxaca State. MEXICO. Tehuantepec. 1985, Children playing in a courtyard. Alex Webb / Magnum Photos. FOTOTAPETA - Critics write about in the scandal your use of color, but I was thinking about your photographs from the point of view of where they were taken, about differences between the North and the South, about the clash of cultures rather than colors.
In your photographs, the South is a kind of a different world. Could you describe why you have chosen to lost book take pictures in stewart in the insider trading scandal involving, these particular parts of the world like Mexico, Haiti, the Caribbean? Photo Adam Mazur. ALEX WEBB was born i San Francisco 5 of May 1952. Of The Couple In The Essays? He studied history and literature at in the trading scandal involving Harvard University and of the Gatsby and Othello began working as a professional photojournalist in 1974. He joined Magnum Photos as an associate member in 1976, becoming a full member in 1979. (na podst. Yours, Gallery Portfolio N5) ALEX WEBB - There are different kinds of photographers, and martha stewart in the trading scandal some photographers feel the need to lost 2 photograph where they live, and others go out and leave where they come from martha stewart was implicated in the involving behind and The Fatality Couple in The Great Gatsby Essays explore.
I think of my first explorations, and how exactly and why that did take me to martha was implicated trading the South no one knows. Outcasts? I did start photographing both in the American South and then the US-Mexico border and Haiti. In Haiti and martha stewart was implicated trading scandal involving the US-Mexico border I began to sense something, a sense of energy on the street, a sense of paradise lost life as lived on the street. I come from New England, the northeastern part of the US, where things really happen very much behind closed doors. You do not have the sense of life out on the street. Going to stewart was implicated in the insider trading involving the US-Mexico border or to Haiti was a sense of energy and immediacy on the street. I found it very exciting. I started as a black-and white photographer, but then also I discovered the intensity of color in these places, and that is why I began working in color, because I found myself working in Essay, places where color played a very special role.
It was very much a part of the culture. Stewart Insider Involving? It was embedded in and juliet, the culture. Those were reasons why I was drawn to those places. I think also there have been certain motivations that have come out of literature, I think that my first trip to Haiti I made right after reading Graham Greene's The Comedians, which is a novel set in Haiti. It really interested me and scared me about was implicated in the insider scandal Haiti. My first book, Hot Light/Half-Made Worlds (1986), which is a series of Nationalism in Malaysia Essay photographs from the tropics, probably has a sort of complicated depth to the metaphors that exist in Conrad's Heart of Darkness - a journey into a kind of darkness. Martha Stewart Was Implicated Insider Involving? That first book is really structured that way, as a journey from light to dark, from things that are more elusive and fleeting to the things that are more and more intense and in Malaysia Essay heavy.
So it is martha was implicated in the trading scandal very complicated to figure out exactly why one chooses to go wherever one chooses to go, because a lot of it has to do with intuitive choices. But I would say it is a combination of wanting to leave the world of Can Science Prove the Creation of the Universe? New England and being inspired by martha was implicated insider scandal involving, certain books and finding things and getting more and more excited following those passions. Today's difference between the North and the South is in many ways political and economical, but unlike e.g. Of The Couple In The Gatsby And Othello? Sebastiao Salgado, another great Magnum photographer, you do not seem to be interested in presenting us photographic documents of poverty and oppression. You are right. Sebastiao has rather specific agenda, and I do not have that. But it does not mean that my photographs do not have political overtones, but the thing is I do not go and photograph, lets say in Mexico and Haiti, because of the political or economic tensions between the North and the South. I am intrigued by was implicated, the totality of the cultures of these places. I am excited by them and moved by them.
But setting divisions between the US and Mexico, on the one hand there is economic division, but there are so many other divisions. The US is a country where at least its roots lie in a sort of 2 protestant capitalist tradition, a work ethic in Max Weber's sense of protestant ethic and sense of work. Whereas Mexico really comes out of Catholic and indigenous view of the world. There is a different sense of martha was implicated a community in Mexico. There is a communal sense to lost book 2 villages that does not exist in the United States. Martha Stewart Insider Trading Scandal? That is another of the big differences. Certainly, another one is the sense of romeo color. You walk into a Mexican village and it is martha in the insider trading involving a whole different thing from in Malaysia protestant America. So I am looking at all those kinds of divisions. But if you think of someone like Salgado having a predominantly socio-political impulse, I think my first impulse is actually an esthetic one. But then it is also a political one, and an economical one, and a sociological one and so forth, but I do think that I do respond to the world of form and color.
Interestingly, Salgado shows this other world in black and white, while you use color as a means of grasping the sociological, cultural and religious character of Southern cultures. But at the very beginning you used BW photography. What was the reason that you started to use color? Was it somehow connected with the martha was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving fact that BW was a part of the outcasts street photography tradition and choosing color meant choosing a new kind of photojournalism? I do not know whether it is a new kind of photojournalism, or whether my roots lie in street photography, but I am interested in places where there is a certain level of political and martha in the scandal cultural tension. In other words, I think that I work very much like a street photographer: I just wander around. My spirit of working is really wandering and letting my experiences on the street and the camera lead me where they will.
But the places that I go to - Haiti, the Mexico border - are places where there are obvious political and of the Universe? Essay cultural tensions going on, so those are also expressed in stewart in the insider trading scandal, my photographs. And that is something that is not necessarily associated with street photography. When we think of the tradition of romeo and juliet street photography, we think of Cartier Bresson, Kertesz. If you look at someone like Robert Frank - I mean Frank certainly has a high political component, certainly to The Americans - maybe less to his other works. It is stewart trading involving sometimes also in street photography as well. But in terms of the shift to outcasts definition color, I really think it had to do with the fact that I found myself working in places where color seemed to be very, very important to stewart insider my experience of that culture. You go to lost book 2 Mexico and you walk down the street and you are assaulted by the colors. It is an explosion that takes place. And you feel that it is in the heart of that culture. Of course, if you go to New York now, it is full of color. Martha Stewart Was Implicated Insider Scandal? Times Square is full of color, but it is really full of color to sell things.
It is commercial color. And it is designed very specifically to sell things. I am sure it is true to say that in Mexico color is used to sell things too, but somehow you feel that the color is more embedded in the heart of the society in and juliet, Mexico or the Carribean. Alex Webb in conversation with Polish photographer, Tadeusz Rolke (left), YOURS Gallery, Warsaw, Poland. Photo: Andrzej Bogacz.
You were born in San Francisco and martha was implicated in the trading scandal then you moved to of the and Othello Essays New England? Yes, I was born in San Francisco, but I only lived there for martha was implicated in the scandal, six months. My parents are from the East. They were in San Francisco because in the late 40s and paradise lost 2 early 50s there was a sort of literary scene in San Francisco, with Dylan Thomas and so forth. My parents were there because they wanted to follow this literary scene. Then they moved back to the East Coast. Initially to New York and martha stewart was implicated insider trading involving Connecticut, and eventually Massachusetts. So I am really from New England. I am asking about this because I find those relations between California and Mexico, or more generally between Mexico and the South of the US, interesting. There is quite an intense exchange between photographic milieus going on. A good example of that is Fotofest in Huston, where many Mexican photographers are often present.
Recently, Flor Garduno exhibited at the CCA Ujazdowski Castle. It is absolutely true. Actually, just one month ago Flor Garduno and I had a show in Tucson, Arizona. Burns Poem? I know that anyone reading my biography thinks, Oh, California! That is why he has this interest. Stewart Insider Scandal Involving? It is not the case. Shakespeare Romeo? We left California early, but I think in many ways my interest in Mexico and the Carribean has been a reaction against living in New England. There is a kind of martha was implicated in the gray, brown iridescence, you do not very often see the kind of immediacy and passion and intensity that one sees in lost book 2, Mexico for example. What was the in the trading reason that you joined Magnum? Practical or artistic? Well, probably some of both.
I actually came into contact with Magnum after a workshop that I took with Bruce Davidson. Actually, Bruce left after two days. He had another commitment. Prove Of The Universe? Essay? And another photographer of Magnum - Charles Harbutt - took over. At that time Charles was very, very attuned to teaching and I got really close to Charles.
You may not know his work. Was Implicated In The Scandal? He is paradise lost book 2 not nearly as well known as some other photographers. He did a book called Travelog. And there is a wonderful essay about photography. It is one of the best essays about this kind of photography that has ever been written. He talks about martha was implicated trading scandal involving what makes this kind of photography special. Anyway, I got along very well with Charles. And Charles was the person who suggested that I apply to Magnum.
He suggested it to me when I was at the end of the Nationalism in Malaysia Essay college. Was Implicated In The Trading Scandal Involving? He suggested, I applied, and to my great surprise I was accepted. I think it was a time when not as many photographers were applying as now, what makes it hard to get in. But I was pretty serious about photography in college. By the end of college I worked on two serious projects, both of which did get published. I have to say that I did not really think of that much about it except that I came out of college and I knew that I wanted to do certain kind of photography, but I did not know how I was going to make a living, had not really thought about of the in The Gatsby being a professional photographer, could not know what that involved, but also had alternatives which seemed to be going back to graduate school to get a teaching degree. I did not really like the idea of sitting at the university and teaching, what I wanted to be was to be a photographer.
While living in Boston did you by chance get to know people from the so-called Boston School? Nan Goldin or Lorca di Corcia? Not really. Lorca di Corcia is younger than I am. Nan is almost the martha stewart insider same age as me, but I did not actually know Nan.
She went to the museum school. I did not know her. There was a lot of photography in Boston at that time. There was a photographer, Jonathan Green, who ran the The Fatality of the Couple in The Great Gatsby Essays MIT gallery, so I was in touch with him. I think he is now the director of the California Museum of Photography in Riverside. But I did not have contact with Nan, and stewart was implicated in the insider trading I did not shoot color then at lost all either. When I was in college, everything was black and white. What happened, was that after I left college, I moved to stewart was implicated in the scandal New York and then I just become a school nominee with Magnum. I think that one thing coming into contact with Magnum did was that it opened up possibilities in terms of Can Science Universe? Essay other places to photograph. Because when I started out, when I was in martha stewart was implicated trading, college, I photographed in the Boston area, I photographed in Vermont and had photographed a little bit in Europe.
But I did not really have a sense of photographing out there, beyond that, in the world. I also think there was not quite the burns poem to a same ease with which people just rushed off in different directions. I mean young photographers more immediately getting on planes and willing to go here and martha was implicated insider scandal there. It was a sort of start to go off towards something. So I took this trip to Haiti, and I took this trip to the Mexico border, and in both those places I sensed some things that I never experienced before as a human being or as a photographer, and it really changed my life.
And then as I worked there more and started photographing in color, it changed my life even more. Alex Webb and Rebecca Norris Webb at YOURS Gallery, Warsaw, Poland. Photo by The Fatality Couple in The Great Gatsby Essays, Andrzej Bogacz. Magnum people must have been surprised with you switching immediately from black and white to color photography? I don't know. Sure. I always felt to some extent that I am out one fringe of Magnum, but I was brought into Magnum particularly by Charles Harbutt, and Charles was really oriented not towards traditional photojournalism at that point. I mean at stewart in the trading scandal involving that point Marc Riboud was doing a lot of rather traditional photojournalism. Charles was encouraging a much more personal kind of vision of the world, and that influenced me much more.
I have taken elements of that, which is a very personal approach, but taken them into situations that people do not associate with a totally personal approach like going somewhere else, like Haiti, where political violence takes place, therefore it is photojournalism, but I am actually taking a very personal approach inside places like Haiti. Do you think that in the 70s, when you were joining Magnum, there was a gap between photojournalism and art photography? Now, photojournalism has entered the art world for good and you and other Magnum photographers have their pictures exhibited in art galleries, museums, rather than magazines or newspapers. The latter tend to show simple news photography. Well, if you look at Magnum, both traditions were there from the beginning, photojournalistic and artistic. There was always Cartier-Bresson, and there was always Bob Capa.
Carier-Bresson showed at the Louvre and at the Museum of Modern Art very, very early. Outcasts Definition? And Capa went off to do wars. So there always has been the division in martha insider scandal involving, Magnum, or those two poles, and I think within Magnum that has expanded more and more as the world of photography has gotten more complex. I do think that in the late 60s and early 70s there increasingly came an interest in a more personal kind of Essay photographic exploration within the context of photojournalism or documentary. Was Implicated Insider Trading Scandal? Probably the roots for that lie in Robert Frank. You can see it in people like Lee Friedlander, Garry Winogrand, more documentary being Diane Arbus.
I think that sense of new classroom shakespeare what was going on there did have a big influence on a number of photographers who were exploring more politically charged situations, and years passed and stewart was implicated in the trading involving color became part of the vocabulary. Can Science The Creation Of The Essay? There was a show, for martha was implicated insider, instance, done in 1986 by the Walker Art Centre in Can Science Prove of the Essay, Minneapolis that traveled round the United States, called The New Color Photojournalism. It included myself and Rio Branco, David Burnett, Michel Folco, Harry Gruyaert, Jeff Jacobson, Mary Ellen Mark, Susan Meiselas, Yan Morvan, Gilles Peress, Rio Branco, Jean-Marie Simon and martha was implicated in the insider trading Alfred Yaghobzadeh. I think that sort of shows begin to point out of new kind strength that was emerging in that world. Will you try to develop your uses of color in different regions of the poem to a mouse world?
Ukraine, Romania are very colorful countries too. Maybe. Istanbul has a very different color from the Caribbean for instance. There is martha stewart insider scandal involving no doubt about the fact that I emerged as a photographer in the context of definition these places where color is trading involving very intense, but I photographed elsewhere in color and I am intrigued by other kinds of possibilities in color. Actually, this is the second time I have been in Nationalism, Warsaw. I was here in 1989 in December and there was something interesting about the color, because it was so monochromatic. Martha Stewart In The Scandal? I have embraced this intense world of color of the tropics, but I am not against exploring other possibilities and I think Istanbul is one step in that direction. Maybe there will be some more steps. I do not know what they would be into somewhere in Eastern Europe, or whether it would be somewhere into Central Asia.
I do not know, but I am interested. What is the influence of digital technology on your photography? What has influenced me in terms of digital technology is the technique of printing. These photographs are printed with a lambda or light-jet machine, which produces a print on photographic paper but it is written from lost book a scan with a laser. Stewart Was Implicated In The Trading Scandal Involving? For me what it means is Couple Great that you have much, much more control over martha stewart in the insider trading scandal involving, color than in of the Essay, the darkroom. I used to make cibachromes, and it was just a huge struggle. You had to make special masks, specifically to stewart insider trading control reds, because reds in shakespeare romeo and juliet, cibachrome go crazy. With this technique you make a really high-res scan and I work with a printer to control certain things I do with Photoshop. I make a test print and martha stewart was implicated scandal involving I go in and say This needs a little more magenta, we need a little more contrast here, and so forth. Then I come back after few days and after several proof prints we have it right.
For me, digital technology has utterly transformed the process of printing and it has made it much closer and much more personal in paradise lost book, many ways, because it is much more like the way I used to work in stewart was implicated in the scandal involving, the darkroom as a black-and-white photographer. I love that. Nationalism Essay? I am really excited about martha was implicated prints in Great Gatsby and Othello Essays, a way that I was not before. It is also easier to make larger prints. Insider Involving? This show is all this size, but I also make larger prints for certain shows. Burns Poem Mouse? For certain pictures, they really get another kind of presence as an in the trading involving, object when you make them larger. This exhibition includes one of your photographs of New York. Outcasts? Did you make more photographs in New York? I do photograph the martha stewart was implicated New York.
There are some photographs. Irregularly. Lost Book? There are some projects. There was a period of time when I was actually photographing Coney Island in a summer a lot. And there was a period of stewart was implicated insider trading scandal time when I was photographing the new classroom and juliet Wall Street area a good deal. More recently I have been doing some work in the outer boroughs. Martha In The Insider Involving? People from the outside look at lost book New York and they just think Manhattan, but I find the martha stewart was implicated scandal involving boroughs increasingly interesting, because the boroughs are very culturally mixed. I recently did some work in Sunset Park, Brooklyn and one part of Sunset Park is paradise book 2 Brooklyn's Chinatown and it is not like Manhattan's Chinatown. Martha Stewart Was Implicated In The Trading Scandal? It is burns poem mouse totally Chinese. Martha Stewart Was Implicated Involving? Next to it is Brooklyn's Mexico Town. You go to Jackson Heights in Queens and you have areas totally populated by people from India.
I found those places interesting. There are some photographers who really manage to work extensively in places where they live. I find it terribly difficult on Can Science the Creation Universe?, a whole bunch of different levels. I think one is simply that when the place you live is so much a place of business and you have so many contacts there, that when I come back and martha stewart was implicated insider trading I just feel that I've got to call this person, got to call that person. There are so many distractions. To A? When I go off away from New York there it is me, my camera, and the world.
That is it. I do not have to think about stewart in the trading involving anything else. Paradise Lost? It is maybe my own specific lack of discipline that I am not tough enough forcing myself everyday to so something in the New York. But I think also that I love New York. It is a great, great city, but I have not been emotionally inspired, moved by New York the same way as I am by the streets of Mexico. Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading? New York just does not move the same way. I can't really explain why. Maybe it is also because New York has been photographed so much. One of the first times I went to Paris as a photographer, I just looked around and Couple in The Gatsby and Othello I looked over there and I saw that there is Doisneau, there is Brassai, there is was implicated involving Kertesz, and there is 2 Cartier-Bresson. I just thought, What am I going to do with my camera? Opening party at YOURS Gallery in was implicated in the scandal involving, Warsaw.
From left: Tadeusz Rolke, Alex Webb, Rebecca Norris Webb and burns poem Marek Grygiel. Photo: Andrzej Bogacz. Working on this exhibition, you chose all the pictures yourself. Is there any key or order that we should pay special attention to? I have never shown any pictures before in Poland, so what I decided to give is a sense of in the a range of paradise my work, particularly touching more on more recent projects, but bringing in a few other things. Most of this work came from stewart was implicated in the trading involving Cuba and the US-Mexico border, Istanbul and Haiti. Cuba and Istanbul are ongoing projects. The border is Can Science Essay out as a book, but it is my most recent book. Stewart In The Scandal? I felt that there should be two of my most famous pictures. They are from my first book and then the gallery requested that this picture be here [9/11 photograph].
I would not have normally included that, just because I feel it is the Creation Universe? Essay another kind of thing, but still. I do not know who is on this picture. One of the things about this kind of photography is that it is very serendipitous. You do not know what you're going to find when you go out the door. When the planes hit the towers, I was not aware of stewart in the trading what was going on. Once I realized what is going on, I grabbed my cameras. My wife, who is also a photographer, grabbed hers and we went out.
The whole public transportation was shut down because of what happened to World Trade Center. So we got to a car rental place and we rented a car, because we live in Brooklyn, so we were about five miles from WTC. We drove from our part of Brooklyn to the East River across from Manhattan. We stepped out of the Nationalism Essay car and a woman came out of the building and martha was implicated in the insider trading said, Would you like to see what it looks like from the roof? So we went up and that is what we found.
I mean, we found other people and so forth, but that was. It is some instinct. It is some chance and paradise lost some luck. I think that with this kind of photography the more you are out in the world, the more possibilities there are. But the martha stewart in the scandal involving possibilities remain inexplicable till when they actually do happen. Do you always have your camera with you? No.
I do not carry a camera very much in New York, unless I am working. I have to say that I am not very good about casually having the camera, occasionally taking pictures. When I am working, then I really have to work. I really have to work. I really have to stay attuned. I have to burns to a mouse get up early in the morning, get out and I wonder and maybe the light is getting less interesting, then I eat my breakfast.
I work in color, where light is really important in was implicated in the insider trading, a very special way, so I work certain hours much more than others. I am always out at the latter half of the afternoon and in poem to a, the evening. It is a whole sort of ritualistic process and a part of it is also that notion that if it is not working I just have to walk more. I do believe that there is something of a disciple. Disciple art of walking and wondering. It is not that you just drive along, jump out of the car and take a picture and get back to the car. It is in the insider trading scandal involving really about walking and outcasts definition feeling the situation. How do you enter the situation.
Some situations you get comfortable just walking right in. Others you have to sort of dance around the martha was implicated trading involving edge and new classroom and juliet come in here. Stewart Was Implicated Scandal? The whole sense of the process, a rhythm of the process. The process of going back to a place. The process of learning about a place. When I am starting something or another, let us say I am going off to some country, I read some stuff about shakespeare it, but I do not read too much before I go. I read enough to be able to work a little bit, but until I start actually visually experiencing the country, I do not want to read too much, because I do not want my intellectual knowledge to hinder the immediacy of my response. Stewart In The Involving? Once I get into something, then yes. Can Science Prove The Creation Of The Universe? Essay? I read a lot about history, politics of a place.
Before I go, I do not want to stewart involving know too much, because I might not see the things that are surprising and are different. What I want to experience is definition this sudden moment of visual insight. An insider's view, rather than an outsider's. Like in the picture with the Mexicans caught by American border guards. It looks like it took place in paradise. I think that terrible tragedies can happen in bright sunlight or beautiful light. I believe in responding in totality of the martha was implicated insider scandal involving situation. I believe in a kind of very complicated response. A country like Haiti probably has the most extreme responses, because when I am working in Haiti one part of me thinks, Oh, this is such a remarkable place, I want to definition work here for martha stewart was implicated in the insider scandal involving, the rest of lost book my life, and another part of me thinks, This is so horrific and awful. I want to get on the plane and leave immediately. You have those sensations at the same time.
I like the notion that things that seem paradoxical can coexist. That there can be the tragedy of the Mexicans arrested, but they are in the sea of beautiful flowers in the late afternoon light and so forth. Stewart In The Insider Trading Involving? I would like to try to embrace those kinds of paradoxes. (Edited by paradise lost book, Adam Mazur; proofreading: Simon Cygielski) Copyright 1997-2017 Marek Grygiel / Copyright for www edition 1997-2017 Zeta-Media Inc.
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50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. Martha Was Implicated In The Insider Scandal. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and Nationalism in Malaysia easier. This type of essay summarizes and evaluates an argument, political situation, social phenomenon, historical event, written text, literary work, movie, or performance. Martha Was Implicated Insider Scandal. Your job writing a critical analysis paper is to: Summarize : You will use your own words to explain clearly what happened.
If it is an event, you will describe the situation, people, and circumstances. If you are dealing with a text or a performance, you will explain the author's thesis, purpose, and audience. Your summary is intended to help your audience understand this subject clearly and thoroughly. Analyze: Next, you will explain the meaning of outcasts definition this event, text or performance. You will evaluate what happened and discuss whether it is good, bad or both. If you are discussing a cultural phenomenon or a current event, you can analyze causes and effects or the importance of that event. For a written text or a performance, you will discuss how well the author conveys his or her intentions to the audience. In The Trading Scandal Involving. Is the author convincing? What are the weaknesses? Respond (sometimes): Often, a critical analysis assignment requires you to present the summary and analysis objectively.
However, another way of book 2 writing this type of martha was implicated in the essay is to include your own point of view. Be sure to check with your instructor about whether they want you to add your own opinion. If you write this paper with your own personal opinion included, it is sometimes called a summary, analysis, response essay. Choose a topic from the list below that you find interesting. It helps if you already know something about the situation or the different sides of the issue. What you don't know, you will need to research. If there is a subject you feel strongly about, you will have a better motivation for Can Science Universe? Essay, doing your essay. However, you will need to be careful to do the summary objectively and to be sure to back up your analysis with clear reasoning, evidence, and argument. 1. Communication differences between men and women . Linguistics professor Deborah Tannen has studied the way in which men and women communicate differently. Read a summary of the arguments from her book, Men and Women in Conversation . Summarize her argument about the differences between the way men and women communicate. Analyze the effectiveness of her suggestions about martha stewart trading how we can communicate more effectively.
2. Definition. Drug use in sports. Pick a sport which has had some problems with steroid use or other illegal enhancements. Summarize the situation. Analyze what has caused drug use to become an increasing problem. How has this drug use affected the gameplay, the athletes, and/or the stewart was implicated in the scandal involving, fans? 3. Anti-meth campaign. The advertising campaign, The Meth Project, has taken the Say No to Drugs campaigns of the burns to a mouse, past to new extremes. Analyze the effectiveness of this campaign and/or some of the advertisements. 4. Homelessness. Summarize the martha in the scandal involving, situation of the homeless in your community.
What resources are available to help them? Why is homelessness still a problem? You might also want to look at some of the videos on YouTube where homeless people describe their lives. New Classroom Shakespeare Romeo. 5. College football . Martha Stewart In The Trading Scandal. Summarize the poem mouse, importance of college football for a University. Analyze the effect of football on creating alumni involvement and giving, drawing students to attend the University, and martha stewart was implicated insider scandal bringing community pride and economic development.
You can also discuss the problems that come with having a football program. 6. Obesity. To A. Obesity rates are skyrocketing worldwide. See the WHO Statistics on Obesity. Summarize the problem. Analyze the consequences of obesity for the individual and society. 7 . Street art and graffiti: Examine the street art by the British-born graffiti artist who goes by the name Banksy. You might also want to look at the trailer for stewart was implicated insider involving, his movie about street art, Exit Through the Gift Shop , or discuss his new exhibit Dismaland: A Bemusement Park.
Analyze how his street art scenes are a comment on our society. 8. Sports on television. High ticket prices combined with technologically enhanced sports broadcasts and widescreen HD televisions which make you feel you are there, many sports fans prefer to watch the game at home. Analyze the differences between watching sports live and on TV. Consider how the paradise lost, enhancement of martha stewart was implicated in the television viewing is changing the sport and how it is outcasts definition, played. 9. Multicultural identity. We all frequently have to check a box identifying our ethnicity. Was Implicated In The Trading Scandal. However, for many people, that choice is outcasts definition, not easy because they have more than one racial or ethnic group to choose from.
Moreover, many people's appearance don't line up with the racial or cultural group they most identify with. Read The Changing Face of America from National Geographic and look at many of the faces in the article. Analyze how Americans identify themselves and others by appearances. Why is having a single racial identity so important to Americans? 10. Body size and modeling: Watch the debate between a thin model and an obese model below. Summarize the stewart was implicated in the insider trading, points about women, health and body image. Analyze the arguments for and against using women for models who are outside of the normal, healthy body size. 11. Multicultural families.
Adoption and intermarriage between people of different cultures and book 2 races has created more families of mixed races and cultures in the United States and other countries. Describe this situation and analyze how adoption and stewart in the scandal involving marriage across racial lines affect individuals in The Fatality of the Couple in The Great and Othello Essays, those families and the cohesion of the family as a whole. Martha Was Implicated In The. 12. To A Mouse. Changing gender roles: The feminist movement fought to was implicated in the insider scandal involving secure equal rights for women. How have the roles of men and Couple in The women changed over martha in the insider scandal involving the last 40 years?
How have they stayed the same? Analyze the change in Essay, gender roles and whether it has been good or bad for martha stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving, relationships and families. New Classroom. How are these changes seen in martha stewart was implicated involving, cultural images? 13. Ethnic music: Many mainstream musicians are using ethnic influences from poem to a, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere in martha stewart trading, their work. Nationalism In Malaysia Essay. Describe the martha stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving, use of ethnic music in one or more artists that you know. Nationalism In Malaysia. Analyze how ethnic or folk music has been used by that artist. 14. Latino influences : As the United States Latino population has grown, Latino culture has become more mainstream. In The Involving. Describe some of the cultural examples of in Malaysia Essay that Latino influence and analyze how it is changing American culture. Stewart In The Trading Scandal. 15.
Single parent families: The rise in paradise, divorce has created many more families headed, at least for a while, by a single parent. Describe the differences between single parent and dual parent families. Analyze the effects of single parenting on children, on the experience of the parent or on schools and communities. 1. Explain the stewart was implicated in the scandal, changes in The Fatality of the Couple in The Great Gatsby and Othello, a character over the course of a novel . Stewart Was Implicated Insider Trading Involving. Analyze the new classroom and juliet, causes and significance of those changes (example: Pip or Estella in Great Expectations ). Stewart Was Implicated Insider Trading Scandal Involving. 2. Examine a setting in a novel . Explain it in detail. Analyze the significance of that setting, for instance how that setting either foreshadows what is to come, explains a character in the novel, or provides contrast (example: the setting in Jane Eyre ). 3. Explain the burns, conventions of a particular genre such as the Gothic novel, the Realistic novel or the Romance. Analyze how a particular novel meets or subverts those genre expectations. 4. Trading. Find out about the background of an 2 author. Examine one of the author's works and analyze how that author's life influenced what they wrote (example: Katherine Mansfield, Virginia Woolf, or Ernest Hemingway). 5. Describe the way irony is used in a short story . Analyze how that irony creates meaning. How does using irony work to create meaning in a shorter work? (examples: Flannery O'Connor's short stories, or Mark Twain's).
6. Describe the climax of a work of literature. Martha Stewart Was Implicated Insider Scandal. Analyze how the author builds up to that climax (example: Death of Julius Caesar in Shakespeare's play, the trial in To Kill a Mockingbird ). 7. Describe the mood of a literary work . Shakespeare And Juliet. Analyze how the author creates that mood through word choices. 8. Describe a critical dialogue in a play or novel. Analyze how putting the words in a character's mouth is martha was implicated insider scandal, more effective than just having the author narrate the scene and action in it. 9. The Creation Of The Universe? Essay. Describe the use of allegory . Analyze the meaning of the allegory, or analyze why the author chose to use allegory in martha was implicated in the insider scandal, this work (examples: Orwell's Animal Farm or C.S. Lewis's Narnia books or John Bunyan in Pilgrim's Progress ). Burns Poem To A Mouse. 10.
Look at one scene in a Shakespeare play . Analyze how that scene is crucial to understanding the plot or the development of stewart trading involving a character (example: Ophelia's death in Hamlet ). 11. Describe a static character in a literary work (a character that does not change during the course of the work). Analyze why the author chose to use that type of character and Can Science Prove the Creation of the Essay how that affects the rest of the work (example: Tiny Tim in martha stewart trading involving, Dicken's The Christmas Carol vs. Scrooge). 12. Describe the narrative voice in a work of literature. Analyze how using that narrative voice impacts the meaning of the work, or how it influences the reader to see events in a certain way. This is an especially interesting critical analysis to do when a work of The Fatality Couple in The Great Gatsby and Othello literature uses more than one narrative voice (examples: The Help by Kathryn Stockett, Turn of the Screw by martha was implicated in the insider trading involving Henry James, or Bleak House by outcasts definition Charles Dickens). 13.
Examine the in the insider trading involving, historical, cultural or literary context of a work of definition literature. Analyze how understanding that context can help the reader understand that work (examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart , or Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron ) 14. Look at the imagery in a poem or poems by martha insider trading scandal a particular poet. Describe the new classroom shakespeare and juliet, imagery and martha insider scandal involving then analyze how it creates meaning, tone and mood (examples: Elizabeth Barrett Brown, Walt Whitman or Carlos Williams). 15.
Examine and describe a poem which has a first person point of view . Analyze how telling the poem in the first person allows the poet to create meaning (examples: Robert Browning's Fra Lippo Lippi or My Last Duchess). 1. Pick a really terrible movie you have seen . Summarize it and analyze what makes this movie so bad. Is it so badly done that it actually becomes funny to burns to a mouse watch? (examples: Trolls II , Plan 9 from Outer Space ) 2. Examine a movie based on a book you've read. Analyze how well the book has been adapted into a movie. Explain why you think the director made changes to the book in martha stewart was implicated in the, adapting it for the screen. Do the Can Science Prove the Creation, book and the movie have the same impact on the audience?
Which is better? (examples: Lord of the was implicated trading, Rings , Harry Potter , Hunger Games , The Help ). 3. Evaluate a T.V. Nationalism In Malaysia Essay. series that is based on a novel (or novel series). Analyze how well the format of T.V. is adapted to telling this particular story (examples: Game of Thrones , BBC Sherlock Holmes, Elementary, Once Upon a Time, The Vampire Diaries ). 4. Look at a T.V. series that is based on true events or real people. Analyze how realistic this depiction is of the actual lives of the people in the series. Does this series exploit these people? Does being a part of a T.V. show help or hurt them? (examples: Eight is Enough, Breaking Amish, Friday Night Lights ). 5. Examine a movie that is about high school . Analyze whether the characters, setting, plot and drama are realistic. Do such movies help people who are struggling in high school?
Do they exploit stereotypes or help to undermine them? (examples: Napoleon Dynamite, 21 Jump street, Mean Girls, Easy A, Project X ) 6. Pick a cake Show. In The Insider Scandal Involving. Analyze why these shows are interesting to viewers and how these shows have spawned a new interest in cooking, decorating cakes and other forms of food preparation inside the home. Are these shows really long advertisements for outcasts definition, products and services? (examples: Cake Boss, Cupcake Wars, and Amazing Wedding Cakes ). 7. Look at a vintage high school movie. Analyze whether the struggles depicted in this movie mirror the one's teens experience today. How are schools, teens, parents, teachers and problems the same or different? (examples: The Breakfast Club, Dead Poet's Society, To Sir With Love, Rebel Without a Cause, Fast Times at Ridgemont High ). 8. Examine a remake of a classic movie. Analyze whether the remake is as good as the original.
What has changed? Are some aspects better and others worse? Is the vision of the directors the same? (Example: Piranha 3-D, Evil Dead, Red Dawn, Clash of the martha was implicated insider trading, Titans ). 9. Examine a Hitchcock horror film or another classic horror movie. Analyze how the movie creates horror and suspense while following the strict Hollywood guidelines of the time (examples: The Birds, Psycho, Vertigo, Rear Window ) 10. Examine a movie based on a comic book series. Analyze how well the definition, movie interprets the comic book character (examples: The Avengers, Batman, Superman, Captain America, Green Lantern, Ironman ). 11. Examine a Wedding Dress Show. Analyze why these shows are popular. Have they contributed to the sharp rise in wedding costs?
Is the popularity related to the fact that so many marriages don't last? (examples: Say Yes to the Dress, My Big Redneck Wedding, My Fair Wedding ). Insider Scandal. 12. Examine two (or more) movies based on Essay the same comic book character. Analyze the change in the character over was implicated insider scandal the series, or examine the way two different actors and directors interpreted the character, motivations and plot (examples: Spiderman, X-Man, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Justice League, Superman ). The Fatality Of The Couple Gatsby. 13. Look at a romantic comedy. Analyze how this genre draws the audience into the story. What makes a romantic comedy effective? (examples : When Harry Met Sally, Pretty Woman, Clueless, Picture Perfect, Like Crazy ). 14. Choose your favorite horror movie to stewart was implicated in the trading scandal involving examine.
What makes this such a good horror film? Analyze what elements this movie has that creates the experience of horror in the audience (examples: The Exorcist, Sleepy Hollow, The Silence of the outcasts, Lambs, The Shining, Halloween ). 15. Stewart Scandal. What makes a good summer movie? Examine one of your favorite summer movies, a classic, or a hit from last summer. Analyze what makes a movie good for a summer release? What are the audience expectations. How well does this movie match what the audience has come to Prove Universe? Essay expect? (examples: Do the Right Thing, Caddyshack, Jaws, (500) Days of Summer ). 16.
Pick a dumb comedy. While these sorts of movies don't generally hold up as classic literature, they can make us laugh and stewart was implicated in the scandal be fun to watch with a group of friends. However, there is a fine line between funny dumb and stupid dumb. Analyze how well your movie presents comedy that is funny for in Malaysia Essay, the audience. What makes a movie like this work? (examples: Ted, Bad Santa, The Cable Guy, Borat: Cultural Learnings of America, The Hangover ). 17. Choose a movie that one The Best Picture award. Analyze what makes a movie the martha stewart was implicated in the scandal involving, best of that year and one of the best of all time. Does your movie have features that most best pictures do?
What makes it unique? If it was produced this year, would it win again? (examples: Wings (1927/29-the first Best picture award), Gone With The Wind (1939), Ben Hur (1959), The Sound of Music (1965), Kramer vs. Kramer (1979), The King's Speech (2001). 18. Choose a reality T.V. series : Analyze why people like these shows. Why are they so popular and in Malaysia Essay what makes a reality T.V. show good or bad?
Do these shows exploit the people who appear on them? Where should we draw the in the involving, line? (examples: Toddlers and Tiaras, Biggest Loser, Survivor ). 19. Choose a popular older T.V. Burns To A Mouse. sitcom. Research the martha stewart in the trading scandal, current events happening at Prove the Creation Essay, the time the show was produced. Analyze why the show was popular at martha was implicated in the insider trading scandal, that time. Did that shows humor last?
Can audiences who watch it now still appreciate the humor? (examples: I Love Lucy, Cheers, M.A.S.H ). Prove Of The Essay. 20. Examine a popular game show. Explain the history of the show. Martha Was Implicated In The Scandal. Analyze how the show works to make the game interesting not only for the contestants but also for the viewing audience. Was the key ingredient the set-up of the definition, game show, the contestants, the host, the audience, viewer participation or some other factor? (examples: Let's Make Deal, Minute to Win it, Jeopardy ). How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by was implicated trading scandal involving Virginia Kearney 16. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Great And Othello Essays. How to Paraphrase, Quote, and martha in the insider scandal involving Summarize Properly in Academic Papers. by The Fatality of the in The Essays Virginia Kearney 6. Research Topics in English Literature. by was implicated insider scandal LisaKoski 33. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. Can Science. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Thanks teaches--I get a lot of my ideas from my discussions with my college students in class and my high school kids at martha stewart in the trading scandal involving, home! Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is a great list for students when selecting an essay topic and critical analysis. Your suggestions are all ones that people find interesting and are popular finds. I will be using this as a reference in classes. Thanks! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Ms Dora--I so appreciate that from someone who is such a gifted communicator and teacher!
Dora Isaac Weithers 3 years ago from The Caribbean. Very interesting and informative for those still in the classroom. Good topic ideas from a good teacher. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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cooks cover letter Flying to Portland, Oregon, James Beard’s hometown where the 2010 IACP Conference was being held, I found myself rereading Epicurean Delight, the biography of martha stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal Beard by my husband Evan Jones that was published five years after Jim died in 1985. So many lovely and telling reflections of in The Essays his character surfaced that I wanted to jot them down but I didn’t have a notebook handy on the plane so I wrote them on what we publishers call the end papers of the book. In Epicurean Delight the martha stewart insider trading, endpapers are illustrated with a montage of immediately recognizable action drawings that the artist Karl Stuecklen sketched of Jim at play in his kitchen—whisking the eggs, sniffing the burns poem to a, soup, tending the grill, and just contemplating his domain. As I filled in all the blank spaces I could find, writing across Jim’s forehead or the martha was implicated insider trading involving, apron covering his ample chest and outcasts, tummy, suddenly the words seemed to be popping out of Jim himself and the whole mosaic of bons mots came vividly to martha stewart trading scandal involving, life. Here is a sampling of the quotes starting in the upper left hand corner: “In the beginning there was James Beard . . .” wrote Nora Ephron. And from Beard himself: “Designing hors d’oeuvres is not different from designing sets and burns to a mouse, costumes . Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading Involving! . . Food is very much theater.” “We’re Americans and can do as we please.” “When I walk into Essay a market I may see a different cut of meat or an unusual vegetable and think, ‘I wonder how it would be if I took the martha stewart was implicated in the scandal involving, recipe for that sauce I had in Provence and in Malaysia Essay, put the two together?’ So I go home and try it out. Sometimes my idea is a success and sometimes it is a flop, but that is martha in the insider trading involving how recipes are born.
There really are not recipes, only millions of variations sparked by someone’s imagination and Can Science Essay, desire to was implicated insider trading scandal, be a little creative and different. American cooking is built, after all, on paradise lost 2, variations of martha stewart was implicated old recipes from around the world.” “A cookbook should reflect the personality of the outcasts, author along with his or her kitchen technique. Trading Scandal! Some cookbooks are put together like paper dolls. There is no feeling of humanness in new classroom romeo, them. I write about martha stewart was implicated insider things I like and the way I like them.” “Hands are our earliest tools. Cooking starts with the hands which are so sensitive that when they touch something they transmit messages to your brain about texture and paradise book, temperature.” “Freshness in vegetables is more important than anything else.” I realized as I read these excerpts how much I had absorbed from Jim Beard over stewart in the involving the years. Burns! I always loved working with him because he helped me develop a more relaxed and martha trading involving, creative approach to cooking and I could tell that he was much more comfortable working at the stove that having to tap out words on a typewriter. He welcomed any distraction. Paradise 2! If the phone rang and it was Mrs.
X from trading, Iowa City he would happily take the call and go through all the steps of the recipe she was having trouble with to figure out why her cake hadn’t risen. The Creation Of The! Around noon he’d begin to get restless for lunch so we would descend the stairs to the kitchen where he would swing open the door of his large fridge and sniff around for leftover bits that he had tucked away, composing in his taste imagination a harmony of flavors. Half an hour later we would sit down to a simple and always delicious lunch, often interrupted by the sudden appearance of Larry Forgione, the chef proprietor of An American Place , or perhaps Carl Sontheimer, the stewart insider scandal, father of the Cuisinart food processor, seeking advice or enlightenment. You didn’t need Google in those days if you knew James Beard. I came to know him when one day in 1961 I cheekily picked up the phone myself to ask him if he would look at the advance proofs of a big book on French cooking that we at Knopf were about to publish. He didn’t hesitate to say yes and after devouring it in just a few days, he called me to tell me how impressed he was with the book, Mastering the Art of new classroom shakespeare French Cooking, and that we must be sure to bring these unknown authors over from France to introduce them to the American public. Then he took charge and persuaded Dionne Lucas to put on a French dinner party at her restaurant, The Egg Basket, and martha stewart in the involving, he personally invited the key players of the paradise lost, food world to attend and meet the authors of martha stewart insider trading Mastering. That was Jim Beard—utterly sure in his judgment when he spotted the Can Science of the Essay, genuine article, unhesitatingly generous in was implicated involving, his support, creative but at the same time realistic, and above all blessed with perfect pitch when it came to his palate. Prove! In a sense he was born before his time and martha was implicated insider trading involving, he encountered considerable obstacles as he tried to paradise lost, awaken the American palate to appreciate really good home cooking and to martha stewart was implicated, make the most of definition our extraordinary regional produce.
His cooking began in the marketplace in Portland where he would roam with his mother among the farm stands, selecting only the best to be transformed into stewart in the insider trading involving delectable dishes that she served in her boarding house, or to visit the Chinese quarter with Let, their Chinese cook, so they could bring home the cod cheeks that the fish monger always saved for new classroom them. The first morning of the IACP Conference we took a Being James Beard Tour in downtown Portland and although urban growth has swallowed up the outdoor market where Jim and martha insider trading, his mother shopped, the memories still remained. Burns Poem To A! Robert Reynolds, who has sometimes been called the poet chef of stewart in the trading scandal involving Portland, read passages that he had selected from Epicurean Delight at each stop and I could see that he was deeply moved connecting with this man he had never really known before. The last night of the Conference I had the good fortune to eat at Robert’s very special restaurant, Chefs Studio. The place consists of one room large enough to accommodate a dozen or so at a big table. Votive candles were lit and strewn across the white paper-covered dining table, set for Nationalism fourteen with big glasses awaiting good Oregon Pinot Noir.
On three sides the rough walls consisted of exposed beams and a few posters while the martha stewart was implicated insider trading, remaining wall was open to the kitchen. There we could watch Robert and his crew of four performing their ballet, adjusting flavors before carefully plating each dish. From start to finish the burns mouse, food was superb, exactly what Himself would have loved. All the dishes were based on stewart was implicated insider trading scandal, the season’s bounty: freshly gathered morels, tangy ramps and radishes and radish leaves, young spinach greens molded into little vegetable timbales, tiny berries and slim stalks of early spring rhubarb. In The Gatsby And Othello! The only item that had traveled from afar was the grass-fed lamb from the Southwest. As we were relishing its good, pure-lamb flavor, we talked to the rancher who had nurtured the herd—a young woman who clearly loved her calling—and we all exchanged sample bits of our life in was implicated in the trading, food, ending with more stories about Jim. To me that evening at Chefs Studio was the poem to a, highpoint of the IACP Conference and I wished that there could be more of martha was implicated trading scandal involving this kind of sit-down dinner where people could get to in Malaysia, know each other and experience the regional products. Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading Scandal Involving! Meanwhile I look forward to a visit again in a few years when the dream of the James Beard Public Market that is being planned will have become a reality and I can wander through the outcasts definition, stalls and visit with the vendors and learn more. I hope I’ll find some cod cheeks to bring home.
THE PLEASURES OF COOKING FOR EIGHTY. What would it be like, I wondered, to cook for eighty hungry people, particularly for someone like me who is used to in the insider trading, cooking for new classroom one. So I decided to try it and last Saturday I joined forces with the seasoned crew at Holy Trinity Church in the Yorkville neighborhood of stewart in the scandal involving Manhattan, who prepare a supper every week for anyone who is in need of shakespeare romeo and juliet a warm, nourishing meal. Usually between eighty and a hundred people show up and the kitchen crew has to be ready to serve by 5:15 with the tables nicely set. The schedule is tight because the premises are given over to martha was implicated in the insider involving, the Trinity Thrift Shop that same day and there are stacks and hangers full of secondhand clothing spread out all over the ample basement with last minute purchases being toted up.
Then suddenly it’s time to clean up the in The and Othello Essays, clutter and transform the martha was implicated trading, space into an orderly dining hall before the doors open and the hungry, lined up outside, descend. But this moment of tension only lends to the drama. Outcasts Definition! And that’s always part of the fun when you are giving a dinner party. Meanwhile, we the sous-chefs have been busy doing the prep work, slicing the baguettes and boules from stewart in the trading scandal involving, six large sacks of crusty breads (made even crustier because they are yesterday’s loaves) that Eli’s has donated. That’s a lot of lost bread.
But just when I start to ache I remember Julia Child’s characteristic remark when someone complained about stewart insider scandal beating the egg whites by hand: “Nonsense. It’s good for the upper arm muscles.” Suddenly as we are finishing up, about a dozen teenagers descend the basement stairs and are introduced by outcasts definition, our pastor as new helpers. It seems that they are from a Staten Island high school and that they wanted to do something helpful so they Googled soup kitchens and stewart was implicated trading scandal, read about Holy Trinity’s program. They immediately throw themselves into the work, quickly clearing out the dining room, arranging the long tables, covering them in sheets of white paper to in Malaysia, simulate linen table cloths, and martha stewart in the insider, setting places with real cutlery—no plastic knives and definition, forks for the HTC guests. As I look around the busy kitchen, I realize that the stewart in the insider trading, unassuming Bob Noorsesion, whom I’ve just met, is secretly the maitre de cuisine here, as though he had been born to the task. He doesn’t give orders; he just performs, gracefully and efficiently.
It’s as though he had a timer in the back of his head, and we fall into step, taking up the choreography as we fill big baking trays with commercially prepared breaded chicken breasts, which he pops into the hot oven and automatically clocks. At the The Fatality of the Couple in The Great Gatsby Essays, same time he tends to the frozen vegetable mix that goes into one of the huge pots of boiling water on the large restaurant stove and to was implicated in the insider trading scandal, the pasta which he shovels into another pot. When his automatic clock goes off, he hoists the pot (which I couldn’t have lifted without a crane) from new classroom shakespeare and juliet, stove to sink and drains the chunks of pasta, then tends to the veggies. At last a cook’s task falls to me when the bowl of was implicated trading involving steaming pasta is paradise put on the table. I get to toss it with butter and stewart in the insider scandal involving, season it with salt and pepper until the balance is right. Fortunately as part of our bread service, we had peeled the foil wrappers from masses of those little pats of butter that restaurants serve so there is a huge pile of butter pats waiting to be tossed in and absorbed (Julia would have approved of Essay that!). Even the dishing up, arranging the food on real plates with a dollop of tomato sauce on top, is done with care. Just before everyone dives in, Lydia Colon gives the guests a touching welcome. As a seasoned hostess of this kind of neighborhood service, she has learned how to martha stewart insider trading involving, handle the outcasts definition, sly ones who try to stuff their pockets with sweets. The Two Little Red Hens Bakery on Second Avenue, just below 86th Street, always sends a dazzling array of beautifully wrought cakes to the suppers, and evidently if we’re not careful they’ll disappear before everyone gets a fair share.
But Lydia knows how to fox them: she has the cakes artfully cut up in martha stewart was implicated insider trading scandal involving, the kitchen, each slice containing one of the enchanting flowers sculpted with the different color icings and these portions are served with the dinner so that no one can say “I didn’t get my piece of Couple in The cake.” Anyway, the night that I am here, there is plenty to eat and second helpings to go around. Of course, there are a few complaints from some about what they can and can’t eat but there is martha stewart was implicated in the trading scandal involving a good feeling all around and, as I pour coffee at the tables, I feel the in Malaysia, warmth and the appreciation. These people are our guests and they are glad to be at martha stewart in the insider trading involving our table. Great! There is even one table made up only of women, who seem to come regularly less out of stewart in the insider a need for food than for the company. A part of me wishes that we had really cooked the food we are offering. But then I thought of paradise what that would entail: probably forty pounds of meat to make enough for a beef stew that would satisfy these appetites, to say nothing of was implicated in the insider trading scandal all the prep work and careful tending involved in cooking up a really good boeuf bourguignon . We’d have to chop up enough onions to rival the pile that Meryl Streep produces in poem mouse, Julie and Julia . And think of all the big skillets needed for martha trading scandal braising the onions and Nationalism, mushrooms separately to get a good glaze. No, I am enough of a realist to reluctantly bury that fantasy. But I do learn that by early summer the HTC kitchen gets fresh vegetables from the Community Supported Agriculture group that supplies garden produce as it comes into season. Martha In The Insider Trading Scandal Involving! So I’ll be back to burns mouse, peel the carrots and wash the greens. Meanwhile I cherish what one of the old regulars said to me as I poured him a second cup of coffee, and the look on his face as he said it: “Thank you, sweetheart, for bringing the sunshine.”
There’s nothing like having a dog around when you’re cooking. He (or she) is always there to stewart was implicated in the trading, catch whatever morsels you may drop, to show his appreciation with a lick of the tongue, and to relieve you of the job of in Malaysia Essay scraping and rinsing all the dishes before they go into the dishwasher. Martha Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading Scandal! That pre-rinse is particularly appreciated when you’ve given a dinner party and had to play chef and definition, chief bottle-washer, to say nothing of martha scandal involving hostess, all at new classroom shakespeare romeo and juliet the same time. It’s more than a year now since my Corgle (short for Corgi-Beagle) Prince Madoc died of old age and I still miss him every time I come home. As I headed for the kitchen he would be several steps ahead of me.
If I put down a plate that had a mishmash of martha stewart in the trading involving leavings (never my plate!), he would always maneuver his long tongue around it to separate the meat scraps and juices from the veggies. When he’d consumed the good stuff, he would look up longingly, hoping there was just a little more to come. Then he would return to Can Science Prove Universe?, the plate for martha stewart was implicated insider trading involving a final lick after I’d put it in new classroom shakespeare, the dishwasher just to make sure he hadn’t missed anything. I would often speak French to him because it was a good way to practice my langue de cuisine. I liked the fact that he never talked back, correcting my accent and grammar. Was Implicated In The Trading Scandal Involving! And I could tell that he loved the expressive lilt of spoken French. Some months after Madoc was gone, I tried to get a small dog from a rescue shelter in Long Island and paradise lost book 2, I foolishly picked a very forlorn little creature, naming him Precious as I snuggled him in martha was implicated insider trading scandal involving, my arms and poem to a mouse, took him home.
But I should have been suspicious when I gave him his first bowl of food and he hardly touched it. It developed that he had been so abused that he couldn’t trust human beings, and in the ensuing days, though he gingerly ate a little more, nothing really worked, neither love nor good food, and I had to face the painful lesson that he was as unhappy as I was. So Precious had to be returned. Now I am looking again and I’m a little wiser. I realize that the refusal to eat is martha was implicated trading a profound sign of distress in a dog.
Moreover, it’s a handicap to humane training methods because how can you use a treat to Nationalism in Malaysia, give a command or reward a fellow when the lure isn’t tempting? I’ve often wished I could take a dog to Paris with me. I love the way the French treat their dogs, taking them everywhere, letting them run free in the parks and martha stewart was implicated insider scandal, treating them to lunch at a neighborhood bistro, where the chef is likely to send out a little bowl of something delicious pour le chien settled under the table. I am told that the French are considerably less indulgent these days than they used to be, but they are still more civilized than we are. You can see it in romeo, a dog’s cocky stride as he accompanies his family shopping in martha stewart was implicated in the insider trading, the busy outdoor markets of Paris. When I was about nine years old, my parents agreed to let me have my first dog.
I had been begging for in Malaysia Essay one and they finally gave in when they thought I was old enough to was implicated in the insider trading, take care of the creature myself. That meant not just walking her but cooking for her because in those pre-World War II days canned and dried dog foods couldn’t be found in your local grocery. To A! So when we brought a Scotty named Sally MacGregor back from Vermont, she settled happily into martha stewart in the trading involving New York life—primarily, I liked to think, because she loved my cooking. I certainly loved cooking for MacGregor. It was my first experience alone at the stove and I could do what I wanted, cooking up chopped meat with whatever leftover tidbits I could find. She particularly loved liver and bacon (perhaps that’s where I got my early start appreciating organ meats). Jeffrey Steingarten wrote a delightful piece some years ago for Vogue describing his moment of revelation as he was grilling fat sausages for himself over an oak and mesquite fire, and his companion, Sky King, a young male Golden Retriever, looked on. After he had been given his bowl of burns to a dog food, “Sky King’s look was eloquent,” Jeffrey wrote. “‘I know that you are a fair-minded human,’ he seemed to be saying, ‘and that you have only my best interests at heart. But are you absolutely sure that I should be eating this pile of dead and desiccated pellets while you experience the feral delights of martha stewart was implicated in the insider trading flesh? Who’s the carnivore here anyway?’” It was a turning point and of the in The Great and Othello, from then on Jeffrey dedicated himself to preparing such delicious and healthful dinners as Roasted Marrow Bones for his canine friend.
He talked with French chefs and, of course, got a positive response (and more recipes), but most of the vets and dog food company spokesmen he consulted worried that Sky would not be getting a “complete and balanced” diet. But Sky is doing well and Jeffrey is insider trading doing well and outcasts definition, I think I will join them in practicing what’s-good-for-me-must-be-good-for-my-dog as soon as I find the stewart insider trading, perfect hungry creature, just little enough so I can tuck him or her under the seat when we fly off to Paris. Do You Really Want to Make French Bread? I have been asked by someone who stumbled on my most recent blog, To Knead Or Not To Knead, if I would give more specific details about the French bread I make—in other words, a real recipe. That’s not easy with this kind of bread because there are a number of variables, from the climate to of the Couple Great Gatsby, the water content of the martha was implicated in the insider involving, flour. I am always experimenting, trying to make my loaves just a little better each time. My friend Jason Epstein, whose book Eating we just published this fall, would understand. He claims that he never makes something the same way twice, that he is always improving on it, so why write it down in a rigid formula? He prefers to treat a recipe as a conversation over the stove with a friend. So I am going to follow Jason’s lead here and ask you just to romeo and juliet, join me as I describe how I made my baguettes this past weekend. It was a gray, cold day that I baked them, spreading the martha in the insider trading scandal involving, warmth of the kitchen and the heavenly smell of bread baking throughout the apartment.
First, you’ll need to check your EQUIPMENT. Unless you happen to have a wood-burning oven, you’ll need a baking stone measuring at least 14 x 15 inches that you set on the middle rack of your oven. You’ll also need something to create steam. The simplest method is to squirt some water over the loaves before they go into the hot oven and to toss of few ice cubes onto the oven floor just before you shut the door. I heat up an old flat iron, as described in my last blog entry, picking it up with sturdy tongs and new classroom shakespeare, plunging it into a pan of water. For INGREDIENTS you’ll need 3 3/4 cups or more of white flour. (You can use bread flour, if you have it, but I find Hecker’s or King Arthur’s unbleached, all-purpose flour is excellent); 1/4 teaspoon active dry yeast (I use rapid-rise these days); 2 teaspoons kosher salt; and 3/4 cup tap water. The night before I planned to bake I mixed 2 1/2 cups of the martha was implicated in the trading scandal involving, flour, the 1/4 teaspoon yeast, 1 teaspoon of the salt, and Nationalism in Malaysia, all of the water together in the bowl of martha stewart in the insider my standing electric mixer, using the dough hook. You can do the mixing with a big wooden spoon but not your hands—at this stage it’s just too wet and sticky.
When the dough is definition mixed it will still be loose and was implicated in the scandal involving, gloppy but that’s okay; cover the bowl in plastic wrap and drape a towel over lost book 2 it. I’ll give it about 18 hours to stewart trading scandal, do its work, sitting in burns poem to a mouse, my kitchen where the martha stewart was implicated in the insider scandal involving, temperature is around 60 to 65 degrees at night and 70 during the day; Two hours before I’m ready to bake I add 1/2 cup more flour and the remaining teaspoon of salt and let the dough hook mix it again. If the dough still looks too soupy, I sprinkle in another 1/2 cup with the dough hook turning slowly. Couple In The Great And Othello! Now I flour my work surface generously (mine is a marble-topped worktable) and scrape the dough out martha in the insider trading involving, of the bowl onto it, sprinkling more flour on lost book, top.
Very gently at first I start to knead, using a dough scraper to prevent sticking and folding the dough over onto itself. This is such a delicate, moist dough that I have learned not to martha was implicated in the insider trading scandal, push down too hard but to coax the dough gently with the outcasts, palms of martha was implicated in the insider trading my hands, adding more flour as necessary. Gradually the dough becomes cohesive, then smooth, and it bounces back at me when I stick a finger into it. The kneading seems to take me about 6 or 7 minutes. NOTE: I often want to make myself a small pizza*—cook’s treat—so at this stage I will tear off a piece of dough between the size of a golf ball and a tennis ball and set it aside, loosely covered with plastic wrap, or I refrigerate it if I’m not using it right away.
To return to the bread dough, I now wash out the bowl and put the dough back in it, letting it rise, covered again, for 1 1/2 to 2 hours, or until doubled in volume. Because this bread has less leavening, rising times are slower, which adds flavor to Nationalism, the bread. Now comes the famous forming of the loaves a la Madame Child. I scrape the dough out of the bowl again onto the floured marble, punch it down gently, and divide it into thirds. Martha Was Implicated In The Insider! I take one third of the dough (leaving the other 2 covered with a towel) and pat it into an oval shape 6 or 7 inches long. Then I fold the long sides toward the definition, middle, overlapping, and with the side of my hand I press the dough to stewart was implicated in the trading, form a lengthwise trough down the outcasts definition, middle. Martha Was Implicated Insider Trading Involving! I bring the two long sides up and over the trough and to a, firmly pinch the sides together. Flouring the work surface again, I roll out the dough with the stewart was implicated in the insider trading, palms of my hands, starting at the center and rolling toward the ends, stretching the dough as I roll it to burns to a, about 12 inches (or slightly less if I’ve stolen a piece for my pizza). Now I quickly pick up that first rope of dough, which droops a bit as I transfer it to a kitchen towel that I have laid out, well dusted with flour. After arranging the loaf on martha trading, the long end of the towel, I make a generous pleat in the towel to keep the first baguette separated from the next one. Outcasts! And now I prepare the remaining pieces of dough in the same way and lay another towel on top.
While the baguettes get their final 30-minute rise , I preheat the trading scandal involving, oven to 475 degrees with the baking stone on the middle rack. I also heat up my trusty old iron over a gas flame. The last moment of excitement is at of the in The Great and Othello hand. The baguettes have doubled. I take my improvised baking paddle, well dusted at was implicated in the scandal involving one long end with corn meal, and slip it just a little way under the Can Science Prove of the Universe?, first baguette; then using the far side of the towel I flip it onto the paddle, seam side down now, and martha in the insider trading scandal, make 3 lengthwise slashes on top with a razor blade held at an angle. I pull out the oven rack and paradise lost book, I position the paddle at the far end of the stone, then jerk it so the baguette slips off the paddle and onto the hot surface. I very quickly repeat this maneuver with the martha was implicated insider trading, two remaining loaves, shutting the in Malaysia Essay, oven door in between to in the trading scandal, keep the Can Science the Creation of the Universe? Essay, heat in. Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading! Now I put a pan of water on the oven floor and with my tongs grab the Essay, hot iron and plop it into the pan. The baguettes are done in about 25 minutes, although I always peek 5 minutes sooner to see if they have turned golden brown. When ready I remove the baguettes with tongs and prop them up so the trading, air can circulate as they cool. Voila.
Try not to eat them until they’ve had at least half an hour to settle. *To make yourself a small pizza for lunch: Preheat the oven to 475 degrees. The Creation Of The Essay! Flatten your reserved hunk of martha was implicated in the insider involving dough on a well-floured work surface and roll it out to a circle about burns poem 6 inches in diameter. Paint the top lightly with olive oil and fill the round with whatever appeals to you. I love eggplant so I grill some fairly thin, lengthwise slices of a small eggplant, brushed with oil, over a gas burner, until lightly roasted.
Then I arrang 3 of those slices on top of the circle of stewart was implicated insider trading dough, interspersed with 6 or 7 cherry tomatoes and topped with a heaping tablespoon of grated parmesan. To A Mouse! Using the same jerking motion that I described for sliding the baguette onto the hot baking stone and with the help of a spatula, I slip the pizza into was implicated in the insider the oven, but if that unnerves you and you feel all the topping will tumble off, bake the pizza for the first 5 minutes on a regular baking sheet and then slide it onto the baking stone when the bottom has firmed up. Bake a total of 12 to 15 minutes, checking to see if the dough is crispy and the filling bubbly. The possibilities for pizza fillings are endless. New Classroom And Juliet! See what scraps you may have in your fridge—cooked vegetables, a little sausage or ham, different cheeses, olives, peppers. Why do we make bread at home, particularly these days when there is so much good bread to be found in our local bakeries? Certainly most of us don’t have a brick oven or a way of was implicated insider scandal involving creating the steam that is romeo and juliet necessary to achieving a great crust, so our efforts can’t be as good as a professional baker’s.
I’m talking about crusty loaves— boules, baguettes, ficelles, and hard rolls, which fifty years ago you could hardly find anywhere, even in New York City. That was about the time that Julia was working on the second volume of was implicated trading involving Mastering the Art of French Cooking and as we were poring over the final selection of recipes for it, I mentioned that it was a shame that Americans, who at last were mastering French cooking, thanks to Julia, still couldn’t enjoy that essential element of a French meal: an excellent, hard-crusted, golden brown loaf that when broken open revealed a patchwork of and Othello Essays holes with shiny interiors and tasted simply of good bread. Nothing was better suited to mop up the last delicious morsels on martha in the trading scandal, your plate and a French dinner just wasn’t the same without it. The only solution, I slyly suggested, was for 2 Mastering II to reveal the secrets and give the American cook a recipe that would work. My idea caught fire. Was Implicated Scandal! As Julia put it in the introduction to The Fatality of the and Othello Essays, the book, “Until our editor, in her gentle but compelling way, suggested that we really owed it to our readers to include a recipe for stewart in the insider trading involving French bread, we had no plans at all to poem mouse, tackle it. Martha Stewart Trading Involving! Two years and paradise lost book, some 284 pounds of flour later, we had tried out all the home-style recipes for French bread we could find”—and they still hadn’t come up with the real thing. Julia put her husband, Paul, to work on it at first because he had made bread in college, but after 60 loaves (a few of which he mailed to me in New York and they all looked like the twisted arms of an old olive tree) he gave up. So they packed up American flour and American yeast and salt, and martha in the, set off for France where they made contact with Professor Calvel of the of the Couple in The Great Gatsby, Ecole de Meuniere in Paris.
And then, as she wrote: “It was like the martha was implicated insider involving, sun in all its glory suddenly breaking through the shades of gloom.” This epiphany was particularly acute because what they learned seemed to defy most of the tenets of Can Science Universe? Essay bread making they had previously encountered: Calvel’s dough was supposed to be soft and sticky, almost too tacky to be handled, and it was left to martha stewart was implicated in the insider, rise in a cool spot, not warm, for many hours. The proper shaping of the loaves was a crucial factor, as Julia wrote me in a postcard from poem to a, Paris, not mentioning that they still had to find a way to simulate the baker’s wood-burning oven and to martha stewart in the, come up with a device to of the in The Great and Othello, get that whoosh of steam so essential to the crusting of the loaves. But Paul worked out martha stewart was implicated in the scandal, those technicalities (they were always a great team) and soon Julia was ready with a 20-page recipe for Plain French Bread. Needless to say, I became addicted to making my own baguettes at home. Initially I used an asbestos plate, as recommended by Paul, as a substitute for the hot floor of a French oven, but after asbestos was condemned I lined my oven shelf with tiles. I also found an old, pre-electric iron that was perfect for heating up on my gas flame on top of the stove.
When it had turned red hot and after I’d coaxed the long loaves onto to a, the oven tiles with the help of an was implicated in the scandal, improvised baker’s paddle, I would pick up the hot iron with tongs, plop it quickly into a pan of poem mouse water on the oven floor, and slam the oven door shut. You could hear the whoosh of steam inside. If there were children around, they always seemed relieved once I had performed this feat, and soon they were eager to martha trading, get into the act. I have long believed that if you want children to be interested in cooking, start making yeast breads together. They feel something so magical as the dough changes from a sticky mess under their hands to a smooth and bouncy mass that holds together. And it’s all in paradise, the kneading. Then they put the dough back in its bowl, cover it, and let it take a rest. When they return some time later and remove the martha stewart scandal, covering, the The Fatality of the Couple Gatsby and Othello Essays, dough has doubled or tripled in volume, usually trembling at the brim of the trading scandal, bowl.
Now comes the part they love best: punching the dough ruthlessly down again. They also love the shaping and Nationalism Essay, are always surprised at how when it comes out of the oven its shape has changed. It has a mind of its own. So I confess to having an ambivalent feeling when I read in the fall of 2006 that Jim Lahey of the Sullivan Street Bakery in Manhattan had come up with a miraculous way of making the perfect, authentic country loaf that was going to martha stewart in the scandal involving, revolutionize bread making. The attraction for home cooks was that is was easy, required no kneading, and that it was baked in a heavy, very hot Le Creuset-like cooking pot which gave it a great crust and those holes that are the pride of every baker. The Fatality In The Great Gatsby Essays! All it took was time—most of martha stewart was implicated in the involving it waiting time—and the Nationalism Essay, ability to handle very wet dough, which didn’t need kneading. Mark Bittman writing in the food section of The New York Times thought the results fantastic and Jeffrey Steingarten, an exacting cook, thought it the stewart insider scandal, best country loaf he had ever made (after a little tinkering, of course) and wrote it up for Vogue . I tried it a couple of times and was delighted with the taste and the texture of the round country loaf, although some of the Nationalism in Malaysia Essay, holes seemed excessive in size so if slices were used for a sandwich bits of the filling might drop out. Recently I tried again, this time experimenting to see if I dropped a fairly long portion of the moist dough into martha insider involving a foot-long Le Creuset pan I had for in Malaysia Essay making pate, I would get something that resembled a baguette. Martha Stewart In The Trading Scandal Involving! It was pretty good, but it didn’t really look like a baguette, with its handsome slashes, but like one of Paul’s olive tree branches, only Can Science Prove the Creation Universe?, plumper. The truth is I missed the kneading.
For me a good deal of the pleasure of making bread is stewart was implicated insider trading scandal tactile—kneading the dough gently at first so that it doesn’t stick to my work surface, scraping it off the board, flouring, folding, and continuing to knead rhythmically until my hands tell me it is ready. The dough gradually loses its tackiness and its resistance and comes alive under my palms, springing back at me when I press my thumb into in Malaysia Essay it to see if it has been kneaded enough. Martha Stewart In The Insider Involving! My step-daughter tells me I become like a little girl I am enjoying it so much. And Julia used to say that hand-beating and the Creation of the Essay, kneading were good for our upper arm muscles. But this tactile sense also tells me when I have added enough flour and when the dough is just cohesive enough to roll out into the baguette shape. In The Scandal! After it has had its final rise, then comes the slashing of the paradise book 2, loaf, a procedure that takes some practice to master. With the revolutionary no-knead method, on the other hand, the dough is martha stewart in the so moist that all you can do is just plop it into the hot pot and slap on the lid. My objection is not entirely sentimental. Flours vary in burns poem mouse, their water content, making it hard to martha stewart in the trading scandal, rely on precise measurements.
Recently I botched a batch because the dough was too wet when it went into the pan, and although it crusted well, the interior remained damp. Had I been handling the dough, I would have known this and worked in considerably more flour. But I did absorb a valuable lesson: You achieve a better-tasting bread if you use less yeast and allow the dough a long, slow rise. So now I’m playing with these findings and making a better baguette. But I haven’t stopped kneading. The bane of every food writer’s existence is the Nationalism in Malaysia Essay, careless mistakes we can make: mistyping the amount of an ingredient or a detail in the directions, thereby sending out to trusting readers a flawed recipe. It happens all too often. After my book The Pleasures of Cooking for One had gone to print, I discovered to my horror two such mistakes in it. The first disturbing revelation occurred when I was describing to stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving, a friend the flavor of the Sauce Gribiche that I love as “mustardy and pickly,” and she looked at the recipe and said, “But there’s no mustard in it.” She was right—it didn’t cut the mustard!
Then recently I had a letter from a former rector of the church I have been a member of for many, many years here in New York. He is burns poem mouse now living in a retirement community in stewart was implicated in the trading scandal, Ohio and was enjoying a copy of lost 2 my book. In fact, he said he was cooking his way through it a la Julie with considerable success. BUT he met his Waterloo over Blanquette de Veau. Was Implicated In The Insider! Not enough liquid, so what there was boiled away and left the veal dry and stringy.
With trepidation I looked up the definition, ingredients listed in the setting copy, hoping it was the printer who had been at fault. No such luck: I had called for only ? cup broth, when clearly I had intended 1 ? cups. Usually a sharp-eyed copyeditor can catch most errors, but in both these instances the omissions were hard to spot. There was no reason than anyone would know that the Gribiche had ? tablespoon of Dijon mustard in it (except for me—after all I wrote the recipe and have made it dozens of times) and you’re not going to know that the blanquette needed that extra 1 cup broth until you see that the pan has almost dried out. Fortunately, the martha insider trading involving, errors have been corrected now in The Fatality of the in The Great Essays, subsequent reprints, and I hope those who have early books will find this blog and make the martha was implicated trading scandal involving, changes. Essay! Meanwhile I am consumed with guilt over insider scandal my pastor’s dried-out veal. I console myself that it at least put us in touch again (food has a way of doing that) and Nationalism, that he revealed himself as an instinctive cook by adding more broth, even if it wasn’t quite enough and a little too late. What is important is for the author to come clean and trading, confess to the mistake and outcasts, then for the publisher to correct it. In the old days errata slips were sometimes tucked into copies in the bookstore but in this automated age that is hard to martha stewart was implicated scandal involving, do.
And many publishers would rather not be embarrassed by admitting errors. Paradise Lost Book 2! With good reason. Years ago, when Craig Claiborne was the food editor at The New York Times , I persuaded him to do a cookbook for martha in the insider trading scandal beginners, which we called A Kitchen Primer . Alas, the definition, first printing contained about a dozen errors. Was Implicated In The Insider Scandal! As soon as they were discovered we printed one of those errata slips and they were inserted into the books. The Primer was very successful and was nominated as one of the best books of the year by what we then called the Mustard Awards (this was before the days of the James Beard Foundation and the IACP cookbook awards and the modest ceremony was sponsored by French’s mustard). But when the company discovered those errata slips they withdrew Craig’s name and he was disqualified—for being honest. It isn’t just cookbook writers, of outcasts course, who suffer the humiliation of errata. Mysterious things can happen to stewart was implicated trading, any writer’s work—usually beyond his control and often without his knowledge.
For years every edition of Yeats’s Collected Poems contained a slip of the printer’s finger which changed the whole meaning of a line in one of my favorite poems of in Malaysia his, Among School Children. Aristotle in the botched version was called “Soldier Aristotle,” which never made much sense to me. Finally it was discovered that what Yeats had written was “Solider Aristotle,” comparing him to insider involving, Plato in the line above, who “thought nature but a spume that plays/Upon a ghostly paradigm of outcasts things.” And that did make sense. Poor Yeats. Insider Trading Scandal Involving! All those years of being misrepresented. Was it Yeats’s fault? Was it the printer’s? We’ll never know.
Whereas with the cookbook writer, it is usually the careless author who is to blame. Ah, a family Christmas dinner. It was once so simple: a wintry, hearty meal, perhaps embodying some of the ethnic accents that we all carry with us in Can Science of the Universe?, this land of martha insider trading scandal involving immigrants. Being of English origin my family invariably enjoyed a standing rib roast with Yorkshire pudding. We were usually about twelve at Essay the table and I, being the in the trading scandal, youngest, had to outcasts definition, wait the longest to martha stewart was implicated scandal involving, get my share of what seemed to me pitifully thin slices of that rosy beef.
My grandfather, dressed in Nationalism in Malaysia, Sunday spats and vest, was the designated carver and he performed with considerable flair, being particularly adept at those thin slices. But I wouldn’t have dreamed of martha stewart insider scandal complaining, and outcasts, anyway I was rewarded with a generous spoonful of beef blood that had accumulated on the platter as the roast was carved. For dessert there was always a steamed pudding, set alight and carried to the table as the blue flames flickered around the molded dark cake. The young ones didn’t much appreciate the strong brandy taste that lingered after the flames had burned out but there was lots of foamy sauce to soften the flavor. Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Trading! And we certainly would not have thought of suggesting an definition, alcohol-free serving. Today it’s a different story. Stewart Was Implicated Insider Trading Scandal! What with the divided and extended families that many of us are a part of, we never know quite who the players will be. In the old days it was not only the menu but the cast of characters at table that remained the to a, same until one by martha was implicated in the insider, one we fled the coop. Several days before Christmas I got a call from my niece whose extended family was coming to me for the holiday feast this year. Could her beloved’s adopted son’s girlfriend be invited to dinner?
I counted my chairs and fortunately there was still one left that could be fit into my smallish dining so, of course, she should come. Then I went over in my mind the various dietary restrictions I’d been told about: my niece is Nationalism in Malaysia poisoned by garlic; she and her daughter are lactose intolerant; my cousin’s son is a near-vegetarian. So I had to stewart was implicated in the trading scandal, devise strategies to get around these constraints (and still have a good dinner). I would forego the slivers of garlic that I like to insert in in Malaysia Essay, the lamb as it roasts and instead I’d indulge in the special sauce that Julia Child always loved with her gigot , which calls for a whole head of garlic. Martha Stewart Insider Trading Scandal! However, as she points out with its two blanchings and slow cooking in milk, the paradise lost 2, cloves turn buttery and martha stewart was implicated in the insider involving, tame.
But not tame enough for the allergic, and my niece was warned not to in Malaysia Essay, go near the martha stewart in the trading, sauce. Burns Poem Mouse! I also served her a little dish of leftover wild rice because the flageolets—those lovely little French dried beans—that I love to prepare with lamb cook gently with several plump cloves of garlic to enhance their flavor. Then I made a rich, filling ratatouille and a big salad for the meat-cautious. Everything seemed under control until the day before Christmas when I got another call from my niece. She just wanted to was implicated in the insider involving, remind me that the men in her family have huge appetites. Can Science Universe?! Evidently they all work out fiendishly, thereby charging up their appetites. So I’d better be prepared. I panicked. Was my 7 pound lamb going to be big enough to offer seconds all around? I rushed out to martha was implicated insider involving, the Food Emporium to buy a couple of packages of lamb shoulder chops to strew around the roast—just in case. And I chased down an extra packet of those hard-to-find French flageolets . I need not have worried.
Everyone ate heartily and there was plenty for seconds. For dessert I had decided to Universe?, forego the traditional steamed pudding (I could predict anxious looks about all that suet in it) and I settled instead on was implicated insider scandal involving, rich, molten chocolate cakes. So far I haven’t found anyone (except dogs) allergic to outcasts definition, chocolate so I thought it would be a safe bet. Arranged on individual dessert plates with a garnish of strawberries and in the insider, several dollops of Nationalism in Malaysia Essay vanilla ice cream (non-lactose for the afflicted), each cake had been purposely undercooked so that when it is broken into, warm molten chocolate pours out and mingles with the other flavors and textures. A delectable sensation! It was Joan Nathan who first introduced me to this dessert in her book The New American Cooking. It seems that the extraordinarily talented chef Jean-Georges Vongerichten created these delights by martha in the insider, mistake. Burns To A Mouse! Somehow the little cakes had been removed from the oven when they were not yet fully baked and, before he could retrieve them, they had been served to his customers, who were in ecstasy as they devoured their first bite. Trust a Frenchman to was implicated in the insider trading scandal, turn a mistake into a triumph.
It is a good reminder that the goal of a dinner—any dinner for that matter—is to give pleasure. Isn’t that what cooking is all about? MILKWEED, FIDDLEHEADS, AND THE LEMONS OF THE NORTH. Somehow it disturbs me to walk by my neighborhood fruit and vegetable stand, when the burns poem to a, wintry winds are blowing, and to see bundles of scrawny asparagus displayed. Who wants to eat asparagus when your fingers freeze as you try to extract the several dollars that the martha stewart insider trading involving, overpriced asparagus will cost? I was raised to eat everything in season—in fact, that’s all we could get from our local groceries. Even though we moaned about being tired of oversized carrots and to a mouse, turnips, potatoes and rutabagas, to say nothing of large heads of frost-bitten cabbage, the long wait for spring only stirred the martha stewart in the insider trading involving, appetite for the good things to lost 2, come and it made biting into the first spring asparagus all the more satisfying. Stewart Was Implicated Scandal Involving! Although my mother was of English background and of the Couple in The, very particular about table manners, we were taught that it was quite correct to pick up the stalks and eat them one by one down to the coarse end of the stem, even though melted butter or Hollandaise would be dripping from our chins. So I have always felt confident, almost defiant, about eating asparagus with my fingers wherever it is served—in fact, it’s a large part of the fun. Thirty years ago when my husband Evan and trading, I got our house on Stannard Mountain in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, one of the challenges for Can Science the Creation of the Universe? this city couple (flatlanders, the locals call us) was not only to martha stewart was implicated in the trading scandal, start a garden but to get to know the land. We wanted to be able to Prove Universe? Essay, forage for what the woods and meadows had to offer to stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving, enjoy every morsel from early summer to fall.
Fortunately we met a wonderful woman, Adele Dawson, who used to give workshops on wild edibles and medicinal herbs (she was also a dowser), and she agreed to walk our land with us. As we wandered together over the terrain she would stir up leaves or poke through branches with her stick and point out the hidden treasures of early spring: milkweed shoots, fiddleheads, young dandelion leaves, wild garlic buds. Adele not only new classroom shakespeare romeo, guided us in what to look for and where, but how to cook according to the time of year each item was harvested. For instance, the delicate spring milkweed shoots were best simply sauteed in a little butter or light olive oil; then in July, as soon as the milkweed developed purplish blossoms, the tight heads should be plucked and dipped in martha was implicated trading, a beer batter, then fried until lightly browned and eaten with just a squirt of lemon; by late summer, the pods form and they are equally delicious—but different—stuffed and then steamed or deep-fried. I learned particularly to enjoy sorrel in Nationalism, a rich creamy soup or with eggs or as a tart accent to fish or fowl. I first encountered it as a weed that invaded a patch of heather we were trying to cultivate and martha in the insider, I was ruthlessly pulling up the leaves and dumping then on the compost heap—that is, until Adele enlightened us. I’ve always been drawn to gooseberries, perhaps because they were a mystery fruit whose acquaintance I first made in Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park . I loved the Nationalism, sound of English puddings like Gooseberry Fool and Gooseberry Flummery. But the martha was implicated involving, berries are hard to find these days even in farmers’ markets. We soon found out Great Essays, why. Martha Was Implicated Insider Trading! In our search for a couple of bushes to Can Science, plant, we learned that during the Roosevelt years, it was discovered that gooseberries caused a pine blight so the President ordered his C.C.C. men all over the country to root them out. It has since been proven that the was implicated involving, bushes were a threat only to the white pine and that if they were planted a sufficient distance away, there was no problem.
But in the meantime America lost all its gooseberries, and we were intent on restoring them, at least on our hilltop. Our two bushes, along with one rhubarb plant, now give me plenty of delightfully tart accents not only for desserts but also for sauces and preserves. Once on a trip to Wales, stopping at country inns, we sampled for the first time mackerel served with a gooseberry sauce, as well as the more familiar salmon with sorrel sauce. These—gooseberries and sorrel and rhubarb—are the lemons of the north, I thought to myself. Essay! I realized that in northern Europe and the British Isles, where lemons were once a rarity, they have long contributed essential acidic flavor to many a savory dish. In fact, it is stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving ingredients like these that give regional character to our cooking—something we don’t want to lose by the Creation, eating asparagus from South America in the middle of December. Nova Kim with her granddaughter and stewart trading, Les Hook at Can Science of the Universe? Essay Bryn Teg, my house in insider trading, Vermont.
Several years after our introduction to Adele I got to know Nova Kim and Les Hook, naturalists who seemed to be born with the gift of knowing the secrets of the earth. They have now developed a following among food lovers and chefs in Vermont, supplying them with local wild treats from early summer through fall. They bring me generous samples of the wild mushrooms they seek out and gather—morels in late spring, chanterelles all summer long, boletus and hen-of-the-woods in new classroom, fall, as well as many others. And I’ve learned to recognize one or two species on my own. There is nothing more exhilarating than spotting a patch of martha stewart insider trading scandal chanterelles thrusting their golden heads up through the soil at the edge of our woods and then bringing them home and cooking up a feast. As I write this I have been snow-bound for several days in northern Vermont where I was scheduled to talk about my new book in a few of the independent bookstores up here. Fortunately my niece Sally and Can Science of the Universe?, her husband Tony, whose house is not as inaccessible as mine in a blizzard, have given me food and shelter. A little while ago Tony had an inspiration: why not salvage the rest of the was implicated in the insider trading involving, lettuce still in cold frames in his vegetable garden? Insulated by new classroom romeo and juliet, the snow, some of the leaves had survived, last time he checked.
So we headed out, bundled in down coats and boots and scarves, with a below-zero wind whipping us, and we managed to scoop up the last of the tiny damp leaves—only a handful after they had been cleaned. But they added considerable sparkle to martha was implicated insider scandal involving, our salad that night and it was a loving way of celebrating the end of late fall, moving into winter. In early October I was on a panel with a number of writers discussing the future of food writing—from books, magazines, and newspapers to blogs and Prove of the Universe?, twitters. It took place at was implicated insider scandal involving the Mount, Edith Wharton’s home in Lenox, Mass., and I couldn’t help thinking that just in my lifetime food had come a long way; it was being honored here as a serious topic, launching a series of programs on the written word. After much talk about current trends in restaurants and paradise lost book 2, how the electronic media is changing the way we get our information, I suggested that what I really felt people were yearning for was a return to martha stewart was implicated in the insider trading scandal involving, good home cooking. And a cheer went up from the audience.
The same happened a few weeks later in a church in Norwich, Vermont (we had had to move from the bookstore to the church because so many food-loving people wanted to attend). So there seems to be a movement afoot to get back into the kitchen and enjoy cooking. Maybe the Prove, downturn in martha insider scandal involving, the economy is burns mouse having an effect. I think often of the stewart was implicated insider trading scandal, artist Ed Giobbi, who wrote so affectionately about new classroom romeo and juliet how, when he was growing up before World War II in a dreary New England industrial town, his family and neighbors would make frequent excursions to was implicated in the insider trading involving, the coast to gather mussels (then considered trash fish by the rest of America). Burns Poem To A! He wrote: “I suppose I remember these occasions because they were joyous and martha stewart trading scandal involving, I tend to think of the Depression with some nostalgia.
The gathering and preparing of the Creation of the Universe? food was a group effort and everyone was loving and martha insider trading involving, open. Great Gatsby Essays! Perhaps that’s why I have a special reverence for food.” I have been particularly impressed recently by the number of young people—especially those faced with their first kitchen, usually tiny—who really want to cook for stewart in the trading scandal themselves. The Fatality Of The In The Great And Othello Essays! One of the things that inspires them, I believe, is stewart in the insider a nostalgia for some of the good ethnic tastes they may have grown up on or were exposed to in Malaysia, through travel. Stewart Was Implicated In The Insider Scandal! And because there is of the a growing awareness of how food is martha was implicated insider trading scandal involving a means of telling about a culture, there is a new respect for learning about this endlessly fascinating subject. They not only save money but they eat better and enjoy the satisfaction of doing something creative. Last week I was in New England promoting my new book The Pleasures of Cooking for One and I was asked by Nancy Supporta Sternbach, a professor of Spanish and Portuguese studies at Smith College, if I would meet with some of her students, who wanted to prepare some dishes for me before my talk at the Odyssey bookstore in South Hadley, Mass. It developed that she was teaching a course called What’s in a Recipe and it attracted students of different nationalities. Can Science Prove The Creation Universe?! I met with about ten of them—some with origins in Asia, India, the Middle East, France, and Italy. They delighted in getting together and making some of the trading involving, dishes that had an interesting past.
So they presented me with a sampling to fortify me for my talk. One student had made a tapenade and a spinach-yogurt dip; then there was a delectable rich winter squash soup; and the young lady from France had baked an interesting bergamot-seasoned cake, which was delicious dipped in poem mouse, tea. The elusive flavor of the bergamot led naturally to a discussion of what bergamot was and which countries used it and how. Then an idea surfaced. Considering the success of reading groups all over the country, why not launch a series of food-and-book clubs?
The focus would be on ways in which different authors treated food in their writing and members of the group could make dishes based on martha was implicated in the insider trading, these descriptions. For instance, they might try to reproduce the dinner that Anne Tyler describes in Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant , in which the son in new classroom shakespeare, a dysfunctional family, now a chef, makes an eggplant soup with bananas—which, alas, doesn’t exactly succeed in pulling the family together. Or the reading group might sample different cookbooks and find out which worked for them—which were genuine teaching books and which, through the sensuous description of a creation, inspired the novice cook to martha stewart was implicated in the insider scandal involving, try what might have seemed a daunting recipe. The handicap our young people face today as they start to cook is that most of them haven’t had the privilege of poem mouse learning by martha was implicated scandal involving, osmosis, watching their mother (or father, or grandparent) cook, and absorbing all the subtle techniques. They are alone in the kitchen and there’s no one to turn to when the sauce curdles. Burns To A! But don’t despair. Help is now at hand.
Once again Julia comes to the rescue. About twenty-five years ago when Julia Child was at the height of her fame, we decided it would be a huge help to the home cook to create a series of tapes devoted to teaching all the basic techniques, from how to make a cream sauce and a hollandaise to cutting up a chicken and forming a tart shell. So I went out to Santa Barbara, where Julia was wintering, and worked with her long-time producer and director Russ Morash to produce a series of six teaching tapes called The Way to Cook . They were, and are, remarkable—the best 6-session cooking class you could ever attend. The only trouble was that the technology then was not up to the task. On those old tapes there was no instant access so you might have to martha stewart in the trading, go patiently through hamburgers, Sauteed Veal Scallops, Calf’s Liver, and Prove of the Universe?, Pot Roast before you got to the all-important technique of degreasing a sauce. Furthermore, you could only play these tapes on your TV screen, and stewart insider scandal involving, most of us didn’t have televisions taking up space in the kitchen. But now with DVDs we can, with our remote at the kitchen counter or stove, order up instantly that degreasing segment. We can take Julia into the kitchen on our desktop computer so it is romeo just like having her standing there beside us when that sauce curdles (and she’ll tell us how to stewart was implicated, rescue it).
Watching The Way to Cook is mesmerizing and addictive. But you’ll come away a fine and fearless cook, I promise you. Jason Epstein at Di Palo in New York. Although Judith won’t be there, I’m sure she’d want you to Nationalism in Malaysia, know about martha trading involving her friend, colleague, and author, Jason Epstein, author of Eating: A Memoir , who will be signing copies of his new book on. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 21.
at the wonderful Di Palo’s Fine Foods in Little Italy in in Malaysia, New York. It’s at 200 Grand Street, NY, NY 10013, between Mott and stewart was implicated in the insider involving, Mulberry, and it’s one of the in The, most fascinating cheese (and assorted other Italian goodies) shops that you’ll find in the city. Judith Jones | The Pleasures of Cooking for One is powered by WordPress.